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/ & The Yoga-Stra of Patajali Sanskrit-English Translation & Glossary Chip Hartranft

Table of contents Sanskrit pronunciation guide Page 3 Sanskrit-English translation 4 Sanskrit-English glossary 71 Bibliography 84 About the author 86 Copyright 2003All Rights Reserved

Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide Sanskrit s breadth of expression comes in part from using the entire mouth for pronunciation, and from elongating accented vowels. With an alphabet of 49 letters, it has several different versions of familiar sounds such as n and s , each issuing from a different part of the mouth. For this reason, diacritical marks a re generally used to indicate how and where a consonant or vowel should be sounded. a short - pronounced like u in hut long - pronounced like a in ah i short - pronounced like i in in long - pronounced like ee in see u short - pronounced like u in pull long - pronounced like u in dude e long - pronounced like e in grey ai, ay long - pronounced like ai in aisle o long - pronounced like o in over au long - pronounced like au in Audi cerebral, pronounced like r in Scots rip, hurt nasalized like n in uncle a soft echo of the preceding vowel, like aha k, kh, g, gh, gutturals, arising from the throat c, ch, j, jh, palatals, arising from the back of the palate , h, , h, cerebrals, with tongue touching the roof of the mouth t, th, d, dh, n dentals, with tongue touching the back of the teeth p, ph, b, bh, m labials, arising from the lips c palatal, pronounced like ch in chutney v labial, pronounced at start of a word like v in volcano v labial, may be pronounced in middle of a word like w in won palatal, pronounced like sh in shutter cerebral, pronounced like sh in rimshot, tongue turned back pronounced like ni in onion j pronounced like gn in igneous k pronounced like ksh in buckshot

The Yoga-Stra in Sanskrit-English Translation /8 Samdhi-pda I. Integration I.1 = = atha yognusanam atha = now yoga = process of yoking; union nusanam = teaching, exposition Now, the teachings of yoga. I.2 /.%.. /%/=8 yoga citta-vtti-nirodha yoga = process of yoking; union citta = consciousness vtti = patterning, turnings, movements nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction Yoga is to still the patterning of consciousness. I.3 .oe .. .. = tad drau svarpe vasthnam tad = then drau = seer, witness, pure awareness svarpe = own essence, identity avasthnam = state of abiding Then, pure awareness can abide in its very nature. I.4 .. /% / & vtti-srpyam itaratra vtti = patterning, turnings, movements srpyam = identification, conformity itaratra = otherwise Otherwise, awareness takes itself to be the patterns of consciousness.

I.5 .. % / oe / oe vttaya pacatayya klikli vttaya = patterning, turnings, movements pacatayya = fivefold klia = hurtful akli = benign There are five types of patterns, including both hurtful and benign. I.6 .=/..@/.. ./=. prama-viparyaya-vikalpa-nidr-smtaya prama = right perception viparyaya = misperception, error vikalpa = conceptualization nidr = sleep smtaya = memory, remembering They are right perception, misperception, conceptualization, deep sleep, and rem embering. I.7 . = = . /= pratyaknumngam pramni pratyaka = percept, sensory input anumna = inference gam = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts pramni = accurate perception Right perception arises from direct observation, inference, or the words of othe rs. I.8 /..@ /. . = .fl./ oe viparyayo mithyjnam atad-rupa-pratiham viparyaya = misperception, error mithy = false jnam = knowledge atad = not that rupa = form pratiham = based on Misperception is false knowledge, not based on what actually is.

I.9 p. = = .. = /.. . abda-jnnupt vastu-nyo vikalpa abda = verbal, linguistic jna = knowledge anupt = following, relying upon vastu = object, substance nya = empty vikalpa = conceptualization Conceptualization derives from linguistic knowledge, not contact with real thing s. I.10 . .. . OO.= .. /%/=@. abhva-pratyaylamban vttir nidr abhva = non-existence, non-becoming pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation lamban = resting on vtti = patterning nidr = sleep Deep sleep is a pattern grounded in the perception that nothing exists. I.11 = . /..OE OO.OE / anubhta-viaysampramoa smti anubhta = experienced viaya = object (of experience), phenomenon asampramoa = not allowing to steal away smti = memory, remembering Remembering is the retention of experiences. I.12 .. /==8 abhysa-vairgybhy tan-nirodha abhysa = practice, action, method vairgybhy = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment tad = these nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction Both practice and non-reaction are required to still the patterning of conscious ness.

I.13 & / = tatra sthitau yatno bhysa tatra = in that sthitau = stability, steadiness yatna = sustained effort abhysa = practice, action, method Practice is the sustained effort to rest in that stillness. I.14 @ == @ /.. . / sa tu drgha-kla-nairantarya-satkrsevito dha-bhmi sa = this tu = and, moreover drgha = long kla = time nairantarya = continuously, uninterruptedly satkra = skillfully, in the right way sevita = cultivated dha = firmly bhmi = rooted, grounded And this practice becomes firmly rooted when it is cultivated skillfully and con tinuously for a long time. I.15 oe = ./../..OE/.. oe .. ~. .. dnuravika-viaya-vitasya vakra-saj vairgyam da = seen, perceptible anuravika = heard, learned viaya = object (of experience), phenomenon vitasya = without wanting or attachment vakra = mastery, willing something to happen saj = comprehension vairgyam = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment As for non-reaction, one can recognize that it has been fully achieved when no a ttachment arises in regard to anything at all, whether perceived directly or learned.

I.16 OE @ .. oe tat param purua-khyter gua-vaityam tat = this param = ultimate, highest, purest purua = pure awareness khyte = clear seeing gua = fundamental qualities of nature vaityam = without wanting or attachment When the ultimate level of non-reaction has been reached, pure awareness can cle arly see itself as independent from the fundamental qualities of nature. I.17 /.. /.. == / = OO.. vitarka-vicrnandsmit-rpnugamt samprajta vitarka = analytical thinking vicra = insight, reflection nanda = bliss, joy asmit = sense of self, I-am-ness rpa = form anugamt = going with, following, accompanying samprajta = cognitive At first, the stilling process is accompanied by four kinds of cognition: analyt ical thinking, insight, bliss, or feeling like a self. I.18 /.. . ..@ ~ OE= virma-pratyaybhysa-prva saskara-eo nya

virma = cessation pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation abhysa = practice, action, method prva = earlier saskara = latent impressions ea = store, residuum anya = other Later, after one practices steadily to bring all thought to a standstill, these four kinds of cognition fall away, leaving only a store of latent impressions in the depth memory.

I.19 .... /.. . / = bhava-pratyayo videha-prakti-laynm bhava = being, becoming pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation videha = bodiless prakti = nature laynm = clasped, merged Once the body is gone, and these latent impressions are dissolved in nature, the y are inclined to be reborn. I.20 . ..@ / /8.. ..@ OE raddh-vrya-smti-samdhi-praj-prvaka itarem raddh = faith vrya = energy, vigor smti = memory, mindfulness samdhi = oneness, integration praj = wisdom prvaka = preceded by itarem = others For all others, faith, energy, mindfulness, integration, and wisdom form the pat h to realization. I.21 ... ~.. = == tvra-samvegnm sanna tvra = extremely samvegnm = intense, vehement sanna = near For those who seek liberation wholeheartedly, realization is near.

I.22 /8 &.. % / /.. OE mdu-madhydhimtratvt tato pi viea mdu = mild madhya = moderate adhimtratvt = extreme, intense tata = therefore, from these api = also viea = difference, distinction How near depends on whether the practice is mild, moderate, or intense. I.23 ./8 = vara-praidhnd v vara = divine ideal of pure awareness praidhnt = surrender, dedication, application, alignment v = or Realization may also come if one is oriented toward the ideal of pure awareness, Isvara. I.24 @/.. oe OE/.. OE klea-karma-vipkayair aparma purua-viea vara klea = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison karma = action vipka = ripening, fruition ayai = store, residuum aparma = untouched, unaffected purua = pure awareness viea = difference, distinction; exemplary, distinct vara = divine ideal of pure awareness Isvara is a distinct, incorruptible form of pure awareness, utterly independent of cause and effect, and lacking any store of latent impressions.

I.25 & /=/ ~ ..@.... tatra niratiaya sarvajatva-bjam tatra = there, in that niratiaya = incomparable, unsurpassed sarva = all jatva = knowing bjam = seed, source Its independence makes this awareness an incomparable source of omniscience. I.26 ..@OE / = =.. sa prvem api guru klennavacchedt sa = this, that prvem = earlier api = also guru = teacher, mentor klena = by time, temporally anavacchedt = unbounded, continuous Existing beyond time, Isvara was also the ideal of the ancients. I.27 .. ... tasya vcaka praava tasya = of this, that vcaka = signifying, connoting praava = the syllable pronounced om Isvara is represented by a sound, om. I.28 @. ..= taj-japas tad-artha-bhvanam tad = that japa = repetition, intonation tad = its, that artha = meaning, purpose bhvanam = realizing, becoming Through repetition its meaning becomes clear.

I.29 . = /8= . ... tata pratyak-cetandhigamo pyantarybhva ca tata = therefore, from these pratyak = inward cetan = consciousness adhigama = attainment api = also antarya = obstacle abhva = disappearance ca = and Then, interiorization develops and obstacles fall away.

I.30 /8 = ~. /../ .. /= @= p8 . /.. =../ .. /= /%/.. = vydhi-styna-sanaya-pramdlasyvirati-bhrnti-daranlabdha-bhmikatvnavasthitatvni citt te ntary vydhi = sickness styna = apathy sanaya = doubt pramda = carelessness lasya = laziness avirati = sexual indulgence bhrnti = false darana = vision, perspective alabdha = failing to attain bhmikatva = developmental stages anavasthitatvni = inconstancy, instability citta = consciousness vikep = distraction, stirring up te = these antary = obstacles Sickness, apathy, doubt, carelessness, laziness, hedonism, delusion, lack of pro gress, and inconstancy are all distractions which, by stirring up consciousness, act as barriers to sti llness.

I.31 @= .. . /.. . .. dukha-daurmanasygam-ejayatva-vsa-pravs vikepa-sahabhuva dukha = distress, pain, suffering daurmanasya = depression agam = limb ejayatva = trembling vsa = disturbed inhalation pravs = disturbed exhalation vikepa = distraction, stirring up sahabhuva = accompanying When they do, one may experience distress, depression, or the inability to maint ain steadiness of posture or breathing. I.32 ./ OE 8 @ ^.. tat-pratiedhrtham eka-tattvbhysa tad = that, these pratiedha = subdue, ward off artham = meaning, purpose, approach eka = one tattva = thusness, elemental quality, principle abhysa = practice, action, method One can subdue these distractions by working with any one of the following princ iples of practice.

I.33 & / %. =

= =/..OE ~ . ..=

/.

maitr-karu-muditopek sukha-dukha-puypuya-viay bhvanta citta-prasdanam maitr = friendliness karu = compassion mudita = delight upek = equanimity sukha = happiness dukha = distress, pain, suffering puya = good, virtuous apuya = bad, evil viay = object (of experience) bhvanta = radiating, projecting citta = consciousness prasdanam = calming, tranquilizing, clarification Consciousness settles as one radiates friendliness, compassion, delight, and equ animity toward all things, whether pleasant or painful, good or bad. I.34 .@=/..8 .. . pracchardana-vidhrabhym v prasya pracchardana = exhalation, expulsion vidhrabhym = pause, retention v = or prasya = breath, life force Or by pausing after breath flows in or out. I.35 /..OE.. .. ... /%== = / / /=.=8= viayavat v pravttir utpann manasa sthiti-nibandhan viaya = object (of experience), phenomenon vat = having v = or pravtti = arising of activity utpann = arisen, produced manasa = mind sthiti = stability, steadiness nibandhan = holds Or by steadily observing as new sensations materialize.

I.36 /.. .. / oe viok v jyotimat viok = free of sorrow v = or jyotimat = luminous Or when experiencing thoughts that are luminous and free of sorrow. I.37 .. /..OE .. /% vtargaviayam v cittam vta = free from, without rga = desire, passion, attachment viayam = object (of experience) v = or cittam = consciousness Or by focusing on things that do not inspire attachment. I.38 ..=/=. . = OO.= .. svapna-nidr-jnlambanam v svapna = dream nidr = sleep jna = knowledge lambanam = resting on v = or Or by reflecting on insights culled from sleep and dreaming. I.39 /. = yathbhimata-dhynd v yath = as abhimata = desired dhynt = meditative absorption v = or Or through meditative absorption in any desired object.

I.40 ^.. = .. paramu-parama-mahattvnto sya vakra parama = ultimate, highest, purest au = minute, infinitesimal mahattva = greatness, magnitude anta = extending from...to asya = his vakra = mastery One can become fully absorbed in any object, whether vast or infinitesimal. I.41 .. % /. .. .@ . . OE = /% ka-vtter abhijtasyeva maer graht-grahaa-grhyeu tat-stha-tad-ajanat sampatti ka = dwindled, decreased vtte = patterning, turnings, movements abhijtasya = faultless, transparent iva = like mae = jewel graht = one who grasps, perceiver grahaa = grasping, perceiving grhyeu = grasped, object of perception tad = that stha = abide tad = that ajanat = saturation, taking the form of something else sampatti = coalescence, unified contemplation As the patterning of consciousness subsides, a transparent way of seeing, called coalescence, saturates consciousness; like a jewel, it reflects equally whatever lies before it - wheth er subject, object, or act of perceiving.

I.42 & p @. =/.. . @ /.. @ /% tatra abdrtha-jna-vikalpai sakr savitark sampatti tatra = there, in that abda = verbal, linguistic artha = meaning, purpose jna = knowledge vikalpai = conceptualization sakr = intermingled savitark = thought sampatti = coalescence, unified contemplation So long as conceptual or linguistic knowledge pervades this transparency, it is called coalescence with thought. I.43 / / .. = .. @ &/=. @ /=/..@ @ smti-pariuddhau svarpa-nyevrtha-mtra-nirbhs nirvitark smti = memory, mindfulness pariuddhau = wiping clean, purification svarpa = own form, identity nya = empty iva = like artha = meaning, purpose mtra = only nirbhs = shining nirvitark = beyond thought At the next stage, called coalescence beyond thought, objects cease to be colore d by memory; now formless, only their essential nature shines forth.

I.44 .. /.. /=/..@ /..OE etayaiva savicr nirvicr ca skma-viay vykhyt etaya = by this iva = like, thus savicr = reflecting nirvicr = not reflecting ca = and skma = subtle viay = object (of experience), phenomenon vykhyt = described, explained In the same way, coalesced contemplation of subtle objects is described as refle ctive or reflection-free. I.45 /..OE.. / @.. = skma-viayatva cliga-paryavasnam skma = subtle viayatva = the thing itself, thus-ness of an object ca = and aliga = without form paryavasnam = ending, terminating Subtle objects can be traced back to their origin in undifferentiated nature. I.46 .. . /8 t eva sabja samdhi t = these eva = only, also sabja = with seed samdhi = oneness, integration These four kinds of coalescence - with thought, beyond thought, reflective, refl ection-free - are called integration that bears seeds of latent impressions.

I.47 /=/..@ .. . nirvicra-vairadye dhytma-prasda nirvicra = not reflecting vairadye = lucidity, purity adhytma = innermost self prasda = calming, pacification, clarification In the lucidity of coalesced, reflection-free contemplation, the nature of the s elf becomes clear. I.48 OO. & .. tambhar tatra praj tam = truth bhar = bearing tatra = in that praj = wisdom The wisdom that arises in that lucidity is unerring. I.49 . = =.. =/..OE /.. OE @.. rutnumna-prajbhym anyaviay vierthatvt ruta = what has been heard, teachings anumna = inference prajbhym = wisdom anya = other viay = object (of experience), phenomenon viea = difference, distinction arthatvt = function, role Unlike insights acquired through inference or teachings, this wisdom has as its object the actual distinction between pure awareness and consciousness.

I.50 ~ = ~ ./ .=8 taj-ja saskro nya-saskra-pratibandh tad = that ja = born of saskra = latent impressions anya = other saskra = latent impressions pratibandh = prevents, obstructs It generates latent impressions that prevent the activation of other impressions . I.51 / /=8 ..@/=8 /==.@ /8 tasypi nirodhe sarva-nirodhn nirbja samdhi tasya = of this api = also nirodhe = stilling, cessation, restriction sarva = all nirodhn = stilling, cessation, restriction nirbja = seedless samdhi = oneness, integration When even these cease to arise, and the patterning of consciousness is completel y stilled, integration bears no further seeds.

8= Sdhana-pda II. The Path To Realization II.1 .. ./8 = /= /$ tapa-svdhyyevara-praidhnni kriy-yoga tapa = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity svdhyya = self-study vara = divine ideal of pure awareness praidhnni = dedication, application, alignment kriy = action yoga = process of yoking; union Yogic action has three components - discipline, self-study, and orientation towa rd the ideal of pure awareness. II.2 /8...= @ = @X samdhi-bhvanrtha klea-tan-karartha ca samdhi = oneness, integration bhvan = realizing, becoming artha = meaning, purpose klea = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison tan = slender, weak karaa = making artha = meaning, purpose ca = and Its purposes are to disarm the causes of suffering and achieve integration. II.3 /.. / OE /./=.. avidysmit-rga-dvebhinive kle avidy = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are asmit = the sense of I , egoism rga = desire, passion, attachment dvea = aversion abhinive = clinging to life, self-preservation kle = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison The causes of suffering are not seeing things as they are, the sense of ent, aversion, and clinging to life. I , attachm

II.4 /.. & % OE . = /../= avidy ketram uttarem prasupta-tanu-vicchinnodrm avidy = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are ketram = field uttarem = other, following prasupta = dormant tanu = thin vicchinna = interrupted, intercepted udrm = activated, aroused Not seeing things as they are is the field where the other causes of suffering g erminate, whether dormant, activated, intercepted, or weakened. II.5 /= / = /= / / /.. anityuci-dukhntmasu nitya-uci-sukhtma-khytir avidy anitya = impermanent auci = impure dukha = distress, pain, suffering antmasu = not self nitya = permanent uci = pure sukha = happiness tma = self, essence khyti = seeing avidy = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are Lacking this wisdom, one mistakes that which is impermanent, impure, distressing , or empty of self for permanence, purity, happiness, and self. II.6 @= .. / dg-darana-aktyor ektmatevsmit dg = pure awareness, witness, see-er darana = vision, perspective aktyo = power eka = one tmat = selfhood iva = as it were, like, thus asmit = the sense of I , egoism The sense of I es. ascribes selfhood to pure awareness by identifying it with the sens

II.7 = sukhnuay rga sukha = happiness, pleasure anuay = following rga = wanting, desire, passion, attachment Attachment is a residue of pleasant experience. II.8 = OE dukhnuay dvea dukha = distress, pain, suffering anuay = following dvea = aversion Aversion is a residue of suffering. II.9 .. .. /.. OE/ /./=.. sva-rasa-vh viduo pi tathrho bhinivea sva = own rasa = taste vh = flowing vidua = sage, wise person api = also, even tath = thus rha = rooted abhinivea = self-preservation Clinging to life is instinctive and self-perpetuating, even for the wise. II.10 ./ . .. te pratiprasava-hey skm te = these prati = with regard to, toward, reversing prasava = flow, motion, creation, inception hey = overcome, overwhelmed skm = subtle In their subtle form, these causes of suffering are subdued by seeing where they come from.

II.11 = .. % dhyna-heys tad-vttaya dhyna = meditative absorption hey = overcome, overwhelmed tad = its, that, of these vttaya = patterning, turnings, movements In their gross form, as patterns of consciousness, they are subdued through medi tative absorption. II.12 @ oe oe=.. = klea-mla karmayo dda-janma-vedanya klea = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison mla = root karma = action aya = store, residuum da = seen, perceptible ada = unseen janma = birth vedanya = to be experienced The causes of suffering are the root source of actions; each action deposits lat ent impressions deep in the mind, to be activated and experienced later in this birth, or lie hidden awa iting a future one. II.13 / / .@ sati mle tad-vipko jtyyur-bhog sati = existing mle = root tad = its, that vipka = ripening, fruition jti = birth, rank yu = span of life bhog = experience, enjoyment So long as this root source exists, its contents will ripen into a birth, a life , and experience.

II.14 j/ . .. te hlda-paritpa-phal puypuya-hetutvt te = they, these hlda = delight paritpa = anguish phal = fruit puya = good, virtuous apuya = bad, evil hetutvt = causality This life will be marked by delight or anguish, in proportion to those good or b ad actions that created its store of latent impressions. II.15 / ~ @.. /%/..8 .. ..@ /.... /= parima-tpa-saskra-dukhair gua-vtti-virodhc ca dukham eva sarvam vivekina parima = transformation tpa = anguish saskra = latent impressions dukhai = distress, pain, suffering gua = fundamental qualities of nature vtti = patterning, turnings, movements virodht = conflict, opposition ca = and dukham = distress, pain, suffering eva = thus sarvam = all vivekina = a person of discrimination The wise see suffering in all experience, whether from the anguish of impermanen ce, or from latent impressions laden with suffering, or from incessant conflict as the fundamental qualities of nature vie for ascendancy. II.16 = heya dukham angatam heya = overcome, overwhelmed dukham = distress, pain, suffering angatam = future But suffering that has not yet arisen can be prevented.

II.17 .oe dra-dyayo sayogo heya-hetu dra = seer, witness, pure awareness dyayo = what is seen sayoga = union, coupling heya = overcome, overwhelmed hetu = cause The preventible cause of all this suffering is the apparent indivisibility of pu re awareness and what it regards. II.18 . /$ / / . /=. ~~ . .. @@ praka-kriy-sthiti-la bhtendriytmaka bhogpavargrtha dyam praka = brightness kriy = action sthiti = stability, steadiness la = character bhta = element indriya = sensory apparatus tmaka = self, essence bhoga = experience, enjoyment apavarga = emancipation, liberation artha = meaning, purpose, approach dyam = what is seen What awareness regards, namely the phenomenal world, embodies the qualities of l uminosity, activity, and inertia; it includes oneself, composed of both elements and the se nses; and, it is the ground for both sensual experience and liberation. II.19 /.. OE /.. OE/ & / /= .. @/ vieviea-ligamtrligni gua-parvi viea = difference, distinction; distinct aviea = indistinct liga = mark, characteristic mtra = only aligni = undifferentiated, without marks gua = fundamental qualities of nature parvi = level, state All orders of being - undifferentiated, differentiated, indistinct, distinct - a re manifestations of the fundamental qualities of nature.

II.20 .oe / & / . = dra di-mtra uddho pi pratyaynupaya dra = pure awareness, witness, see-er di = seeing mtra = only uddha = pure api = also, although pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation anupaya = to behold Pure awareness is just seeing, itself; although pure, it usually appears to oper ate through the perceiving mind. II.21 @ .. tad-artha eva dyasytm tad = its, that artha = meaning, purpose, approach eva = thus dyasya = of what is seen tm = self, essence In essence, the phenomenal world exists to reveal this truth. II.22 @ ./ = =oe = 8 .. ktrtham prati naam apyanaa tad anya-sdhraatvt kta = done, accomplished artham = meaning, purpose, approach prati = with regard to, toward, reversing naam = ceased api = also anaa = not ceased tad = its, that anya = other sdhraatvt = common experience Once that happens, the phenomenal world no longer appears as such; it continues to exist as a common reality for everyone else, though.

II.23 .. .. / .. /p8 ~ sva-svmi-aktyo svarpopalabdhi-hetu sayoga sva = own svmi = owner aktyo = power sva = own rpa = form upalabdhi = acquisition hetu = cause, reason sayoga = union, coupling It is by virtue of the apparent indivisibility of the phenomenal world and pure awareness that the former seems to possess the latter s powers. II.24 /.. tasya hetur avidy tasya = of this, that hetu = cause, reason avidy = lack of wisdom, not seeing things as they are Not seeing things as they are is the cause of this phenomenon. II.25 . .. ~ . .. = .. . tad-abhvt sayogbhvo hna tad-de kaivalyam tad = its, that abhvt = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance sayoga = union, association, mingling abhva = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance hna = cessation tad = its, that de = seeing kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness With realization, the appearance of indivisibility vanishes, revealing that awar eness is free and untouched by phenomena.

II.26 /.... / /.. .. = viveka-khytir aviplav hnopya viveka = discrimination khyti = seeing aviplav = continuous, uninterrupted hna = cessation upya = means The apparent indivisibility of seeing and the seen can be eradicated by cultivat ing uninterrupted discrimination between awareness and what it regards. II.27 8 . = . / .. tasya saptadh prnta-bhmi praj tasya = of this, that saptadh = sevenfold prnta = last bhmi = stage, level praja = wisdom At the ultimate level of discrimination, wisdom extends to all seven aspects of nature. II.28 = oe = / . =/ /.... yoggnuhnd auddhi-kaye jna-dptir viveka-khyte yoga = process of yoking; union aga = limb, component anuhnt = performance, practice auddhi = impurity kaye = dwindling, decreasing jna = knowledge dpti = radiance a = extending to viveka = discrimination khyte = seeing When the components of yoga are practiced, impurities dwindle; then, the light o f understanding can shine forth, illuminating the way to discriminative awareness.

II.29 /= =. . 8 = 8oe .. /= yama-niyamsana-pryma-pratyhra-dhra-dhyna-samdhayo v agni yama = external discipline niyama = internal discipline sana = posture pryma = breath regulation pratyhra = withdrawal of the senses dhra = concentration dhyana = meditative absorption samdhaya = oneness, integration au = eight agni = limbs The eight components of yoga are external discipline, internal discipline, postu re, breath regulation, concentration, meditative absorption, and integration. II.30 / .. @/. ahims-satysteya-brahmacaryparigrah yam ahims = not harming satya = truthfulness, truth asteya = not stealing brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct aparigrah = not being acquisitive yam = external discipline The five external disciplines are not harming, truthfulness, not stealing, celib acy, and not being acquisitive.

II.31 / =../= ..@. ... ete jti-dea-kla-samaynavacchinn srva-bhaum mahvratam ete = these jti = birth, rank dea = place kla = time samaya = circumstance anavacchinn = unlimited, irrespective of srva = all bhaum = at a level mah = great vratam = vow, commitment These universals, transcending birth, place, era, or circumstance, constitute th e great vow of yoga. II.32 = OE .. ./8 = /= /= auca-santoa-tapa-svdhyyevara-praidhnni niyam auca = purity santoa = contentment tapa = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity svdhyya = self-study vara = divine ideal of pure awareness praidhnni = surrender, dedication, application, alignment niyam = internal discipline The five internal disciplines are bodily purification, contentment, intensity, s elf-study, and orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness. II.33 /.. . 8= ./ . ..= vitarka-bdhane pratipaka-bhvanam vitarka = analytical thinking, unwholesome thoughts bdhane = repelling pratipaka = opposite bhvanam = realizing, becoming Unwholesome thoughts can be neutralized by cultivating wholesome ones.

II.34 /.. @ / / = / .$8 ..@ /8 & . = == . vitark himsdaya kta-kritnumodit lobha-krodha-moha-prvak mdu-madhydhimtr dukhjnnanta-phal iti pratipaka-bhvanam vitark = analytical thinking, here: negative thoughts hims = harming daya = et cetera kta = done, accomplished krita = caused to be done, instigated anumodit = approved lobha = greed krodha = anger moha = delusion prvak = preceded by mdu = mild madhya = moderate adhimtr = extreme, intense dukha = distress, pain, suffering jna = ignorance ananta = endless, boundless phal = fruit iti = thus pratipaka = opposite bhvanam = realizing, becoming We ourselves may act upon unwholesome thoughts, such as wanting to harm someone, or we may cause or condone them in others; unwholesome thoughts may arise from greed, ange r, or delusion; they may be mild, moderate, or extreme; but they never cease to ripen into ignor ance and suffering. This is why one must cultivate wholesome thoughts. II.35 / ./ oe /=8 .. ahims-pratihy tat-sannidhau vaira-tyga ahims = not harming pratihy = based on, grounded in tat = that, these sannidhau = presence vaira = hostility tyga = abandonment Being firmly grounded in non-violence creates an atmosphere in which others can let go of their hostility.

II.36 ./ oe /$ . ... satya-pratihy kriy-phalrayatvam satya = truthfulness, truth pratithy = based on, grounded in kriy = action phala = fruit rayatvam = rest on For those grounded in truthfulness, every action and its consequences are imbued with truth. II.37 ./ oe ..@= = asteya-pratihy sarva-ratnopasthnam asteya = not stealing pratithy = based on, grounded in sarva = all ratna = jewel upasthnam = approach, materialize For those who have no inclination to steal, the truly precious is at hand. II.38 .. @./ oe ..@ . brahmacarya-pratihym vrya-lbha brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct pratithy = based on, grounded in vrya = energy, vigor lbha = acquired The chaste acquire vitality. II.39 /. @ = OO.8 aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathant-sambodha aparigraha = not being acquisitive sthairye = being settled in janma = birth kathant = understanding why sambodha = insight Freedom from wanting unlocks the real purpose of existence.

II.40 .. ~ @ auct svga-jugups parair asansarga auct = purity sva = own aga = limb, component jugups = disinclination, detachment parai = other asansarga = freedom from contact With bodily purification, one s body ceases to be compelling, likewise contact wit h others. II.41 ^.. / = . /=. @=.. /= sattva-uddhi-saumanasyaikgryendriya-jaytma-darana-yogyatvni ca sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna uddhi = purity saumanasya = gladness eka = one agrya = pointed indriya = sensory apparatus jaya = mastery tma = self, essence darana = vision, perspective yogyatvni = capability ca = and Purification also brings about clarity, happiness, concentration, mastery of the senses, and capacity for self-awareness. II.42 = OE = % . santod anuttama sukha-lbha santot = contentment anuttama = unsurpassed sukha = happiness lbha = acquired Contentment brings unsurpassed joy.

II.43 /=./ / / kyendriya-siddhir auddhi-kayt tapasa kya = body indriya = sensory apparatus siddhi = perfection auddhi = impurity kayt = dwindling, decreasing tapasa = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity As intense discipline burns up impurities, the body and its senses become suprem ely refined. II.44 .. /oe .. OO. svdhyyd ia-devat-samprayoga svdhyyt = self-study ia = desired devat = deity samprayoga = contact Self-study deepens communion with one s personal deity. II.45 /8/ /.../8 = samdhi-siddhir vara-praidhnt samdhi = oneness, integration siddhi = perfection vara = divine ideal of pure awareness praidhnt = surrender, dedication, application, alignment Through orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness, one can achieve integrat ion. II.46 / = sthira-sukham sanam sthira = steady, stable sukham = happiness sanam = posture The postures of meditation should embody steadiness and ease.

II.47 .=/ . == /% prayatna-aithilynanta-sampattibhym prayatna = effort aithilya = relaxation ananta = endless, boundless sampattibhym = coalescence, unified contemplation This occurs as all effort relaxes and coalescence arises, revealing that the bod y and the infinite universe are indivisible. II.48 = =/. tato dvandvnabhighta tata = therefore, from these, from that dvandva = play of opposites, dualities anabhighta = insulation, being beyond disturbance Then, one is no longer disturbed by the play of opposites. II.49 / = / . @/ /.. . tasmin sati vsa-pravsayor gati-viccheda pryma tasmin = in this sati = existing vsa = inhalation pravsayo = exhalation gati = flow viccheda = cessation, interruption pryma = breath regulation With effort relaxing, the flow of inhalation and exhalation can be brought to a standstill; this is called breath regulation.

II.50 . = OO... /%@ /. / oe @ bhybhyantara-stambha-vttir dea-kla-sakhybhi-parido drgha-skma bhya = external abhyantara = internal stambha = stationary vtti = patterning, turnings, movements dea = place kla = time sakhybhi = number parida = observed, measured, scrutinized drgha = long skma = subtle As the movement patterns of each breath - inhalation, exhalation, lull - are obs erved as to duration, number, and area of focus, breath becomes spacious and subtle. II.51 . = /..OE @ bhybhyantara-viaykep caturtha bhya = external abhyantara = internal viaya = object (of experience), phenomenon kep = transcending caturtha = fourth As realization dawns, the distinction between breathing in and out falls away. II.52 . .. tata kyate prakvaraam tata = therefore, from these, from that kyate = disappears praka = brightness varaam = covering, veil, layer Then the veil lifts from the mind s luminosity.

II.53 8 = dhrasu ca yogyat manasa dhrasu = concentration ca = and yogyat = capability manasa = mind And the mind s potential for concentration is realized. II.54 ../..OE OO. /% .. = .. /=. . sva-viaysamprayoge cittasya svarpnukra ivendriym pratyhra sva = own viaya = object (of experience), phenomenon asamprayoge = uncoupling cittasya = consciousness sva = own rpa = form anukra = imitation, following suit iva = like, thus, as it were indriym = sensory apparatus pratyhra = withdrawal of the senses When consciousness interiorizes by uncoupling from external objects, the senses do likewise; this is called withdrawal of the senses. II.55 .. /=.. tata param vayatendriym tata = therefore, from these, from that param = ultimate, highest, purest vayata = obedience, subservience indriym = sensory apparatus Then the senses reside utterly in the service of realization.

/... / Vibhti-pda III. The Extraordinary Powers III.1 .=8/. % 8 dea-bandha cittasya dhra dea = place bandha = binding cittasya = consciousness dhra = concentration Concentration locks consciousness on a single area. III.2 & . = = tatra pratyayaika-tnat dhynam tatra = there, in that pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation eka = one tnat = extension, stretching dhynam = meditative absorption In meditative absorption, the entire perceptual flow is aligned with that object . III.3 .. @ &/=.@ .. =/.. /8 tad evrtha-mtra-nirbhsa svarpa-nyam iva samdhi tad = its, that eva = thus artha = meaning, purpose, approach mtra = only nirbhsa = shining sva = own rpa = form nyam = empty iva = like, thus, as it were samdhi = oneness, integration When only the essential nature of the object shines forth, as if formless, integ ration has arisen.

III.4 & & trayam ekatra sayama trayam = these three ekatra = in one, as one sayama = constraint, perfect discipline Concentration, meditative absorption, and integration regarding a single object comprise the perfect discipline of consciousness. III.5 .. taj-jayt prajloka tad = that jayt = mastery praja = wisdom loka = illumination, flashes of brilliance Once the perfect discipline of consciousness is mastered, wisdom dawns. III.6 . /OE /../= tasya bhmiu viniyoga tasya = of this, that bhmiu = stage viniyoga = progression, application Perfect discipline is mastered in stages. III.7 &= ..@ trayam antar-agam prvebhya trayam = these three antar = inner agam = limb, component prvebhya = earlier These three components - concentration, absorption, and integration - are more i nteriorized than the preceding five.

III.8 / ./ /=.@ tad api bahir-aga nirbjasya tad = its, that api = also bahi = external aga = limb, component nirbjasya = seedless Even these three are external to integration that bears no seeds.

III.9 =/=8 /..... . @.. /=8 /% =.. /=8/ vyutthna-nirodha-saskrayor abhibhava-prdur-bhvau nirodha-kaa-cittnvayo nirodha-pari vyutthna = emergence nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction saskrayo = latent impressions abhibhava = subjugation, suppression, submergence prdur = outside bhvau = being, becoming nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction kaa = moment citta = consciousness anvaya = connected to, permeated nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction parima = transformation The transformation toward total stillness occurs as new latent impressions foste ring cessation arise to prevent the activation of distractive, stored ones, and moments of stillness beg in to permeate consciousness. III.10 . = .. / tasya pranta-vhit saskrt tasya = of this, that pranta = tranquil vhit = flow, progression saskrt = latent impressions These latent impressions help consciousness flow from one tranquil moment to the next.

III.11 .. @@ . /% /8/ sarvrthataikgratayo kayodayau cittasya samdhi-parima sarva = all arthata = regarding the meaning of something ekgratayo = one-pointedness, focus kaya = dwindling, decreasing udayau = arising, appearance cittasya = consciousness samdhi = oneness, integration parima = transformation Consciousness is transformed toward integration as distractions dwindle, and foc us arises. III.12 = = / .. /% . / tata punantoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasyaikgrat-parima tata = therefore, from these, from that puna = again nta = quiescent, subsided uditau = arisen tulya = similar, equal pratyayau = perception, thought, intention, representation cittasya = consciousness ekgrat = one-pointedness, focus parima = transformation In other words, consciousness is transformed toward focus as continuity develops between arising and subsiding perceptions.

III.13 =. /=. OE 8@ .. / etena bhtendriyeu dharma-lakavasth-parim vykhyt etena = by this bhta = element indriyeu = sensory apparatus dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance lakaa = characteristic, time factors avasth = condition parim = transformation vykhyt = described, explained Consciousness evolves along the same three lines - form, timespan, and condition - as the elements and the senses. III.14 = / 8 @= 8@ antoditvyapadeya-dharmnupt dharm anta = quiescent, subsided udita = arisen avyapadeya = unmanifest dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance anupt = following, relying upon dharm = substrate, substance The substrate is unchanged, whether before, during, or after it takes a given fo rm. III.15 $ =.. / =.. kramnyatvam parimnyatve hetu krama = sequence, flow, succession anyatvam = differentiation, variation parima = transformation anyatve = differentiation, variation hetu = cause, reason These transformations appear to unfold the way they do because consciousness is a succession of distinct patterns.

III.16 / & = . = parima-traya-sayamd attngata-jnam parima = transformation traya = these three sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline atta = past angata = future jnam = knowledge Observing these three axes of change - form, timespan, and condition - with perf ect discipline yields insight into the past and future.

III.17 p @. = / ./... ..@. . = abdrtha-pratyaynm itaretardhyst sakaras tat-pravibhga-sayamt sarva-bhta-ruta-jn abda = verbal, linguistic artha = meaning, purpose, approach pratyaynm = perception, thought, intention, representation itaretara = one another adhyst = superimposition sakara = confusion, mixing up tad = that, these pravibhga = distinction sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline sarva = all bhta = element, being ruta = language, sound jnam = knowledge Word, meaning, and perception tend to get lumped together, each confused with th e others; focusing on the distinctions between them with perfect discipline yields insight into the language of all beings.

III.18 ..@ / . = saskra-skt-karat prva-jti-jnam saskra = latent impressions skt = direct, through the eye karat = making, observing prva = earlier jti = birth, rank jnam = knowledge Directly observing latent impressions with perfect discipline yields insight int o previous births. III.19 . /%. = pratyayasya para-citta-jnam pratyayasya = perception, thought, intention, representation para = other citta = consciousness jnam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the perceptions of another yields insight in to that person s consciousness. III.20 = OO.= /..OE. .. na ca tat slambana tasyviay-bhtatvt na = not ca = and tat = that, these slambana = with support tasya = of this, that aviay = not present, absent bhtatvt = actuality, being But not insight regarding the object of those perceptions, since the object itse lf is not actually present in that person s consciousness.

III.21 . /# OO. . OO. = 8 @= kya-rpa-sayamt tad-grhya-akti-stambhe caku-praksamprayoge ntardhnam kya = body rpa = form sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline tad = its, that grhya = to be received, perceived akti = power stambhe = suspension caku = eye praka = brightness asamprayoge = uncoupling antardhnam = invisibility, disappearance When the body s form is observed with perfect discipline, it becomes invisible: th e eye is disengaged from incoming light, and the power to perceive is suspended. III.22 = p = 8 @= # etena abddyantardhnam ukta etena = by this abda = sound adi = others antardhnam = invisibility, disappearance ukta = described, explained Likewise, through perfect discipline other percepts - sound, smell, taste, touch - can be made to disappear.

III.23 $ /=$ @ = . =/oe .. sopakrama nirupakrama ca karma tat-sayamd aparnta-jnam ariebhyo v sopakrama = immediately manifest nirupakrama = slow to manifest ca = and karma = action tat = that, these sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline aparnta = death jnam = knowledge ariebhya = signs, omens v = or The effects of action may be immediate or slow in coming; observing one s actions with perfect discipline, or studying omens, yields insight into death. III.24 _ /OE . maitrydiu balni /=

maitr = friendliness diu = and the others, et cetera balni = powers, strengths Focusing with perfect discipline on friendliness, compassion, delight, and equan imity, one is imbued with their energies. III.25 . OE / . /= baleu hasti-baldni baleu = powers, strengths hasti = elephant bala = powers, strengths dni = and the others, et cetera Focusing with perfect discipline on the powers of an elephant, or other entities , one acquires those powers.

III.26 ... ^ = ../ /... oe. = pravttyloka-nyst skma-vyavahita-vipraka-jnam pravtti = arising of activity loka = illumination, flashes of brilliance nyst = setting down, focusing skma = subtle vyavahita = hidden vipraka = distant jnam = knowledge Being absorbed in the play of the mind s luminosity yields insight about the subtl e, hidden, and distant. III.27 . ..=. = @

bhuvana-jna srye sayamt bhuvana = world jna = knowledge srye = on the sun sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline Focusing with perfect discipline on the sun yields insight about the universe. III.28 = . . = candre tr-vyha-jnam candre = on the moon tr = star vyha = arrangement jnam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the moon yields insight about the stars ions. III.29 8 .. / . = dhruve tad-gati-jnam dhruve = polestar tad = its, that gati = flow jnam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the polestar yields insight about their move ments. posit

III.30 = /.$ . = nbhi-cakre kya-vyha-jnam nbhi = navel cakre = wheel, energy center kya = body vyha = arrangement jnam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the navel energy center yields insight about the organization of the body. III.31 / /=.. /% kaha-kpe kut-pips-nivtti kaha = throat kpe = pit, well, cavity kut = hunger pips = thirst nivtti = cessation Focusing with perfect discipline on the pit of the throat eradicates hunger and thirst. III.32 @= @ krma-ny sthairyam krma = tortoise ny = channel, duct sthairyam = being settled in Focusing with perfect discipline on the s. III.33 8@/ /OE / @= mrdha-jyotii siddha-daranam mrdha = head, crown jyotii = light siddha = perfected one daranam = vision, perspective Focusing with perfect discipline on the light in the crown of the head, one acqu ires the perspective of the perfected ones. tortoise channel , one cultivates steadines

III.34 . / . ..@ prtibhd v sarvam prtibht = spontaneous illumination v = or sarvam = all Or, all these accomplishments may be realized in a flash of spontaneous illumina tion. III.35 /% ~/.. hdaye citta-samvit hdaye = heart citta = consciousness samvit = understanding Focusing with perfect discipline on the heart, one understands the nature of con sciousness.

III.36 ^.. OE= @ . /.. OE . @ .. @ OE. = sattva-puruayor atyantsakrnayo pratyayvieo bhoga parrtht svrtha-sayamt puruaj sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna puruayo = pure awareness atyanta = absolutely asakrnayo = unmixed pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation aviea = indistinct bhoga = experience, enjoyment para = other artht = function, role sva = own artha = meaning, purpose, approach sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline purua = pure awareness jnam = knowledge Experience consists of perceptions in which the luminous aspect of the phenomena l world is mistaken for absolutely pure awareness. Focusing with perfect discipline on the different properties of each yields insight into the nature of pure awareness.

III.37 . / .. .... = @ .. .. % @ = tata prtibha-rvaa-vedandarsvda-vrtt jyante tata = therefore, from these, from that prtibha = spontaneous illumination rvaa = hearing vedan = feeling dara = seeing svda = tasting vrtt = smelling jyante = occur, are produced Following this insight, the senses - hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting, smelling - may suddenly be enhanced. III.38 8 .. @ = / te samdhv upasarg vyutthne siddhaya te = they, these samdhu = oneness, integration upasarg = obstacle, impediment vyutthne = emergence siddhaya = perfection, attainment These sensory gifts may feel like attainments, but they distract one from integr ation. III.39 .=8 / . . .. = /% .. bandha-kraa-aithilyt pracra-savedanc ca cittasya para-arrvea bandha = binding kraa = cause, making, perception aithilyt = relaxation pracra = movement, passage savedant = sensitivity ca = and cittasya = consciousness para = other arra = body vea = entering By relaxing one s attachment to the body, and becoming profoundly sensitive to its currents, consciousness can enter another s body.

III.40 = /oe.. $ /= . udna-jayj jala-paka-kaakdivasaga utkrnti ca udna = uppermost region of energy flow, or prana jayt = mastery jala = water paka = mud kaaka = thorn diu = and the others, et cetera asaga = without touching utkrnti = rising up ca = and By mastering the flow of energy in the head and neck, one can walk through water , mud, thorns, and other obstacles without touching down, but rather floating over them. III.41 = .. = samna-jayj jvalanam samna = energy flow through the solar plexus jayt = mastery jvalanam = radiance By mastering the flow of energy through the solar plexus, one becomes radiant. III.42 .& OO.=8 / .& rotrkayo sambandha-sayamd divya rotram rotra = of hearing kayo = space, ether sambandha = relationship sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline divya = divine rotram = faculty of hearing By focusing with perfect discipline on the way sound travels through the ether, one acquires divine hearing.

III.43 OO.=8 . =

% .

kykayo sambandha-sayaml laghu-tla-sampatte cka-gamanam kya = body kayo = space, ether sambandha = relationship sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline laghu = light tla = cotton sampatte = coalescence, unified contemplation ca= and ka = space, ether gamanam = travel By focusing with perfect discipline on the body s relationship to the ether, and d eveloping coalesced contemplation on the lightness of cotton, one can travel through space. III.44 ./ / . .. /%@ /.. . .. bahir akalpit vttir mah-videh tata prakvaraa-kaya bahi = external akalpit = not feasible, impossible vtti = patterning, turnings, movements mah = great videh = bodiless tata = therefore, from these, from that praka = brightness varaa = covering, veil, layer kaya = disappearance When consciousness completely disengages from externals - the - then the veil lifts from the mind s luminosity. great disembodiment

III.45 .. =.. @..^.. . sthla-svarpa-skmnvayrthavattva-sayamd bhta-jaya sthla = gross sva = own rpa = form skma = subtle anvaya = pervasiveness, relation artha = meaning, purpose, approach vattva = function sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline bhta = element, being jaya = mastery By observing the aspects of matter - gross, subtle, intrinsic, relational, purpo sive - with perfect discipline, one masters the elements. III.46 / /. . @.. OO @=/. . tato imdi-prdur-bhva kya-sampat tad-dharmnabhighta ca tata = therefore, from these, from that aima = the power to become minutely small di = others prdur = outside bhva = being, becoming kya = body sampat = perfection tad = its, that dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance anabhighta = insulation, being beyond disturbance ca = and Then extraordinary faculties appear, including the power to shrink to the size o f an atom, as the body attains perfection, transcending physical law.

III.47 ... .. ==.. /= OO rpa-lvaya-bala-vajra-sahananatvni kya-sampat rpa = form lvaya = grace bala = strength vajra = diamond sahananatvni = durability, firmness kya = body sampat = perfection This perfection includes beauty, grace, strength, and the durability of a diamon d. III.48 . .. / =.. @..^.. //=. grahaa-svarpsmitnvayrthavattva-sayamd indriya-jaya grahaa = grasping, perceiving sva = own rpa = form asmit = the sense of I , egoism anvaya = pervasiveness, relation artha = meaning, purpose, approach vattva = function sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline indriya = sensory apparatus jaya = mastery By observing the various aspects of the sense organs - their processes of percep tion, intrinsic natures, identification as self, interconnectedness, purposes - with perfect discipline, one masters them. III.49 =/.... /... .. .8 =. tato mano-javitvam vikaraa-bhva pradhna-jaya ca tata = therefore, from these, from that mana = mind javitvam = quickness vikaraa = without organs bhva = condition, state pradhna = foundation, matrix jaya = mastery ca = and Then, free from the constraints of their organs, the senses perceive with the qu ickness of the mind, no longer in the sway of the phenomenal world. III.50 ^.. OE = / & ..@. .. /8oe .. ...@ .. sattva-purunyat-khyti-mtrasya sarva-bhvdhittva sarva-jttva ca

sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna purua = pure awareness anyat = difference, distinction khyti = seeing mtrasya = only, merely sarva = all bhva = condition, state adhittva = supremacy sarva = all jttva = omniscience ca = and Once one just sees the distinction between pure awareness and the luminous aspec t of the phenomenal world, all conditions are known and mastered. III.51 / OE. .. . tad-vairgyd api doa-bja-kaye kaivalyam tad = its, that vairgyt = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment api = also doa = imperfection, flaw bja = seed, source kaye = dwindling, decreasing kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness When one is unattached even to this omniscience and mastery, the seeds of suffer ing wither, and pure awareness knows it stands alone.

III.52 = /==& =/=oe. sthnyupanimantrae saga-smaykaraam punar-ania-prasagt sthni = exalted, celestial upanimantrae = invitation saga = contact, attachment smay = pride, beaming akaraam = without cause puna = again, repeated, renewed ania = undesirable prasagt = inclination, recurrence Even if the exalted beckon, one must avoid attachment and pride, or suffering wi ll recur. III.53 $ /.. . = kaa-tat-kramayo sayamd viveka-ja jnam kaa = moment tat = that, these kramayo = sequence, flow, succession sayamt = constraint, perfect discipline viveka = discrimination ja = born jnam = knowledge Focusing with perfect discipline on the succession of moments in time yields ins ight born of discrimination. III.54 / = =.. . ./ /% jti-lakaa-deair anyatnavacchedt tulyayos tata pratipatti jti = birth, rank lakaa = characteristic, time factors deai = place anyat = distinction anavacchedt = unbounded, continuous tulyayo = similar, equal tata = therefore, from these, from that pratipatti = understanding This insight allows one to tell things apart which, through similarities of orig in, feature, or position, had seemed continuous.

III.55 ~ ..@/..OE ..@ /..OE$ / /.... . = traka sarva-viaya sarvath-viayam akramam ceti vivekaja jnam traka = transcendent, delivering sarva = all viaya = object (of experience) sarvath = in all circumstances viayam = object (of experience) akramam = not in sequence, deconstructed ca = and iti = thus viveka = discrimination ja = born jnam = knowledge In this way, discriminative insight deconstructs all of the phenomenal world s obj ects and conditions, setting them apart from pure awareness. III.56 ^.. OE / OO .. . sattva-puruayo uddhi-smye kaivalyam sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental quality of nature, or guna puruayo = pure awareness uddhi = purity smye = equality kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness Once the luminosity and transparency of consciousness have become as distilled a s pure awareness, they can reflect the freedom of awareness back to itself.

.. . Kaivalya-pda IV. Freedom IV.1 = OE/8=& /8 / janmauadhi-mantra-tapa-samdhij siddhaya janma = birth auadhi = herb mantra = intonation tapa = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity samdhi = oneness, integration j = born of siddhaya = perfection, attainment The attainments brought about by integration may also arise at birth, through th e use of herbs, from intonations, or through austerity. IV.2 = / . jtyantara-parima praktyprt jti = birth, rank antara= other parima = transformation prakti = nature, phenomenal world prt = overflow Being delivered into a new form comes about when natural forces overflow. IV.3 /=/%.~ . = ... /&.. nimittam aprayojakam praktnm varaa-bhedas tu tata ketrikavat nimittam = proximate cause aprayojakam = not causing praktnm = nature, phenomenal world varaa = choosing bheda = division, difference tu = and, moreover, but tata = therefore, from these, from that ketrikavat = like a farmer The transformation into this form or that is not driven by the causes proximate to it, just oriented by them, the way a farmer diverts a stream for irrigation.

IV.4 /= @/% =/ & nirma-cittnyasmit-mtrt nirma = forming, creating cittni = consciousness asmit = the sense of I , egoism mtrt = only Feeling like a self is the frame that orients consciousness toward individuation . IV.5 ... /%. .~ /% = OE pravtti-bhede prayojaka cittam ekam aneke pravtti = arising of activity bhede = division prayojaka = causing cittam = consciousness ekam = one aneke = many A succession of consciousnesses, generating a vast array of distinctive percepti ons, appear to consolidate into one individual consciousness. IV.6 & == tatra dhyna-jam anayam tatra = there, in that dhyna = meditative absorption jam = born anayam = not involving the store of latent impressions Once consciousness is fixed in meditative absorption, it no longer contributes t o the store of latent impressions.

IV.7 @ oe /=/ &/..8/ OE karmuklka yoginas trividham itarem karma = action aukla = not white aka = not black yogina = yogi trividham = threefold itarem = others The actions of a realized yogi transcend good and evil, whereas the actions of o thers may be good or evil or both. IV.8 / = = .. /. /#.. @ = = tatas tad-vipknugunm evbhivyaktir vsannm tata = therefore, from these, from that tad = its, that vipka = ripening, fruition anugunm = going with, following, accompanying eva = thus abhivyakti = manifestation vsannm = latent properties, traits Each action comes to fruition by coloring latent impressions according to its qu ality - good, evil, or both. IV.9 / ../ = == @ / .. jti-dea-kla vyavahitnm apynantarya smti-saskrayor eka-rpatvt jti = birth, rank dea = place kla = time vyavahitnm = hidden, separated api = also nantarya = succession smti = memory, mindfulness saskrayo = latent impressions eka = one rpatvt = essential form Because the depth memory and its latent impressions are of a piece, their dynami c of cause and effect flows uninterruptedly across the demarcations of birth, place, and time.

IV.10 = /.. /OE /=.. tsm anditva cio nityatvt tsm = of these anditva = without beginning ca = and ia = primordial will to exist nityatvt = perpetuity, eternity

They have always existed, because the will to exist is eternal. IV.11 . . OO.= .. OE . .. . .. hetu-phalraylambanai saghtatvd em abhve tad-abhva hetu = cause, reason phala = fruit raya = basis, foundation lambanai = support, object saghtatvt = connectedness em = of these abhve = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance tad= its, that abhva = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance Since its cause, effect, basis, and object are inseparable, a latent impression disappears when they do. IV.12 = .. ... @ attngata svarpato styadhva-bhedd dharmm atta = past angata = future sva = own rpata = in form asti = exist adhva = path, route bhedt = division, difference dharmm = properties, visible forms, experiential substances The past and future are immanent in an object, existing as different sectors in the same flow of experiential substances.

IV.13 # = te vyaktaskm gutmna te = they, these vyakta = manifest skm = subtle gua = fundamental qualities of nature tmna = self, essence The characteristics of these sectors, whether manifest or subtle, are imparted b y the fundamental qualities of nature. IV.14 / .. ^.. parimaikatvd vastu-tattvam parima = transformation ekatvt = oneness vastu = object, substance tattvam = thusness, elemental quality, principle Their transformations tend to blur together, imbuing each new object with a qual ity of substantiality. IV.15 .. OO /%. %/..@.# = vastu-smye citta-bhedt tayor vibhakta panth vastu = object, substance smye = equality citta = consciousness bhedt = division, difference tayo = of both vibhakta = separation panth = path People perceive the same object differently, as each person s perception follows a separate path from another s.

IV.16 = /% =& .. . ~ / na caika-citta-tantram vastu tad apramaka tad ki syt na = not ca = and eka = one citta = consciousness tantram = dependent vastu = object, substance tad = that, these apramaka = unobserved tad = then ki = what syt = could be But the object is not dependent on either of those perceptions; if it were, what would happen to it when nobody was looking? IV.17 / .. /% .. . . tad-upargpekitvc-cittasya vastu jtjtam tad = its, that uparga = coloring apekitvt = necessity cittasya = consciousness vastu = object, substance jta = known ajtam = not known An object is only known by a consciousness it has colored; otherwise, it is not known. IV.18 . /.%.. % .. OE / /.. sad jt citta-vttayas tat-prabho puruasyparimitvt sad = always jt = known citta = consciousness vttaya = patterning, turnings, movements tad = that, these prabho = superior puruasya = pure awareness aparimitvt = immutability Patterns of consciousness are always known by pure awareness, their ultimate, un changing witness.

IV.19 = .. . .. na tat svbhsa dyatvt na = not tat = that, these sva = own bhsa = luminosity dyatvt = seen-ness

Consciousness is seen not by its own light, but by awareness. IV.20 . =..8 eka-samaye cobhaynavadhraam eka= one samaye = circumstance ca = and ubhaya = both anavadhraam = not perceiving Furthermore, consciousness and its object cannot be perceived at once. IV.21 /% = . /. / . / . cittntara-dye buddhi-buddher atiprasaga smti-sakara ca citta = consciousness antara = other dye = seen buddhi = perception, cognition buddhe = perception, cognition atiprasaga = regress smti = memory, mindfulness, depth memory sakara = confusion, mixing up ca = and If consciousness were perceived by itself instead of awareness, the chain of suc h perceptions would regress infinitely, imploding memory.

IV.22 / ./ $ % ... / .. = citer apratisakramys tad-krpattau svabuddhi-samvedanam cite = pure awareness apratisakramy = immobile, unchanging tad = its, that kra = shape pattau = assumes, occurs sva = own buddhi = perception, intelligence samvedanam = sensitivity Once it is stilled, though, consciousness mirrors unchanging pure awareness, and can reflect itself being perceived. IV.23 .oe #~ /% .. @@ dra-dyoparakta citta sarvrtham dra = seer, pure awareness dya = what is seen uparakta = colored citta = consciousness sarva = all artham = meaning, purpose, approach, object Then, consciousness can be colored by both pure awareness and the phenomenal wor ld, thereby fulfilling all its purposes. IV.24 .. = /./. &/ @ /.. tad asakhyeya-vsanbhi citram api parrtha sahatya-kritvt tad = that, these asakhyeya = countless vsanbhi = latent properties, traits citram = variegated, spotted api = also para = other artha = meaning, purpose, approach, object sahatya = compound kritvt = activity Even when colored by countless latent traits, consciousness, like all compound p henomena, has another purpose - to serve awareness.

IV.25 /.. OE/@= . ... ..= /../=.. /% viea-darina tma-bhva-bhvan-vinivtti viea = difference, distinction; distinct, particular darina = one who sees tma = self, essence bhva = being, becoming bhvan = realizing, becoming vinivtti = cessation As soon as one can distinguish between consciousness and awareness, the ongoing construction of the self ceases. IV.26 /.... /=OO= .. .. . ~ /% tad viveka-nimna kaivalya-prg-bhra cittam tad = then viveka = discrimination nimna = bent, inclined toward kaivalya = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness prg = before bhra = load cittam = consciousness Consciousness, now oriented to this distinction, can gravitate toward freedom the fully integrated knowledge that pure awareness is independent from nature. IV.27 /8.OE . = / tac-chidreu pratyayntari saskrebhya tad = that, these chidreu = gap pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation antari = other saskrebhya = latent impressions Any gaps in discriminating awareness allow distracting thoughts to emerge from t he store of latent impressions.

IV.28 = OE .. # hnam em kleavad uktam hnam = cessation em = of these kleavat = like the causes of suffering uktam = described, explained These distractions can be subdued, as the causes of suffering were, by tracing t hem back to their origin, or through meditative absorption. IV.29 . = ..@ /.... 8@@ /8 prasakhyne pyakusdasya sarvath viveka-khyater dharma-megha samdhi prasakhyne = elevation, summit api = also akusdasya = one without greed sarvath = in all circumstances viveka = discrimination khyate = seeing dharma = property, visible form, experiential substance megha = cloud, rain showers samdhi = oneness, integration One who regards even the most exalted states disinterestedly, discriminating con tinuously between pure awareness and the phenomenal world, enters the final stage of integration, in which nature is seen to be a cloud of irreducible experiential substances. IV.30 @/=.. /% tata klea-karma-nivtti tata = therefore, from these, from that klea = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison karma = action nivtti = cessation This realization extinguishes both the causes of suffering and the cycle of caus e and effect.

IV.31 .. @.. . = == . . tad sarvvaraa-malpetasya jnasynantyj jeyam alpam tad = then sarva = all varaa = covering, veil, layer mala = imperfection apetasya = removed jnasya = knowledge, insight nantyt = infinity, the boundless jeyam = to be known alpam = little Once all the layers and imperfections concealing truth have been washed away, in sight is boundless, with little left to know. IV.32 @= / $ / @ = tataktrthnm parima-krama-samptir gunm tata = therefore, from these, from that kta = done, accomplished arthnm = meaning, purpose, approach, object parima = transformation krama = sequence, flow, succession sampti = termination gunm = fundamental qualities of nature Then the seamless flow of reality, its transformations colored by the fundamenta l qualities, begins to break down, fulfilling the true mission of consciousness. IV.33 ./ / = /=. @ $ kaa-pratiyog parimparnta-nirgrhya krama kaa = moment pratiyog = corresponding parima = transformation apara = other anta = end nirgrhya = graspable krama = sequence, flow, succession One can see that the flow is actually a series of discrete events, each correspo nding to the merest instant of time, in which one form becomes another.

IV.34 OE @ = = = ./ . .. .. . .../ oe .. // #// pururtha-nyn gunm pratiprasava kivalya svarpa-pratih v citi-akter iti purua = pure awareness artha = meaning, purpose, approach, object nyn = empty gunm = fundamental qualities of nature prati = with regard to, toward, reversing prasava = flow, motion, creation, inception kivalya = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness sva = own rpa = form pratih = foundation v = or citi = pure seeing akte = power iti = that s all, finis Freedom is at hand when the fundamental qualities of nature, each of their trans formations witnessed at the moment of its inception, are recognized as irrelevant to pure awareness; it stands alone, grounded in its very nature, the power of pure seeing. That is all.

Sanskrit-English glossary Each of the Sanskrit terms in the Yoga-Stra appears below. To make this glossary more accessible to readers unfamiliar with Sanskrit, terms have been transliterated to the Roman al phabet, rather than appearing in devangar script, and compiled in Roman alphabetical order. In many ca ses they have also been presented with the grammatical endings used by Patajali, as well as their ro ot forms, which are often a different part of speech and may have a somewhat different meaning. Pare ntheses indicate where each Sanskrit term can be found in the Yoga-Stra. To sound out Sanskrit words cor rectly, see the Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide on page 3; to compare to Sanskrit rendered in devang ar script, see accompanying link, Sanskrit Alphabet (PDF). a = extending to bhsa = luminosity (IV.19) abhva = non-existence, non-becoming, disappearance (I.10, 29; II.25; IV.11) abhibhava = subjugation, suppression, submergence (III.9) abhijtasya = faultless, transparent (I.41) abhimata = desired (I.39) abhinive = self-preservation (II.3,9) abhivyakti = manifestation (IV.8) abhyantara = internal (II.50,51) abhysa = practice, action, method (I.12,13,18,32) dara = seeing (III.38) daya = et cetera (II.34) adhigama = attainment (I.29) adhimtr, adhimtratvt = extreme, intense (I.22) adhittva = supremacy (III.50) adhva = path, route (IV.12) adhyst = superimposition (III.17) adhytma = innermost self (I.47) adi = others (III.23,47) diu, dni = and the others, et cetera (III.25,41) ada = unseen (II.12) gam = testimony from a teacher or traditional texts (I.7) agrya = pointed (II.41) ahakra = I-maker , source of egoism; the sense that identification is occurring ahims = not harming (II.30,35) jna = ignorance (II.34) ajtam = not known (IV.17) akalpit = not feasible, impossible (III.45) kra = shape (IV.22) akaraam = without cause (III.51) kayo = space, ether (III.42,43) akli = benign (I.5) akramam = not in sequence, simultaneous (III.56) aka = not black (IV.7) kep = transcending (II.51) akusdasya = one without greed (IV.29)

alabdha = failing to attain (I.30) lamban = resting on (I.10,38) lambanai = support, object (IV.11) lasya = laziness (I.30) aliga, aligni = without form (I.45; II.19) loka = illumination, flashes of brilliance (III.5,26) alpam = little (IV.31) anabhighta = insulation, being beyond disturbance (II.48; III.46) anditva = without beginning (IV.10) angatam = future (II.16; III.16; IV.12) nanda = bliss, joy (I.17) ananta = endless, boundless (II.34,47) nantarya = succession (IV.9) nantyt = infinity, the boundless (IV.31) anayam = not involving the store of latent impressions (IV.6) anaa = not ceased (II.22) antmasu = not self (II.5) anavacchedt = unbounded, continuous (I.26; III.54) anavacchinn = unlimited, irrespective of (II.31) anavadhraam = not perceiving (IV.20) anavasthitatvni = inconstancy, instability (I.30) aneke = many (IV.5) agam, agni = limb, component (I.31; III.7,8) aima = the power to become minutely small (III.47) ania = undesirable (III.52) anitya = impermanent (II.5) ajanat = saturation, taking the form of something else (I.41) anta = end (IV.33) anta = extending from...to (I.40) antar = inner (III.7) antara = other (IV.2,21) antarya = obstacle (I.29,30) antardhnam = invisibility, disappearance (III.21) au = minute, infinitesimal (I.40) anubhta = experienced (I.11) anugamt = going with, following, accompanying (I.17) anugunm = going with, following, accompanying (IV.8) anukra = imitation, following suit (II.54) anumna = inference (I.7,49) anumodit = approved (II.37) anupaya = to behold (II.20) anupt = following, relying upon (I.9; III.14) nusanam = teaching, exposition (I.1) anuay = following (II.7,8) anuravika = heard, learned (I.15) anuhnt = performance, practice (II.28) anuttama = unsurpassed (II.42) anvaya = pervasiveness, relation (III.45,48) anvaya = connected to, permeated (III.9) anya = other (I.18,49,50; II.22) anyat = distinction (III.50,54)

anyatvam = differentiation, variation (III.15) apara = other (IV.33) aparma = untouched, unaffected (I.24) aparnta = death (III.23; IV.33) aparigrah = not being acquisitive (II.30,39) aparimitvt = immutability (IV.18) pattau = assumes, occurs (IV.22) apavarga = emancipation, liberation (II.18) apekitvt = necessity (IV.17) apetasya = removed (IV.31) api = also (I.22,26,29,51; II.9,20,22; III.8,51; IV.9,24,29) apramaka = unobserved (IV.16) apratisakramy = immobile, unchanging (IV.22) aprayojakam = not causing (IV.3) apuya = bad, evil (I.33; II.14) prt = overflow (IV.2) ariebhya = signs, omens (III.23) artha = meaning, purpose, approach, object (I.28,32,42,43; II.2,18,21,22; III.3, 36; IV.23,24) arthata = regarding the meaning of something (III.11) arthatvt = function, role (I.49; III.36) asakrnayo = unmixed (III.36) asampramoa = not allowing to steal away (I.11) asamprayoge = uncoupling (II.54) asansarga = freedom from contact (II.40) sana = posture (II.29,46) asaga = without touching (III.40) asakhyeya = countless (IV.24) sanna = near (I.21) aya = store, residuum (I.24; II.12) sevita = cultivated (I.14) ia = primordial will to exist (IV.10) asmit = the sense of I , egoism (I.17; II.3,6; IV.4) raya = basis, foundation (IV.11) rayatvam = rest on (II.36) asteya = not stealing (II.30,37) au = eight (II.29) asti = exist (IV.12) auci = impure (II.5) auddhi = impurity (II.43) aukla = not white (IV.7) svda = tasting (III.37) asya = his (I.40) atad = not that (I.8) atha = now (I.1) atiprasaga = regress (IV.21) atta = past (III.16; IV.12) tma, tmaka, tmna = self, essence (II.5,21,41; IV.25) tmat = selfhood (II.6; IV.13) atyanta = absolutely (III.36) auadhi = herb (IV.1) varaam = covering, veil, layer (II.52; III.44; IV.31)

avasth = condition (III.13) avasthnam = state of abiding (I.3) vea = entering (III.39) avidy = lack of wisdom, ignorance of one s true nature (II.3,4,5,24) aviplav = continuous, uninterrupted (II.26) avirati = hedonism (I.30) aviay = not present, absent (III.20) aviea = indistinct (II.19; III.36) avyapadeya = unmanifest (III.14) yu = span of life (II.13) bdhane = repelling (II.33) bahi = external (III.8,44) bhya = external (II.50,51) bala = powers, strengths (III.26,48) balni = powers, strengths (III.25) bandha = binding (III.1,39) bhar = bearing (I.48) bhra = load (IV.26) bhaum = at a level (II.31) bhava = being, becoming (I.19) bhavah = condition, state (III.49,50; IV.25) bhvan = realizing, becoming (II.2; IV.25) bhvanam = realizing, becoming (I.28; II.33,34) bhvanta = radiating, projecting (I.33) bheda = division, difference (IV.3,5,12,15) bhog = experience, enjoyment (II.13,18; III.36) bhrnti = false (I.30) bhmi = rooted, grounded (I.14; III.6); stage (II.27) bhmi = stage, level (II.27) bhmikatva = developmental stages (I.30) bhta = element, being (II.18; III.13,17,45) bhtatvt = actuality, being (III.20) bhuvana = world (III.27) bjam = seed, source (I.25; III.51) brahmacarya = celibacy, impeccable conduct (II.30,38) buddhi, buddhe = perception, intelligence (IV.21,22) ca = and, but (I.29,44,45; II.2,15,41,53; III.20,23,39,40,43,46,49,50,55; IV.10, 16,20,21) cakre = wheel, energy center (III.30) caku = eye (III.21) candre = moon (III.28) caturtha = fourth (II.51) cetan = consciousness (I.29) chidreu = gap (IV.27) cite = pure awareness (IV.22,34) citram = variegated, spotted (IV.24) citta = consciousness (I.2,30,33,37; II.54; III.1,9,11,12,19,35,39; IV.4,5,15,16 ,17,18,21,23,26) darana = vision, perspective, systematic view, philosophy (I.30; II.6,41; III.33) darina = one who sees (IV.25) daurmanasya = depression (I.31) dea = place (II.31,50; III.1,54; IV.9) devat = deity (II.44)

dhra = concentration (II.29,53; III.1) dharma = property, visible form, constituent substance (III.13,14,46; IV.12,29) dharm = substrate, substance (III.14) dhruve = polestar (III.29) dhynt = meditative absorption (I.39; II.11,29; III.2; IV.6) dpti = radiance (II.28) drgha = long (I.14; II.50) divya = divine (III.42) doa = imperfection, flaw (III.51) dra = seer, witness, pure awareness (II.17,20; IV.23) dra, drau = seer, witness, pure awareness (I.3; II.20) dha = firmly (I.14) dg = witness, see-er (II.6) di = seeing (II.20,25) da = seen, perceptible (I.15; II.12) dya, dyayo, dye = what is seen (II.17,18,21; IV.21,23) dyatvt = seen-ness (IV.19) dukha = distress, pain, suffering (I.31,33; II.5,8,15,16,34) dvandva = play of opposites, dualities (II.48) dvea = aversion (II.3,8) ejayatva = trembling (I.31) eka = one (I.32; II.6,41; IV.5,9,16,20) ekgratayo, ekgrya = one-pointedness, focus (II.41; III.11,12) ekatra = in one, as one (III.4) ekatvt = oneness (IV.14) em = of these (IV.11,28) etaya = by this (I.44) ete = these (II.31) etena = by this (III.13) eva = thus (I.44,46; II.15,21; III.3; IV.8) gamanam = travel (III.43) gati = flow (II.49; III.29) grahaa = grasping, perceiving (I.41; III.48) graht = one who grasps, perceiver (I.41) grhya = to be received, perceived (III.21) grhyeu = grasped, object of perception (I.41) gua = fundamental quality of nature (I.16; II.15,19; IV.13,32,34) guru = teacher, mentor (I.26) hna = cessation (II.25,26; IV.28) hasti = elephant (III.26) hetu = cause, reason (II.17,23,24; III.15; IV.11) hetutvt = causality (II.14) hey = overcome, overwhelmed (II.10,11,16,17) hims = harming (II.34) hlda = delight (II.14) hdaye = heart (III.35) indriya = sensory apparatus (II.18,41,43,54,55; III.13,48) ia = desired (II.44) vara = divine ideal of pure awareness (I.23,24; II.1,32,45) itaratra = otherwise (I.4) itarem = others (I.20; IV.7)

itaretara = one another (III.17) iti = thus, that s all (II.34; III.55,56; IV.34) iva = like, thus, as it were (I.41,43; II.6,54; III.3) ja = born of (I.50; III.53,55; IV.1) jala = water (III.40) jam = born (III.54,56; IV.6) janma = birth (II.12,39; IV.1) japa = repetition, intonation (I.28) jti = birth, rank (II.13,31; III.18,54; IV.2,9) javitvam = quickness (III.49) jaya = mastery (II.41; III.5,40,41,45,48,49) jyante = occur, are produced (III.37) jatva = knowing (I.25) jna = knowledge, insight (I.8,9,38,42; II.28; III.16,17,18,19,23,26,27,28,29,36,53 ,55; IV.31) jta = known (IV.17,18) jttva = omniscience (III.50) jeyam= to be known (IV.31) jugups = disinclination, detachment (II.40) jvalanam = radiance (III.41) jyotii = light (III.33) jyotimat = luminous (I.36) kaivalyam = emancipation, isolation of pure awareness (II.25; III.51,56; IV.26,3 4) kla = time (I.14; II.31,50; IV.9) klena = by time, temporally (I.26) kaaka = thorn (III.40) kaha = throat (III.31) karat = making, observing (III.18) karaa = cause, making, perception (II.2; III.39,40) krita = caused to be done, instigated (II.34) kritvt = activity (IV.24) karma = action (I.24; II.12; III.23; IV.7,30) karu = compassion (I.33) kathant = understanding why (II.39) kya = body (II.43; III.21,30,43,46,47) khyte, khyti = seeing (I.16; II.5,26,28 ; III.51; IV.29) ki = what (IV.16) klea = cause of suffering, corruption, hindrance, affliction, poison (I.24; II.2, 3,12,13; IV.30) kleavat = like the causes of suffering (IV.28) klia = hurtful (I.5) krama = sequence, flow, succession (III.15,53; IV.32,33) kriy = action (II.1,36; II.18) krodha = anger (II.34) kta = done, accomplished (II.22; IV.32) kaa = moment (II.9,52; IV.33) kaya = disappearance (II.43; III.11,45 kaye, kayt = dwindling, decreasing (II.28, 43; III.52) ketram = field (II.4) ketrikavat = like a farmer (IV.3) ka = dwindled, decreased (I.41) kyate = disappears (II.52) kut = hunger (III.31)

kpe = pit, well, cavity (III.31) krma = tortoise (III.32) lbha = acquired (II.38,42) laghu = light (III.43) lakaa = characteristic, time factors (III.13,54) lvaya = grace (III.46) laynm = clasped, merged (I.19) liga = mark, characteristic (II.19) lobha = greed (II.34) madhya = moderate (I.22; II.34) mah = great (II.31; III.45) mahattva = greatness, magnitude (I.40) maitr = friendliness (I.33; III.24) mala = imperfection (IV.31) mana, manasa = mind (I.35; II.53) mae = jewel (I.41) mantra = intonation (IV.1) mtra = only (I.43; II.20; III.3,50; IV.4) megha = cloud, rain showers (IV.29) mithy = false (I.8) moha = delusion (II.34) mdu = mild (I.22; II.34) mudita = delight (I.33) mla = root (II.12,13) mrdha = head, crown (III.33) na = not (III.20; IV.16,19) nbhi = navel (III.30) ny = channel, duct (III.32) nairantarya = continuously, uninterruptedly (I.14) naam = ceased (II.22) nibandhan = holds (I.35) nidr = sleep (I.6,10,38) nimittam = proximate cause (IV.3) nimna = bent, inclined toward (IV.26) niratiaya = incomparable, unsurpassed (I.25) nirbhs = shining (I.43; III.3) nirbja = seedless (I.51; III.8) nirgrhya = graspable (IV.33) nirma = forming, creating (IV.4) nirodha = stilling, cessation, restriction (I.2,12,51; III.9) nirupakrama = slow to manifest (III.23) nirvicr = not reflecting (I.44,47) nirvitark = beyond thought (I.43) nitya = permanent (II.5) nityatvt = perpetuity, eternity (IV.10) nivtti = cessation (III.31; IV.30) niyama = internal discipline (II.29,32) nyst = setting down, focusing (III.26) pacatayya = fivefold (I.5) paka = mud (III.40) panth = path (IV.15)

para, parai = other (II.40; III.19,37,40; IV.24) param = ultimate, highest, purest (I.40; II.55) parida = observed, measured, scrutinized (II.50) parima = transformation (II.15; III.9,11,12,13,15,16; IV.2,14,32,33) pariuddhau = wiping clean, purification (I.43) paritpa = anguish (II.14) parvi = level, state (II.19) paryavasnam = ending, terminating (I.45) phal = fruit (II.14,34,36; IV.11) pips = thirst (III.31) prabho = superior (IV.18) pracra = movement, passage (III.39) pracchardana = exhalation, expulsion (I.34) pradhna = foundation, matrix (III.49) prdur = outside (III.9,47) prg = before (IV.26) praj = wisdom (I.20,48,49; II.27; III.5) praka = brightness (II.18,52; III.21,44) prakti = nature, phenomenal world (I.19; IV.2,3) pramda = carelessness (I.30) prama = right perception (I.6,7) prasya = breath, life force (I.34) praava = the syllable pronounced om (I.27) pryma = breath regulation (II.29,49) praidhnt = surrender, dedication (I.23; II.1,32,45) prnta = last (II.27) prasda, prasdanam = calming, tranquilizing, clarification (I.33,47) prasakhyne = elevation, summit (IV.29) prasagt = inclination, recurrence (III.52) pranta = tranquil (III.10) prasava = flow, motion, creation, inception (II.10; IV.34) prasupta = dormant (II.4) pravs = exhalation (I.31; II.49) prati = with regard to, toward, reversing (II.22) pratibandh = prevents, obstructs (I.50) prtibht = spontaneous illumination (III.34,37) pratipaka = opposite (II.33,34) pratipatti = understanding (III.54) pratiedha = subdue, ward off (I.32) pratih = foundation (IV.34) pratiham, pratihy = based on, grounded in (I.8; II.35; IV.34) pratiyog = corresponding (IV.33) pratyhra = withdrawal of the senses (II.29,54) pratyak = inward (I.29) pratyaka = percept, sensory input (I.7) pratyaya = perception, thought, intention, representation (I.10,18,19; II.20; II I.2,12,17,19,36; IV.27) pravibhga = distinction (III.17) pravtti = arising of activity (I.35; III.26; IV.5) prayatna = effort (II.47) prayojaka = causing (IV.5) puna = again (III.12,52)

puya = good, virtuous (I.33; II.14) purua = pure awareness (I.16,24; III.36,50,56; IV.18,34) prva, prvebhya = earlier (I.18,26; III.7,18) prvaka = preceded by (I.20; II.34) rga = wanting, desire, passion, attachment (I.37; II.3,7) rasa = taste (II.9) ratna = jewel (II.37) tam = truth (I.48) rha = rooted (II.9) rupa = form (I.8,17; II.23,54; III.3,21,47; IV.34) rpata = in form (IV.12) rpatvt = essential form (IV.9) ruta = language, sound (III.17) sa = this, that (I.14,26) abda = verbal, linguistic (I.9,42; III.17) sabja = with seed (I.46) sad = always (IV.18) sadhana = path to realization (II.heading) sdhraatvt = common experience (II.22) sahabhuva = accompanying (I.31) aithilya = relaxation (II.47; III.40) skt = direct, through the eye (III.18) akte, aktyo = power (II.6,23; IV.21,34) slambana = with support (III.20) samdhi = oneness, integration (I.20,46,51; II.2,29,45; III.3,11,38; IV.1,29) samna = energy flow through the solar plexus (III.41) sampatti = coalescence, unified contemplation (I.41,42; II.47; III.43) sampti = termination (IV.32) samaya = circumstance (II.31; IV.20) sambandha = relationship (III.42,43) sambodha = insight (II.39) sahananatvni = durability, firmness (III.47) sahatya = compound (IV.24) saj = comprehension (I.15) skhya = one of the six perspectives, or daranas, of Indian thought sampat = perfection (III.46,47) samprajta = cognitive (I.17) samprayoga = contact (II.44) saskara = latent impressions (I.18,50; II.15; III.9,10,18; IV.9,27) savedant = sensitivity (III.39; IV.22) samvegnm = intense, vehement (I.21) samvit = understanding (III.35) sayama = constraint, perfect discipline (III.4,16,17,21,22,27,36,42,43,45,48,53) smye = equality (III.56; IV.15) sayoga = coupling, union, association, mingling (II.17,23,25) saga = contact, attachment (III.52) saghtatvt = connectedness (IV.11) sakara = confusion, mixing up (III.17; IV.21) sakhybhi = number (II.50) sakr = intermingled (I.42) sannidhau = presence (II.35)

sanaya = doubt (I.30) nta = quiescent, subsided (III.12,14) santoa = contentment (II.32,42) saptadh = sevenfold (II.27) arra = body (III.39) srpyam = identification, conformity (I.4) sarva = all (I.25,51; II.15,31,37; III.11,17,34,50,55; IV.23) sarvath = in all circumstances (III.55; IV.29) sati = existing (II.13,49) satkra = skillfully, in the right way (I.14) sattva = clarity, luminosity; a fundamental essence of nature, or guna (II.41; I II.36,50,56) satya = truthfulness, truth (II.30,36) auca = purity (II.32,40) saumanasya = gladness (II.41) savicr = reflecting (I.44) savitark = thought (I.42) ea = store, residuum (I.18) siddha = perfected one (III.33) siddhi = perfection, attainment (II.43,45; III.38; IV.1) la = character (II.18) smay = pride, beaming (III.52) smti, smtaya = memory, remembering; depth memory; mindfulness (I.6,11,20,43; IV.9,2 1) sopakrama = immediately manifest (III.22) raddh = faith (I.20) rvaa = hearing (III.37) rotra = of hearing (III.42) rotram = faculty of hearing (III.42) ruta = what has been heard, teachings (I.49) stambha = stationary (II.50) stambhe = suspension (III.21) stha = abide (I.41) sthairye = being settled in (II.39; III.32) sthni = exalted, celestial (III.52) sthira = steady, stable (II.46) sthiti, sthitau = stability, steadiness (I.13,35; II.18) sthla = gross (III.45) styna = apathy (I.30) uci = pure (II.5) uddha = pure (II.20) uddhi = purity (II.41; III.56) sukha = happiness (I.33; II.5,7,42,46) skma = subtle (I.44,45; II.10,50; III.26,45; IV.13) nya = empty (I.9,43; III.3; IV.34) srye = sun (III.27) stra = thread; condensed mnemonic verse sva = own (II.9,23,40,50; III.36; IV.19,22) svdhyya = self-study (II.1,32,44) svmi = owner (II.23) svapna = dream (I.38) svarpe = own form, identity (I.3,43; II.23,54; III.3,45,48; IV.34) vsa = inhalation (I.31; II.49)

syt = could be (IV.16) tad = its, that (I.12,16,28,32,41,50; II.11,21,22,25,35; III.3,5,18,20,21,23,29, 46,51,53; IV.8,11,16,17,19,22,24,27 tad = then (I.3; IV.16,26,31) t = these (I.46) tnat = extension, stretching (III.2) tanmtra = subtle primary experience of sound, form, odor, flavor, or feeling tantram = dependent (IV.16) tan = slender, weak (II.2,4) tpa = anguish (II.15) tapa = heat, intensity of discipline, austerity, austerity (II.1,32,43; IV.1) tr = star (III.28) traka = transcendent, delivering (III.55) tsm = of these (IV.10) tasmin = in this (II.49) tasya = of this, that (I.27,51; II.24,27; III.6,10,20) tat = that, these (I.16,32,41; II.35; III.17,20,24, 54; IV.16,18,19,24) tata = therefore, from these, from that (I.22,29; II.48,52,55; III.12,38,45,47,50 ,55; IV.3,8,30,32) tath = thus (II.19) tatra = there, in that (I.13,25,42,48; III.2; IV.6) tattva = thusness, elemental quality, principle (I.32; IV.14) tayo = of both (IV.15) te = they, these (I.30; II10,14; III.38; IV.13) tvra = extremely (I.21) trayam = these three (III.4,7,16) trividham = threefold (IV.7) tu = and, moreover, but (I.14; IV.3) tla = cotton (III.42) tulya = similar, equal (III.12,54) tyga = abandonment (II.35) ubhaya = both (IV.20) udna = uppermost region of energy flow, or prana (III.40) udrm = activated, aroused (II.4) udayau = arising, appearance (III.11) uditau = arisen (III.12,14) ukta = described, explained (III.22; IV.28) upalabdhi = acquisition (II.23) upanimantrae = invitation (III.52) uparga = coloring (IV.17) uparakta = colored (IV.23) upasarg = obstacle, impediment (III.38) upasthnam = approach, materialize (II.37) upya = means (II.26) upeksanam = equanimity (I.33) utkrnti = rising up (III.40) uttarem = other, following (II.4) utpann = arisen, produced (I.35) v = or (I.23,34,35,36,37,38,39; III.23,34; IV.34) vcaka = signifying, connoting (I.27) vh = flowing (II.9) vhit = flow, progression (III.10) vaira = hostility (II.35)

vairgya = dispassion, non-reaction, non-attachment (I.12,15; III.51) vairadye = lucidity, purity (I.47) vaityam = without wanting or attachment (I.16) vajra = diamond (III.47) varaa = choosing (IV.3) vrtt = smelling (III.37) vsannm = latent properties, traits (IV.8,24) vakra = mastery, willing something to happen (I.15,40) vastu = object, substance (I.9; IV.14,15,16,17) vayata = obedience, subservience (II.55) vat = like (IV.3,28) vat = having (I.35) vattva = function (III.45,48) vedan = feeling (III.37) vedanya = to be experienced (II.12) vibhakta = separation (IV.15) vibhti = extraordinary powers (III) vicra = insight, reflection (I.17) viccheda = cessation, interruption (II.49) vicchinna = interrupted, intercepted (II.4) videha = bodiless (I.19; III.44) vidhrabhym = pause, retention (I.34) vidua = sage, wise person (II.9) vikalpa = conceptualization (I.6,9,42) vikaraa = without organs (III.49) vikep = distraction, stirring up (I.30,31) vinivtti = cessation (IV.25) viniyoga = progression, application (III.6) vipka = ripening, fruition (I.24; II.13; IV.8) viparyaya = misperception, error (I.6,8) vipraka = distant (III.26) virma = cessation (I.18) virodht = conflict, opposition (II.15) vrya = energy, vigor (I.20; II.38) viaya = object (of experience) (I.11,15,33,37,44,49; II.54; III.55) viayatva = the thing itself, thus-ness of an object (I.45) viea = distinction; distinct, particular (I.22,24,49; II.19; IV.25) viok = free of sorrow (I.36) vta = free from, without (I.37) vitarka = analytical thinking; unwholesome thoughts (I.17; II.33,34) vitasya = without wanting or attachment (I.15) viveka = discrimination (II.26,28; III.53,55; IV.26,29) vivekina = a person of discrimination (II.15) vratam = vow, commitment (II.31) vtti = patternings, turnings, movements (I.2,4,5,10,41; II.11,15,50; III.44; IV.1 8) vydhi = sickness (I.30) vykhyt = described, explained (I.44; III.13) vyakta = manifest (IV.13) vyavahita = hidden, separated (III.26; IV.9) vyha = arrangement (III.28,30) vyutthna = emergence (III.9,38)

yama = external discipline (I.13) yath = as (I.39) yatna = sustained effort (I.13) yoga = yoking, union (I.1,2; II.1,28) yogina = yogi (IV.7) yogyat, yogyatvni = capability (II.41)

Selected Bibliography Deutsch, Eliot. Advaita Vedanta: a philosophical reconstruction. Honolulu: Unive rsity of Hawaii Press, 1969 Eliade, Mircea. Patajali And Yoga. New York: Schocken, 1975 Eliade, Mircea. Yoga: Immortality And Freedom. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Universi ty Press, 1958/69 Feuerstein, Georg. The Yoga Tradition. Prescott,AZ: Hohm Press, 1998 Iyengar, B. K. S. Light On Yoga New York: Schocken, 1966 MacDonnell, Arthur. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University P ress, 1924/91 Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy, vol.2. Delhi: Oxford India Press, 1923/97 Radhakrishnan, S. & Moore, C. A Source Book In Indian Philosophy. Princeton,NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973 Rahula, Walpola. What The Buddha Taught. New York: Grove Press, 1959/74 Tandon, S.N. A Re-appraisal of Patajali s Yoga-Sutras in the Light of the Buddha s Te aching. Igatpuri: Vipassana Research Institute, 1995 Whicher, Ian. The Integrity Of The Yoga Darana. Albany,NY: SUNY Press, 1998 Translations Arya, Pandit Usharbudh. Yoga Stras Of Patajali, vol.1. Honesdale,PA: Himalayan Ins titute, 1986 YB Bouanchaud, Bernard. The Essence Of Yoga: reflections on the Yoga Sutras of Pataj ali. Portland,OR: Rudra Press, 1997 Desikachar, T.K.V. The Heart Of Yoga. Rochester,VT: Inner Traditions ,1995 Feuerstein, Georg. The Yoga-Stra Of Patajali. Rochester,VT: Inner Traditions, 1989 Hariharananda Aranya, Swami. Yoga Philosophy Of Patajali. Albany,NY: SUNY Press, 1983 YB Houston, Vyaas. The Yoga Stra Workbook . Warwick,NY: American Sanskrit Institute, 1995 Iyengar, B.K.S. Light On The Yoga Stras Of Patajali. New York: HarperCollins, 1993 Miller, Barbara Stoler. Yoga: Discipline Of Freedom. New York: Bantam, 1996 Prabhavananda, S. & Isherwood, C. How To Know God: the yoga aphorisms of Patajali . New York New American Library ,1953 Prasada, Rama. Patajali s Yoga Stras. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1988 YB,TV Satchidananda, Swami. The Yoga Stras Of Patajali. Yogaville,VA: Integral Yoga, 197 8/90 Shearer, Alistair. Effortless Being: the yoga stras of Patajali. London: Unwin ,19 82

Shyam, Swami. Patajali Yog Darshan. Canada: Be All Publications, 1980 Stiles, Mukunda. Yoga Stras Of Patajali. Pune: International Academy Of Ayurveda, 1998 Taimni, I.K. The Science Of Yoga. Madras: Theosophical Publishing House, 1961 Vivekananda, Swami. Raja-Yoga. New York: Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center, 1956 YB = includes the Yoga-Bhsya, a 5th century commentary on the Yoga-Stra, by Vysa TV = includes the Tattva-Vairad, a 9th century gloss on the Yoga-Stra and Yoga-Bhsya, by Vcaspati Mra Sanskrit Resources Online Capeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/cap_search.html Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary http://www.uni-koeln.de/phil-fak/indologie/tamil/mwd_search.html Directory of Sanskrit Resources http://www.classicyoga.org/directory/sanskrit-directory.html

About the author Chip Hartranft s work bridges the traditions of yoga and buddhist meditation. He i s the founding director of The Arlington Center, dedicated to the integration of yoga and dharm a practice, and has taught a blend of movement and stillness to students in the Boston area since 1978. A s tudent of yoga chiefly in the Krishnamacharya traditions, Chip has also practiced insight meditation (vipa ssan) for many years. He leads annual retreats in the US and abroad, blending yoga movement, breathwor k, and mindfulness. More information, including how to contact Chip Hartranft and The Arlington Cent er, can be found at www.arlingtoncenter.org