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EGERTON COURT, PARKGATE ESTATE, KNUTSFORD, CHESHIRE WA16 8DX, ENGLAND TELEPHONE: 01565 752000 FAX: 01565 650264

MRCP 2 PACES CLINICAL COURSE

OPHTHALMOLOGY STATION

HOW TO APPROACH A FUNDAL EXAMINATION: DO NOT PANIC!

© Copyright 2008 PasTest Ltd The material in the folder is strictly copyright 2008 by PasTest Ltd. Under no circumstances may this material be photocopied or reproduced by any means whatsoever without the prior permission of PasTest Ltd. The information contained within this binder was obtained from reliable sources. However, while every effort has been made to ensure its accuracy, no responsibility for loss, damage or injury occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of information contained herein can be accepted by PasTest Ltd.

CRVO : Diffuse haemorrhages 4 quadrants Optic disc swollen in severe cases Think causes for thrombosis: HT. carotid stenosis etc ©PasTest Ltd . patient sees nothing” pale fundus cherry red spot during first few months “missing” arteries Think causes for occlusion: GCA. IRMA (intraretinal micro vascular abnormalities) New vessels on the disc New vessels elsewhere . diabetes.Ophthalmology 1) PICTURE AS A WHOLE . hyperviscosity etc . Exudates. Venous beading.CRAO: “Doctors sees nothing.Diabetes: Microaneurisms.

exudates Disc swelling.Hypertensive retinopathy Narrowing of arteries AV nipping CWS.Ophthalmology . macular star ©PasTest Ltd . flame shaped haemorrhages.

Ophthalmology 2) RETINAL PERIPHERY .Black spots laser scars (diabetes. CRVO) retinitis pigmentosa ©PasTest Ltd .

fluffy nerve fibers.Ophthalmology 3) OPTIC DISC Cupping glaucoma (MRCOphth not MRCP) Contour disc swelling: disc hyperemia. rare!) Both swollen: SOL brain Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) Meningitis Cavernous sinus thrombosis Beware of drusen (pseudo-swelling) ©PasTest Ltd . TED. disc haemorrhages One disc swollen: optic neuritis GCA AION CRVO. neuro-retinitis (rare!) Leber’s optic neuropathy (mitochondrial. HT retinopathy.

extensive scarring) Angioid streaks (assoc. isoniazide.Ophthalmology Colour Pale After swelling (optic neuritis. Leber’s) Compressive (meningioma. neuro-retinitis) Granulomatous disease (sarcoidosis) 4) MACULA Oedema Diabetes (circinnate) Scarring Chorio-retinitis (toxoplasma. amiodarone. TED. lead ethylene glycol (anti-freeze fluid) vit B deficiency in alcoholics – aka tobacco-alcohol amblyopia Ischemia (AION) Post-trauma Infective (syphilis. GCA. leukaemia) Toxicity (ethambutol. sarcoid) ARMD (grayish membrane. with pseudoxanthoma elasticum) ©PasTest Ltd .

Ophthalmology ©PasTest Ltd .

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