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). Aves and Avifauna redirect here. For other uses, see Aves (disambiguation) or Av ifauna (disambiguation). Page semi-protected Birds Temporal range: Late Jurassic Holocene, 160 0Ma Pre? ? O S D C P T J K Pg N A composite image showing the diversity of birds; 18 biological orders are depic ted in this image (from top, left to right): Cuculiformes, Ciconiiformes, Phaeth ontiformes, Accipitriformes, Gruiformes, Galliformes, Anseriformes, Trochiliform es, Charadriiformes, Casuariiformes, Psittaciformes, Phoenicopteriformes, Spheni sciformes, Pelecaniformes, Suliformes, Coraciiformes, Strigiformes, Piciformes. Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Superclass: Tetrapoda Clade: Eumaniraptora Clade: Avialae Gauthier, 1986 Class: Aves Linnaeus, 1758 Subclasses Archaeornithes * Enantiornithes Hesperornithes Ichthyornithes Neornithes And see text Birds (class Aves or clade Avialae) are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic (warm-blooded), egg-laying, vertebrate animals. With around 10,000 living specie s, they are the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. All present species belong to the subclass Neornithes, and inhabit ecosystems across the globe, fro m the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) B ee Hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) Ostrich. The fossil record indicates that bi rds emerged within theropod dinosaurs during the Jurassic period, around 150 mil lion years ago. Birds are the only members of the clade originating with the ear liest dinosaurs to have survived the Cretaceous Paleogene extinction event 66 mill ion years ago. Modern birds are characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightwei ght but strong skeleton. All living species of birds have wings; the most recent
C urrently about 1. usually for one breeding season at a time. particularly songbirds and parrots. are po pular as pets. and most bird species can fly.1 Alternative scientific theories and controversies 1. Birds figure prominently in all aspects of human culture from rel igion to poetry to popular music. Most birds have an e xtended period of parental care after hatching.200 species of birds are threatened with extinction by human ac tivities.7 Resting and roosting 4. a number of bird species have been observed manufacturing and using tools.2 Territories.1 Economic importance 6. Contents 1 Evolution and classification 1. folklore and culture 6.4 Brood parasites 5 Ecology 6 Relationship with humans 6. Wings are evolved forelimbs.species without wings was the moa.2 Dinosaurs and the origin of birds 1.8.4 Migration 4. and scales 3. penguins. and hundreds more before then.1 Social systems 4. Some birds. Flightless birds include ratites.5 Communication 4.2 Feathers. The vast m ajority of bird species are socially monogamous. which is generally considered to have become extinct in the 16th century. and many more perform sh orter irregular movements. nesting and incubation 4.2 Religion. plumage. sometimes for years.5 Diversification of modern birds 1.3 Early evolution of birds 1.4 Early diversity 1. and participate in social behaviours. Many species undertake long distance annual migrations. Many species are of economic importance.3 Flight 4 Behaviour 4.8. and mobbing of predators.3 Parental care and fledging 4. though efforts are underway to protect them. mostly as sources of food acquired thro ugh hunting or farming. and a number of diverse en demic island species.1 Diet and feeding 4.3 Conservation . About 120 130 species have become extinct as a r esult of human activity since the 17th century. Other species have polygyn ous ("many females") or. Some species. and many social species exhibit cultura l transmission of knowledge across generations. especially corvids and parrots.3 Feather care 4. polyandrous ("many males") breeding systems. Eg gs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Other uses include the harvesting of guano (droppings) for use as a fertiliser.1 Chromosomes 3.8 Breeding 4. they communicate using visual signa ls and through calls and songs.6 Classification of modern bird orders 2 Distribution 3 Anatomy and physiology 3. including cooperative breeding and hunting. but rarely for life. rarely.1 Definition 22.214.171.124. flocking.2 Water and drinking 4. a re among the most intelligent animal species. Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems t hat are highly adapted for flight. Birds are social.6 Flocking and other associations 4.
 However. and is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. number 4 below. the last common ancestor of all living bird s and all of its descendants. Phylogenetic ta xonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Gauthier (page 34) identified four conflicting ways of defining the term "Ave s". Gauthier proposed a solution. which is a problem because the same biological name is being used four diffe rent ways. Crocodiles Birds Turtles Lizards (including Snakes) The birds' phylogenetic relationships to major living reptile groups. and assigning them. Birds ar e categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Gaut hier defined Aves to include only the modern bird groups. the crown group. in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placemen t of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod d inosaurs. which is to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group. to the Avialae. contain the only living represent atives of the reptile clade Archosauria. i nstead. . During the late 1990s. Definition Aves and a sister group. Carolus Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system currently in use.7 Notes 8 External links Evolution and Main article: Slab of stone Archaeopteryx classification Evolution of birds with fossil bones and feather impressions lithographica is often considered the oldest known bird The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ra y in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. the clade Crocodilia. This was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils. an earlier de finition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century. He assigned other names to the other groups. Aves was most co mmonly defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common anc estor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica.
Many authors have used a definition similar to "all theropods closer to birds th an to Deinonychus.Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers (alternately Avifilopl uma) Aves can mean those that fly (alternately Avialae) Aves can mean all reptiles closer to birds than to crocodiles (alternately A vemetatarsalia [=Panaves]) Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the currently living birds and all of its descendants (a "crown group"). one based on physical characteristics). though definitions vary. who named Avialae in 1986. initially proposed to replace the traditional fossil conten t of Aves. re-defined it in 2001 as all dinosaurs that possessed feathered wings used in flapping flight. Gauthier's proposals have been adopted by many researchers in the field of pa leontology and bird evolution." Avialae is also occasionally defined as an apomorphybased clade (that is. and not a member of Ave s. Jacques Gauthier. and the birds that descended from them . Most researchers define Avialae as branch-based clade. is often used synonymously with the vernacular term "bird" by these r esearchers. . Avialae. (alternately Neornithes) Under the fourth definition Archaeopteryx is an avialan. though the exact definitions applied have been in consistent.
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