# CE 537, Spring 2005

Slender Column Design Procedure

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1. Calculate unfactored axial forces and moments for the columns in the frame due to DL, LL and WL. Use as a minimum the following two load combinations: LC I: 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5Lr LC II: 1.2D + 1.0 L + 0.5Lr + 1.6 W
1 2

2. Determine the preliminary column size using the load combination with the largest factored gravity loads.

Ag ≅

Pu , let ρ = 1.5%, round up each column dimension to the nearest even .45( f + ρ f y )
' c

number 3. Determine if the frame is sway or non-sway. Method 1, computer analysis: the column is slender if the increase in column-end moments due to second-order effects (P-Δ) is > 0.05 Method 2, hand calculations: the frame is a sway frame if Q = ∑ Pu = the total factored vertical load on a story Vu = the factored horizontal shear on a story
Δo = the relative story deflection due to Vu l c = the column height, measured from center-of-joint to center-of-joint
Pu Δ o > 0.05 VU l c

In modeling the frame, use: Ig ≈ 2bwh3/12 for T-beams Ibeams = 0.35 Ig Abeam = 2bwh 4. Determine if the column is slender a. For non-sway frames, the column is slender if
⎛ M1 k lu > 34 − 12⎜ ⎜M r ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ≤ 40 ⎠

Icol = 0.7 Ig Acol = Ag

k = the effective length factor. k is a function of the rotational restraint at the column ends. Column ends with large rotational restraint → small ψ → small effective length factor.

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May be reduced to 0.5 except for garages, places of public assembly and when L > 100psf May be reduced to 1.3 if wind directionality factor has not been applied

.6 + 0 . and negative if the column is in M2 double curvature b.3h for rectangular columns M2 is the larger between M1 and M2 M1 is positive if the column is in single curvature. respectively.75Pc βd reflects the increased lateral deflections of a column due to creep βd = factored sustained axial load factored total axial load M1 ≥ 0. M2 in the equation for Mc above = Pu(0. non-sway frame then: Mu = Mc = δnsM2.4 . Pc = . where δns = moment magnification factor for frames braced against sidesway to reflect effects of member curvature between ends of compression member δ ns = 0. For sway frames. measured center-of-joint to center-of-joint. EI = 2 Pu 1 + β ( ) kl d u 1− 0.03h) .CE 537. r 5. lu = the unsupported length of the compression member in inches r = the radius of gyration ≈ 0. If the column is slender and it is part of a a.4 E c I g Cm π 2 EI . Spring 2005 Slender Column Design Procedure 2/3 EI col lc ψ = EI ∑ lbeam ∑ here l c and l are the lengths of the column and beam. Cm = 1. the column is slender if k lu > 22 .4 the min.0 for columns with transverse loads M2 C m = 0 .6 + 0. k is calculated using the alignment chart on pg 127 in ACI. Calculate the factored moments (Mu) for each load combination.

Spring 2005 Slender Column Design Procedure 3/3 b.75∑ P where ∑ P = the sum of P for the story and ∑ P = the sum of P for all the sway − resisting columns in a story u c u u c c ≥ 1.14. v) If the magnified moments were calculated using hand calculations (ACI 10.4.CE 537.5 ΔLC I + any Lat from 1st-order analysis. where δns is calculated following the procedure for columns in non-sway frames iii) check for instability under gravity loads alone iv) If the magnified moments were calculated using a computer program (ACI 10.5 .0. then Mu = δnsM2 = δns(M2ns + δsM2s). ii) The maximum moment occurs between the column ends if lu ≥ r 35 Pu f c' Ag If the max. two of which are shown below. then ΔLC I + any Lat from 2nd-order analysis must be < 2.13. M2 ] where: M1 = M1ns + δsM1s M2 = M2ns + δsM2s where Mns = the factored moment due to loads that cause no appreciable sidesway calculated by a first-order analysis i) δsMs can be calculated three different ways according to ACI. = max[ M1.1). sway frame then: Mu = larger of the moments at the column ends. Any lateral load may be used to cause the sidesway. Method 1: δsMs can be calculated by a computer program using a second-order (P-Δ) analysis Method 2 (Method 3 in ACI): δs can be calculated by hand using ACI Eqn 10-18 1 δs = ∑P 1− 0.3) the moment magnifier (δs) must be < 2. moment occurs between the column ends.4.