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dependent variable: call it n. Then count the number of basic dimensions involved in the variables; call it r. Then you need n r dimensionless variables or groups. If n 6 and n 3 there are three groups, and the relation has a non-dimensional form of p1 = f (p2, p3)
(1.4)

where 1 is a dimensionless group of parameters involving the dependent variable and 2 and 3 are dimensionless groups that involve only the independent parameters. Usually, the dimensionless parameters have physical meaning. For example, in fluid mechanics when it is desired to find the drag force acting on an airfoil, it is proposed that D = f (v, L, r, m, c)
(1.5)

where D is the drag force, v is the velocity of the flow, L is the length of the airfoil, is the mass density of the fluid, is the viscosity of the fluid, and c is the speed of sound in the fluid. There are six variables which involve three dimensions. Thus, the Buckingham Pi theorem yields a formulation involving three groups. The result is CD = f (Re, M ) where the drag coefficient is D 1 2 rv L 2 the Reynolds number is CD = Re =
(1.7) (1.6)

rvL (1.8) m and the Mach number is v M = (1.9) c The drag coefficient is the ratio of the drag force to the inertia force, the Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertia force to the viscous force, and the Mach number is the ratio to the velocity of the flow to the speed of sound. Dimensional analysis also can be used when a known relationship exists between a single dependent variable and a number of dimensional variables. The algebra leads to a relationship between a dimensionless variable involving the dependent parameter and nondimensional variables involving the independent parameters.
EXAMPLE 1.2

A dynamic vibration absorber is added to a primary system to reduce its amplitude. The absorber is illustrated in Figure 1.9 and studied in Chapter 6. The steady-state amplitude of the primary system is dependent upon six parameters: m1, the mass of the primary system m2, the absorber mass k1, the stiffness of the primary system k2, the absorber stiffness F0, the amplitude of excitation , the frequency of excitation

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(d) The frequency in rad/s is v = 2pf = 30 rad/s (e) The frequency in revolutions per minute is v = a 20 rad 1 rev 60 s b a b a b = 191.0 rpm s 2p rad 1 min 0.003 b = 0.643 rad 0.004

(e) (f)

(f ) The phase angle is f = tan -1 a


(g) (h)

(g) Written in the form of Equation (1.12), the response is x (t) = 0.005 sin(30t + 0.643) m

1.7 REVIEW OF DYNAMICS


A brief review of dynamics is presented to familiarize the reader with the notation and methods used in this text. The review begins with kinematics of particles and progresses to kinematics of rigid bodies. Kinetics of particles is presented, followed by kinetics of rigid bodies undergoing planar motion.

1.7.1 KINEMATICS
The location of a particle on a rigid body at any instant of time can be referenced to a fixed cartesian reference frame, as shown in Figure 1.11. Let i, j, and k be unit vectors parallel to the x, y, and z axes, respectively. The particles position vector is given by r = x (t)i + y (t)j + z(t)k from which the particles velocity and acceleration are determined v = a = dr # # # = x (t)i + y (t)j + z (t)k dt dv $ $ $ = x (t)i + y (t)j + z (t)k dt
(1.20) (1.21) (1.19)

r = xi + yj + zk j i

p(x, y, z)

FIGURE 1.11

Illustration of the position vector for a particle in three-dimensional space.