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C7 – Corbelled vault
P R É S E N TATI O N G e o g r ap hi c a l In f lu e n c e D e f i ni ti on
Corbelled Vault - Dry stone v ault, gener ally carried out without for m work or for m w ork supports. - The span is li m i ted and cross ed by means of a successi on of s upports overhanging one another, creati ng the corbelling. Eac h row overlaps the previ ous: bal anc e is found on the tail stones . - The stones are l aid horizontally, or slightly tilted outwar ds to run r ain off.
E n v i ro n m en t
Its pres enc e is li m ited to three M editerranean c ountries: France, Spain and Greece. This structure is gener ally used in r ural environment. Associated Floors: Corbelled v aults are only used on gr ound fl oors, never for upper floors. In Spain, corbelled vaults are found in rural environment; its pr esenc e is exceptional.
I l lu s t r a ti on s
Plans and secti ons:
This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States
the c orbelled vault is carried out with the flattest stones possibl e. Small stones c an be wedged i nto the finis hed wall to lock it better still. P e r f o r m an c e s Physical (span. Use of a formwork. dimensions. schematic pl ans Thermal .. or even slightly tilted outwards to prevent rainw ater fr om entering. Construction principle . as reported by the s tudi ed c ountries Waterproofing.ty pe of l aying : Vertical sec tion. and which ens ures a relatively good w aterpr oofing. the vault is c arried out without formwor k or formwork s upports. The two vault heads woul d collapse one agai nst the other if the builder did not balance them by loading the tails. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States 2/5 . the material us ed for cor belled vaults is stone. protection against bad weather (top floor) In the auxiliary agricultural c onstruc tions . The stones are carefully crossed.. dose ratio The cor belled vault is a dry stone masonry: modules are stacked one on the other. In Spain. no particular tool is nec essary for the i mplementati on of corbelled vaults throughout the studied countries.. rows bec ome interdependent.) In Spain. In Spain and France. Si nce there is no bi nding material to fill the hol es. it is thus often c arried out by a mason or private individuals (us ers). This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. The rati o between the size of the buildi ng and the stones must be respected: the width must enable proper crossi ng and the l ength mus t enable a deep anchoring in the mass of the cons truction. the dry stone cons truction rule consists in seeki ng the best s upport for eac h stone on the l ower element: it is a sl ow careful work of observation.Acoustic. it is nec essary to sort s tones and classify them by thickness . formwork supports The ass embly of a corbelled v ault is generally c arried out without us e of a for m w ork. The laying of the s tones is started from the k ey. To o l s In addition to the traditional mas on tools. l aid horizontally. hardly more than its own thickness .). This constr uction tec hnique results i n a crossing of s pans which extend from 1 to 3 meters for a thick ness of about 40 c m .. In Spain. exc ept for the v ery last r ows: thus. Eac h row ov erlaps the previous one. Tr a d e s Trade. the most used materials in all countries are li mestone and earth. this v ault is cover ed by an earth l ayer. I l lu s t r a ti on s Modules. to thi nk ahead and find the best possible interlockings.C 7 Sp ai n – C or b el l ed v aul t C O N S TRU C TI ON PR IN CI P L E Ma t e r i a l s Nature and Availability (in what form) For corbelled vault constructi ons. the corbelled vault is carried out by a mas on or far mers usi ng the materials available on the site. balancing the loads on both si de axis of the vault. progressiv ely colonised by vegetation. Ty p e o f l a y in g Type of laying. Number of people necessary Corbelled v ault is generally an is olated c onstruc tion linked to agricultural and far m activities . Other kinds of stones are also used acc ording to local availability (schist and granite. It results from the superposition of the v arious rows of stones which close up as the constructi on adv anc es. balanc e is obtai ned at the tail of the stones . This constr uction tec hnique has av erage ther mal and acoustic perfor manc es. During the preparation of the work site. c ollected by farmers at the time of ploughing.
game. P ATH O L O G Y As p e c t Finishing. C on n e c t ion fr a m e w o r k . Corbelled v aults are generally left bare In Spain and Greece. No specific pathol ogy linked to ageing in this construction technique were r eported by Spai n and France. Narrow and sm all in all types of dry stone housi ngs. In Spain. especially in the cas e of corbelled vaults which only provide av erage roof pr otecti on: water proofi ng not being their main quality.C 7 Sp ai n – C or b el l ed v aul t AS P E C T.. at the s ame ti me and by the s ame people. AS S O C I ATE D W O RK S O p e n ing s Sm all openings are possible on w all level to ventilate the rooms or to giv e light. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States 3/5 . problems linked to thr ust of overhangi ng materials. cor belled vaults are cover ed with special clay or render ed with clay mortar. crops.. in c ertain areas. This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. they often infor m us on the k ey us e for the builder (herd.V er t i c al S tr u c tu r e ( w a ll ) : No type of connec tion was reported: the vault is ass embled in the continuity of the walls. associated roofing. Linked to the technique: Construction principle : sections and sc hematic plan The non-observance of the fundamental c onstruc tion r ules for dry stone walls is the source of most problem s : c hain r eaction sliding if a stone is poorly laid. vaults can suffer fr om pathological probl ems when built with s andy stones which undergo dec alcification. I l lu s t r a ti on s Ag e i n g p a t ho lo g y Linked to materials and climatic conditions : It is i mportant to note that direct erosion wears the materials. landscape. The two works are link ed.).
which c ould be some distance away.Infrequentl y. this depends on the place. They are often found under an initial layer of topsoil. The stones are laid i n courses. . .C 7 Sp ai n – C or b el l ed v aul t R E AL I Z ATI O N D E S C RI P TI O N In Spain : PREREQUISIT ES These are isol ated constructi ons r elated to agricultural work.Laying out the ground plan of the hut. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States 4/5 . as they would have to be taken to the site of building. as large as possibl e. This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. Before starting constr uction.In some areas. c onstr uction invol ves squinches. OBSERVATIONS If the pl an is square.Construction of the walls using large stones . as the vault begins quite l ow down. Sometimes the s tones are placed on edge. whic h take many different forms. Materials: Stones whic h are as fl at as possible.Closing the vault. and another sol ution is the us e of a flat stone. The s ystem used to close the vault does not al ways invol ve a key. Clay T o o ls Very few tools are used. normall y limestone. . The usual height of the walls is between 035/040 m and 1. to act as a key. Hammer Mortar trough Picks and shovels to clear the ground STARTING W ORK . in other c ases the vault is closed in c ourses . . T he roof of the hut is a vault built by c ompression. Each course advances a little over the last until the vault is clos ed.The stones in the vault are wedged together to rei nforce the circular courses. until it is cover ed in. the inside is rendered with cl ay mortar. the farmer cl ears the ground to remove stones.The extrados of the vault is filled in with rubble and s mall stones to form a mound. .The stones tilt slightly so that rainwater runs outwards off them. not arch bricks. The walls tend not to be ver y high. built using the stones removed from the soil when it is ploughed. piling them up on the site where he i ntends to build the hut.50 m at the highest.The constructi on of the vault begins with flat stones . the outside of the roof is covered with earth. It is the farmers themsel ves who build these huts usi ng the materials available. we find barrel vaults built with arch bric ks of varying regularity. as it is constructed i n courses. .Construction of the portal in the form of an arch or with stone jambs and lintels. . . In areas where there is plenty of regular-sized stone. .
E v o l u tio n / Tr a n s f or m a t io n The materials No evol ution. In Spain. The opinions expressed in the present document do not nec essarily reflect the position of the European Union or of its member States 5/5 . the tec hnique used remai ns identical to the original one. Reasons why the technique disappeared or has been modified : The reasons ev oked by all countries are mainly the slowness of work and the regressi on of the know-how linked to this tec hnique. nor trans for mation. Respectful to the si mplicity of the anc estral model. s ecular.) Found especially in places w here li mestone is brok en or split i nto thin stones and pl ates. The technical aspects No evol ution. shepherd s helters (bories.. it is always direc tly related to the i mmedi ate proxi m i ty of the materials necess ary for its constructi on (stones). neither trans for mation. It is disappearing exc ept for Greece w here its us e remains in certain areas. sheep-folds. E V OL U TI ON AN D TR AN S F O R MATI O N U se Types of buildings Corbelled v aults are exclusively used for the construction of the annex es for far m s . Evaluation of materials and replacement techniques No obj et. Period when the technique is in use – still used today or disappeared : This technique of c onstruc tion is prior to Antiquity . Period when the technique first appeared. When the corbelling v ault is s till built. these cons tructions ar e isolated cons tructions.C 7 Sp ai n – C or b el l ed v aul t U S E . This project is financed by the MEDA programme of the European Union. linked to farm acti vities..
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