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,20(4): (873-875) 2007
4664 II Proof
Factors Affecting Participation in Agriclinic and Agribusiness Centers Programme in South India
Agriculture is a way of life and a tradition, which for many centuries has shaped thoughts, outlook, culture and the economic life of Indians. Public research and extension activities during the green revolution period played a pivotal role in transforming agriculture from subsistence farming. In the postgreen revolution era, however public extension finds itself unable to meet changing demands of farming community, tapped as it is in outdated, centralized institutional arrangements and constrained in terms of financial and human resources, lacking in skill and capacities. The draft policy frame works for Agricultural Extension (2001) envisages a multi agency, pluralistic extension system for the future. In view of this, the then finance minister Government of India on February 28, 2001 announced a scheme for agriclinic and agribusiness centres. Then NABARD has formulated a model scheme for financing agriclinics and agribusiness centres in consultation with Ministry of Agriculture and selected banks. While National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management (MANAGE) identified 66 training institutes throughout the country for imparting training to agri-graduates. The scheme is being implemented with the help of SFAC. The scheme was later approved by the parliamentary consultative committee of Ministry of Agriculture on August 22, 2001. Fourteen institutes have been identified as agriclinic training centers in south India but some are imparting training continuously from 2002 and few are discontinued due to lack of trainee’s strengths and other problems. These institutes have imparted training to more than 2132 participants by December 2005 and South India registered 706 success stories among which Karnataka contributes 431 success stories which is second largest state to report success stories in the country next to Maharashtra (543). About 32 per cent of trained agriculture graduates are reported to be successful in setting their agriclinics and agribusiness centers whereas remaining 68 per cent were failed to start business despite having training and such a huge failure rate demands an urgent need to identify the stumbling blocks and suggest corrective measures to make AC and ABCs a great success. Further, available literature showed that no such systematic and comprehensive study had been made so far which would cover entire gamut of technical, economical, social and operational aspects of AC and ABCs in South India, in order to serve as a guiding lantern for others. Hence an attempt is being made to study the sources of information about the AC and ABCs scheme, factors responsible joining the training programme and seriousness of trainees about the training programme. The study pertains to South India in general and the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu in particular. Out of 14 training centres in south India (Chandra Shekhara 2003), 9 training centres were selected randomly by following proportionate sampling procedure. Hence, three centres from Andhra Pradesh, two centres from Karnataka, one center from Kerala and three centres from Tamil Nadu were selected. Fifteen trained agripreneurs were selected from each training institute to collect the data on the sources of information, seriousness about the training programme and factors responsible for joining the training programme with the help of pre-tested mailed questionnaires. Totally 180 questionnaires were mailed to get the required sample size of 135. This is to ensure atleast 80 per cent of response from the respondents. Percentages, scores and weighted averages (Goyal et al., 2004) were worked out. To analyse the seriousness of trainees about the AC and ABCs training programme, weighted averages were worked out for selected factors with the help of following formula; W1X1 ± W2X2 ± W3X3 ± W4X4 ———————————————— X1 ± X2 ± X3 ± X4
Total seriousness = Where,
W1 = Weight of the first factor (Attendance) W2 = Weight of the second factor (misbehaviour with faculty) W3 = Weight of the third factor (drinking of alcohol) W4 = Weight of the fourth factor (damages made to the property of the institution) X1, X2, X3 and X4 are respective percentages. Details of sources of information about the training programme are provided in Table 1. It could be observed from the table that friends were the major source of information (74.81%) followed by others, electronic media and newspapers. It is surprising to note that in the present era of information technology; very less number of sample agripreneurs obtained the information from electronic media, newspapers and other sources like university notice board etc. The reasons for this may be the non-availability and lack of experience of agrigraduates in IT based services like internet, and less publicity in mass media. More convenient and clarification about the training programme from friends who undergone training was found to be the main source of information due to the availability of the mobile phone numbers and their intimate relationships. These results are in conformity with the results obtained by Rao and Rupkumar (2005). They found that 63 per cent of the information about AC and ABC training programme was disseminated through friends and newspapers. Factors motivating respondents to take up training under the AC and ABC scheme as presented in Table 2 revealed that self motivation for own business was the main factor in all the selected states except in Kerala and in South India as a whole. This was mainly due to the interest of the graduates to take up own business. The second important factor in most of the selected states and in South India as a whole was found to be the efficient utilization of resources. This might be due to the technical knowledge of agripreneurs and their interest in efficient utilization of
Table 1. Sources of information about AC and ABC training programme (N=135) Sl. No. Information sources No. of respondents Percentage 1. 2. 3. 4. Newspaper Friends Electronic media Others (University Notice Board, etc.) 21 101 27 61 15.56 74.81 20.00 45.19
Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences :20(4), 2007
Table 2. Factors responsible for joining the training programme under the scheme of AC and ABCs Sl. No. 1. Factors Unemployment problem in government & private sector Non-remunerative yields from present farming Self motivation for own business Free specialized training Better institutional linkage (training, credit and marketing Access to credit facility Improved market outlets Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Keral Score Rank Score Rank Score Rank 111 IV 67 IV 39 IV Tamil Nadu Score Rank 116 II South India Score Rank 333 IV
2. 3. 4. 5.
79 126 78 112
IX I X III
47 82 59 76
X I VII III
21 41 27 45
XI III VIII I
86 129 100 111
VII I VI IV
234 378 264 344
X I VIII III
6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
VII V VII VIII
59 64 61 53
VII V VI VIII
34 42 36 34
VII II V VII
100 105 100 79
VI V VI VIII
285 306 289 255
VII V VI IX
Better price expectations from the activity undertaken 92 Increasing cost requirements Efficient utilization of resource base (education, financial, knowledge, contacts, land etc.) Joining the training programme to get free food and accommodation in the city for searching the jobs Others (If any) 89
Maximum scores : AP = 135, Karnataka = 90, Kerala = 45, TN = 135, South India = 405.
Table 3. Seriousness of trainees about the AC and ABCs training programme (N = 135) Sl. Particulars No. of Percentage No. respondents 1. Attendance (persons attended >40 days) 95 70.37 2. Mis-behaviour with faculty (Sometimes there will be a clash in the discussions by misunderstandings between faculty and trainees which leads to misbehaviour) 5 3.70 3. Drinking of alcohol etc. (other than parties and other occasions) 3 2.23 4. Damages made to the property of the institution 0 0.00 5. Total seriousness about the training programme (%) 66.67
government benefits by undertaking AC and ABCs. Better institutional linkage was third most important factor as this training programme gives the linkage of financial institutions, agriculture department, NABARD, MANAGE, agricultural universities, successful agripreneurs, corporate companies and other institutions. It is interesting to note that though the problem of unemployment is equally important, it was in fourth rank in most of the selected states and also in South India as a whole. The other factors such as improved market access, better price expectation, access to credit facility, free specialized training,
increasing cost requirements and non-remunerative yields were some other factors which motivated them to join the training programme as these things were found to be the expectations of trainees from the training programme. Whereas, the factor of joining the training programme to get free food and accommodation in the city to search for jobs was found to be a least important factor as it shows their seriousness of the training programme and zeal to start their own business. The analysis of seriousness of trainees about the training programme under the scheme of AC and ABCs presented in Table 3 revealed that 70.37 per cent of trainees have attended more than 40 days training and the total seriousness of the trainees about the training programme was 66.67 per cent. This may be because of their interest and need of the training in undertaking the projects. The misbehavior with faculty was found to be the least (3.70%) as it was due to their dissatisfaction of lectures during the training hours. Similarly, drinking alcohol and damages made to the property of the institution was 2.23 per cent and nil respectively, due to the responsibility and matured mind of trainees. Although many formal sources of information are available, friends were the major sources of information so awareness about AC and ABCs should be strengthened by giving more and more advertisements about the usefulness of AC and ABCs training through formal sources of information like TV, Radio and other mass media. Self motivation and efficient utilization of the resources were the major factors responsible for joining the training programme which indicates their interest in taking up this training programme and most of them are serious about the training programme.
Factors Affecting Participation.......... Department of Agriculture Marketing, Co-operation and Agribusiness Management University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad - 580 005, India. (Received: December, 2006)
References ANONYMOUS, 2005, Concurrent evaluation of agriclinics and agribusiness centers scheme (AAG) in Maharashtra. A Report Submitted to National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Maharashtra, pp. 57-124. CHANDRA SHEKHARA, P., 2003, Third wave in Indian agriculture: Introduction to agriclinics and agribusiness centers scheme. Extension Research Review, MANAGE, J a n u a r y - J u n e , 2003, pp. 10-20. GOYAL, M.C., NARINDER, PAUL AND DANGI, K.L., 2004, A scale to measure attitude of trainees towards agriclinics and agribusiness centers. Indian Journal of Extension Education, 40: 128-129.
RAJASHEKHAR KARJAGI H. S. S. KHAN H. S. VIJAYKUMAR
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