Nephrocalcinosis - PubMed Health

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A.D.A.M. Medical Encyclopedia. Atlanta (GA): A.D.A.M.; 2011.

Last reviewed: September 16, 2011.

Nephrocalcinosis is a disorder in which there is too much calcium deposited in the kidneys. This condition is common in premature babies.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Any disorder that leads to high levels of calcium in the blood or urine may lead to nephrocalcinosis. In nephrocalcinosis, calcium deposits form in the kidney tissue itself. Most of the time, both kidneys are affected. Nephrocalcinosis is related to, but not the same as, kidney stones (nephrolithiasis). Conditions that can cause nephrocalcinosis include: • Alport syndome • Bartter syndrome • Chronic glomerulonephritis • Familial hypomagnesemia • Medullary sponge kidney • Primary hyperoxaluria • Renal transplant rejection • Renal tubular acidosis • Renal cortical necrosis Other possible causes of nephrocalcinosis include: • Ethylene glycol toxicity • Hypercalcemia (excess calcium in the blood) due to hyperparathyroidism • Use of certain medications, such as acetazolamide, amphotericin B, and triamterene • Sarcoidosis • Tuberculosis of the kidney and infections related to AIDS • Vitamin D toxicity

There are generally no early symptoms of nephrocalcinosis, beyond those of the condition causing the problem. People who also have kidney stones may have: • Blood in the urine • Fever and chills • Nausea and vomiting • Severe pain in the belly area, sides of the back (flank), groin, or testicles Later symptoms related to nephrocalcinosis may be associated with chronic kidney failure.

Signs and tests
Nephrocalcinosis may be discovered when symptoms of renal insufficiency, kidney failure, obstructive uropathy, or urinary tract stones develop. Imaging tests can help diagnose this condition. Tests that may be done include:


Campbell-Walsh Urology.Nephrocalcinosis .PubMed Health Page 2 of 3 • Abdominal CT scan • Ultrasound of the kidney Other tests that may be done to diagnose and determine the severity of associated disorders include: • Blood tests to check levels of calcium. Curhan GC. In: Goldman L. 9th ed. However. Pa: Saunders Elsevier. Treatment will involve methods to reduce abnormal levels of calcium. III. Pa: Saunders Elsevier. 2011:chap 128. 2007:chap 43. Dugdale. Georgia. sodium. Preminger 8/29/2012 . Review Date: 9/16/2011. Cecil Medicine.nlm.A. Expectations (prognosis) What to expect depends on the complications and cause of the disorder.M. A. or if you develop symptoms of nephrocalcinosis. phosphate. Division of General Medicine. included kidney stones. In: Wein AJ. If you take medicine that causes calcium loss. including renal tubular acidosis. Reviewed by: David C. and parathyroid homrone • Urinalysis to see crystals and check for red blood cells • 24-hour urine collection to measure acidity and levels of calcium. Evaluation and medical management of urinary lithiasis. Philadelphia. Also reviewed by David Zieve. Schafer AI. Inc. may help prevent it from developing. MD. References 1. uric acid. phosphate.. MD. Other symptoms. MD. Prevention Prompt treatment of disorders that lead to nephrocalcinosis. eds. Proper treatment may help prevent further deposits in the kidneys. oxalate. Never stop taking any medicine before talking to your doctor. Nephrolithiasis. 2. your doctor will usually tell you to stop taking it. and citrate Treatment The goal of treatment is to reduce symptoms and prevent more calcium from collecting in the kidneys. ed.ncbi. unilateral or bilateral) Calling your health care provider Call your health care provider if you know you have a disorder that causes high levels of calcium in your blood and urine. there is usually no way to remove deposits that have already formed. Professor of Medicine. MHA. http://www. Pietrow PK. University of Washington School of Medicine. uric acid. and oxalate in the blood and urine. Scott Miller. Philadelphia. Medical Director. Extensive deposits of calcium in the kidneys do NOT always mean severe damage to the kidneys. Department of Medicine.D. 24th ed. Urologist in private practice in Atlanta.nih. Complications • Acute renal failure • Chronic renal failure • Kidney stones • Obstructive uropathy (acute or chronic. should be treated as appropriate.

Vorvick.D. MD.A. UW Medicine. ureters. MHA. Medical Director. Reviewed by: Linda J. Disclaimer Copyright © 2012.D. MD.A.PubMed Health Page 3 of 3 Figures Male urinary system The urinary system is made up of the 8/29/2012 .ncbi.Nephrocalcinosis . and Scott Miller. MD.nih. Georgia.. University of Washington. Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum. A.M. A.A. Department of Medicine. MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies. Also reviewed by David Zieve. Urologist in private practice in Atlanta. Inc. School of Medicine.D.M.. Inc. Review Date: 6/18/2012. http://www. Ebix.nlm. urethra and bladder. A. Health Solutions.

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