Engineering & Construction Sector

DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352 Rev 0 L MAY 1991

John Brown Engineers & Constructors Limited
20 Eastbourne Terrace, London W2 6LE

DR352.WP5

UNCONTROLLED COPY. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.

.... THIRKELL...2 3..... H.2 4..1 4.. 3..3 3.5 3....... 5.3 6. LOGENDRA. 2...6 4. 4.1 3.... K.1 5.... ASSOCIATE DIRECTOR OFFSHORE STRUCTURES AUTHORISED BY: .. 3.... .4 5.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L CONTENTS 1.. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.2 5.4 3......WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY.... OBJECTIVE DEFINITION DESIGN SPECIFICATION CRANE SPECIFICATION DUTY FACTOR CRANE UTILISATION STATE OF LOADING LIFT-IMPACT FACTOR API-RP2A RECOMMENDATIONS MAXIMUM LOADING FOR DESIGN LLOYDS'S METHOD AN INDEPENDENT METHOD COMPARISON OF THE METHODS RECOMMENDATION FATIGUE DESIGN CONVENTIONAL FATIGUE ANALYSIS COMMENTARY CRANE VIBRATIONS ACCIDENTAL LOAD REFERENCES FIGURES AND TABLES REV 0 ISSUED PREPARED BY: OFFSHORE STRUCTURES MAY 1991 APPROVED BY: .. 7.3 4. DIRECTOR OF ENGINEERING DR352....

DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.2. 3 DESIGN SPECIFICATION For the design of the crane pedestal two loading conditions will have to be considered: the maximum loading and the fatigue loading. The definitions of the symbols used in this Design Practice are given immediately after their introduction in design equations.1) despite the fact that a series of crane accidents occurred in the early 80's.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 1 OF 17 1 OBJECTIVE The objective of the Design Practice is to give detailed guidance on the static and fatigue design of the pedestal structures of offshore platform cranes. Chapter 3.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. DR352. Bruce) there is also an accidental load requirement which stipulates that the pedestal must be stronger than the crane strength. The slew ring of the revolving crane is mounted onto the top of the tubular with or without a transition cone called the pedestal adoption. the safety aspect of diesel storage must be addressed as part of a Formal Safety Assessment. 4). It is also worth noting that some interesting field data on offshore crane behaviour are reported in Ref. 4) seastate dependent crane derating coefficients the weight of the boom and the hook In some cases (e. No specific guidance on crane pedestals is given in the DEn Guidance Notes (Ref. However. 3. In some cases this tubular is also used for diesel storage. 1 and 2) as applied to other parts of the topsides and substructure design. 2 DEFINITION The crane pedestal is. a vertical tubular structure spanning at least two topside deck levels (see Fig. In that case the vendor supplied data should also contain a crane failure envelope. 3 on offshore cranes (Ref.1 CRANE SPECIFICATION The following crane specific information is required: a crane capacity curve (see Fig. An offshore crane is subject to significant shockloading which should be addressed in an adequate manner in the design of the crane pedestal.g. It is common practice in John Brown to use a combination of the Lloyd's Code on Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment. Sect. and the British Standard on rules for the design of cranes (Ref. . 2) as will be discussed in Section 4. 1-3). 5). in general. The section on the design of the crane supporting structure can make effective use of API-RP2A (Ref. 3. This Design Practice will review the adequacy of this method and will bring it in line with the Guidance Notes and API-RP2A (Ref.

Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 2 OF 17 3.000 cycles) The class can be revised based on Client supplied data. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. Following Section 2. The State of Loading of offshore cranes is best reflected by Q2 .1).2 DUTY FACTOR According to Lloyd's Register it is logical and reasonable to reflect the harsh duty of an offshore pedestal crane by a Duty Factor (DF) = 1. 3.4 STATE OF LOADING The previous sections only addressed the general working environment and the number of lifts in the course of the crane useful operating life.000 cycles) U5 for drilling/production platform (N = 500. 5) the crane operating life is reflected by two parameters (see Tables 1 and 2): the Class of Utilisation (U1-U9) the State of Loading (Q1-Q4) Historically the following utilisations have been used: U3 for unmanned installations (N = 125. Its value is dependent on the state of loading and the value of Kp associated with Q2 is Kp = 0.1 of BS 2573 it could be derived independently based on Client supplied data but it is questionable if these additional calculations would effectively improve the accuracy of the fatigue analysis.3 CRANE UTILISATION According to BS 2573 (Ref.2. DR352. 3 Sect 2.63 It is a multiplication factor for the total pedestal bending moment.3.2 This factor is to be applied to the lift-load only and in combination with Lloyd's dynamic amplification factors (see Ref 4 Ch. The aim of the parameter Q in BS 2573 is to reflect the average severity of the loading as a percentage of the maximum crane loading for the crane pedestal fatigue analysis. 3. .moderate state of loading In the fatigue analysis the state of loading is incorporated by a parameter Kp which is called the load spectrum factor.3.

1 summarised the guidance on the crane supporting structures as follows: "7. This impact factor can also be called dynamic amplification factor (DAF). 40% of the crane capacity corresponds with a Kp = 0. 2.16.63 equal to Kp for the Q2 state of loading. In particular the maximum moment in the pedestal will be governing. 2.1. 3.6 API-RP2A RECOMMENDATIONS API-RP2A Sect. The specific values for the DAF in a crane analysis can be derived from the equations in Ref 4.WP5 LLOYD'S METHOD UNCONTROLLED COPY. Therefore the API recommendations should not be used for crane pedestal design except for Gulf of Mexico type environmental conditions.1 allowables with no increase. More specifically the governing load condition will be Case 2 for the crane in operating mode with wind. 3.0.5 a utilisation of 10.2.3. Note 2: 3." In the light of the discussion and analysis of Chapter 4 this design condition is significantly lighter than the recommendation of this DR. 7.3. 3 Sect.5 LIFT IMPACT FACTOR The most onerous loading condition for an offshore crane will be experienced during the offloading of a supply boat. Ch. 60.1 DR352.3. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE. 4. 60. 3.3. Ch. Since the hook-speed of the main hoist will be low in comparison with the supply boat heave motion there will be a significant impact on the crane when the load comes free from the supply boat for the first time.1. 30% of the lifts at 100. For this case the effects of the horizontal loads on the crane boom (which is so important for the crane design itself) can be ignored. it is a random variable because it will depend on the actual heave motion of the supply boat at the point of lift-off.1 in Ref. The DAF can also be found from computer simulations or from field measurements and can be as high as 3. . 4). 3.0 times the static rated load as defined in API Spec. The supporting structure should be designed for the dead load of the crane plus a minimum of 2. 5) corresponds to the slope of the DEn-SN curve in a log-log scale. 2C and the stresses compared to the Par. 4. 4 MAXIMUM LOADING FOR DESIGN The maximum loading governing the design of the crane pedestal will be in accordance to the Lloyds's code on Lifting Appliances (Ref.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 3 OF 17 Note 1: The recommended value of m = 3 in the expression for Kp (see Sect.1 Static Design.2. According to the expressions in Ref. some specific numbers are given in Sect. Sect.2.

5. 3.3. For py = 340 MPa and D/t = 75 the allowable bending stress according to API-RP2A is: pb = 0. 4.2) DAF (for Hs = 3.65 py For values of D/t and py different from D/t = 75 and py = 340 MPa the equation for pb in API-RP2A Sect. This value of pbis to be combined with a dynamic amplification factor for the hookload equal to DAF = 3. 3. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. Secondly the pedestal is a thin-walled tubular structure which should be designed in accordance to API-RP2A Section 3.3.9m) = 2.0.07 (Sect.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 4 OF 17 According to Ref.57 py (Sect. Ch. 3. 3 the design load for the pedestal will require the incorporation of a duty factor (DF) and a dynamic amplification factor (DAF) on the hook load.2) Using these factors together with the vendor supplied data and after inclusion of the static moment due to the weight of the hook and the boom the most unfavourable moment for the design of the crane pedestal is: Mmax = Mhook + Mboom + DF * DAF * Mhookload The maximum stress as a result of this moment is to be compared with the allowable bending stress pa: pb = 0. This value will be used in the independent method.1) DAF (for Hs = 1. 4. The one-third increase in allowable stresses should not be applied to the crane pedestal.2) 4.2 (Sect. 2.2.2.3.6m) = 1.3. .0 Finally pb is to be obtained from the following equations for Mmax DR352. Chapter 3: Duty Factor (DF) = 1.3.2 AN INDEPENDENT METHOD It was noted in Sect.3 should be used.2 that the maximum DAF on the hook load can be as high as 3.61 (Sect. 3. More specifically the following values can be obtained from Ref.

Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 5 OF 17 Mmax = Mhook + Mboom + DAF * Mhookload 4.1 and 4. .65 py Using the equations in Sect. Therefore it is recommended to apply the alternative method of Section 4. 4.2 and by setting the hookload equal to zero a direct comparison can be made between the allowable static bending stresses. The Lloyd's method (dyn) pb = 0.3 COMPARISON OF THE METHODS Two comparisons between the two methods will be made base on the static part and the dynamic part of the crane loading.0. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.22 = 0.22 py (These numbers are found as follows: 0.2 x 2. The Lloyd's method (stat) pb = 0. By dividing the maximum allowable bending stresses by the Duty Factor and DAF the following values are obtained.4 RECOMMENDATION The alternative method incorporates a well recognised model to accommodate the bending strength reduction for thin-walled tubulars.23=0. In addition the allowable static stress in the alternative method has been found to be 10% higher (using industry accepted practices) than the Lloyd's method.07).2 and by setting the boom weight and the hook weight equal to zero a direct comparison can be made between the allowable dynamic bending stress in the pedestal due to the hook-load.1 and 4.57/(1. 5 FATIGUE The assessment of the fatigue strength of crane components should address the following load histories: the lift-off of a load from a supply boat the dynamics in the crane system as a result of the impact forces during lift off the setting-down of the load on the platform DR352.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY.65/3.23 py The alternative method (dyn) pb = 0. 4. Using the equations in Sect.2 for the ultimate design of pedestals for offshore cranes.57 py The alternative method (stat) pb = 0.0) 4.

3. This moment is similar to the lift-off moment with one exception that the operation is seastate independent which can be reflected by a DAF = 1.61 seastate 4-6 (Hs = 3.1 The Maximum and Minimum Moment for Fatigue The lift-off moment to be considered for the fatigue analysis is : Mmax = Kp * (Mhook + Mboom + DF x DAF x Mhookload) This moment should be checked for the following conditions and seastates: (a) (b) (i) (ii) maximum reach associated to maximum load maximum load at the maximum associated reach seastate 2-3 (Hs = 1. They are the result of impact forces during lift-off from a supply boat and forms a governing fatigue loading on many crane components.07 This leads to four cases (a-i.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. it may form a simple basis for light cranes on platforms operating in Gulf of Mexico conditions. The opposite sign to the lift-off moment will occur during placing of the load on the platform. (See Sect. 5. For the crane pedestal its inclusion leads to a small correction which can be disregarded within the accuracy of its overall fatigue analysis. a-ii.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 6 OF 17 From a review of methods and consequences it is concluded that the BS 2573/Lloyd's procedure considering each lift-off and setting-down as a fatigue cycle is governing for the crane pedestal. b-i.63.1.1. 3.3. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.9m) with a DAF = 2. 4. 5.0 or : Mmin = Kp * (Mhook + Mboom + DF x Mhookload) Comment 1: If the crane is optimally designed using Lloyd's recommendation for the DAF DR352.U5) representing the number of lifts during the lifetime of the crane.3) State of loading as reflected in Q2 = 2 and Kp = 0. 5.4) The maximum stresses in the crane pedestal will directly depend on the bending moment and we are specifically interested in the maximum positive and negative bending moment. The crane vibrations will be discussed in Sect. This procedure will be further addressed in Sect. . b-ii). It is noted that the API-RP2A recommendation on crane pedestal fatigue should not be used for North Sea conditions.6m) with a DAF = 1. Class of utilisation (U3 .1 CONVENTIONAL CRANE FATIGUE ANALYSIS From the crane specific data the following is required for the fatigue analysis. (See Sect.

1) rmax = maximum reach 5.63 (see Sect. These three comments should be verified for the fatigue analysis.2 (see Sect. = min. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.3) Wh = weight of the hook Wb = weight of the boom Wl = weight of the hookload DF = 1. The maximum stress together with the maximum pedestal moment determines the section modules or (if the diameter is specified) the material thickness of the pedestal.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 7 OF 17 then the maximum moment in the crane pedestal will be independent of the seastate.1. stress For crane pedestals the class F welding detail should be used. .5 Wb + DF x Wl) *rmax where Kp = 0.U5) the corresponding maximum allowable fatigue (tension or compressive) stress can be read directly from Table 3.5 Wb + DF x DAF * Wl) *rmax Mmin = Kp * (Wh + 0.2) DAF = 1. Comment 2: Due to the effect of the boom weight on the pedestal moment it is expected that the maximum pedestal moment will be concurrent with the maximum reach. Comment 3: Since the minimum pedestal moment (occurring while placing the load on the platform) is seastate independent it can be demonstrated that the minimum pedestal moment reaches its (absolute) extreme value for the highest load (i. Using the R-value calculated above and the number of cycles in accordance to the class of utilisation (U3 ./Mmax.61 (see Sect. stress/max. 4.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. 3.2 The Allowable Stress The maximum and minimum moments also give the corresponding R-value which is defined as: R = Mmin. The corresponding table from BS 2573 for class-F welding details is copied as Table 3 in this DR. 3. If confirmed then they form the immediate basis for obtaining the maximum and minimum moment to be used in the fatigue analysis of the crane pedestal as follows: Mmax = Kp * (Wh + 0.e lowest seastate) and for the maximum reach. DR352.

000 cycles). It can then be demonstrated that for these conditions (with this damping) using Ref.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 8 OF 17 5. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.2 COMMENTARY Fatigue in the UK sector of the North Sea is in general addressed using the DEn Guidance Notes (Ref. for example a value of 2% of critical damping seems realistic implying that in 5 cycles the amplitude of the oscillations is reduced to 50%.value) are found to be identical using the information contained in the Guidance Notes. 6 ACCIDENTAL LOAD DR352. The amplitude of the fatigue loading is governed by (DAF . The only difference will be in the selection of the SN curve. It should be noted. the F curve.7 BS 2570 62 71 DEnGN 54 64 API-X 69 81 API-X' 57 67 This difference between BS 2573 and the Guidance Notes is significant from a design point of view. 5. But it should be noted that their difference is equivalent to doubling the estimated failure rate. the API-RP2A fatigue allowables have been included as well.0 R = -0. for completeness. (failure = through thickness crack) from 2% to 4% in the lifetime of the crane. This is contrary to the findings of Ref. 1 and BS 2573 (Ref. In this table. 3. 5.1. Stress in MPa R = -1. that crane vibrations form an important aspect in the design of the crane boom and other components in the pedestal crane. though. This is reflected in the following data for the maximum stress-amplitude in MPa at U5 (500.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. Because of the ease of inspection of a crane pedestal as compared with underwater parts of the structure it is recommended to apply the slightly less conservative BS 2573 data. 1) and therefore it is useful to make some comparative remarks on the procedure of Sect. secondly the number of active cycles will depend on the system damping In general the damping of structural systems is small. 5) in the fatigue curves are: DEn do not recognise the R-dependency for R = -1 (fatigue with a zero mean) the allowable stress is different.3 CRANE VIBRATIONS The impact due to supply-boat offloading will result in vibrations in the crane system and these vibration gradually reduce in magnitude until the equilibrium condition is reached. The two differences between Ref. . all other aspects (the number of cycles.1.0) * hook-load and the total stress range is twice this amplitude. 1 information the fatigue damage in the crane pedestal due to crane dynamics can be ignored. the Kp .

will be analysed to demonstrate a minimum factor of safety against collapse of 1. Lloyd's Register of Shipping. API-RP2A API Recommended Practice for Planning. BS 2573 Rules for the Design of Cranes Part 1: Specification for the Classification Stress Calculations and Design Criteria for Structures 1983. and supporting structure. Shauschausen. J. Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design. 4. allowable stresses will be limited to the yield stress of the pedestal material." The accidental load scenario may well be governing for the design of the crane pedestal and its supporting steel work. b) c) d) e) DR352. Code for Lifting Appliances in a Marine Environment. The main reason for this scenario is the occurrence of accidents like the hook snatching the supply boat causing pedestal failure and fatalities in the early 80's. 7 REFERENCES a) Department of Energy. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE. . For this case. Dynamic Response and Fatigue of Offshore Cranes OTC 3795. 1980.5 to 1. a) b) safety against collapse to be reduced from 1. S. Pt. Without further data the following two changes are recommended for incorporation in the above description. Pt.3 yield stress to be replaced by allowable stress with a one-third increase. 2 is a reflection of API-RP2A on thin walled tubulars in line with the comments in Sect. The applied loading for this case shall be determined from crane failure envelopes supplied by the crane vendor.2.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 9 OF 17 For the design of the Bruce pedestal crane the following accidental load scenario was stipulated. Supply Boat Motions. "The crane pedestal.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. 1 can be further reduced after review of the vendor data supporting the crane failure envelope. 1987. Construction and Certification (Fourth Edition) 1990. Designing and Construction Fixed Offshore Platforms 1989 (18th Edition). Jan.5. and Gran.

WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE. A TYPICAL CRANE PEDESTAL SUPPORT STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-1.WPG DR352. .Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 10 OF 17 FIGURE 1.

WPG DR352. .Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 11 OF 17 FIGURE 2a. PRIMARY STEEL ARBROATH DECK STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-2. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY.

. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 12 OF 17 FIGURE 2b.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. PRIMARY STEEL ARBROATH DECK STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-3.WPG DR352.

WPG DR352. .Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 13 OF 17 FIGURE 3.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. DETAILS OF THE CRANE PEDESTAL STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-4. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.

. CRANE LOAD CAPACITY CURVE STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-5.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.WPG DR352.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 14 OF 17 FIGURE 4.

Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 15 OF 17 STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-6. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.WPG STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-7.WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY. .WPG DR352.

WP5 UNCONTROLLED COPY.WPG DR352. DOCUMENT VIEWED ON THE NETWORK TAKES PRECEDENCE.Engineering & Construction Sector DESIGN REFERENCE OFFSHORE STRUCTURES CRANE PEDESTAL DESIGN DR 352/0 L PAGE 16 OF 17 STANDARDS\DR\DR352\FIG-8. .

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