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Human Resource Management 2013

1. Introduction (500 words) Setting the scene why is this topic of interest? What are your objectives in doing this work? 2. Outline of the research problem (500 words) What are the research questions what are you trying to find out? Research methods (explain how you did your literature search) 3. Critical reflection on desk research approach (250 words) What are the strengths/weaknesses of desk research? 4. Literature review (4000/5000 words) Detailed analysis of existing literature (see next slides) 5. Analysis and critical discussion (1000/2000 words) In light of your literature review you should discuss the implications for the following groups: Practising managers Policy-makers Academic implications for research and teaching 6. Conclusion (250 words) Summarising your key findings Overview of the dissertation Review of your findings (the research question) Implications for:

Human Resource Management 2013


Academics Policy makers Managers and employees Limitations of your research

7. Learning statement (250 words) Personal reflections what have you learnt in undertaking this particular project?

Human Resource Management 2013

Human Resource Management

Human Resource Management 2013


HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT An Introduction Every organization is composed of people and utilizing their services, developing their skills, motivating them to enhance their levels of performance and ensuring that they remain committed to the organization are essential for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Human resource management is one of the most complex and challenging field of modern management. A Human Resource Manager has to build up an effective workforce, handle expectations of the employees and ensure that they perform at their best.

Definitions: The term Human Resource refers to the total knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents and aptitudes of an organizational workforce, as well as the values, attitudes and beliefs of the individual involved. -Leon C. Megginson Management as a process involves planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling activities that facilitate the achievement of an organizations objectives.

All these activities are accomplished through efficient utilization of physical and financial resources by the companys human resources. Hence, Human Resource Management deals with people dimension in management.

Human Resource Management 2013


Human Resources Approach

Organizations have now adopted the human resources approach, which treats the organizational goals and employees needs as being mutual and compatible, and which can be pursued in unison. Principles on which Human Resources approach is based are as under : Employees are assets to an organization. The time and resources employed in managing

and developing them are an investment that the organization makes for better returns in the present and in the future. Policies, programs and practices must cater to the needs of employees and should help

them in their work and also in their personal development. It is necessary to create and maintain a conducive work environment, to encourage the

employees to develop and harness their knowledge and skills for the benefit of the organi Human Resource Approach
Employee Motivation

Employee Rewards

Employee Performance

Organizational Performance

Figure No. 1

Human Resource Management 2013


Functions of HRM

Various functions carried on by Human Resource Department in an organization are depicted in the diagram under :

MISSION OF AN ORGANIZATION

VISION & OBJECTIVES

HRM OBJECTIVES

STRATEGIES & POLICIES OF HRM

MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS OF HRM OPERATIVE FUNCTIONS OF HRM

Employment

Human Resources Development

Compensation Management

Employee Relations

Human Resource Management 2013

These main function are subdivided in various functions mentioned under : Employment Functions

Human Resource Planning o Recruitment o Selection o Induction o Placement

Human Resource Development Performance Appraisal Training Management Development Career Planning and Development Organizational Changes and Organizational development

Compensation Management Job Evaluation Wage and salary administration Fringe Benefits

Human Resource Management 2013


RECRUITMENT AND SELCTION According to Edwin B. Flippo, Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. Recruitment is a linking activity- bringing together jobs to fill and those seeking jobs. A good recruitment program should attract the qualified & not unqualified. Recruitment is a costly affair. There are legal implications of incompetent selection negligent hiring. Organizations must consider recruitment as a strategic war to attract talent, and must develop and implement aggressive talent acquisition strategies in order to dominate the labor market within a given industry. With the impending retirement of the baby-boomer generation and the lack of availability of high quality senior-level talent, many companies consider talent acquisition to be the most important business challenge facing them today. Recruitment of candidates is the function preceding the selection, which helps create a pool of prospective employees for the organization so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. The main objective of the recruitment process is to expedite the selection process

Recruitment is a continuous process whereby the firm attempts to develop a pool of qualified applicants for the future human resources needs even though specific vacancies do not exist. Usually, the recruitment process starts when a manger initiates an employee for a requisition vacancy and an anticipated vacancy.

Purpose & Importance of Recruitment:


Attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organization. Create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates for the organization. Determine present and future requirements of the organization in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.

Human Resource Management 2013


Recruitment is the process which links the employers with the employees. Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost. Help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or overqualified job applicants. Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organization only after a short period of time. Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its workforce. Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be appropriate candidates. Increase organization and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants. So, those people who are involved in the process have a high level of responsibilities.

Managements Role in Recruitment


Recruitment planning is anticipating and using all available flexibilities and strategies to maintain the workforce. Human Resources Responsibilities along with the civilian Recruitment Team can help through this process by further explaining strategies and helping to find easier ways to accomplish them. Responsibilities include: Determining a vacancy exists. Choosing the right strategies to fill the position. Defining and capturing the need (understanding the position, its functions, duties, responsibilities, and skill requirements.) Initiating the final action.

Human Resource Management 2013


Recruitment needs are of three types
PLANNED i.e. the needs arising from changes in organization and retirement policy. ANTICIPATED Anticipated needs are those movements in personnel, which an organization can predict by studying trends in internal and external environment. UNEXPECTED Resignation, deaths, accidents, illness give rise to unexpected needs.

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TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT An Introduction Training and development relates to the development and growth of the employees in an organization through systematic process. This development is future oriented and prepares managers for a career of valuable contribution to the employees. It helps in the development of the intellectual, managerial and people management skills of managers. It trains managers to understand and analyze different situations, and to arrive at and implement the correct solutions.

Management development is a key component of an organizations efforts to prepare

its

employees to successfully handle new challenges. It helps managers to understand new cultures and customs that have become integral part of global market. It helps managers equip themselves with the latest technologies, tools and techniques for improved quality and performance.

Definition The systematic development of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by an individual to perform adequately a given task or job. Michael Armstrong. The act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Edwin B Flippo.

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Purpose of Training Every organization needs to provide training to its employees at various stages of their career. The main objectives of training are: Improving Employee Performance. Updating Employee Skills. Avoiding Managerial Obsolescence. Preparing For Promotion and Managerial Succession. Retaining and Motivating Employee. Creating an Efficient and Effective Organisation.

Employee Training Methods A number of factors determine the choice of the type of training methods used by an organization. These are: Organization culture. Learning principles. Content of the program. Time factor. Cost effectiveness. Appropriateness of the facilities. Trainers and Employee preferences and capabilities.

The importance of each of the above factors varies depending upon the industry, the business, the job and criticality of training.

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There are various methods of training, which can be divided in to two methods: Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method, also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training Cognitive Methods Behaviourial Methods

Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something, written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships among concepts, etc. These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning. The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are:

LECTURES DEMONSTRATIONS DISCUSSIONS COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)


INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) VIRTUAL REALITY

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Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion. These methods are best used for skill development. The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are:

GAMES AND SIMULATIONS BEHAVIOR-MODELING BUSINESS GAMES CASE STUDIES EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE ROLE PLAYS

Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes, but through different means. Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD - The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes.

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Management development method is further divided into two parts: ON THE JOB TRAINING The development of a managers abilities can take place on the job. The four techniques for onthe job development are:

COACHING MENTORING JOB ROTATION JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT) COMMITTEE ASSIGHNMENTS APPRENTICESHIP

OFF THE JOB TRAINING There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. The few popular methods are:

SENSITIVITY TRAININGs TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES SIMULATION EXERCISES VESTIBULE TRAINING

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Training and Human Resource Management

The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change, the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Gone are the days, when training was considered to be futile, waste of time, resources, and money. Now-a-days, training is an investment because the departments such as, marketing & sales, HR, production, finance, etc depends on training for its survival. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization, then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization. To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM), senior management team is now increasing the role of training. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees, achieving their professional and personal goals, increasing the level of job satisfaction, etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses.

Role of HRD Professionals in Training - This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business; the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. HR role now is: 1. Active involvement in employee education 2. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

(A)

Research Design:

Research design is the planned structure answers strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. There are several ways of studying and taking a problem. There is no single perfect design. Different types of research designs have emerged on account of the different perspective from which a research study can be viewed. However, a frequently used classification system is to group research design under Three Broad Categories:

1) 2) 3)

Exploratory (quantitative) Conclusive or Descriptive (qualitative) Casual

In this research work the ideas, concepts and the procedures far or less are taken from all of the above three concepts because of their interrelations in this present context of the report. The merit of this thing is pragmatic analysis, pertinent results rather than to be quixotic. The main emphasis is on exploratory design and conclusive one.

The exploratory research is primarily used to define research problems whereas the descriptive experimental researches are used to find solutions to the problem. In the present context, where we kept browsing on books, newspapers, trade journals, professional journals, reports of previous research projects conducted is under the scope of exploratory research. It also involved discussions with the officials.

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The Research Design chosen for the purpose of this report is of Descriptive nature (B) Data collection Method:

The collection of data for any study of research can be done by two ways: Primary Data Secondary Data

Primary data:

It can be collected by two methods: (a) (b) Survey methods Observation method

The main accentuated method used by me here was survey method i.e. information from people through personal interviews. The main tool in this is Questionnaire here. A questionnaire was prepared by me to get the perception of the existing employees with regards to Training & Development System in Tata Motors.

Secondary Data:

Mainly all the theory portion that includes the information on company have been collected through various company journals and manuals. The other portion of theory includes information from various books and internet.

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(C)

Sampling design:

Sampling may be defined as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality on the basis of which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is made. In other words, it is the process of obtaining information about an entire population by examining only a part of it. In most of the research work and surveys, the usual approach happens to be make generalizations or to draw inferences based on samples about the parameters of population from which the samples are taken.

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CONCLUSION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Human Resource Management- V.S.P Rao (Excel Books) Research Methodology- C.R Kothari (New Age International Publishers)

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