Time in the Visual Arts: Lessing and Modern Criticism Author(s): Jeoraldean McClain Reviewed work(s): Source: The

Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Autumn, 1985), pp. 41-58 Published by: Wiley on behalf of The American Society for Aesthetics Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/430538 . Accessed: 03/12/2012 23:34
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One recalls that Ann Coffin Hanson said of Manet's Bar at the Folies Bergere that the picture was both constantly in motion-out of focus-as well as static. I. time in art ranges from a passive coexistence with space in the expression of timelessness. prolonged duration. (It followed that artists and writers should stay within the limits of their proper domains. historical coexistence of time and space in art in order to show the manner in which painting has been able to transcend the limitations inherent in the spatial medium. and a dramatic intraspatial tension. and this is the chief legacy of Lessing to recent art criticism. to active instantaneousness. and indeed it will be one purpose of this paper to show how the two fields of criticism can be brought together.1 Frank cited a passage from the Laocoon (1766) which is well worth repeating ? 1985 The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism The major point which this paper makes is that Lessing's polarization of space and time. to explore the JEORALDEAN MCCLAIN is assistantprofessorin the department of art and design at Iowa State University." And Lilian Brion-Guerry said of Cezanne's landscapes that the artist showed that painting could give the illusion of successive moments in time so that the observer thinks successively as well as simultaneously in his imagination. but not space and time at opposite poles in art and literature.72. In this way art and literary criticism can join more comprehensively around the issue of time in the arts. through links with literary criticism.JEORALDEAN McCLAIN Time in the Visual Arts: Lessing THIS and Modern of Criticism ESSAY is a study of the question time in the visual arts as it is related to a selected body of art and literary criticism which had its origin in Lessing's Laocoon (1766). In the following examples. and these expressions will be related to Kenneth Pike's linguistic theory of the particle. Lessing meant that the visual arts are essentially spatial and simultaneous whereas literature is temporal and successive. historians have had the means with which to gauge the relative degrees of spatiality or temporality in works of art as well as literature. does provide a useful approach to the subject of time in visual art. The author who is most closely associated with bringing Lessing's name into the light of modern criticism in the arts is Joseph Frank. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.227 on Mon. whose well-known article entitled "Spatial Form in Modern Literature" was published in 1945. it should be remarked that whereas Lessing's famous distinction between literature and art has played a significant role in modern literary criticism.) As a result of Lessing's Laocoon. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . There we will see polar stylistic expressions of the visual unity of space and time. its use in art criticism has been relatively slight.168. of art and literature. thus fulfilling "Baudelaire's admonition that the modern artist must extract from the ephemeral and transitory the poetic and eternal qualities of his own age. First of all. and literary critics have used it frequently since the 1940's. but with respect to the philosophy of Henri Bergson. It might have been greater. Time as a factor in the visual arts emerged in the Laocoonthrough Lessing's polarization of time and space which led him to identify two separate categories of aesthetic expression. That space and time coexist in art has been remarked often. succession and simultaneity. a historian of literature. wave and field modes of perception. a number have become involved with the same distinction between the simultaneous and the successive that Lessing made. But it will be reactivated. As for the art historians.

Ezra Pound. Frank called this new use of language "spatial form" and said that Wilhelm Worringer's Abstractionand Empathy. but strikes the reader's sensibility with an instantaneous impact.first published in 1908. which conditions but does not determine the work and whose expectations are thwarted and superceded by the space-logic of synchronicity.S." As in Proust's A la recherchedu tempsperdu. [Modern poetry is reflexive. it is the exact complement in literature." However.3 With this publication Frank established simultaneity and succession as basic formal categories of aesthetics in the critical literature of the modern arts. Eliot. are termed bodies. the former using forms and colours in space. holds the key to understanding it. to the developments that have taken place in the visual arts. the latter. articulate sound in time-if it is admitted that these symbols must be in suitable relation to the thing symbolized. locked in a timeless unity that . placing them in the real world where change occurs." A naturalistic style was used by peoples who had achieved a sense of harmony with nature. the wholes or parts of which are consecutive are generally termed actions. [The inherent consecutiveness of language is undermined]. "An image is that which presents an intellectual and emotional complex in an instant of time. At the very outset.. with their visible properties. Subjects. Marcel Proust andJamesJoyce] is based on a spacelogic that demands a complete reorientation in the reader's attitude toward language." Such a complex does not proceed [in the form of a narrative sequence]. on the other hand. the Classical Greeks and Renaissance culture to the end of the nineteenth century were at home in the world. Yet all bodies do not exist in space only.. Time is no longer felt as an objective. as in- struments for analysis. modern poetry advocates a [method] in direct contradiction to Lessing's analysis of language.72. a nonorganic. the inherentspatialityof the visual arts is accentuated by the effort to remove all traces of time-value. I reason as follows: If it is true that Painting employs in its imitations entirely different means or symbols from those adopted by Poetry-i. The significance of spatial form in modern literature now becomes clear. . geometric art resulted. and may. and must therefore choose the one which is the most suggestive and which serves most clearly to explain what has preceded and what follows. Past and present are apprehended spatially. assume a different appearance or stand in a different combination. Each of these momentary appearances and combinations is the effect of a preceding one. and consecutive symbols can only express subjects of which the wholes or parts are consecutive.168. Consequently actions are the special subjects of poetry. In non-naturalistic art.42 since it continues to be quoted to the present day. But when the relation between man and the cosmos was disharmonious. Consequently bodies. This latter style is characterized by planarity because depth in three dimensions gives objects a time-value. Aesthetic form in modern poetry The synchronic relations within a text take precedence over the diachronic so that temporality becomes "a purely physical limit of apprehension. frustrating the reader's normal expectation of a sequence and forcing him to perceive the elements of the poem as juxtaposedin space rather than unrolling in time. saying.. we can say that it is moving in the direction of increased spatiality. "It is quite possible to use Lessing's insights . Modern Anglo-American poetry received its initial impetus from the Imagist movement of the years directly preceding and following the First World War. therefore. They continue to exist. [A painter] can only make use of a single momentin the course of an action.e.. The purpose of Frank's essay was to apply Lessing's method to modern literature. the central point of an action. meaning is apprehended] by the simultaneous perception in space of word-groups that have no comprehensible relation to each other when read consecutively in time. then symbols placed in juxtaposition can only express subjects of which the wholes or parts exist injuxtaposition.227 on Mon.2 Mc C LA IN [in works by writers such as T. And since modern art is nonnaturalistic. but also in time. this is the contrary of time that flows because space is an "extra-temporal eternity. the wholes or parts of which exist in juxtaposition. are the special subjects of painting. it has become a continuum in which distinctions between past and present are wiped out. Frank reactivates Lessing's attempt to define the limits of literature in order to show exactly how modern literature has transcended these boundaries. causal progression with clearly marked-out differences between periods. on the level of aesthetic form. in union with the laws of language. eliminates any feeling for sequence by the very act of juxtaposition. and may be the cause of a subsequent one. "The heart of Worringer's book is his discussion of the spiritual condition which impels the will-to-art to move in the direction of either naturalism or an abstractgeometric style. as it were. Subjects. thus forming."4 The direction which Frank has given to literary criticism provides a solid basis for the consideration of the subject of time in This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.. at each moment of their duration. . 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

Time in the Visual Arts 43 Figure 1 Figure 2 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.227 on Mon.168. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .72.

72.227 on Mon.168.44 Mc C LA I N Figure 3 Figure 4 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

" It was something new in the doctrine of utpictura poesis for a painter's design to be governed by temporal considerations. is the most dramatic example of the type of "spatialization of time" which was described above by Frank. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." Rather than seek the purpose of art in an This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. simultaneity in the Cubist style. "First because he held bodily beauty to be a higher end in painting than the expression of the passions. Frank is actually "describing a dynamic tension" between narrative progression and "spatial form" in works such asJoyce's Ulysses. for what matters to him is the second (spatial) pole alone. they also defended Poussin's picture by saying that since the artist was not a historian who used a succession of words. Lee remarks." Yet. Lessing objected to the adherence to Aristotle's unity of action in painting for several reasons. More interestingly. Basing their work on limited passages from the Poetics and Horace's Ars poetica in which painting and 45 poetry were compared.168. Poussin had not destroyed the unity of action. and has not. Frank's chief contribution to modern criticism may be that he has shown literature and art do not form two mutuallyexclusivepoles of time and space. To exemplify this point we have only to remark that Lessing's polarization of literature and painting in Laocoon resulted from a confusion of the sister arts in the doctrine of ut picturapoesis.9 Diderot opposed Lessing's pregnant moment with the "frozen instant of truth. "He knew that without emphasizing it. the painting unfolded temporally with a beginning. Lessing restricted expression to the fruitful moment. overcome the inherent spatiality of the pictorial medium in order to express temporality? As Wolfgang Holdheim has put it. Thus. and that a dynamic tension between space and time exists in modern art which is comparable to modern literature.227 on Mon. he depicted an event as taking place in a single moment of time. the fruitful moment was a concession to the temporal imagination for it was suggestive of past and future actions." and the Aristotelian doctrine of unity of action came to be accepted. with its roots in the art of Cezanne. Rensselaer Lee has shown that art criticism from c. Time and space are unified visually in art and their qualities are complementary. Frank himself made this point when he compared the naturalistic art of Cezanne to the work of Proust and Joyce. Even though Lessing and Frank considered painting to be a spatial. however. Art "submitted to a borrowed aesthetic. or passage from ill to good fortune in the manner of poetic art. critics developed a theory of painting based upon the ancient theory of poetry. it often was necessary to join together many incidents to tell the story to avoid giving only the conclusion of an action. and the later. and secondly because it was dangerous for a spatial art like painting to attempt the progressive effects of a temporal art like poetry. a middle. The discussants defended the Cartesian idea that expression must serve to dramatically illustrate the central idea of painting." Thus. because modern literature can transcend the sequential character of the linguistic medium.Time in the Visual Arts the visual arts. unidentified. Cubist style of Braque to that of Djuna Barnes' novel also using the principle of "spatial form. and an end. The relation between space and time in painting stretches all the way from a passive coexistence to the tense partnership found in Analytic Cubism. 1500 to 1700 "was concerned with defining painting in fundamental terms" just as Aristotle's Poetics had done for literature.72. indeed. more abstract. Thus. The first concept to consider is that painting in general is not exclusively a spatial art. one may ask whether art cannot. not a temporal. he had "merely showed the peripateia."5 The following study demonstrates that visually art is both spatial and temporal. In this discourse "the Aristotelian doctrine of unity of action was pronounced as valid for painting as for dramatic poetry (and) painting was declared to be an art of time. critic about Poussin's Fall of the Mana in the Wilderness (Figure 1).7 The doctrine of ut pictura poesis is found in an academic discourse recorded in 1667 by Felibien which was held between Charles LeBrun and another. art. as Lessing thought.8 Steven Levine has pointed out that during Lessing's lifetime "an alternative criterion to beauty and time" was developed by Diderot."6 II. whereas the goal of painting was beautiful shapes in graceful attitudes.

and the spectator's role was (1891) and Cezanne's landscape paintings. in came the particular space of the viewer.10 The which his eyes moved about. Diderot claimed rather their presence is accompanied by a that "at every instant one could say of the sense of temporal passivity or extended durauniverse that everything therein is as it is tion. explained by Michael Fried. Indeed. Thus. The striking instant of action seen in David's Oathof the Horatii was eliminated: landscapes such as Bibemus Quarry of c. so strictly consecutive and representing a single moment of time was unified that one has the feeling in these destroyed. they were still action of the instants." picture. With the Realist movement of the mid.thought that instantaneousness. pears with Diderot's art theory and was Manet refused to compromise the imexemplified by Jacques David's painting. if space and time after and foretells. Ernest Chesneau. and it did pressionism. as seen in Monet's Imtableau was sealed off entirely from the pressionist paintings of a series of poplars world. it was the concreteness of the served as the principle to justify Imevent that concerned Courbet. As Hanson ideal history painting now should eliminate remarked. and these Monet who said that the separate pictures changes are seen in the work of Courbet "only acquire their full value through the comparison and succession of the entire and Manet.Geffroy compared Monet's poplars with nineteenth century there was a loss of unity dramatic poetry saying. Another "sublime poetry of Christianity" with its notable critic. Courbet's Burial at Ornans (1849) re. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and the central dramatic idea understood at once. who was meeting of heavenly and earthly realities. the more explicit.168. so harmoniously. mediate experience of seeing the beach in the Oath of the Horatii (1784-1785)." And the traditional sense. was a condition of truth and of the burial. the figures do not show intense effort.rable parts. Not only is the painting not unified in absolutely necessary that it should be. Fried noted that Courbet created a new model for history painting ment in time and Diderot's "instant of based on a non-dramatic representation of truth. "The sense of spatial unity is all incident that does not bear directly on broken so that the entire scene cannot be the drama.1' tory painting: the representation of a moMoreover." 14 On the other hand. the concept of pictorial unity Boulogne of 1869 also shows a loss of pictoof the XVIIth century was significantly rial unity. with single." Each painting in the series. The ing poem develops. but for different reasons. and its specific configuration of light and color.series. and because of this partand be clearly intelligible: pictorial unity by-part reading the work can only be seen must be instantaneously apprehensible at a in time. as in taking centrated upon the "purely secular import" a photograph. it remodified in the XVIIIth century. However. ap. The sults from the spectator's temporal and spachange." In stressing the interwere no longer universal.this enterprise the temporal factor became play for the audience's benefit. "Thus this changof action in progressive painting." Nochlin has remarked that Courbet con. In holder's presence to deter a mannered dis. the series of injected traditional notions of death and the stants contributed a single whole."'13 The eye jumps from must be set in motion by a dynamic cause group to group. the first to use the term "instantaneous." Taken together. but 1895 to give the illusion of a synthesis of This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. In the later nineteenth century pictorial single glance (Figure 2).46 McC LAIN abstract ideal of beauty.227 on Mon.l2 Manet's painting Sur la Plage de Therefore. infinite space of Renaissance art nuanced phases. The objective detachment of the fifteen canvases of a single work of insepaspectator also was lost: infinite space be. The actors in the drama were to be unconscious of the be.tial reading of the picture in fragments. Monet reactivated one of the central problems of traditional hisnot have a metaphysical meaning. the novelist Gustave objective. the generalized temporal factor became captured "the life of an instant that comes historical time.72. Geffroy echoed copresent and complementary. but Courbet abolished this axiom of instant truth was the principle the objective condition of the viewer by abof "a quasi-religious cult whose creed was sorbing him bodily into the space of the based on Newton's laws. Cezanne constructed figures. According to Levine.unity was re-established on a new basis.

it goes on increasing [like a snowball]..227 on Mon. the crete as objects. with traces of memory.shown that Braque arrived at early Cubism from anne's working process and the observer's through a direct extrapolation experience of Cezanne's painting. In "Distortions" resulted from his sensations this way Braque was able to concentrate on of presenting three-dimensional space on a the "materialization of space. such as Houses and Trees. uncertainty and the possibility of structural variation." He did not want "the object to refuse to adapt itself to This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. As Brion-Guerry remarks. At this time Braque's confrom the spectator cannot comprehend the various ceptual approach-detached foci in Cezanne's painting in a single glance. expands in three dimensions and "is indissolubly bound to the space it engenders and from which it will never be able to dissociate itself.. As a result. the Cezannian passage keeps them from being separate from each other by breaking the forms at some point. single discrete experience of space. held out a Bergsonian view of conscious. that the consciousness of even the most motionless observer is constantly undergoing change: Let us take the most stable of internal states. ." In brief.. is continually swelling with the duration it accumulates.and buildings being broken to allow the periences of the motif in space and time. motif as he worked in the studio-was not totally different from Cezanne's method of The painting has to be considered as much an image of temporal as of spatial experience. planes to "bleed" into adjacent planes. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in CreativeEvolution of 1907. in depth. then the painting will be seen as an image of time. Hamilton remarks that the experience of creating and viewing the work of art represents Bergson's "duration" which is continuous "becoming. and allowing the planes to spill into adjacent planes.." Cezanne's space is no longer the empty cube of Renaissance perspective space. . The advance concerned Braque's because instantaneousness contained no grasp of Cezanne's passage of planes. The object. characterized by the work of Monet. If we re-enact in this fashion the artist's experience.. Cezanne did not want "to condemn his objects to immobility and have them . the visual perception of a motionless external object [the painting]. Here he "instantaneous time in a homogeneous pushed Cezannism beyond his earlier adapNewtonian space. ." Cezanne's new style tation of the high horizon from Cezanne. are the first Impressionism was based on the concept of group of truly Cubist paintings. . My memory is there which conveys something of the past into the present. The viewer sees the objects from many angles successively and simultaneously in the imagination.from each other" and making space as conserved the motif in time. since we shall have found that it cannot be comprehended as an image of a simple. My mental state. Cezanne synthesizes the successive moments of a temporal different harmonies of continuity-the color in the sun's progress with the passage of the hours-and in doing so constitutes "the great divide in the history of spatial composition.. For although Cezanne placed lated from the living world.brushstrokes." Bergson persuades us. continuous through time in space. .where he set the scene more vertically than ness which was not the instantaneouspresent. whereas vibrations of the atmosphere also "give rise to movement. The object may remain the same. as it advances on the road of time. He must recreate on a shorter scale the artist's experience by shifting his own position from side to side and moving back and forth in front of the painting until he comes to feel that his process of viewing is a repetition of the process of creation. The spatial container does not exist prior to its contents and is not distinct from them. and from the the "visual space that separates objects multiple viewpoints from which he ob. such as the quarry. and taque.168. and William Rubin has George Hamilton has discussed Cez.17 The search for pictorial unity on a new basis joins the work of Cezanne with Time. Cezanne worked slowly the emphatic outlines of the forms of trees and gave his memories of successive ex. The truth is that we change without ceasing. . It folworking.16 First he Cezanne's passage of planes and faceted points out that Cezanne came of age artisti. nevertheless the vision I now have of it differs from that which I have just had." Objects are not encased and isolated within limiting outlines.72.."15 Braque's painting. iso- 47 lows that to apprehend the multiple points of view the spectator must proceed slowly and continuously..'8 Braque's landscape paintings made in 1908 after the trip to L'Escally during the Impressionist period.Time in the Visual Arts numerous moments in time (Figure 3)." on painting two-dimensional surface.

the eye and the brain (and) one must work for their mutual development. too. and this prevents the materialization of full-bodied solids and maintains discontinuity. textures.22 give the means of expression. in expressing this awareness of the paradoxical nature of reality and the need for describing it in multiple and even contradictory ways. but rather a composite time of fragmentary moments without permanence or sequential continuity. a sharp. saying. like innovative contemporary architecture. the plane is diffused into the field. Cubism offered a visual equivalent of a fundamental aspect of twentieth-century experience. and being no more or less The cubists have allowed themselves to move real. disturbing dynamism. a book could be metamorphosed into a table. Even the identity of objects was not exempt from these visual contradictions. planes are in a state of constant flux. Cubism created an artistic language of intentional ambiguity. finite (incomplete). firm outline could abruptly dissolve into a vibrant texture. in order to give . let us review certain methods that Picasso and Braque used to reveal it beginning with the Cezannian passage. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Picasso made this process the subject of his early Cubist paintings. for one does not sense either duration or instantaneity.. Fixed temporal relations are rejected. discontinuous views that are shown simultaneously and unified on the flat plane of the canvas. Heterogeneous time and space have undergone planification. spaces and objects could be complete in itself.21 Picasso's Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweilerof 1910. but there is no sense of prolonged duration either. moves in front of our eyes. and he was "the first consciously to emphasize the painting process" as an experience for the viewer (Bread and Fruit Dish on a Table. in the dynamism which emerges from the composition. . This produces the ambiguous quality of time in the Cubist painting. is made with transparent planes implying a fusion of volume with the space around it. He shows us the modifications which objects thought to be inanimate impose on each other.23 In 1912 Hourcade noticed the whole surface of Cubist paintings was organized in terms of interpenetrating or interacting planes. For a century that questioned the very concept of absolute truth or value. Space and time are relative in quality rather than absolute: Unlike the fixed positions determined by Renaissance perspective. The spectator is obliged to assume that the figure is pieced together from fragments taken from multiple and discontinuous viewpoints. .. describing it as the "merging of planes with space by leaving one edge (of the form) unpainted or light in tone."19 Indeed. opaque shape could suddenly become a weightless transparency.168. . he also said: "In painting there are two things." As Steinberg comments. Gleizes and Metzinger discussed this factor as coming from Cezanne: a He [Cezanne] teaches us to understand dynamism that is universal." And in Du Cubismepublished in 1912. His work. Robert Rosenblum provides a clear idea of early Cubist painting by Picasso and Braque. the around the object. . viewer realizes that there is a tension between art and reality: In the new world of Cubism. a hand into a musical instrument. a homogeneous mass.48 Mc C LA I N great emphasis on his sensations before the model. the brain for the logic of organized sensations which Cezanne's new way of composing a painting made such a drama of pictorial integration that the picture was a mosaic of decisions that determined its becoming a work of art.. and the solidity of the object is destroyed.227 on Mon. experiential. Cubist space and time are in a tense partnership: they are subjective. seems motionless or flickers.72. and heterogeneous with changing.20 Early Cubism extends to the limit the potential of Cezanne's ideas. 24 Braque and Picasso also continued to investigate the process by which nature beSecondly. A dense. than the still life itself. or false. a plane that defined the remoteness of the background could be perceived simultaneously in the immediate foreground. the method of simultaneity incomes art and made it more explicit. shifting their relative locations according to the changing contexts [of the views]. In a Cubist work. Not only does the single moment in a single space disappear. Jean Metzinger said in shadow in Still Life with Violin and Pitcher 1911 in Cubismand Tradition: (1909-1910). Alfred Barr introduced the term into English in Cubismand Abstract Art of 1936. corporated the idea of time as movement Braque placed a trompe-l'oeilnail and its around the object. a strange. Since the temporal factor of process played such an important role in Analytic Cubism. no fact of vision remained absolute. a concrete This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. "The fascination of the paintings lies . 1909). . . And. expands. the spectator was to realize that no single interpretation of the fluctuating shapes. The eye for the vision of nature. In front of a Cubist work of art.

Synthesis is the assembling of these forms and views into a new image united with the surface.227 on Mon. indeed to all our faculties. according to Linda Henderson. art shows duration. figure several perspectives from several points of view."28 Another source for the geometry of four-dimensions. we must have recourse to tactile and motor sensations. "What the writers on Cubism inherited (from Kant) was the idea of two opposed processes: analysis as the study of objects in nature and breaking them up into basic components. the dual process of analysis and synthesis derived from Kant's writing and described by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler in The Rise of Cubismof 1915. He said that analysis is the reduction of the figure to basic geometric forms which lack closed contours."29 Certain directions in post-Cubist American abstract art have resumed the aesthetic of instantneousness. it goes on and on. or Literalist. or "presentness. or eternal nowness. was E. turning of the object itself which is necessary to form an idea of its total dimensionality. says Henderson. says Fried. The notion that the artist moves around the object to seize successive appearances is exactly the procedure for repbodies four-dimensional resenting suggested by Poincare: Just as the perspective of a three-dimensional figure can be made on a plane. Time played a "supporting role" for a Cubist painter seeking the fourth dimen- There is still another process in early Cubist painting.. The latter has "as many dimensions as we have muscles.168. will make reasoning no longer people indignant. reconstitute it in time. Jouffret's work is like Analytic Cubism because it presents varied views which construct a four-dimensional body simultaneously in a kind of mental picture of the process of rotation. any daring is legitimatethat tends to augment the picIt allows either the moving around the object or the ture's power as painting." They wrote. now it reigns in time also. Gleizes and Metzinger also took from Poincare the concept that "pure visual space" is space.. because the picture is apprehended instantly in its entirety: being impersonal and anti-theatrical. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The thing is inexhaustible. which. In this sense we may say the fourth dimension is imaginable. fused into a single image.27 Henderson compares Henri Poincare's Science et l'Hypotese of 1902 with Gleizes and Metzinger's statement given above in Du Cubisme. made up of several successive sion in space and using four-dimensional aspects. or Euclidean three-dimensional "geometric space. Formerly a picture took possession of geometry: space. is the means by which the artist viewed his subject.72. the audience has no sense of time passing (duration)..30 Works by artists such as Kenneth Noland." and Kuspit has remarked of this aesthetic that it is completely isolated from the world of daily experience. In painting. It is through the subject of four-dimensional geometry that Cubist simultaneity is best understood. and the presentation of several views.25 The following year Gleizes and Metzinger remarked: "Then the fact of moving around an object to seize it from several successive appearances. "Presentness" entails a sensation of timelessness. Morris Louis and Frank Stella exemplify "presentness.31 Minimal." and it should be contrasted with subjective perceptual space which results from tactile and motor experiences. we can make that of a four-dimensional figure on a picture of three [or We can even take of the same two] dimensions. synthesis as the assembling of distinct parts to make a unique whole. Henderson shows. whereas a judgment is synthetic when it synthesizes distinct concepts." 28 Representing multiple points of view simultaneously is related to the influence of four-dimensional geometry on the Cubists. Both of these traditional temporal qualities have been discussed by Michael Fried. "To establish pictorial space.Time in the Visual Arts 49 representationof it. and Fried concludes that the Minimal artist "is preoccupied with This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Time. Jouffret's Traite elementaire de geometrie a quatre dimensions of 1903. because the art object is a simple thing with a strong Gestalt (shape) which is experienced as having an endless duration. Camwell has studied this dual process and notes that it originated in Kant's distinction between two kinds of judgment: a judgment is called analytic when a subject concept contains predicate concepts ("a tondo is circular")." and also cultivate extended duration.

" and "is .. . psychophysiological remarks that "looking along its length one into mathematical space. The adequate and "the wholeness that can be achieved fact is." was discontinuous. This picture is at the opposite pole to early Cubist heterogeneity and the which extends beyond the existence of individual things.. . nor the future future.168. .. not an actual succession. For example." Minimal art takes the form of a single body in space. following Judd. but each place has its own individual quality. . there is simply one indivisible and changeless being.. Even Aristotle thought there was "no continuous quality in which the essence of individual things would be resolved . that these assumptions involve an through the repetition of identical units. . the future and the past are in a kind of eternal state. "Our spontaneous way of seeing is not a sum of sensations but a structure. and that space and time have similar characteristics at both poles. . second... and Plato opposed a world of geometrically shaped bodies to space... it is an) unchanging quantity consisting of three physical dimensions experienced as "something that transcends and reconciles the opposition between bodies and non-bodies (what is left between bodies). Krauss transform . Change presupposes a certain position which I take up and from which I see things in progression before me."34 and his Phenomenology of Perception helps to explain the sense of endless duration in Minimalism: There is a temporal style in the world. or "the world. infinite container of Renaissance art and it was visualized with an instant of time in David's Oath of the Horatii. In the space of immediate perception .. short. and homogeneous-in mathematical-space is directly opposed to that of psychophysiological space.35 dynamic tension between space and time in Picasso's Portraitof Daniel-HenryKahnweiler.227 on Mon. a shapeless or shape-hating receptacle. is not past. that perspectival views. "to visual impressions]. Time abides. to adumbrate a perspective." However. . .72. no actual infinite Thus. .. the plane section through the cone of sight is an is explains Fried.. shape reproduction of our visual image. And we can no more speak of perceptual space as homogeneous than we can speak of it as infinite.. is timeless. there is no strict uniformity of places and directions. to a definitely limited part of space. . . the reason for perspective construction was to realize in the representation of space a homogeneity and infinity of which immediate experience had no knowledge. What is past or future for me is present for the world. . 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ."37 Classical space. If I consider the world itself." But the crucial factor. . the perspective space of the Renaissance series of presented as an indefinite tacitly makes two very important assumptions: first. grouping or configuration. .50 McC LAIN time. the Gestalt. and continuous. or lived time.33 About the Gestalt he said.. therefore." sees (the work) in perspective:" it "demands to be seen in perspective. . It is important to realize that the Kantian and modern relativistic conceptions of the physical world have resulted in widely different modes of representing the unity of space and time visually.32 and Rosalind Krauss has associated Maurice Merleau-Ponty with Minimalism. It is ."36 extremely bold abstraction from reality [subjective III. however. and the latter is experiential in character. . three-dimensional space of Renaissance art was an a priori intuition according to Kant. The first is an isolated tableauset apart from the outside world. ." Renaissance space reveals a perfectly unified and rational world: infinite. The single. For the structure of an infinite. The past. and does not flow or change. or a clearly articulated succession of bodies in space having the same shape. whereas the viewer's perspective of things. It [only] arises from my relation to things. is repspace resented as succession in space. in Minimal art the thing in itself. [These exist] only when a [viewer] is there . purely unchanging. Within things themselves. Democritus had built up the world with tiny particles which were bodies in motion in the non-being. confined . such as Donald Judd's untitled steel sculpture of 1966 having six cubes in a row 25' 4"long. homogeneous. such as a cube.. Homogeneous space is never given. His argument for the a priori nature of the representation of space This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.. the space of which Lessing spoke was the single. Perception is unacquainted with the notion of infinity. it must be constructed. Minimalist art has been related to Phenomenology by Alien Leepa. [Time] is not real process.. The concept of the correspondence of space and time at the Euclidean pole is explained by Erwin Panofsky in "Perspective as Symbolic Form. that we see with a single motionless eye.. .

Although in hindsight Rosenblum's words ring true to us today. such as Metzinger . Ernst Cassirer explains the objective nature of time in Kant. Kant is saying that the representation of space functions within human experience as a necessary condition of the possibility of distinguishing objects as distinct from the self and from each other. uniform. Whereas the heterogeneous space and time in Analytic Cubist painting are not Kantian. as it was believed that there was a world-wide instant stretching throughout the whole universe. whereas the more lyrical and mystical.41 In Relativity Theory there was no absolute space and no absolute simultaneity. On the contrary. time lost its sense of uniformity and homogeneity. especially his thought about memory and the polarity of space and time. timeless Absolute. Cubism had strong ties to the nineteenth century: [It has been said] that the truth beyond nature depicted by the Cubists was not a nineteenth-century. eternity (infinity).. when Minkowski first showed the impossibility of separating space and time. the universal now. . For in order that certain sensations be referred to something outside me .38 51 Henry Allison remarks that the crucial point is that by "outer experience" is meant a sense through which one can become perceptually aware of objects as distinct from the self and its states. Those with a more tough-minded temperament..42 The role of contemporary philosophy in the development of the new representation of space and time in Analytic Cubist painting is exemplified in the relation of Henri Bergson to the Cubists. . the contemporaries of the cubists consistently thought in categories inherited from nineteenthcentury idealism. with the passage of time an observer accumulates in his memory a store of perceptual information This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. and independence from physical contents.72. were open to Bergson's intuitionism and the tradition of symbolism. The "timeless space" of Kant. time had continuity. and in 1908. At this period the proposed fusion was thought of as the spatialization of time. Andre Salmon.39 Also Milic Capek has shown that the space and time of Euclid. which in fact Bergson did not do as he had never seen a Cubist painting. Otherwise we would be simply abandoned to the chance sequence of impressions in ourselves according to the mere play of association. Poincare and science. Time also is a priori and it is the presupposition for our determining objective temporal relations. in announcing the exhibition of the "Section d'Or.. looked to Kant." With Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (1905). be empirically obtained from the relations of outer appearance. and it was not causally inert and indifferent to physical action. still differed by their positions in the universal flow of time. such as Apollinaire . the relativistic space-time continuum was formulated. homogeneity. was denied. .43 Edward Fry has pointed out. was "a label for an infinite series of successive instantaneous spaces which. following Hamilton's study of Cezanne. This relation was problematical and concerns a number of aspects of Bergson's writing. Like space. though qualitatively identical. but had curvature varying from place to place and moment to moment. But as Lynn Camwell remarks. Mass and space were fused in a dynamic reality which was not a rigid structure. Newton. that the Cubists were influenced by Bergson's emphasis on the role of memory in experience: . It is important to note that in 1911 the defenders of Cubism had begun to declare that Henri Bergson had given his approval to Cubism. and even of Bergson. the objective existence of a worldwide instantaneous space.Time in the Visual Arts is contained in passages of the Transcendental Aesthetic: Space is not an empirical concept which has been derived from outer experiences. uniformity of flow (it was unchanging). Correspondingly. The representation of space cannot. symbolism and science. and Kahnweiler. the representation of space must be presupposed. therefore. static container independent of its physical contents. .227 on Mon. but the unstable and fluxuating reality of the twentieth century.. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . All points contained in the cross-section were simultaneous in the absolute sense.168. Time was a fourth dimension of space. and Kant were similar." intimated that Bergson would write the preface to the catalogue. this outer experience is itself possible at all only through that representation. Cubism is definitely post-Kantian. Space was not a homogeneous.40 There was a spatial model for Classical space-time: an instantaneous cross-section of the world containing all simultaneous events.

not the movement itself. In a word. by distinguishing [the parts] and then comparing the places which they occupy. we set our states of consciousness side by side in such a way as to perceive them simultaneously. Thus [this] amounts at bottom to confusing time with space. in intellectual and scientific thought: Beset by the idea of space we introduce it unwittingly into our feeling of pure succession. Starting from a background [space] the painter now works toward the front by a sort of "scheme of forms" in which each object's position is clearly indicated. [The method ofl simultaneity was derived from the idea of the cummulative character of human memory as expounded in such works as L'Evolution Creatriceof 1907. One would only see an arrangement of planes..45 However. Thus the desired physical representation comes into being in the spectator's mind.52 about a given object in the external visible world. Bergson did not think that Kant's notion of time was a true "inner experience" of the self. space] what is given it as qualitative heterogeneity. can show it from several sides. pure duration might well be nothing but a succession of qualitative changes. and from above and below. so that our faculty of thinking only finds again in matter the mathematical properties which our faculty of perceiving has already posed there. without precise outlines. We introduce order . and consequently to think a space of three dimensions? If our conscious point A does not yet possess the idea of space [then] the succession of states through which it passes cannot assume for it the form of a line. and that when [time] seems to assume the form of a homogeneous whole [instant].. At this point Braque's introduction of undistorted real objects into the painting takes on its full significance. the parts of which touch without penetrating one another. without any tendency to externalize themselves in relation to one another.. just as did that Bergson called Kant's Kant-except notion of time spatial. these images construct the finished object in the mind. which melt into and permeate one another. quadrangles. They have been impregnated in advance by our geometry. Intelligence [for Kant] is bathed in an atmosphere of spatiality." Real duration for Bergson was said to be an intuitive inner experience that could not be spatialized.168. Kahnweiler also had said that the new Cubist method stimulated the memory of the viewer: [Using the new method the painter] no longer has to limit himself to depicting the object as it would appear from one given viewpoint. cylinders.227 on Mon.. it is necessary to take up a position outside it.. [The mind perceives] under the form of extensive homogeneity [i. and this accumulated experience becomes the basis for the observer's conceptual knowledge of that object. but wherever necessary for fuller comprehension. the succession thus [taking] the form of a continuous line or chain. in order to perceive a line as a line. namely space.. space is given as a ready-made form of our perceptual faculty. it is first necessary to realize that Bergson accepted Kant's concept of homogeneous space: What the Transcendental Aesthetic of Kant appears to have established once for all is that extension [space] is not a material attribute of the same kind as others..49 However. Christopher Gray called the Cubists' mobile relation to objects in space a Bergonian concept of dynamic reality which was limited. limited to showing only instants in the process of moving around the object.. .47 Fry links the Bergsonian methods of Cezanne to the development of Cubism in 1908-1910... We here put our finger on the mistake of those who regard pure duration as something similar to space. no longer one in another . ... whereas the representation of memory traces posed no difficulty in Cubism.e. With Kant. without any affiliation with number: it would be pure heterogeneity. .72. it is because it gets expressed in space.. When "real details" are thus introduced the result is a stimulus which carries with it memory images. What we must say is that we have to do with two different kinds of reality. Our perceptions reach us only after having passed through [spatiality]. to take account of the void which surrounds it.. To understand this distinction..44 Mc C LAIN bly united.. Combining the "real" stimulus and the scheme of forms. to which it is insepara- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. [In this way succession] is converted into simultaneity and is projected into space. If only this "scheme of forms" were to exist it would be impossible to see in the painting the representation of things from the outer world..48 In the following passage Bergson concludes that we spatialize time.. or symbolize it.. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He did not notice that real duration [as experienced] is made up of movements inside one another. the one heterogeneous. that of sensible qualities. or "outer experience.46 The problem which Gray saw in representing motion resulted from the fact that Bergson polarized space and time.. [This conception is] a kind of reaction against that heterogeneity which is the very ground of our experience. But how can they fail to notice that. the other homogeneous.. but its sensations will add themselves dynamically to one another and will organize themselves. . like the successive notes of a tune.. Kant's great mistake was to take time as a homogeneous medium...

"Intuition is the sym. "Yes if you did an intuitive approach to motion consist are dealing with time flown. which is a spatially divided time breakseries of instantaneous spaces. the artist's preted that as meaning that an actual duration as the creator of the work. However. Interpenetration was the means by which the artist made and the Vital. Futurist art related Bergson's idea that time precedes space.Large Glass of 1912-1923. . and curondly.50 sought to combine all these factors in The Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. All of these solutions suffer from the sent it as it follows its own innate energies. or flux. . at least the attempt to make Lucia Beier describing Marcel Duchamp's that spatiality somehow expressive of dura.Large Glass materialized Bergson's idea that ogy. if you of? Bergson had said. These two processes. the Vital Impetus.Bachelor Machine below functioned like cioni identified four crucial aspects in vis. splashes. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . . With these elements of our intuition was indivisible. were fused momentarily by direct contact with the phenomenal world.was the subject of the Large Glass. Bergson had said the time sensed by rents of electricity. . same mistake which render that impression imposThese energies synthesize the object." and Boccioni inter. but a ing the Cubist language of forms] by depicting the third factor. The Bride above represented intuition. Duration what is unique in it. Boc.thought he had found a visual formula for tion of space and time. and at least two sible. as though the object were a state of and were shown in a comical way. or stoppages (immobile states).53 Duchamp's tion (should) avoid an analytical methodol. of movement of the entire figure.Bergson compares to steam and which tion of his psychic states and matter taking Duchamp incorporates into the Large Glass the indivisible form of a continuum. [or] by reproducing two or more phases Cubism from having a dominant effect. whereas the the creative process Duchamp demon- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.speak of time flowing.units and loses the dynamic flow of durapenetration. The Futurists tried to represent movement [us."52 Boccioni's own contribution was time. having In fact to overcome Bergson's polariza. could not be spatially (Figure 4). The mind that one could sympathize with. Boccioni time. No. who was a serious student of of Bergson's thought about time was called Bergson's philosophy. separate parts perceived by an observer outside the object." with its environment. the Geometric motion. As an intuitive approach to representing dura. as demwith the idea that "if works of art necessarily onstrated in another article of the 1970's by exist in space. "absolute motion. and lines of force are used to represpectator in this way? It cannot.represented tion. Sec. and force-lines. Can the This motion is intuited within the object impression of a moving form be awakened in the itself.168." an in Cubist literature by Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler. was given a place in his style. .72.227 on Mon. What could be represented by space. droplets of water."5' Boccioni. the creative force. There object-the work of art-could bridge the were three important aspects of the artist's gap between the mind and the external self which entered into the creative process world. the manner in which Duchamp inside an object in order to coincide with represented this now seems clear. In order to produce "movement.as fog. Boccioni called this "relative motion.that the fundamental reality of human existion. "absolute" and "relative" tion. challenged Cubism into question by Marcel Duchamp. a sensation of the interac. the various phases exist simultaneously in the painting. In Futurism. however. according to Brian Petrie's article of tence is the feeling of temporal process. in some the object visual images must exist as succeeding points in kind of unique dynamic unity. which It was intuition.It." prevented moved part of the body several times in various the spatially divided time of Analytical positions. ing down into repetitive. Kahnweiler defended the intellectual approach associated with Cubist Kantian idea that time is represented as a art." After Beier's pathy by means of which one places oneself analysis. too. motion to Bergson's own concept of intui.Time in the Visual Arts 53 The impossibility of depicting motion intellect operated by making fixed divisions through multiple views was also discussed in space. the usefulness to the visual arts 1974 entitled "Boccioni and Bergson. as the artistic ego itself. which breaks things up into ualizing the intuition of motion: inter.the intellect. considering whether time Forms of Continuityin Space of 1913. as visualized in The Unique Bergson said.

we recall.72. to free it from all caprice. "we can say Frank . The Byzantine church was an image of the Cosmos with an ordered hierarchy of spaces descending from heaven. Primitive man tore absract form out of the flux of happening. it is apprehended intellectually. the modes are supplementary because a single view is necessarily incomplete. and as field (figure and ground) within which a unit gets its meaning. and Bergson. as Worringer and Frank remarked. . It is important to realize that the particle view of art does not so much denyspace as it denies the changing world of time which can be found in space because. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . duration." having its own intellectual. dogmatic context apart from the real world of experience.61 and it is the world of Byzantine mosaic decoration as discussed by Otto Demus. The rounded space in which each icon is set is not twodimensional. it appeared that the range of Bergson's thought about time. Pike's isolable unit clearly is comparable to the concept of abstractgeometric art discussed by Worringer because "one has abstracted (an object) from its environment and delimited it as a complete thing. the field . experiential context.58 Moreover. We perceive the world. static and timeless. in a word. Let us adapt Pike's tri-modal theory to visual art in an effort to further clarify the question of "spatial form" relative to the qualities of time which have been discussed: unity of action. it can be defined as thing-centered and objective. Holdheim..227 on Mon. as wave (a flowing continuum as the sound of speech). and . results from a desire to get away from the restlessness of the changing world-the "ceaseless flux of the forces of nature" to a realm of stasis. to eternalize it. The preference for abstract-geometric form in primitive man [resulted from a state of perplexity in the face of the mutiformity of the world picture]. Indeed. Indeed. eternity."55 Remarking that twentieth century physics "recast physical reality in terms of a unified spatial-temporal field. in three ways: as particle (a discrete unit such as a word). has focused on criticism focuses on the larger context of which the poem is a part." says Holtz." Holtz has pointed to spatiality in Kenneth Pike's trimodal linguistic theory of perception which is based on modern physical theory.56 When the particle view is applied to art. it opens outward and includes This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. as an ongoing activity. This distances reality.168. instantaneousness. and heterogeneity."57 The urge to abstract. harmony and wholeness. while emerging structuralist examples are found in abstract styles such as Byzantine mosaic decoration. to raise it up into the realm of the necessary. Frank. is not visible to the viewer. in Bergsonian terms. Holdheim has noted the abstracting method reminds of the scientific method which isolates phenomena so that the object is removed from the familiar ground of experience. time destroys the objective character of reality. Each mode is useful and should be retained. intuition and intellection had been fully illustrated in the visual arts. "Within this tri-modal scheme. The Byzantine church itself is the "particle. This concept about art synthesizes the thoughts of Pike with those of Worringer." In both cases synchronicity is a condition of knowledge." By the time of the Large Glass of 1923.60 The particle view of art is the same as Spanos' teleological "world of God" and the Aristotelian plot. The particle is an isolable thing without a subjective. The progress of literary criticism from Lessing's idea of the polarity of space and time has been summed up by William Holtz in an article of 1977 entitled "Spatial Form in Modern Literature: A Reconsideration. to the earthly zone below.54 IV. and in both Frank's spatial "metaphor" is applicable.-."59 From the partical view.54 A M C IN LL strated that it is impossible to experience the artist's duration in the art object because the creative process. space. art represents a timeless truth or a "frozen instant of truth" (instantaneousness). and these temporal qualities correspond with the "timeless unity" which Frank thought characterized the spatialization of time in modern literature. and "replaces vital spontaneity and emotion with intellectual lucidity. said Pike. 2). as well as in the naturalistic style of David's Oath of the Horatii (Fig. destroys subjectivity. the sphere of the cupolas. the only movement which the Large Glass has is the spectator's duration "which keeps it alive.

.227 on Mon. and they have undergone planification. . and the icons are arranged in accordance with the liturgical sequence of ecclesiastical festivals. it is also represented in naturalistic art with perspective depth by David's Oath of the Horatii. What Frank actually describes.72. as discussed above in relation to Analytic Cubism: space and time are finite (incomplete). It is based on the Calendar of the Christian year. According to Pike. Linked with the spatial symbolism of the building." disappear and melt together as the unit is viewed against a larger background. or "particles. "Temporality becomes a purely physical limit of apprehension . This view emphasizes the process of making a picture. as Brion-Guerry said of Cezanne's painting (Fig. and it has an instantaneously intelligible pictorial unity with a powerful dramatic idea set in motion by a cause. the figure and the ground. the field view places the object in a context. the viewer is forced into "active empathy. Because of the active role of space in the field view of art. a fused whole.. heterogeneous. to establish the absolute material individuality of a thing. He did this in an attempt.66 This is the world of process in which the temporal flow of the novel."65 That is. super- seded by a space-logic of synchronicity. It is subjective. In both art and literature abstraction.64 As Holtz has remarked. says Holdheim. or discontinuity. and the viewer must subjectively make an effort at understanding how the varied perceptual elements might be combined. time in the Byzantine church is symbolic. The field view of art incorporates aspects of Worringer's empathetic (naturalistic) style because it is temporal and requires the active. functions "as a spur to exacerbated empathizing. is interrupted. This tableau is an objective world which is set off from reality: it is a "frozen instant of truth. the flow of time is converted "into an ever-recurring cycle moving around a static center. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . just as Cubism interwove the object with multiple spaces. . We recall that the painting exemplifies Diderot's art theory. The separate parts." The field view of art presents another form of the spatialization of time."67 The wave view of art means a fusion of units like the field view-and an emphasis on process and change-but over an extended period of tiine. because Cubism does not focus on the closed unity of an isolated thing: The art of antiquity avoided rendering space and depth. subjective participation of the viewer. foreover beyond his reach. What the Analytic Cubist painting requires of the vieweris an effort to recompose the object in a unified pictorial space which is broken up by excessive temporalizing.63 The art of the field view is not spacedenying." Worringer could not have intended Cubist art as an example of the abstract-geometric style. Space is a primary factor and its many depthrelations require the viewer's attention just as does perspective space. temporal succession of perceptual moments.168." as Worringer said of perspective depth." following Newton's idea that "at every instant one could say of the universe that everything therein is as it is absolutely necessary that it should be. temporalizing role of the reader who attempts to restore the temporal line of narrative. the image is viewed simultaneously and successively.Time in the Visual Arts the beholder so as to give reality to the concept of divine world order. or the unified picture space of the painting.. the wave view is useful in describing historical change and development. The aim of artistic volition was to render 55 the natural model as an individual material body-not by perception in walking around it-but to reproduce it as a whole for the imagination by amalgamating the fragmentary. Even though Cubism has undergone "planification. the field view also has the simultaneous mode of which Frank said. According to Pike. 3) and Holdheim of Joyce's Ulysses. The artist intended to render a closed whole derived from the imagination. things are "confused and mingled. experiential and temporally lifelike. One is dealing with a total complex."62 But the particle view of art is not only found in the timeless quality of Byzantine mosaics. and it is dependent upon the external world and the viewer. because of the factor of the moving observer. In order to achieve a "unified spatial apprehension" of the work. is not the polarity of time and space but a "dynamic tension" between time and space. Correspondingly." This is the same process as Holdheim's organicizing. in a wavelike This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.

pp. Architectural structures provide.'" Gazettedes Beaux-Arts 57 (1961): 55-59.. 114-20. 1Joseph Frank. see also his The Widening Gyre (Rutspace and time in works of art. the Greeks did not divide the stage and usually the process of organization the creator of the work had only one stage set. (New York. cal Instant. 6-7." 233-35. and Steven (New York. (Boston. SewaneeReview 53 (1945): 221-40. (New York. 20 Rubin. "The Be22Ibid.56 fusion. One must move about. 184. even a small hut cannot be the matter of esthetic 2 The Laocoonand OtherProse WritingsofLessing. Martin Heidegger and the Questionof Literature. 27. pp. "Cezanne. Bergson and the Image of Time."' Art Marianne Martin Futurist Art and Theory 1909-1915 in America 69 (1981): 168. But swer to Critics.56-57. But with the persaid little about the unities of time and place. 1979). pp. 115-48. 13f. vision]. 50. "Wilhelm Worringer and elements. pp. 643-53. 59. This view is exemplified by phenomena such as the historical development of Analytic Cubism or Monet's series paintings of poplars and haystacks. pp. Absorption America 67 (1979): 121f.. pp. The two fields have common concerns and can share a common terminology. 1982). 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . notes Aristotle not the same in any literal sense.. the Cathedral of Rouen than tuality. 66f.. 1971). pp." it is a building. pp. p. taneous impression. and Frank. within Answer to Critics.204. (London." Glyph4 (1978): 113. no matter how large. holder in Courbet: His Early Self-Portraits and Their "The Polemical Part. pp. see n.. 12 Fried. and "Spatial Form: an Anthe mode of "space-occupancy. 78-81." 114. A total qualitative impression (University of Indiana Press.. "Thomas Couture . creation must include relations comparable to those 62-64. 1963). Where a Bergsonian approach to art is concerned. pp. 117. 29. 1968). pp. 1977). 66. 65. pp. "Manet: 'Sur La Plage De Boulogne. William Spanos. See tion: On the Central Group in Courbet's 'Studio. pp. A W. The Widening Gyre. lights and in connection with changing moods. 16 George Hamilton.ed. (Cornell Unistructure gradually yield itself to him in various versity Press. The Interpretation of Cezanne. see William cathedral. p. 48. "The Beholder Fourth-Dimension and Non-Euclidian Geometry in Courbet. 17 Ibid. "Representing RepresentaReinterpreted. 231-52. Time as with the artist. 20f. "The "Instant" of Criticism and Monet's Criti'9Judith Wechsler." 233.72. 1907-1914. see also been the first to use it in the context of painting (Pref- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Ronnfeldt. was the 24-hour of a for and as simply period day." CollegeArtJournal 16 (1956): 2-12.The Late Work. The hasty sightseer no more has an the Polarity of Understanding. 548-74. William Rubin. p. by AbbeJean DuBois in 1719. 1956). 14 Levine." Cezanne. William Rubin. the same as the elements of place. 1984). 1976). 73-82. 1934). pp." Artforum 8 (1970): 41f. Dewey says that the distinction between the spatial and temporal arts is wrong. French Painting. "A New Facet of Cubism: the sity Press.53-54. 1968). emanates from it as soon as it enteracts with [our 3 Frank. 116f. who is cited by Paul Laporte. 42-45.. A History and an Analysis Diderot." Arts Magazine 55 (1981): 114. 9 Levine... [To perceive.. (London). Cubismand TwentiethCentury and the Theatricalization of Action in 19th Century Art. But this is only the substratum and 4 Ibid. perception save as temporal qualities enter in. 189. "Spatial Form: an fleeting landscape.227 on Mon. 11. (University of Indiana the motorist traveling at sixty miles an hour sees the Press. "The Elusive Goal. Cubism. 32ff.. p. 1977)." 44. the perfect reductioad absurdumof the separation of 433-56." Art in Place in His Art. and "Spatial Form: an framework within which a continuous process of Answer to Critics.. (Berkeley. "To18 ward a Supreme Fiction: Genre and Beholder in The William Rubin. 1967). McC L A IN Alan De Leiris. 28. 61. the term "simultaneity" was 13 Ann Coffin Hanson. Manet and the Modern Tradia word "jealousy guarded" by the Futurists who had tion (Yale University Press. Without the act of recreation the object is not perceived as a work of art.ed.TheLate Work. 1977). and TheatricalityPainting and the Beholderin the Age of 24John Golding. 8 Frank. of the whole that is . Lessing's view was anticipated consciously experienced. 346. If anything exists in gers University Press. 21 10 Fried.. Cubism. makes an instanSpanos. there must be an ordering ceiver. 64-66. Levine. See also his "Thomas Couture Robert Rosenblum. I should imagine. Humphry House. They are (Westport Conn. pp. and through repeated visits let the heim's article in The HermeneuticMode. pp. 205. 1966). 29f. n Linda Nochlin. or have an esthetic experience. pp.. 90f. See also a reprinting of Holdand without. (New York. 1981). which the original producer underwent. 23 Leo Steinberg. "Cezannism and the Beginnings Art Criticism of Diderot and His Contemporaries. (University of Michigan Press.. and that a passageway has been opened which is beneficial to art history. B. ed. 26 Linda Henderson." Cezanne. see Michael Fried. All objects of art are matters of perception and perception is not instantaneous." of Cubism. 13. 116f. (Johns Hopkins Univer25 Edward Fry.168. With these observations it should be apparent that literary criticism has done much to elucidate the subject of time in visual art. as a continuous behavioral event... p. (New York. pp. 27f." Critical Inquiry 4 (1977): pp. 9-10." Art Quarterly 34 (1971): 428. interactions introduces enriching and defining 5 Wolfgang Holdheim. New LiteraryTheory 6 (1974-1975): 547f. 30-32. 1980). Realism." in The Questionof Texaesthetic vision of. BLee. Hamilton's thought about Cezanne can be compared with that of Dewey in Art as Experience (New York. 202. The Widening Gyre. 151-69. p. pp. a be7 Rensselaer Lee Ut Pictura Poesis: The Humanistic holder] must create his own experience and his Theoryof Painting. 15 Liliane Brion-Guerry. 189. 220. ed. in Aristotle's Poetics.

. but a pure intuition. the described geometric forms give us the sturdy 41 calls this a static.. . p. no evolution. see Henri Bergson. 24-26. 32f." According to Lynn Camwell. if it were. 44 Fry. consciousness that would fain leave it outside. Our duration is not merely one instant replacing 33 Rosalind Krauss. being carried into the present does not concern 32 Allen Leepa. and Art and "Cubism and Science. Kant's Lfe and Thought (Yale University Press. Space is not only presented as single.. Feb. 1-50. 1968). ed. pp. In the case of the concept. Lovejoy exrepresent to ourselves only one space. 13 f. Kahnweiler's a priori geometric scaffolding also in Kantian: 57 to think of particular spaces as parts of a single space. (New York. 42 If. 1983). The argument that space and time are pure Bergson. but this is not the case with space and its parts. 16f. 1912). pp. there would never be anything Donald Judd. At first simultaneity stood for the pace of modern life with its speed and "simultaneity of states of mind. spark of the present moment is continually extindepends solely on [the introduction of] limitations. 1981).72.Time in the Visual Arts ace to the Bernheim-Jeune Gallery Exhibition. pp. An has discussed the difference between imand Defense (Yale University Press. In reality. pp. ceasing. pressing against the portals of 12 (1954): 481-92. "Cezanne and French liest infancy is there. Sense and Nonsense actual... 38 Henry Allison. . 96ff.. pp. 45 Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler." Magazine of Art 41 (1948): 26-32. .168. The parts of space are only given in and through this single space which they presuppose..... pp. 43 Fry. (New York. but all these views agreed in considercannot precede the one all-embracing space. 82-98. [a] general concept of relations of From Descartes to [Alexius] Meinong the present things . "Minimal Art and Primary MeanCubism directly." Minimal Art. of fers the observation that we are somehow constrained Descartes and of Leibnitz." Vortrage der BibliothekWarburg (1924-1925). The Philosophical Impact of Contemporary Physics. Time thus posed. 205. .. "Authoritarian Aesthetics and (New York. pp. 1961). probably. p. 67. 1980).. Apollinaire used the word to describe the contrasting color in Delaunay's Orphist paintings. Capek Interpretation mediate memory and more distant mnemic links in pp.. 28 Paul Laporte also had realized that Cubist simultaneity integrated kinesthetic sensations with visual perceptions. we should rethe Elusive Alternative. (Dordrecht. 9 Camwell. is about to join it. 30 Michael Fried. Such was the instantaneous represent to ourselves only one space. 27 Henderson. 234f). and if we tended this point up to a definite temporal length. see Forrest Williams. the past is preserved. but the present-no prolonging of the past into the 34 Maurice Merleau-Ponty. And the past grows without tion (New York. Kant here is contrasting the relation between space and its parts (particular spaces) with the relation between a concept and its extension. 35 Maurice Merleau-Ponty.. 258ff. pp. on the link beceasing. of these forms is the prerequisite without which we plete 42 Camwell." Artforum (1967): 12-23. guished in order to be replaced by another spark. leaning over the present which Phenomenology. "Art and Objecthood. p. Our a priori knowledge and its "parts" are not simultaneous.. changes without Form. Of special interest is his idea that great artists have integrated time and space either implicitly or explicitly. we mean thereby only parts insisted that this length has no constant and James of one and the same unique space. couldn't see and there wouldn't be a physical world. . In its tween Phenomenology and duration in Cezanne's entirety. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 41 If. whereas temporal reality is by nature incomimages from our memory. 38 Fried.. consequently it cannot be conceived as a collection or aggregate. pp.. but as a unity. "Allusion and Illusion in another. pp.. 7. 59. on the contrary. 411-33. "Die Perspektive als symbolische Our personality. as ing the present moment as the only reality hovering being . 205-12. Capek thinks with Bergson that it is impossible to reconstruct any temporal process out of static geometric elements. Space is essentially one. speak of diverse spaces.. Irwin Edman (New York. . 48f. 153-6. The Rise of Cubism 31 Donald Kuspit. 37 Erwin Panofsky. then in 1913 to describe the Cubist use of multiple viewpoints for obtaining the most complete description of objects. lIf. Allison notices that in support of his claim that "we can equally ephemeral. constituents out of which it can be combetween two abysses of non-being.view of space-time because scaffolding. . 182ff." Journal of Aesthetics Criticism7 (1949): 243-56. see "the Space-Time Concept in the Work of Picasso. [These] parts sharp edges. 39 Ernst Cassirer. see also Camwell." Artforum4 (1966): pp. Duration is the continuous (Chicago. 1944) p. Cubist Criticism (University of Michigan Press. 38. so that "an abandonment of visual (for auditory) models in modern physics is imperative" (Ibid. all that we have felt.. A Critical Anthology.. 33f. Phenomenologyof Percepprogress of the past. p. "Art and Objecthood. upon which we place the products of the Capek spatial diagram suggested that successive moments our imagination consisting of retinal stimulae and coexist. Kant's TranscendentalIdealism. 1962). intuitions continues: 1971). However. 1964). 40 Milec Capek. which is being built up each instant with its accumulated experience." Kant only ofworld of [Heraclitus and] the Arabian atomists.227 on Mon. 158-77."Journal of Aestheticsand Art member that Bergson's thought about the distant past Criticism4 (1983): 271-88. the partial concepts out of which a general concept is composed are all logically prior to the whole. the world of perpetual This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Gregory tion." 12." Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.. it follows us at every instant. p. thought and willed from our earpaintings. 158-60: Space is not. they can be thought only as conceived is a "perpetual perishing" in which the in it. Creative Evoluings. For . see Bergson and Modern Physics... . pp. . . we can was regarded as a mathematical point. 68: Battock. . 1949). A general concept is thus a collection of partial concepts. the manifold in it. trans.

pp. Cubist art. Oath oftheHoratii.ed. pp.276-80. (New York. William Spanos ous mnemic links joining temporally noncontigu(University of Indiana Press. cession]. 46.72.. 38. 348ff. pp. CubistAestheticTheories(Balti62Otto Demus.. 5. 101-105. 35. 1982).. 1947). "Worringer Among the Modkind between immediate memory and more tenu. Gazettedes Beaux-Arts 88 (1976): 194-200. 347. see also William Holtz. In Bergson's duration the whole of 60 Worringer. 1955). pp. and the Bergsonian view consists in a different view 55 William Holtz.(1967). MC L A IN 54 This has not proven to be true as Duchamp was a major influence on the development of Conceptual Art which focuses on process. "Boccioni and Bergson. 3 Dec 2012 23:34:14 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ." The Questionof Textuality. Courtesy of Service photographique de la Reunion des Musees Nationaux. 256-70. The "Bergsonian" self-space which manent in the present "occasion. Immediate Data of Consciousness. James admitted 56 Kenneth Pike. 1886. 22.. see Robert Smith. 13-16. don. the Bergsonian past is indivisibly im. Courtesy of Service photographique de la ReunCubism did not "present the nature of life. Paul Cezanne. [however] trans." ContemporaryLiterature 12 moment . ous moments." Critical Inquiry 4 (1977): sive moments of the specious present were com. 52 Petrie. 353. Essen. Pogson 65 Frank. 46 Christopher Gray. unity of time and the self discussed by Hans Meyerhoff in Time in Literature (Berkeley. Large Glass. 53 Lucia Beier. Courtesy of Zentrale Museumsvercorpse. specious present." waltung. Fall of the Mana in the Figure of the influence on Magazine (1974): 140-47. 532-48. see also William Spanos. . 353."Journal ofAesthetics and stream of thought and the total continuity of real Art Criticism29 (1971): 87-104. Formsof Continuityin Space. Bergson on Boccioni. pp. . ed. 1982). 48 Henri Bergson. trans.(1971): 345-73. there is only a difference in degree and not that of 58Joseph Buttigieg. 223-27. besides the links Quarterly 2 (1959): 37-54. Michael Bullock. "Spatial Form in Modern Literaof the status of the past. tura Futuriste of 1914. forJames only the "immediate 61 past. pp. pp. pp. pletely external each to the other. the past persists . An Essayon the 64 Ibid. Dreier. Timeand Free Will. Louvre. 39f. 1974). 1967). 47 Bergson. [With a ion des Musees Nationaux. "ConArt." (London.ture: A Reconsideration. Marcel Duchamp.to Tagmemics. 65ff. 38. of immediate memory. This is the main difference "Modern Literary Criticism and the Spatialization of between the next-to-next continuity of [James'] Time: An Existential Critique. and "Modern Drama duration. While in James' view the distant phases of and the Aristotelian Tradition: The Formal Imperathe past are completely separated from the present tives of Absurd Time." perceived on the "rearward edge" of the Holdheim. see also John Golding." phia Museum of Art: Bequest of Katherine S.168. Wave and Field. the difference in date grows larger . 59 Holdheim. Nicolas Poussin. Linguistic Concepts. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.(University of Nebraska Press.Louvre. 232f. and tween them which are the links of immediate "Language as Particle. Byzantine Mosaic Decoration. 235. 21 f."Field Theory and Literature. F. 1972). (New York. Boccioni said that Analytical Paris. Boccioni's Unique Wilderness. Abstraction and Empathy. "Spatial Form: an Answer to Critics. 50 Kahnweiler.58 perishing and perpetually recreated by God. originally published in pp. Jacques David. a number of relations bind. its evanescent events lost forever in the abyss of nonbeing. Petrie cites Boccioni's Pittura SculFigure 2. 67 Holdheim.227 on Mon. Nikos Stanceptual Art" in Conceptsof Modemrn The main difference between such a view of time gos (New York. multitude of planes] Picasso . 66 Rosenblum.. pp." The Texas memory. 51 Brian Petrie. pp. no not only recalls Frank's "spatial form. [For the atomists] succes. Paris. 63 Worringer." Within the Spanos remarks in the work of writers such as Proust dynamic totality of the past there are no gaps. p. . . pp. is real. 85ff. p. 1971). Bergson's duration has.ernists. compares Joyce's Ulysses with 49Ibid." Centennial Review ing together temporal terms which are not [in suc. pp. extracts dead elements tific analysis which seeks to study life by dissecting a Figure 3.. L." but also the full stops. 43. p." Burlington 1.An Introduction 'feelings of transition" or "feelings of relation" be. Bibemus Quarry. 362. (Lonmore. p.. "The Time Machine: A Bergsonian Figure 4. PhiladelApproach to 'The Large Glass' Le Grand Verre. pp. 1967). 143. 6-8. These links are more and more tenuous as 57 Wilhelm Worringer. pp. Museum Folvang.

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