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Change your life

Internship Report

Transformer Unit II

Muhammad Waqas 09-EE-119

University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Design Department Name: Designation: Signature: I & QC Department Name: Designation: Signature: Production Department Name: Designation: Signature: HR Department Name: Designation: Signature:

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Dedication

To my family and my teachers who showered their wisdom and knowledge enabling me to come to grips with the worldly life and attain my objectives.

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Acknowledgement

In the name of ALLAH, the most merciful and the most beneficent

Person is not perfect. He has a limited mind and thinking approaches. It is the guidance from the almighty ALLAH that shows the man, light in the darkness and the person finds his way in this light. Without this helping light, person is nothing but a helpless creature.

I am very grate full to ALLAH almighty for granting me the opportunity, perseverance and determination for handling the internship at PEL for the duration june-july 2011. I extend many thanks to all my section in charges for helping and guidance throughout my Internship. They help me a lot in performing all activities and in gaining the practical knowledge. They monitored all my activities and gave me the best suggestions to complete all the assigned tasks in effective manner.

I am very thankful to administration of PEL for giving me the opportunity of internship that build my personality and enable me to do some creative work to be successful person in my practical life.

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Executive Summary

I have worked as an intern at PEL (Pak Elektron Limited) for the duration of 4 weeks(20th June to 18th July ) 2011. I made this report about the working in the PEL in TRANSFORMER UNIT.I visited three sections of unit and know further details briefly. In the usual education, we have studied only concepts of every subject and do not have practical knowledge. In engineering we have only studied theory and concepts and when a person apply that theory and concepts on an organization that concepts convert in to knowledge that live long with a person the whole life. I learnt a lot from this organization which I mentioned in this report. These three sections include Design, I&QC and Production departments..This report will give its reader the knowledge about the history and background of PEL. In this report, I mentioned the procedures and the processes followed by workers and engineers to get more reliable and best products. The tests performed in incoming section on different products and in quality control section are also included.

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

PEL Pakistan
Type: Public

Introduction:

Electronics and Digital Appliances, Power Division

Founded:

1956

Headquarter:

Lahore, Pakistan

Key people:

Mr. Naseem Saigol (CEO), Mr.Azam Saigol , Mr. Murad Saigol

Products:

Refrigerators, Air conditioners, Microwave Ovens, Washing Machines, water Dispensers and Generators, Transformers, Switchgears

Parent:

Saigol Group

Web site:

www.pel.com

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Vision Statement

To excel in providing Engineering good and services.

Mission Statement

To provide quality products & services to the complete satisfaction of our customers and maximize returns for all stakeholders through optimal use of resources. To focus on personal development of our employees to meet future challenges. To promote good governance, corporate values and a safe working environment with a strong.

Slogan

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Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Introduction of PEL
Pak Elektron Limited (PEL) is the pioneer manufacturer of electrical goods in Pakistan. It was established in 1956 in technical collaboration with AEG of Germany. In October 1978, the company was bought by the Saigol Group of Companies. Since its inception, the company has always been contributing towards the advancement and development of the engineering sector in Pakistan by introducing a range of quality defined goods and by producing hundreds of engineers, skilled workers and technicians through its apprenticeship schemes and training programs. The company comprises two divisions: Appliances Division. Power Division.

Appliances Division:

The Home Appliances Division of PEL is the flag carrier of the Saigol Group, involved in home appliances manufacturing. Air conditioners. Refrigerator. Deep freezers. Microwave oven. Washing machine. Generators. Vacuum Cleaner

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Power Division:

PEL Power Division manufactures energy meters, Transformers Switchgears Compact stations Shunt capacitor banks Energy meters Generators

Power Division:
PEL Power Division consists of three plants. These are Energy Meter Plant, Transformer Plant, and Switch Gear Plant. All these plants are now ISO 9001:2000 Certified. PEL Power Division manufactures energy meters, transformers, switch gears, Kiosks, compact stations, and shunt capacitor banks and specially Transformers. All these electrical goods are manufactured under strict quality control and in accordance with international standards. PEL is one of the major electrical equipment suppliers to Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Karachi Electric Supply Corporation (KESC), which are the largest power utilities in Pakistan. Over the years, PEL electrical equipment has had been used in numerous power projects of national importance within Pakistan. PEL has the privilege of getting its equipment approved and certified by well-reputed international consultants such as, Preece Ensa, France. In spite of stiff competition from emerging local and multinational brands, PEL Group's appliances and electrical equipments have remained in the spotlight due to constant innovation. Strategic partnership with multinationals of repute have enabled the PEL Group to incorporate new technologies into existing product ranges, thus giving the Pakistani market access to innovative, affordable and quality products

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Design Department
Deals with the designing and finalizing the details & specifications of a transformer. Design department follows the IEC rules and regulations to ensure a standardized design. In design department the following procedure is followed. Marketin g Data sheet

Design Department H.O.D

Electrical

Mechanica l

Rough Design Design OK Marketin g Cost, Material, Time

Design Department
H.O.D

Electrical Specifications, coil, core

Mechanica l Work Order Structure, Tank, Parts

Production Muhammad Waqas 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila

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Hierarchy of Design department

Mr Sadiq

Sr. Manager (M4)

Mr Masood Electrical

Assistant Manager (M1) Mechanical

Sr. Engr Adnan Shahid Engr Aamir Sharif Aamir Sharif Sub Engr Fahad Zahid Rehan Irfan

Sr. Engr Adnan Ch. Abid Engr Javid Mohsin Butt Sub Engr Adnan Amjad Draughtman Riaz Asim Umer Sajid

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Tools:
Auto CAD Pro E Microsoft Excel

Electrical engineer:
Perform the designing of electrical parts of the transformer.

Mechanical engineer:
Perform the design of mechanical parts of a transformer. On software they also perform some simple tests that are to determine the feasibility of the transformer.

Terms:
Data sheet:
Includes all the specifications of a transformer.

BOQ (Bill of Quantity):


Contains the amount of material used for the construction of a transformer.

Work Order:
Includes the time and sequence of parts to be manufactured.

Transformer Design Steps:

Step I

Ratings (Data)

Kva, Voltages, Type (Step Up/Down), Connections (Y/D), Power Factor Step I I Current Calculations

Current in Primary Windings, Flux in Coil, Current Density

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Step I I I

Coil Design

Coil Cross-Sectional Area, Material Radius, Length, Number of Turns, Tappings, Insulation Step I V Core Design

Window Height, Stepping, Weight, Height Step V Tank and Accessories Outer Accessories, Insulators, Contacts

Specifications:
The design of a transformer depends to a large extent on specific requirements of a customer. So, the manufacturer must provide details of specifications to the customer. The information provided to the customer may be of three types. Mandatory Supplementary Additional

Mandatory specification:

The information without which it is difficult to proceed a single step for designing a transformer and that information is critical as well for the purpose of design electrically and mechanically is termed as mandatory specification. The specifications are listed below: Kva ratings Voltage ratio System earthing The number of phase and frequencies Connection and vector group Tappings and tap switch Service conditions and type installations like indoor and outdoor

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Requirements of terminations Cooling Winding materials Altitude of installation Type of mountings

Supplementary specifications

The specifications which are not mandatory in nature but are essential for designing an efficient transformer are supplementary specifications. These specifications are as under: No load losses and no load current Load losses and percentage impedance Temperature rise limit over the ambient temperature limit Basic insulation level System fault Specific requirement of fitting and accessories Limitations of flux density and current density Dimensions and limitations Evaluations of cost by way of loss capitalization.

Additional specification

Additional specifications are not much critical for the working and operation of a transformer but it is essential for the design to know the requirements of buyer that includes grade of core,shape of tank etc. to offer a good transformer by the designer to the customer for particular site conditions. These are listed below: Minimum acceptance and thickness of core laminations Type of core construction

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Stray losses Noise level


Shape of tank body

Quality of gas kits and hardware Pitch distance and size of top cover bolts etc.

Inspection & Quality Control Department:

Incoming: Tests performed in incoming on to be purchased items so that they should pass the quality test.

Enameled Copper Wire Test Apparatus: Electric oven High port tester set/bench Testing device for peeling off and breakdown test Elongation tester Micrometer

Mandrill Test: Twist wire along its own diameter 8-10 times Check for zero cracks

Heat Shock Test: Put wire in Electric oven for 155-160o C for half hour Again Mandrill Test

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Break Down Test: 400mm length taken Doubled and twisted Checked for twists in 125mm length Twists as per IEC 60317 BS 4516 Ends cut, enamel removed Rated voltage applied

Peel Off Test:


Applicable upto 1mm diameter 600mm length taken Fixing devices 500mm apart One rotatable part
Weight attached to the wire From scraper enamel is removed Speed of rotation 60-100 rev/min Specified revolution R=175/d Chipping off is tested Zero chipping required

Elongation Test: Elongation tester 200-250mm length taken Rate of elongation 5mm/sec Till Fracture stress is applied Length measured Not less than IEC 60317 BS 4516 Bird protection test for cover plate Apparatus: Steps: On High Port Tester 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila High port tester Stop watch

Muhammad Waqas

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Zero kV Cover plate placed Ground cover plate High Port Tester to cover plate copper strip On breaker of High Port Tester Up to 8kV applied Stopwatch to 1min at 8kV Must sustain 8kV for 1 min Change of Mass Test of Gaskit (NBR)

Apparatus: Steps: Transformer oil 400-500ml Record initial weight of gas kit Dip sample in oil Place for 72 hours in oven at 110 C Take sample weight after 72 hours Calculate = ((final weight initial weight)/initial weight)X100 TDD 05 11 Tolerance +15% and -5% Beaker Transformer oil Thermometer Electric oven Digital weighing scale

In process Testing: Core & Winding Assembly Final Assembly Cover Plate Assembly Fin Folding Mechanical Fitting Shop Tank Assembly

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Transformer Oil Testing

Transformer oil is tested before unloading it from the tanker. These tests are recommended by IEC 60296. These tests include: Visual inspection Specific gravity Viscosity Flash point Dielectric strength Acidity value Pour point

When the oil is unloaded it is processed for 5 to 8 hours before filling tanks with it.

Testing

Routine Tests: TTR (Transformer Turn Ratio) Winding Resistance Test Megger Test Induced Voltage Test High Voltage Test Iron Losses Copper Losses

Type Test:

Temperature Rise Impulse Test Short Circuit Test

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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TTR: It is performed: Before connection After connection Before dispatch

Winding Resistance Test:

DLRO (Digital Low Resistance Ohm) meter is used to perform this test. It is used to check resistance of o HV winding o LV to LV winding

Megger Test: Special meter is used to perform this test.

Induce Voltage Test: LT side o Double voltage 415 -> 830V Frequency 4 times 200Hz Time of test 30 sec It is to check the turn to turn insulation

High Voltage Test: EC 28kV HT side short and applied 34kV LT side short with body (grounded) Time of test 1min

Iron Losses (no load): LT side 415kV HT side open

Copper Losses (short circuit): HT side rated current LT side short 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila

Muhammad Waqas

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Hierarchy of I & QC department

Jahanzeb Ahmed Manager I & QC

Usman Harooni Incharge R1

R1 unit II

R1 unit II

PDI at vendor end

WAPDA material Inspection

Mirza Islam Ul Haq Engr

Inspector No. 1

Khurram Shehzad Sub Engr

Khurram Shehzad Sub Engr

Inspector No. 1 Inspector No. 1

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Production Department
Hierarchy of Production Department
Jahanzeb Ahmad manager

Asfand Ali testing Engr

DT transformer factory

DT test field unit I

Testing

Servicing

Customer comlaints Salman Rafiq testing Engr E3 Muhammad Arshad asst. Supervisor S2 Arif Husain Sr.Inspector C

PM transformer testing/PDI/inspectio n
Muhammad Sageer Sub Engr S1

Salman Rafiq testing Engr E3 Inspector No. 2

Private rating transformer

WAPDA rating transformer Atiq ur Rehman SubEngr testing S1

Noor Muhmmad Jalbani Engr Inspector No. 1

Abdul Hameed Assit. Supervisor S2

Muhammad Waqas

Inspector No. 3

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Winding Section: In this section Slitting machine cuts insulation paper according to the sizes given. LV winding is performed. Which includes: o Foil winding o Coil winding Thermo duct is placed. HV winding is performed. Which includes: o Coil winding o Disk winding o Packet winding The type of winding is decided by the design department according to the rating.

Core Section: Silicon Steel Sheet Bundles

Slitting Side, Center & Yoke Degree Cutting Yoke Notching

Cutting

Gauge Assembly Weighing Of Core Plates

Core Stacking

Varnishing Of Core Checking Of Core

Stock Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Assembly Section
In this section Core and coils are put together. They are tightened by supporting beams. Before connection tests are performed. Connections are made according to the TR. After connection tests are performed. Then the assembly is placed in the furnace at 120oC for 48 hours. Cover plate is joined. Then assembly is put into the tank.

Oil Filling Section


In this section Transformer is filled with oil. Special container is used for oil filling. Up to -5 bar pressure is maintained.

Tank Section
MS Sheet 1mm-50mm

Shearing machine: It cuts & bends : o Frame o Bottom o Side wall o Angles o Fins o Cover plate NC only numerical control

CNC Machine: Dimensions code Nibbling or Punching machine 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila

Muhammad Waqas

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Program on Auto CAD and feed in SS tool to cut MS

Bending Machine: V -slots according to thickness Capacity 1-12mm

Embossing machine: Squeezing Drawing Imposing It bends it to the lower side It applies only on cover plate Die is used

Component welding: ARC o electrode is used MIG o metal inert gases sound, 80% argon, 20% CO2 TIG o tungsten inert gases 100% argon back side of cover plate carrying beams, cover plate stiffner stud to tight insulator

Conservator rolling machine: size 3mm conservator supporting beams

Frame punching machine: only punches the frame cutting Bending Notching Welding

CNC flame cutting machine: Muhammad Waqas 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila

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Used to cut lifting lugs and to cut sheets of max width Oxygen is used

Universal cutting machine: Stiffener angle round bar punching notching

Fins
CNC machine: Data entry o pitch o height o extra sides on both sides o number of fins 1.2 mm thickness of CR sheet Width 400-1220mm Can not bend more than that

Fin welding: Automatic machine CNC MIG welding Manual TIG welding

Panel sides bending machine: 2 small, 2 large endings. The two large (A,B) or small size of fins (side fins) are bended and then welded.

Tank assembly: Pad mounted o 3sides fins areas where wires are undergrounded.

Under carriage fitting: Beams Wheels

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Blasting
Shot blasting: o To get rubbed surface o Oil free surface o Steel is shot on it which absorbs oil in it Sand blasting: Degreasing, Rinsing, Phosphating: Choice is there only one is chosen 200kV->shot >200kV->sand <200kV->D,R,P Leakage testing: Diesel filling machine applied 5psi Air pressure test applied 5psi Above 630kVA, less pressure is required

Powder coating: Rough surface and powder is coated. It is melted in furnace. Gray Green Blue Creamy Process Degreasing, Rinsing Derusting Rinsing Phosphating Hot Rinsing

Important terms: PDI Pre Dispatch Inspection IR Industrial Relation RI Receiving Inspection

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

Change your life

Bottom End

MS sheet cutting

Molding/Bending in NC machine

Welding of side walls

Welding of angles

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Frame

MS sheet cutting

Molding/Bending in NC machine

Notching (universal machine)

Welded with angles

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila

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Fins

CR sheet of thickness 1.2mm

CNC machine for molding pitch 45mm

Welding of round rod

Welded with angles in assembly Muhammad Waqas 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila

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Tank Assembly
Complete welding (MIG, TIG, ARC)

Leakage test
Diesel filling test Air pressure test

To get smooth surface

Degreasing

Shot blasting

Sand blasting

Rinsing

Derusting

Rinsing

Phosphating

Hot Rinsing Muhammad Waqas 09-EE-119 UET, Taxila

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Color coating
Inside red oxide Outer gray color coating and the placed in furnace

Quality check: Moved to assembly Final Stage


The quality parameters as per requirement are checked and the tests are again performed on the transformer. When the transformer is checked and it fulfils the requirements then it is moved to the dispatch section. In the dispatch section name plate is welded with the body of the transformer and the bushings are painted.

Health, safety and Environment Department

In an organization health and safety of the people and environment insurance is much important. In PEL there is a separate department which is known as HSE department. It ensures the safety and the health of people and take measures in this regard. There are different notice boards which carry information about this. The workers uniform, personal safety equipment is much important. The workers are specially trained in this regard.

Muhammad Waqas

09-EE-119

UET, Taxila