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INDEX LAYOUT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

INTRODUCTION [SUB STATION] BUS BARS ISOLATORS PROTECTIVE RELAYS CIRCUIT BREAKERS POWER TRANSFORMER CURRENT TRANSFORMER CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS pg. no -1 -4 -7 -11 -16 -25 -31 -33 -36 -38 -41 -44 -46 -47

9. TRASNFORMER OIL AND ITS TESTING 10. LIGHTENING ARRESTORS 11. CONTROL ROOM 12. EARTHING OF THE SYSTEM 13. POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION 14. CORONA CONCLUSION REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of alternating current. The electric power produced at the power stations is delivered to the consumers through a large network of transmission & distribution. The transmission network is inevitable long and high power lines are necessary to maintain a huge block of power from source of generation to the load centers to inter connected. Power house for increased reliability of supply greater.

The assembly of apparatus used to change some characteristics (e.g. voltage, ac to dc, frequency, power factor etc.) of electric supply keeping the power constant is called a sub-station. Depending on the constructional feature, the high voltage sub-stations may be further subdivided: a) Out door substation. b) Indoor substation. c) Basement or Underground substation.

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fig 1 220 KV G.S.S. SANGANER 1) It is an outdoor type substation. 2) It is primary as well as distribution substation. 3) One and half breaker scheme is applied.

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The power mainly comes from HIRAPURA-1 and HIRAPURA-2 & KOTA THERMAL .

Out going feeders 1) One feeder of 220kv to KTPS 2) One feeder of 220kv to Sakatpura. 3) One feeder of 220kv to KTPS2 4) One feeder of 220kv to Phulera 5) One feeder of 400kv to Merta 6) One feeder of 220kv to Sanganer

At this substation following feeders are established. 1. TIE FEEDERS. 2. RADIAL FEEDERS. TIE FEEDERS: There are 220KV tie feeders as follows. 1.220 KV KOTA-JAIPUR 1st & 2nd 2. Inter state 220KV KOTA DELHI 3. Tie from 220 KV Heerapura. 4. 220KV KTPS first & second. RADIAL FEEDERS
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1. 220 KV JAIPUR KOTA 1st & 2nd feeders 2. 132KV KOTA BUNDI 1st 3. 132KV KOTA SAWAI MADHOPUR 1st & 2nd 4.132 KV KOTA SANGOD 5. 132 KV KOTA MORAR

BUS BARS

Bus Bars are the common electrical component through which a large no. of feeders operating at same voltage have to be connected. If the bus bars are of rigid type (Aluminum types) the structure heights are low and minimum clearance is required. While in case of strain type of bus bars suitable ACSR conductors are strung / tensioned by tension insulator discs according to system voltages. In the widely used strain type bus bars stringing tension is about 500 - 900 kg depending upon the size of conductor used. Here proper clearance would be achieved only if require tension is achieved. Loose bus bars would effect the clearances when it swings while over tensioning may damage insulators. Clamps or even effect the supporting structures in low temperature conditions. The clamping should be proper, as loose clamp would spark under in full load condition damaging the bus bars itself.

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BUS BAR ARRANGEMENT MAY BE OF FOLLOWING TYPES WHICH ARE BEING ADOPTED BY R.R.V.P.N.L 1.) Single bus arrangement. 2.) Double bus bar arrangement. a) Main bus with transformer bus. b.) Main bus-I with Main bus-II. 3.) Double bus bar arrangement with auxiliary bus.

DOUBLE BUS BAR CONTAINING MAIN BUS I WITH MAIN BUS II: 1. Each load may be fed from either bus. 2. The load circuits may be divided in two separate groups if needed from operational consideration. Two supplies from different sources can be put on each bus separately. 3. Either bus bar may be taken out from maintenance and cleaning of insulators. This arrangement has been quite frequently adopted where the loads and continuity of supply is necessary. In such a scheme a bus coupler breaker is mostly provided as it enables on load change over from one bus bar to other. The normal bus selection isolators cannot be used for breaking load currents. The arrangement does not permit breaker maintenance without causing stoppage of supply. DOUBLE BUS BAR ARRANGEMENTS CONTAINS MAIN BUS WITH AUXILIARY BUS:
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The double bus bar arrangement provides facility to change over to either bus to carry out maintenance on the other but provide no facility to carry over breaker maintenance. The main and transfer bus works the other way round .It provides facility for carrying out breaker maintenance but does not permit bus maintenance. Wherever maintenance is required on any breaker the circuit is changed over to the transfer bus and is controlled through bus coupler breaker.

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fig 2

ISOLATORS
Isolators which are also called disconnect switches or air break switches after the assembly as per drawings on the leveled structures the adjustment of connecting pipes, moving and fixed contacts is done so that all the three phase of the isolator close and open simultaneously and there is a full surface contact between moving and fixed contacts. Such switches are generally used on both sides of equipment in order that repairs and replacement of the equipment can be made without any danger. They should never be opened until the equipment in the same circuit has been turned off and should always be closed before the equipment is turned on. The adjustment of the tendon pipes leveling of post insulator, stop holts in the fixed contacts etc. is done for smooth operation of insulator. Following type of insulator are being used in R.S.E.Ba) Isolator without earth blades.
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b) Isolator with earth blade. c) Tendon isolator.

INSULATORS

The insulators for the overhead lines provide insulation to the power conductors from the ground so that currents from conductors do not flow to earth through supports. The insulators are connected to the cross arm of supporting structure and the power conductors passes through the clamp of the insulator. The insulators provide necessary insulation between line conductors and supports and thus prevent any leakage current from conductors to earth. In general, the insulators should have the following desirable properties: 1. High mechanical strength in order to withstand conductor load, wind load etc. 2. High electrical resistance of insulator material in order to avoid leakage currents to earth. 3. High relative permittivity of insulator material in order that dielectric strength is high. 4. The insulator material should be non porous, free from impurities and cracks otherwise the permitivity will be lowered. 5. High ratio of puncture strength to flash over. These insulators are generally made of glazed porcelain or toughened glass. Poly come type insulators [solid core] are also being supplied in place of hast insulators if available indigenously. The design of the insulator is such that the stress due to
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contraction and expansion in any part of the insulator does not lead to any defect. It is desirable not to allow porcelain to come in direct contact with a hard metal screw thread. TYPES OF INSULATORS: There are three types of insulators used for overhead lines: 1. Pin type- pin type insulator consists of a single or multiple shells adapted to be mounted on a spindle to be fixed to the cross arm of the supporting structure. When the upper most shell is wet due to rain the lower shells are dry and provide sufficient leakage resistance. These are used for transmission and distribution of electric power at voltage up to voltage 33KV. Beyond operating voltage of 33KV the pin type insulators thus become too bulky and hence uneconomical.

Fig 3.1

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2. Suspension type- suspension type insulators consist of a number of porcelain disc connected in series by metal links in the form of a string. Its working voltage is 66KV. Each disc is designed for low voltage for 11KV.

Fig 3.2 3. Strain insulator- the strain insulators are exactly identical in shape with the suspension insulators. These strings are placed in the horizontal plane rather than the vertical plane. These insulators are used where line is subjected to greater tension. For low voltage lines (<11kV) shackle insulators are used as strain insulator.

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Fig 3.3

PROTECTIVE RELAYS

A Protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system. The relays detect the abnormal condition in the electrical circuits by constantly measuring the electrical quantities i.e. voltage, current, frequency, phase angle which are different under normal and fault conditions. Having detected the fault, the relay operates to close the trip circuit of the breaker, which results in opening of the breaker and disconnection of the faulty circuit. Relay circuit connections can be divided in three parts: 1.) Primary winding of a C.T. that is connected in series with the line to be

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protected. 2.) Secondary winding of C.T. and the relay operating coil. 3.)Third part is the tripping circuit, which may be either a.c. or d.c. . It consists of a source of a supply, the trip coil of a circuit breaker and the relays stationary contacts. When a short circuit occurs at point F on the transmission line the current increases to enormous value. This results in a heavy current flow through the relay coil, causing the relay to operate by closing its contacts. This in turn closes the trip circuit of the breaker, making the C.B. open and isolating the family section from the rest of the system. In this way, the relay ensures the safety of the circuit equipment from damage and normal working of the healthy portion of the system.

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Fig 4 Basic qualities that a protective relay must possess are: 1.) Selectivity 2.) Speed 3.) Sensitivity 4.) Reliability 5.) Simplicity 6.) Economy

DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS

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A differential relay is one that operates when the phasor difference of two or more similar electrical quantities exceeds a predetermined value. Thus the current differential relay is one that compares the current entering and current leaving the section. Under normal operating conditions, the two currents are equal but as soon as fault occurs, this condition is no longer applied. The difference between the incoming and outgoing currents is arranged to flow through the operating coil of the relay. If this differential current is equal to or greater than the pick up value, the relay will operate and open the C.B. to isolate the faulty section.

BUCHHOLZ RELAY It is a gas-actuated relay installed in oil immersed transformers for protection against all kinds of faults. it is used to give an alarm in case of incipient (i.e. slow developing)faults in the transformer and to disconnect the transformer from the supply in the event of severe internal faults. it is usually installed in the pipe connecting the conservator to the main tank. It is a universal practice to use BUCHHOLZ relay on all such oil immersed transformers having ratings in excess of 750kVA.

CONSTRUCTION It takes the form of a domed vessel pipe between the main tank and the
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conservator. The device has two elements. the upper element consists of a mercury type switch attached to a float. The lower element contains a mercury switch mounted on a hinged type flap located in the direct path of the flow of oil from the transformer to the conservator. the upper element closes an alarm circuit during incipient faults whereas the lower element is arranged to trip the circuit breaker in case of server internal faults. OPERATION The operation of Buchholz relay is as follows: (i)In case of incipient faults within the transformer, the heat due to fault causes the decomposition of some transformer oil in the main tank the products of decomposition contain more than 70% of hydrogen gas. the hydrogen gas being light tries to go into the conservator and in the process gets entrapped in the upper part of the relay chamber. when a pre determined amount of gas gets accumulated, it exerts sufficient pressure on the float to cause it tilt and close the contacts of the mercury switch attached tom it. This completes the alarm circuits to to sound an alarm. (ii)If a serious fault occurs in the transformer, enormous amount of gas is generated in the main tank. The oil in the main tank rushes to the conservator via the Buchholz relay and in doing so tilts the flap to close the contacts of the mercury switch. This completes the trip circuit to open the circuit breaker controlling the transformer.

ADVANTAGES
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(i) It is the simplest form of transformer protection. (ii) It detects the incipient faults at a stage much earlier than possible with other forms of protection.

DISADVANTAGES (i) It can only be used with oil immersed transformers equipped with conservator tanks. (ii) The device can detect only faults below oil level in the transformer. therefore separate protection is needed for connecting cables.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

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Thus circuit breakers are used for switching & protection of various parts of power system. Circuit breaker is a piece of equipment, which can 1) Make or break a circuit either manually or automatically under normal condition. 2) Break a circuit automatically under fault condition 3) Make a circuit either manually or by remote control under fault conditions.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES A C.B. consists of fixed and moving contacts called electrodes. Under normal operating conditions, these contacts remain closed and will not open automatically until and unless the system becomes faulty. When a fault occurs on any part of the system, the trip coils of the circuit breaker get energised and the moving contacts are pulled apart, thereby opening the circuit. When the contacts of the C.B. are seperated under fault conditions, an arc is struck between them. The current is thus able to continue until the discharge ceaeses. The production of arc not only delays the current interruption process but it also generates enormous heat which may cause damage to the system or to the C.B. It is thus necessary to extinguish the arc within the shortest possible time so that the heat generated by it may not reach a dangerous value.

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ARC PHENOMENON

When a short circuit occurs, a heavy current flows through the contacts of the C.B. before they are opened by the protective system. At the instant when the contacts begin to separate, the contact area decreases rapidly and large fault current causes increased current density and hence rise in temperature. The heat produced in the medium between contacts is sufficient to ionize the arc or vaporize and ionize the oil. The ionized air or vapour acts as conductor and an arc is set between the contacts. The potential difference between the contacts is quite small and is sufficient to maintain the arc. the arc provides a low resistance path and as a result the current in the circuit remains uninterrupted so long as the arc persists. During the arcing period the current flowing between the contacts depends on the arc resistance. The greater the arc resistance, the smaller the current that flows between the contacts. The arc resistance depends upon: (i) Degree of ionization. (ii) Length of arc. (iii) Cross section of arc.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE CIRCUIT BREAKERS:

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There are several ways of classifying the circuit breakers. However, the most general way of classification is on the basis of medium used for arc extinction. The medium used for arc extinction is usually oil, air, sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) or vacuum. Accordingly, circuit breakers may be classified into:

They are generally classified on the basis of the medium used for arc elimination (i) Oil circuit breakers, which employ some insulating oil for arc extinction. (ii) Air-blast circuit breakers in which high pressure air blast is used for extinguishing the arc. (iii) Sulphur hexa fluroide C.B. in which SF6 gas is used for arc extinction. (iv) Vacuum C.B. in which vacuum is used for arc extinction.

SULPHUR HEXAFLOURIDE (SF6) CIRCUIT BREAKER In such breakers, sulphur hexaflouride (SF6) gas is used as the arc quenching medium. The sf6 is an electro-negative gas and has a strong tendency to absorb free electrons. The SF6 circuit breakers have been found to be very effective for high power and high voltage service.

CONSTRUCTION

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The cylindrical large size steel tanks are mounted horizontally parallel to each other. Each tank consists of SF6 under pressure. The interruption is of multi break type & is placed along the axis of each tank. The interruption assembly is supported inside the tank by the vertical bushing, which are mounted near the end of each tank. Gas at high pressure is supplied to the interrupter from a gas reservoir. The bushing are also insulated with SF6 the conductor is in the from of copper tube supported at both end by porcelain shields. SF6 gas is supplied from the high pressure tanks. Shields are provided with gasket seals to eliminate leakage of gas from beginnings.

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Fig 5 WORKING In the closed position of the breaker the contacts remain surrounded by SF6 gas at a pressure of about 2.8 kg/sq cm. When the breaker operates, the moving contact is pulled apart and an arc is struck between the contacts. The movement of the moving contact is synchronised with the opening of a valve which permits SF6 gas at 14kg/sq cm pressure from the reservoir to the arc interruption chamber. the high pressure flow of SF6 rapidly absorbs the free electrons in the arc path to form immobile negative ions which are ineffective as charge carriers. The result is that the medium between the contacts quickly builds up high dielectric strength and causes the extinction of the arc. After the breaker operation the valve is closed by the action of a set of springs.

400 KV SF6 C.B. [RATINGS]: Manufacture: Type: Rated voltage: Rated frequency: Rated power frequency: voltage: Rated Impulse withstand voltage: Lightning: Switching: 1425KV 1050KV BHEL Hyderabad. HLR245/2503 B.S. Normally 420 KV, maximum 440 KV. 50 HZ. 520 KV

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Dept. of Electrical Engg.

Normal current rating At 50 c ambient: At 40 c ambient: Short time current rating: Rated operating duty: Rated short circuit duration: 2240Amps 2500Amps 40 KA for 3 sec. 0 to 0.3 sec. c-0-3min-mb. 1 sec.

BREAKING CAPACITY [BASED ON SPECIFIED DUTY CYCLE]: (a) Capacity at rated voltage: (b) Symmetry current: (c) Asymmetry current: Making capacity: Rated pressure of SF6 gas at degree: Weight of complete breaker: Weight of SF6 gas: Rated trip coil voltage: Rated closing voltage:
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29000MVA [440KV]. 40 KA. 49 KA. 100KA [peak] 7.5bars. 11700 Kg. 76.5Kg. 220 V. AC. 220 V. DC.
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Rated pressure of hydraulic operating (gauge): 250-350bar.

First poll to clear factor:

1.3

ADVANTAGES OF SF6 CIRCUIT BREAKER: 1. Due to the superior arc quenching property of SF6, such circuit breakers have very short arching time. 2. Since the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is 2 to 3 times that of air, such breakers can interrupt much larger currents. 3. The SF6 circuit breakers gives noiseless operation due to its closed gas circuit and no exhaust to the atmosphere unlike the air blast circuit breaker. 4. The closest gas enclosure keeps the interior dry so that there is no moisture problem. 5. There is on risk of fire in such breakers because SF6 gas is not inflammable. There are no carbon deposits so that tracking and insulation problems are eliminated. 6. The SF6 breakers have low maintenance cost, light foundation requirement and minimum auxiliary equipment. 7. Since SF6 breakers are totally enclosed and sealed from atmosphere they are particularly suitable where explosion hazard exists e.g., coal mines.

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DEMERITS OF SF6 CIRCUIT BREKER: 1. Sealing problems arise due to the type of the construction used. 2. The presence of moisture in the system is very dangerous to SF6 circuit breaker. 3. Arced Sf6 gas is poisonous & should not be let out. 4. The double pressure SF6 CB is cost liner due to complex gas system. 5. The internal parts should be cleaned thoroughly during periodic under clean dry environment. 6. Dust of Teflon & sulfide should be removed. 7. Special facilities are needed for transporting the gas. maintenance

APPLICATIONS SF6 C.B. have been developed for voltages 115 KV to 230 KV, power ratings 10 MVA to 20 MVA and interrupting time less than 3 cycles.

S.N O 1 2 3 4 5 6

I.E. 552A 552T 552B 452T 252A 252B

MAK E 3AT3 DO MG NGEF BHEL ABB

TYPE

VOLTAGE

CURREN

STC

SF6/HY

T 3AT3 420/520 2000A DO DO DO FAR2 DO 3150A S2M420 420/610/1425 2000A 3AT3 420/520/1050 DO EL(V) 420/1050 3150

D 40KA/S 7.5/350 DO DO DO 7/300 DO 8/35 DO 7.5/350 40KA/3S 7/31.5

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POWER TRANSFORMER

The transformer is a static apparatus, which receives power/energy at it, one circuit and transmits it to other circuit without changing the frequency. With this basic conception we can use the voltages at our desired level while utilizing the power. As, the voltage used to generate at modern power houses at 11 KV or so and afterwards we get it step up at a level of 33 KV, 66 KV, 132 V, 220 KV or 400 KV, 750 KV for transmission to minimize the distribution losses. Again we get it step down with the help of transformer to use at our wishes at 11 KV, 6.6 KV or even 415, 230 volts at our houses.

BASIC PARTS OF TRANSFORMER

The following are the inherent parts of a modern day transformer:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Primary and secondary coils (circuit) or windings. Core Main Tank Conservator Breather Radiator Buchholz relay Explosive vent Bushings (HT & LT) (Primary or secondary) Cooling fans Tap changer (on load and off load) NGR (Neutral Grounding Resistance) to minimize the earth fault current

Fig 6.1

DESCRIPTION OF PLANT:
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The three transformer are oil immersed with rating of 250 MVA & one with 315 MVA. However a synchronous loading of 100MVA at 0.8 power factor (lag) and 18 MVA 0.8 pf (lag) on the tertiary can also be loaded to 20MVA loading with 100MVA 0.8 pf on LV without exceeding the generated temperature rise. The transformer is also provided with a separate bank of radiation, fans, and associated control equipments. The control equipments are housed in a tank mounted miscalling.

Fig 6.2

RATING DATAS. Type of cooling: ONAN / ONAF/ ODAF

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MVA HV: IV: LV: VOLTS HV: 400 KV IV: 220 KV LV: 33 KV 189 / 252 / 315 189 / 252 / 315 63 / 84 / 105

LINE AMPERES HV: IV: LV: 273 / 364 / 455 497 / 662 / 828 1104 / 1471 /1839

IMPEDANCE VOLTAGE HV to IV 12.65% on 315 MVA Base HV to LV 39.16 % on 315MVA Base IV to LV 26.66 % on 315 MVA Base

NUMBER OF PHASES Three 50 Hz


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HV, LV, IV

FREQUENCY IN Hz

YEAR OF MANUFACTURE: 1985

Mass of Core & Windings: Mass of Oil: Total weight: Oil in tank: Oil in radiator: Oil in tap changer: Transportation mass: Unmaking height: Unmaking mass

1,32,000 kg 65,150 kg 261,200 kg 73,200 kg 8400 kg 83,850 kg 168,000 kg 7760 mm 18000 Kg

Guaranteed maximum temperature rise of: Oil Winding 45C 50C

COOLING FANS: Rating: Type: 2000 m3 of air per minute. 915 mm dial GEC (India) make.

Numbers per transformer: two


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Fan motor: direct on line starts weather proof. Squirrel cage IM 1400 W 400/440 Volt 3- , 50 Hz 720 rpm PUMPS: Rating: Type: Pump motor: 1818 liters per minute. a landless A to 8c sentiment. direct on line starts weather proof. Squirrel cage IM

Number of pump per transformer: one working, one standby.

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CURRENT TRANSFORMER
These transformers are used with low range ammeter to measure currents in high voltage alternating current circuits where it is not practicable to connect instruments and meters directly to lines. In addition to insulating the instrument from the high voltage line, they step down the current in the known ratio. The current (or series) transformers has a primary coil of 1 or more turns of thick wires connected in series with the line whose current is to be measured. The secondary consist of a large number of turns of fine wire and is connected across the ammeter terminals (usually of 5 amp bracket should be removed or 1 amp range)

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Fig 7

POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER
These transformers are extremely accurate ratio step down transformers and are used in conjunction with standard low range voltmeter (usually 150 volt) whose deflection when divided by voltage transformation ratio, gives the true voltage on the high voltage side. In general, they are of the shell type and do not differ much from the ordinary two winding transformer, except that their power rating is extremely small. Up to voltage of 5000 potential transformers are usually of dry type, between 5000 and 13800 volts, they may be either dry type or oil immersed type, although for voltage above 13800 they are oil type. Since their secondary windings are required to operate instruments or relays or pilot lights, their ratings are usually 42 to 100 watts.

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CAPACITIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS (CVT)

Capacitive voltage transformers are special kind of power transformers using capacitors to step down the voltage. DESCRIPTION:

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The capacitive voltage transformer comprises of a capacitor divider with its associated electromagnetic unit. The divider provides an accurate proportioned voltage, while the magnetic unit transforms this voltage, in both magnitude and phase to convenient levels suitable for measuring, metering, protection etc. all WSI capacitor units has metallic bellows to compensate the volumetric expansion of oil inside. The porcelain in multi unit stack, all the potential points are electrically tied and suitably shielded to overcome the effect of corona RIV etc. Capacitive voltage transformers are available for system voltages of 33 KV to 420KV.

Fig 8

APPLICATION: 1. Capacitive voltage transformers can be effectively as potential sources for measuring ,metering, protection, carrier communication and other vital functions of an electrical network.
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2. CVT are constructed in single or multi unit porcelain housing with there associated magnetic units. For EHV systemcuts are always supplied in multi unit construction. 3. In case of EHV cuts the multi unit system has many advantage easy to transport and storing, convenience in handling.

RATING OF CVT Voltage: Total o/p: 22/sqrt 3 KV 500MVA 400/sqrt 3 max. 630 KV for 1 min

Operating voltage: Test voltage:

Voltage factor: 1.5/30 sec. Impulse withstands voltage: 1.2/ 50 s. 1425KV max. Frequency : 50Hz High frequency capacitance: 4400pF Primary capacitance: 4657pF Secondary capacitance: 80000 pF

S no 1 2 3

Ie Bassi Bassi 2 Bus 1

Make Wsi/cve/420 /1425 Wsi/cve/420 /1425 Wsi/cve/420

Ratio 400 400 400


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Burden 200,200, 100 200,200, 100 200,200,

Class 3p,3p,0.5 3p,3p,0.5 3p,3p,0.5

Sec cap 80000pf 80000pf 80000pf

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Bus 2

/1425 Wsi/cve/420 /1425

400

100 200,200, 100

3p,3p,0.5

80000pf

TRANSFORMER OIL & ITS TESTING

The prime function of oil is to convey the heat from the core and winding to the tank where it can be dissipated. Besides these, the oil provides additional insulation between primary and secondary windings. So, the oil must be completely free from dirt, moisture and other un-wanted solid matter. The oil used in the transformer is natural mineral oil and should undergo the following tests if required: BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE: The voltage at which the oil breaks down when subjected to an electric field.

FLASH POINT: The temperature, at which the oil gives off so many vapors, when mixed with air forms an ignitable mixture and gives a momentary flash with small pilot flame.

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For checking above values, various tests are done. These are categorized as: 1. Physical test. 2. Chemical test. 3. Electrical test.

The results must be close to standard results that are followsS.N 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. TYPE OF TEST Density (gm/cubic cm.)at 27C Flash point B.D.V Test K.V (rms.) Tan delta at 90C Water content (PPM.) Gas contents (PPM.) (a) Hydrogen (b) Methane (c) Ethane (d) Ethylene (e) Acetylene (f) Carbon dioxide (h) Carbon mono-oxide 100 to150 50 to 70 30 to 50 100 to 150 20 to 30 3000 to 3500 200 to300 STD. RESULTS .85 to .89 >125C >50 KV < 20% 25(max.)above 145KV

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LIGHTENING ARRESTORS
An electric discharge between cloud and earth, between cloud and the charge centers of the same cloud is known as lightening. The earthing screens and the ground wires can well protect the electrical system against direct lightening strokes but they fail to provide protection against travelling waves which may reach the terminal apparatus. The lightening arrestors or the surge diverters provide protections against such surges.

THYRITE TYPE: Ground wire run over the tower provides an adequate protection against lighting and reduce the induced electrostatic or electromagnetic voltage but such a shield is inadequate to protect any traveling wave, which reaches the terminal of the electrical equipment, and such wave can cause the following damage.

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1 2 3

the high peak of the surge may cause a flashover in the internal wiring thus it may spoil the insulation of the winding . the steep wave front may cause internal flash over between their turns of transformer. The stop wave front resulting into resonance and high voltage may cause internal or external flashover causing building up the oscillator is the electrical operation.

Lightening arrestors are provided between the line and earth provided the protection against traveling wave surge the thyrite lightening arrestor are provided at GSS. This type of LA has a basic cell made of thirties, which is a particular type of clay, mixed with carborendum. Thirties has a particular property of being insulator one voltage At high voltage It will behave like a conducting material the electrical resistance of thyrite depends upon the voltage each time the voltage is made twice the resistance decrease in such a manner as to allow an increased current of 12.5 times the change in current is independent of rate of application voltage and its instantaneous value. The above law is followed by this material without any limit on the voltage increase and after the surge has passed the thyrite againretain its original property A standard cell is rated for 1KV and is formed into a disc, which is sprayed on both the sides of to give good contact with each disc. The dimensions of the discs are stacked i.e. 16 cm in diameter and 17.5 cm thick these discs are stacked one upon each other and they are further placed in to a porcelien container with a suitable arrangement of gap between them.
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These gaps serves as the purpose of preventing any current flow during normal operating voltage in case of any transients the gap are punctured. The Thyrite type arrestor will discharge several thousands ampere without the slightest tendency of flashover on the edges of most important of the advance is that there is absolutely no time lag in its performance.

400KV LIGHTNENIG ARRESTOR manufacture: English electric company no of phases: one rated voltage: 360 KV nominal discharge current long duration rating(200 s) Sno 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ie Bassi1 bassi2 ILT1 ILT2 ILT3 ILT4 Make Wsi Elpro Elpro Elpro WSI WSI (820s) 10KA 500KA Type Cpl Alugard2 Alugard2 Alugard2 CDV303 CDV03 Current 10KA 10KA 10KA 10KA 10KA 10KA Voltage 360KV 360KV 360KV 360KVh 398KV 398KV high current impulse(4110 s ) 100KA

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CONTROL PANEL
The diagram made on the control panel is known as mimic diagram. COLOUR CODING * 33KV GREEN * 132 KV BLACK * 220KV BROWN * 440 VOLTS VOILET/INDIGO * 110 VOLTS ORANGE

REACTOR It is used to lower the over excited capacitor. Capacitor bank is connected in shunt over the reactor. Capacitors main purpose is to boost up the voltage. so when we want to lower the voltage we use reactors. it is also use to stop the sudden change. the commonly used reactor is NGR(Neutral ground reactor).

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CIRCUIT BREAKER There is a one and half breaker scheme i.e. 3 breakers for 2 buses used in 400 KV G.S.S.

BUS COUPLERS It is used to equalize the load on both Bus bars.

DISTURBANCE RECORDER It records the distance & fault on graph with voltage w.r.t time.

EVENT LOGGER it monitors as well as provides the details as a printed material. These details may contain the sequence of operation, switching time, closing time etc.

ON LOAD TAP CHANGER (OLTC) In this method a number of tappings are provided on the secondary of the transformer. The voltage drop in the line is supplied by changing the secondary emf of the transformer through the adjustment of its number of turns by using transition resistor

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which are placed in between each tapping. In supply system, tap changing has to be performed on load so that here is no interruption to supply. By using transition resister therefore shut down is not required.

Fig 11

NO LOAD TAP CHANGER (NLTC) in this we change the tap manually for which we have to shut down the transformer. When the load increases the voltage across the primary drops but the secondary voltage can be kept at the previous value by placing the movable arm on to a higher stud. Whenever a tapping is to be changed in this type of transformer, the load is kept off and hence the name off load tap-changing transformer.

SYNCHRONOSCOPE

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Dept. of Electrical Engg.

A synchronoscope is used to determine the correct instance of closing the switch with connect the new supply to bus bar the correct instance of synchronizing is indicated when bus bar and incoming voltage * are equal in magnitude * are equal in phase * have the same frequency the phase sequence is same EARTHING OF THE SYSTEM: The provision of an earthling system for an electric system is necessary by the following reason. 1 In the event of over voltage on the system due to lightening discharge or other system fault. These parts of equipment, which are normally dead, as for as voltage, are concerned do not attain dangerously high potential. 2 In a three phase, circuit the neutral of the system is earthed in order to stabilize the potential of circuit with respect to earth. The resistance of earthling system is depending on 1 2 3 Shape and material of earth electrode used. Depth in the soil Specific resistance of soil surrounding in the neighborhood of system electrodes. PROCEDURE OF EARTHING: Technical consideration the current carrying path should have enough capacity to deal with more faults current. The resistance of earth and current path should be low enough to prevent voltage rise between earth and neutral. The earth electrode must be driven into the ground to a sufficient depth to as to obtain lower value of
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earth resistance. To sufficient lowered earth resistance a number of electrodes are inserted in the earth to a depth they are connected together to form a mesh. The resistance of earth should be for the mesh in generally inserted in the earth at 0.5m depths the several point of mesh then connected to earth electrode or ground conduction. The earth electrode is metal plate copper is used for earth plate. Neutral Earthing: Neutral earthing of power transformer all power system operates with grounded neutral. Grounding of neutral offers several advantages the neutral point of generator transformer is connected to earth directly or through a reactance in some cases the neutral points is earthed through an adjustable reactor of reactance matched with the line. The earthling is one of the most important feature of system design for switchgear protection neutral grounding is important because:

1 2 3

The earth fault protection is based on the method of neutral earthling. The neutral earthling is associated switchgear. The neutral earthling is provided for the purpose of protection arcing grounds unbalanced voltages with respect to protection from lightening and for improvement of system.

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POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION

As electronics plays a vital role in the industrial growth, communication is also a backbone of any power station, communication between various generating and receiving station is very essential for proper operation of power system. This is more so in case of a large interconnected system where a control load dispatch station has to coordinate the working of various units to see that the system is maintained in the optimum working condition, power line communication is the most economical and reliable method of communication for medium and long distance in a power network. PLCC system in Rajasthan: 1 HEERAPURA: JAIPUR, AJMER, BYAWAR, BHILWARA, PALI, JODHPUR 2 HISSAR: KHETRI, HEERAPURA, KOTA, RAPP 3 HEERAPURA: KOTS, JSP, RPS, GSD 4 BHILWARA: 5 PALI: RPS FALANA

6 HEERAPURA: ALWAR, BHARATPUR


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7 NEEMUCH:

DEBARI

8 DEBARI: SIROHI 9 DEBARI: ZAWAR MINES 10 HEERAPURA: SIKAR, RATANGARH, BIKANER 11 HANUM, ANGARH: HISSAR, SHRIGANGANAGAR 12 HEERAPURA: BADHERPUB

CORONA EFFECT

When an alternating potential difference is applied across two conductors whose spacing is as large as compared to their diameters, there is no apparent change in the condition of atmospheric air surrounding the wires if the applied voltage is low. However when the applied voltage exceeds a certain value called critical disruptive voltage, the conductors are surrounded by a faint violet glow called corona. The phenomenon of corona is accompanied by a hissing sound, production of ozone, power loss and radio interference. The higher the voltage is raised, the larger and higher the luminous envelope becomes, and greater are the sound, the power loss and the radio noise. If the applied voltage is increased to breakdown value, a flash over will occur between the conductors due to the breakdown of air insulation. The phenomenon of violet glow, hissing noise and production of ozone gas
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in an overhead transmission line is known as corona. If the conductors are polished and smooth, the corona glow will be uniform throughout the length of the conductors, otherwise the rough points will appear brighter. The positive wire has uniform glow about it, while the negative conductors has spotty glow.

FACTORS AFFECTING CORONA The phenomenon of corona is affected by the physical state of the atmosphere as well as by the conditions of the line. The following are the factors on which corona depends: 1. Atmosphere. In the stormy weather, the number of ions is more than normal and as such corona occurs at much less voltage as compared with fair weather. 2. Conductor size. The rough and irregular surface will give rise to more corona because unevenness of the surface decreases the value of breakdown voltage. 3. Spacing between conductors. Larger space between conductors reduces the electro-static stresses at the conductor surface, thus avoiding corona formation. 4. Line voltage. If the line voltage is low, there is no chance in the condition of air surrounding the conductors and hence no corona is formed.

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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CORONA Corona has many advantages and disadvantages. In the correct design of a high voltage overhead line, a balance should be struck between the advantages and disadvantages. Advantages 1. Due to corona formation, the air surrounding the conductor becomes conducting and hence virtual diameter of the conductor is increased. The increased diameter reduces the electro-static stresses between the conductors. 2. Corona reduces the effect of the transients produced by surges. Disadvantages 1. Corona is accompanied by a loss of energy. This affects the transmission efficiency of the line. 2. Ozone is produced by corona and may cause corrosion of the conductor due to chemical action. 3. The current drawn by the line due to corona is non-sinusoidal and hence non-sinusoidal voltage drop occurs in the line. This may cause inductive interference with neighboring communication lines.

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CONCLUSION

A technician needs to have not just theoretical but practical as well and so every student is supposed to undergo a practical training session after III year where I have imbibed the knowledge about transmission, distribution, generation and maintenance with economical issues related to it. During our 30 days training session we were acquainted with the repairing of the transformers and also the testing of oil which is a major component of transformer. At last I would like to say that practical training taken at 220KV GSS has broadened my knowledge and has widened my thinking as a professional.

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REFERENCES: Principles of Power System-by V.K.MEHTA Electrical Power System-by C.L.WADHWA

REPORT BYKapil Kumar SKIT,JAIPUR

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Dept. of Electrical Engg.