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**20 May 2013 Group Theory
**

Some basic groups that might be useful: • Symmetric Groups (Sn ) : The group whose all elements are the bijctive function from {1, 2, . . . , n} to {1, 2, . . . , n}. This group has order n!. Some useful facts: – All elements of Sn can be written in the concatenation of the cyclic form ( a1 a2 . . . am ), which means that a1 is being mapped to a2 , a2 is being mapped to a3 , . . . , and am is being mapped to a1 . – σ( a1 a2 . . . am )σ−1 = (σ ( a1 )σ( a2 ) . . . σ ( am )) with σ an arbitrary element of Sn . • Alternating group ( An ): The group of even permutations of a ﬁnite ! set of order n. This group is a normal subgroup of Sn with order n 2. • Dihedral group ( D2n ) : The group of symmetries of a regular polygon of n vertices, generated by rotations and reﬂections. This group has order 2n and is a subgroup of Sn . It is important to understand the general structure of those groups, i.e. the generators of the groups, the group actions on a certain set etc. Exercise 1 Prove that (1 2) and (1 2 . . . n) generates Sn . 1

Prove that AB = BA. ∑ | G | g∈ G • Sylow Theorem (short version) : Let G be a ﬁnite group with p a prime number and n a natural number such that pn | | G |. 7}. For each g in G let X g denote the set of elements of X ﬁxed by G. Then the following holds: AB = I ⇐⇒ BA = I . • Orbit-Stabilizer Theorem : Let G be a group that acts on ﬁnite set X . 2. | Gx | = | G | • Orbit-Counting Theorem : Let G be a ﬁnite group that acts on a set X . 4. 6. Let Ox be the orbit of x ∈ X and Gx be the stabilizer of x by G. Exercise 2 Let G be a group of order 49 acting on set X = {1.x = x for all g in G and for all x in X ) or transitive ( G. 3. Let A and B be two square matrices of the same size.y = X for some y in X ). Prove that the group action is either trivial ( g. Exercise 3 Suppose that A and B are square matrices of the same size such that A + B + AB = 0. Then the following formula holds: |Ox | . Then the order of H divides the order of G. Ring Theory One important and subtle property that is often missed is the commutative property of the inverse of a matrix.Some theorems that might be useful: • Let G be a ﬁnite group and H be a subgroup of G. 2 . Let | XG | denote the number of orbits. Then there is a subgroup P of G with | P| = pn . then the following formula holds: 1 | XG | = | X G |. 5.

. Polynomial Ring It often happens that we are asked to deal with irreducibility of polynomial over rings of integers . In that case. Exercise 5 Let P be a polynomial of degree n such that P( x ) in an integer for x = 0. .e. Prove that P is an integer-valued polynomial. 1. 1. . Note that this property does not hold for general ring. Some types of questions may deal with integer-valued polynomials (i. . b ∈ R. The binomial polynomial ( x k ) with x as a variable and k a non-negative integer is deﬁned as follows: x k = x ( x − 1)( x − 2) . . this theorem may help: • Gauss’s Lemma If P is an irreducible polymial with integer coefﬁcients over the rings of integers.This property also holds for ﬁnite ring with identity. with two elements a and b in the ring R such that ab = 1 but ba = 1. Exercise 4 Give an example of a ring R with identity. the binomial polynomial will be useful. . then the following holds: ab = 1 ⇐⇒ ba = 1. then P is an irreducible polynomial over the rings of rationals. . • A polynomial P is an integer-valued polynomial of degree k if and x k only if P is of the form ∑i =0 ai ( i ) with ai is in N for i = 0. . k − 1. . k. . In those kind of situations. ( x − k + 1) k! Some interesting properties of binomial polynomial: • (x k ) is an integer-valued polynomial with degree k. 3 . . the polynomial that takes integer values for integer input). . n. 2. Let R be a ﬁnite ring with identity and let a. 1. . • (x k ) takes the value of 1 when x = k and 0 when x = 0. .

. there always exists at least one prime number p with n < p < 2n. . Exercise 6 Prove that for all prime p with p ≡ 1 mod 4. Then ( p − 1)! ≡ −1 mod p. . . • Stirling Formula lim √ n→∞ n! 2π n n n e =1. a2 . . the following holds: aφ(n) ≡ 1 mod n • Wilson’s Theorem Let p be a prime number. 4 . Then for an arbitrary positive integer a = 0. . . the system of congruences x ≡ a1 mod m1 . .Number Theory Some important theorems that might be useful: • Euler’s Theorem Let n be a positive integer and p1 . pm be the prime factors of n. . Deﬁne Euler’s Totient function φ(n) as m 1 n ∏i =1 (1 − pi ). there is a natural number x such that x2 + 1 is divisible by p. . . m k . . x ≡ a2 mod m2 . . • Bertrand’s Postulate For any integer n > 3. ak . • Chinese Remainder Theorem Let m1 . x ≡ ak mod mk has solutions. . mk be pairwise coprime positive integers greater than 1. Then for any integers a1 . and any two such solutions are congruent modulo m1 m2 . Exercise 7 Prove that all integers n > 6 can be written as distinct sums of primes. m2 . . .

q be two coprime numbers.. Exercise 11 Denote by Sn the group of permutations of the sequence (1. . n. . b be two integers and suppose that n is a positive integer for which the set Z \ { ax n + byn | x. . (Here e is the unit element in the group Sn . The player who made the last move loses the game. Prove that n = 1. . Suppose that G is a subgroup of Sn . Exercise 12 Given an integer n > 1. Prove that if ( A − B)C = BA−1 .) Show that this k is the same for all σ ∈ G \ {e}.. . . . and suppose that A is invertible.Exercise Exercise 8 Prove that R is an inﬁnite-dimensional vector space over Q. The game ends when the selected elements generate the whole group Sn . . play the following game. q q q 2 Exercise 10 Let a. they select elements (one element at a time) from the group Sn . n). let Sn be the group of permutations of the numbers 1. then the following holds: p 2p ( q − 1) p ( p − 1)(q − 1) + +. Taking turns. Exercise 9 Let [ x ] denotes the biggest natural number the is smaller or equal to x. . Let p. 5 . . Two players. y ∈ Z} is ﬁnite. A and B. 2. Which player has a winning strategy? Exercise 13 Let A. B and C be real square matrices of the same size. n} for which σ (k) = k. such that for every σ ∈ G \ {e} there exists a unique k ∈ {1.+ = . The ﬁrst move is made by A. then C ( A − B ) = A −1 B . 2. It is forbidden to select an element that has already been selected. . . 2.

which is the remainder of h1 (h2 ( x )) modulo x p − x. How many polynomials are there in W ? Exercise 16 Let f ( x ) be a polynomial with real coefﬁcients of degree n. Exercise 15 Let p be a prime number and F p be the ﬁeld of residues modulo p. Let W be the smallest set of polynomials with coefﬁcients in F p such that • The polynomials x + 1 and x p−2 + x p−3 + + x2 + 2x + 1 are in W . f (k)− f (m) Suppose that k−m is an integer for all integers 0 = k < m = n. Prove that if 1 − xy is invertible. and • for any polynomials h1 ( x ) and h2 ( x ) in W the polynomial r ( x ). 6 .Exercise 14 Let x and y be elements in a ring with identity. then so is 1 − yx. is also in W . Prove that a − b divides f ( a) − f (b) for all pairs of distinct integers a and b.

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