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NUMISMATIC

AND

NOTES
MONOGRAPHS

21

No.

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

ANDRITSAENA

BY

THE

EDWARD

T.

AMERICAN
BROADWAY

NEWELL

NUMISMATIC
AT

NEW

I 5 6TH
YORK

SOCIETY
STREET

I923

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NOTES

I S

AND

ATI

MONOGRAPHS

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NumismaticNotes and Monographs


is devotedto essaysand treatiseson subjects relatingto coins, paper money,
medalsand decorations,and is uniform
with Hispanic Notes and Monographs
publishedby The Hispanic Society of
America,and with Indian Notes and
MonographsissuedbytheMuseumofthe
AmericanIndian- Heye Foundation.
Publication Committee
AgnesBaldwinBrett,Chairman
HenryRussell Drowne
JohnReilly, Jr.
Editorial Staff
SydneyPhilip Noe,Editor
HowlandWood,AssociateEditor
V. E. Karle,Assistant

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COPYRIGHT,
I923,BY
SOCIETY
THEAMERICAN
NUMISMATIC

PRESS
THE
DEV1NNE
NEW
YORK

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ALEXANDER
HOARDS
III.

ANDRITSAENA

BY
EDWARDT. NEWELL

SOCIETY
THEAMERICAN
NUMISMATIC
AT156THSTREET
BROADWAY
NEWYORK
I923

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THE

ANDRITSAENA

HOARD

By Edward T. Newell
This small but interestinghoard is
statedto have been foundnear Andritsaena in the Peloponnesusand was offeredfor sale by an Athenianantiquity
dealer early in March of 1923. How
longbeforethisit had been found,we do
notknow. It was entirelydue to the interest and active intervention
of Mr.
SydneyP. Noe, who chancedto be in
Athensat the time,that the Philip and
Alexanderportionof the findwas securedintact,as well as casts of manyof
theremainingBoeotian,^Eginetan,Sicyonian,and Olympianstaters.
No furtherparticularsconcerningthe
hoard,or the circumstances
surrounding
its discovery,are at presentavailable.
As it had passed throughat least two
hands before reaching the Athenian
to secure
dealer,it was foundimpossible
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ALEXANDER

HOARDS

any furtherinformation.All we can


state is that it was certainly
definitely
foundin the Peloponnesusand that all
the specimensoffered
to and securedby
thedealerhave been seen. Whetherthe
findwas originally
largeris notdefinitely
known,but the personfromwhomthe
dealer acquired his portionis said to
have made the vague statement
that he
believedtherewere a few morepieces.
None,however,were seenin Athensbeforethe end of May, 1923. As the contentsof the hoardmakea well rounded
out whole,it is quite possiblethat we
possessit in its entirety.At any rate,it
is well worthpublishing.
As a whole,thecoinsin thishoardare
exceedinglywell preserved. Not only
was theiroriginalownerapparently
very
particularwithregardto the condition
of the pieceswhichhe addedto his savings,buttimealso has dealtkindlywith
the littletreasureentrustedto its not
always tendercare. When found,the
majorityof our coins were but slightly
oxidized,somenot at all. This oxidizaNUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITS

AEN A

tionhas provedeasilyremovable,
as has
also thefawn-colored
earthor claywhich
originallyencrustedall of the coins.
Withthreeexceptions,
reservedforpossible futurereference,
all of the Philips
and Alexandershave now been cleaned.
The weightsof the Boeotian,^Eginetan,
Sicyonian,and Olympianstaterswere
notascertained,
butthoseof theremainder are givenbelow.
PHILIP II OF MACEDON,359-336b.C.
Mint of Amphipolis.
1 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Laureate head of Zeus to r.
Rev. MAinnOY.
Youthful rider
and
fillet
wearing
holdingpalmbranch,
on horsebackto r. Beneath foreleg.
ROSE.
No. 75.VG.gr.14.47.
Mller,
2 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneathhorse,bee and
STERN.
No. 197. F. gr.14.32.
Mller,
3 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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ALEXANDER

HOARDS

Rev. Similar. Beneathhorse,bee and


DOUBLE
HEAD.
No. 2701.F. gr.14.435* PlateI.
Mller,
4 Tetradrachm.
Similarto the preceding.
F. gr.14.38.
5 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneathhorse,double
head.
No. 269.VF. gr. 14-535Mller,
6 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneath foreleg,double head.
No.269. VG.gr.14.375.
Mller,
7 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneathforeleg,stern.
No. 210.VG.gr.14.22.
Mller,
Mint of Pella.
8 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. <>IAinnOY. The kingin kausia
and mantle,righthandraised,advancingto 1.on horseback.Beneathhorse,
HM.
No. 297.G. gr.14.26. PlateI.
Mller,
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITSAENA

g Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Youthfulhorsemanto r. as on
No. i. Beneathhorse,thunderbolt
In exergue,N.
No. n. VG.gr.14.33. Platel.
Mller,
Posthumous
issueof circa325 b.c.
io Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar,but of later style.
Rev. Similar,but of later style. Beneathhorse,flyingbee.
ofMller,
No. 191.VF. gr.14.31.
Variety
PlateI.
ALEXANDERIII OF MACEDON,
336-323b.C.
Mint of Amphipolis.
GroupA, circa336-334b.c.
II- 12 Tetradrachms.
Obv. Head of youngHeracles to r.
Rev. AAESANAPOY. Zeus aetophor
seatedto 1. on throne.In front,prow
No.503. G.gr.17.07.F. 17.09.
Mller,
GroupB, circa333and332b.c.
13 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field, bunch of
grapes.
No.306. F. gr.17.15.
Mller,
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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ALEXANDER

HOARDS

GroupD, circa330and 329b.c.


Tetradrachm.
14
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,club and (J)
No. 138.F. gr.17.095.
of Mller,
Variety
15 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,horse's head.
No.528. VF. gr.17-145Mller,
16 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field, dolphin.
No. 539. G. gr.17.20.
Mller,
GroupE, circa328and327b.c.
17 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,herm.
No.366.VF. gr.17.24.
Mller,
18 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,cock.
No. 392. VF. 16.945.
Mller,
GroupF, circa326b.c.
19 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
bowandquiver
Rev. Similar.In field,
No.591. VF. gr.17.15Mller,
GroupG,circa325b.c.
20 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITS

AENA

Rev. Similar,but inscription:AAESIn field,


ANA- P- 0YBA2IAE05.
CORNUCOPIA.
No. 368. VF. gr. 17.22.
Mller,
GroupH,circa324and323b.c.
21-22 TETRADRACHMS.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar,but inscription:BA2IPhrygAES AAESANAPOY.In field,
ian cap.
No.854.VF. gr.17.21,17.16.
Mller,
23 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,tripod.
No. 146.VF. gr.17.20.
Mller,
GroupI, circa322and321b.c.
24 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,^
No.860.VF. gr.17.125.Piateli.
Mller,
25-28 Tetradrachms.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,|]
No. 863. F. D. C. gr.17.18,17.20.
Mller,
17.22,17.27.
Group
J,circa320and319b.c.
29 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,ear of barley
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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ALEXANDER

HOARDS

Beneaththrone,II.
No.570. F. D. C. gr.17.15.
Mller,
Tetradrachm.
30
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,laurel sprig.
Beneaththrone,II.
No. 560. F. D. C. gr.17.10.
Mller,
Tetradrachm.
31
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,crescent (upright). Beneaththrone,II.
No.261. F. D. C. gr.17.205.
Mller,
Tetradrachm.
32
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,crescent (inverted). Beneaththrone,II.
No. 261. F. D. C. gr.
of Mller,
Variety
Piateli.
17.32.
Mint of Pella.
Circa336-320b.c.
33-35 Tetradrachms.
Obv. Similar, but of differentstyle.
Rev. Similar, but of different
style.
Beneaththrone,0.
No. 197.VG.to F. gr.17.12,17.18.
Mller,
17.19.
36 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITSAENA

Rev. Similar. In field,|


No. 762. F. D. C. gr.17.32.
Mller,
PlateII.
37 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. No symbol.
notinMller.VF. gr.17.195.
Variety
38 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneath throne,bucranium.
No.98. VF. gr.17.17.
Mller,
Uncertain Mint in Macedonia
or Thessaly.
39-40 Tetradrachms.
Obv. Similarto thepreceding.
Rev. Similar. In field,helmet. Beneaththrone,
A2.
No. 1472.F. D. C. gr.17.14,17.195.
Mller,
Mint of Phaselis or Side.
41-53 Tetradrachms.
Obv. Head of finestyleto r.
Rev. AAEEANAPOYon r.,BA2IAE22
in exergue. Zeus on high-back
throne
to 1. In field, wreath. Beneath
AI.
throne,
No. 550. F. to F. D. C. gr.17.00;
Mller,
17.01;17.075;17.10;17.11; 17.12;17.14;
I7-I45; 17.15;17-16;17.18;17.22;17-25PlateII.
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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10

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

54 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneaththrone,AI.
No.216. VF. gr.17.145Mller,
55 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar, but with BA2IAE22
above. In field,AI. Beneaththrone,
B2.
No. 1483. F. D. C. gr.17.195Mller,
Mint of Tarsus.
SeriesI, circa333-3
27 -C.
56 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Head of youngHeraclesof easternstyle.
Rev. Zeus, of easternstyle, s:
to 1. Below throne,A.
enthroned
No. 6.
Newell,TarsosunderAlexander,
VG.gr.17.14.
57 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneaththrone,B.
/.c. No. 10. F. gr.17.11.
Newell,
Mint of Salamis.
b.c.
SeriesI, 332-320
58 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,bow.
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITS

AEN A

11

No. 1287.(See also,Newell,Some


Mller,
Num.Chron.,1915,
Alexanders,
Cypriote
No. 7.) VG.gr.17.12.
PlateIII.
Mint of Citium.
SeriesI, 332-320
b.c.
59 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,T
No. 1294.(See also,Newell,/.c.
Mller,
No. 4.) F. gr. 17.045PlateIII.
Mint of Myriandrus.
SeriesII, circa329b.c.
60 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. BA2IAE22 on r
AAEHANAPOinexergue. In field,cw
Beneaththrone,^
- Alexandria
ka Isson,
Newell,
Myriandros
No. 20. F. gr.16.98.
SeriesIII, circa328-326b.c.
61 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar,butwithout
thetitle,and
with AAEHANAPOY on r. Same
monograms.
I. c. No.22. F. gr.17.035.
Newell,
SeriesIV, circa326-323b.c.
62 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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12

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

Rev. Similar. In field,


co over
Beneaththrone,T
/.c. No.28. VG. (notcleaned),
Newell,
gr.
17.24.
Mint of Aradus.
63 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In exergue,BASIAES,
on r.,AAEEANAPOY. Beneaththrone,
fa
No. 1360.VF. gr.17.07.
Mller,
Tetradrachms.
64-66
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,2. Beneath
throne,fa
Mller,No. 1364. F. and VF. gr. 17.03;
PlateIII.
17.105;17.19567 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,2. Beneath
throne,fa
No. 1363.F. gr.17.23.
Mller,
Mint of Byblus.
of KingAdramelek.
Monogram
68 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar,styleearly. In field,A
No. 1375.G. gr.17.015.
Mller,
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITS

AENA

13

69-71 Tetradrachms.
Obv. Similar,but of later style.
Rev. Similar,butof MllemsstyleIV.
In field,
No. 1375.F to F. D. C. gr.17^095
;
Mller,
PlateIII.
17.10;17.19.
Mint of Ake.
SeriesI, circa332-328b.c.
72 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. Beneaththrone,M.
Newell,The DatedAlexander
Coinageof
SidonandAke,No. 2. VG.gr.17.14b.c.
SeriesIII, circa326-320
73 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field, JJS(year
23= circa323 b.c.).
I. c. No.18. VF. gr.17.07.
Newell,
PlateIV.
Mint of Babylon.
SeriesII, circa329-326b.c.
74 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Head of Heracles to r., of
"Babylonianstyle."
Rev. Zeus enthronedto 1. Beneath
throne, [$ and M. (Symbol originallyin theexergueis "offflan.")
No. 670. F. gr.17.20.
Mller,
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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14

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

75 Tetradrachm.
Obv. From same obversedie.
Rev. Similar,butwithbackto throne.
In field,
thunderbolt. Beneaththrone,
and
M.
M
No. 679. VG.gr.17.12.
Mller,
76 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,wreath. Same
monogramand M beneaththrone.
notin Mller.VF. gr.17.09.
Variety
77 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,cantharus.
andM beneaththrone
Samemonogram
notin Mller.F. D. C. gr.17.18.
Variety
78 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field,rose. Same
monogramand M beneaththrone.
notin Mller.VF. gr.17.225.
Variety
b.c.
SeriesIII, circa326-324
79 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar. In field, bunch of
grapes and M. Same monogrambeneaththrone.
No.692.VF. gr.17.155.
Mller,
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITS

AENA

15

SeriesIV, circa323-320b.c.
80 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar,but of more advanced
style(Midler'sstyleIV). In field,M
Beneaththrone,AY.
No. 1272.VF. gr.17.115.
Mller,
81-82 Tetradrachms.
In name of Philip Arrhidaeus
(after323b.c.).
Obv. Similar.
Rev. Similar,butinscribed,
BA2IAE02
SIAinnOY. In field,M. Beneath
AY.
throne,
No.99. VF. gr.17.09;17.115.
Mller,
After317 b.c.
83 Tetradrachm.
Obv. Heracles'head of finestyleto r.
Rev. Zeus enthroned
to 1. In exergue,
BA2IAE22; on r., AAEEANAPOY
In field,RZp m wreath. Beneath
throne,MI.
No. 734. F. D. C. gr.17.115.
Mller,
PlateIV.
Ancient Imitation of the
Alexander Coinage.
Tetradrachm.
84
Obv. Head imitatedfromBabylonian
issues.
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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16

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

Rev. Seated Zeus imitatedfromCypriote or Phoenicianissues. On r.,


AAESANA. On 1.,A2BA. .A.
Notcleaned.VG. gr.16.52. PlateIV.
BOTIA.
Period379-338b.c.

85 Stater.
Obv. Boeotianshield.
Rev. AmphorabetweenAI- 2.
Brit.Mus.Cat.p. 82. No. 134.Somewhat
worn.
86 Stater.
Obv. Boeotianshield.
Rev. AmphorabetweenKA- BI.
Brit.Mus.Cat.p. 83. No. 150. Somewhat
worn.
PlateW
orlater.
Period338-335
87 Stater.
Obv. Boeotianshield.
Rev. Amphora between BO- IO.
bunch of grapes above.
Brit.Mus.Cat.p. 36. No. 42. Somewhat
worn.
PlateV.
REGINA.
Period550-456b.c.
88-972 Staters.
Obv. Sea-turtle.
Rev. Incuse square dividedby bands
NUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITSAENA

17

into a conventionalpatternof five


compartments.
Brit.Mus. Cat. Pl. xxiv,Nos. i, 2. All
much
worn.
very
Period404-350b.c.,or later.
98-105 Staters.
Obv. Land-tortoise
( testudogrca).
Rev. Incuse square dividedby bands
into a conventionalpatternof fiv
compartments.
Brit.Mus.Cat.Pl. xxiv,Nos.10-12.F.-VF.
PlateV.
At least threeand probablymore of
theseeightstaters,all in the finestcondition,were of the latertypewithnarrow bands,spread fabric,and tortoise
of laterstyle.
SICYON.
Period400-300b.c.
106 Stater.
Obv. Chimaerato 1. Beneath,5E.
Rev. Dove flyingto 1. in wreath.
Brit.Mus.Cat.PI. vii. No. 17. Somewhat
worn.
107 Stater.
to r. Beneath,51.
Obv. Chimaera
Rev. Dove flyingto r. in wreath.
Somewhat
worn.
PlateV.
AND

MONOGRAPHS

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18

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

ELIS (OLYMPIA).
Period
b.c.
421-365
108 Stater.
Obv. On boss of a roundshield,eagle
to 1. devouringserpent.
Rev. Thunderbolt
betweenF- A.
Nos.162-6(die BV). Muchworn
Seltman,
andcovered
withpunchmarks.
Period343-3*3
b.c.
109 Stater.
Obv. Laureateheadof Zeus to r.
Rev. Eagle standingto r. on Ionic
capital. In field,thunderbolt and
SERPENT.
Nos.207-12(die CT). Somewhat
Seltman,
worn.
Period363-323b.c.,or later,
no Stater.
Obv. Head of Hera to r. wearing
StephanosinscribedFAAEIfN. In
field,F (A).
Rev. Eagle standingto 1., head to r.
and wingsspread. The wholein olive
wreath.
No. 344 (dies FG-irj).VF.
Seltman,
PlateV.
One of theprincipalreasonsimpelling
thewriterto publishthislittlefind(beNUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITSAENA

19

foreothermoreimportant
ones) is that,
small thoughit is, it furnishesa very
typicalspecimenof the kind of hoards
buriedin Hellas duringthe last quarter
of the fourthcenturyb.c. The usual
contentsof such depositsmay be summarizedbrieflyas follows:a large proin
portionof Alexander'stetradrachms
which Macedonianissues predominate;
a smallerbut not at all negligiblenumber of theissues (bothcontemporaneous
and posthumous)of Philip II; and,
a scattering
numberof suchlocal
finally,
and autonomous
issuesas werestillbeing
struckin the largercitiesor were still
generallycurrent-thoughtheiroriginal
mints had been closed. Furthermore,
fromthe standpointof the Alexander
hoardis interestseries,theAndritsaena
the Greekcountering as representing
but size,of the great
part,in everything
Egyptianfindof Demanhur. With one
important
exceptionall of its varieties
are to be foundin theDemanhurdeposit.
And this one exception,No. 83, enables
us to place the probableburial date of
AND

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20

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

the Andritsaenahoard within rather


narrowlimits.
It is to be noticedthatnot one of our
Alexander coins was struckafter the
death of Philip Arrhidseus,excepting
onlyNo. 83. Now thispiece represents
thefirstissue immediately
followingthe
seriescurrentin Babylonat thetimeof
his death.3Withthemthiscoinis closely
boundbygreatsimilarity
of detail,style,
and fabric. As theseverysoon change,
it must have been struckearly in the
course of the new issue. It cannot
therefore
have appearedmuchafterthe
commencement
of 316 b.c., for Philip
was assassinatedearly in Novemberof
317 b.c.4 This hoardcannot,then,have
been buriedearlier than the year 316.
As this particularBabyloniancoin is in
suchperfectconditionit couldhave seen
butlittle,if any,circulation.In our calculations,however,we mustallow a certain timefor its long journeyfromthe
plainsof Babyloniato the mountainsof
the westernPeloponnesus.This will of
necessitybringus to the end of 316, or
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ANDRITS

AEN A

21

even well into the year 315 b.c. as the


onlypossibledate at whichthe Andritsaena hoardcouldhavebeenburied.The
totalabsenceof so manyverycommon
coins struckin the last years of Philip
Arrhidaeus
or in the firstyearsof Alexander IV forbidssettingthe burial at
a later date. This is furthercorrobobrilliantcondirated by the uniformly
tion exhibitedby all the coins in the
hoard which date after about 320 b.c.
Thus, on the sole evidenceof the coins
in this find,we seem amplyjustifiedin
fixingon the year315 b.c. as the probable timeat whichtheywereburied.
And this date would seem to fit
in remarkably
well with certainpolitical events which took place in the
Peloponnesusat this time,and which
mighthave inducedthe formerowner
of our hoard to consignit to Mother
Earth. We knowthatafterthe successful conclusionof Antigonus'campaigns
againstEumenesin the east, he moved
his armyfromBabylonto Cilicia,where
he wentintowinterquarters.This was
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22

ALEXANDER

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in the late autumnof 316 b.c. At this


time he foundhimselfthreatenedby a
powerfulcoalitionof the remainingsatraps, Cassander of Macedn, Lysimachusof Thrace, Assanderof Caria,
and Ptolemyof Egypt. To hold Cassander in check while he settledwith
the remainder,
Antigonusnow sent his
trustedfriend,Aristodemus
of Miletus,
with one thousandtalentsto the Peloto raise an
ponnesuswith instructions
armyof mercenariesand, especially,to
win Polysperchonfor his cause. The
latterhad, since 318 b.c., been waging
desperate warfare against Cassander,
and now foundhimselfin the possession
of a large portionof the Peloponnesus.
By the beginningof 315 b.c., Aristodemushadaccomplished
all his objectsand,
was at the
togetherwith Polysperchon,
head of a considerablearmy.
In the meanwhileApollonides,Cassander'sgeneralstationedin Argos,had
beenable to holdhis own untilhis master'sarrival,and even to seize the town
of Stymphalus. Having recruiteda
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NOTES

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ANDRITSAENA

23

fresharmyin Macedonia,Cassander,in
the springof 315 b.c., marchedsouth
throughThessaly and Bceotia,secured
and pushed
Corinth'sharborKenchrese,5
on into Arcadia. He seized Orchomenusand stagedan ambitiousraid over
into Messenia. As, however,he found
held by
thecityof Messenetoo strongly
an
to
warrant
attemptat
Polysperchon
assault,he returnedto Arcadia. Leaving Damis as militarycommanderof
the district,Cassander went to Argos
and celebratedherethe NemeanGames.
These are reckonedby Droysen6to have
been held in the firstyear of the 116th
Olympiad,or Augustof 315 b.c. Soon
afterhe returned
withhis armyto Macedonia, Cassander's opponents,immediately improvingupon this opportunity,
again overran all the Peloponnesus,
chased the garrisonsfromtown after
town,and soonwere in undisturbed
posall of thepeninsula.
sessionof practically
Thus endedthe campaignof 315 b.c.
was resumedwith
Althoughthefighting
thespringof 314,it was principally
conAND

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ALEXANDER

HOARDS

Elis (about Kylfinedto northwestern


lene) and to the provinceof Achaia,
leaving the districtabout modernAndritsaenaquiteuntouched.This stateof
so faras we can gatherfromour
affairs,
ancientsources,also held true for the
ensuingyears. In otherwords,it would
appear that only in 315 b.c. was the
withina radiusof twentymiles
country,
of Andritsaena,disturbedby actually
armiesso thatlife and propcontending
ertywould not be safe.7 At that time
the hills about Andritsaenalay but a
littleto one side of Cassander'sdirect
to Messene. He
routefromOrchomenus
wouldprobablyat least have sent raiding partiesintothe hills duringhis adif onlyto protecthis
vance southwards,
flank,as well as his line of suppliesand
retreat,
againstany suddenattack. Cassander'scampaignappearsto have been
merelya tourde force, in the courseof
whichhe held only the places actually
occupied by his soldiers. All the remainingportionsof the Peloponnesus
and all buta fewof thelargecities(such
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ANDRITSAENA

25

as Argos,Stymphalus,
and
Orchomenus,
possiblyEpidaurus) were in the hands
of Polysperchon,his son, Alexander,
and theirallies. The latter,
Aristodemus,
however,did notonce dare to meetCassander'sveteranforces in open battle,
but contentedthemselveswith holding
the walled cities,and undoubtedly
the
mountains
to eithersideof his advancing
forces. Guerillawarfarewas apparently
the orderof the day.
No wonderthenthatin suchtroublous
times,and well withinthezone of active
operations,the formerowner of our
hoarddecidedto place his savingsin as
safe a place as possible. Why he was
neverable to removethemlater is, of
course,open to manyconjectures. To
attempta solutionwouldbe futile.
Withthesole exceptionof No. 83, the
Philipand Alexandercoins in the Andritsaenahoardcall for but littlecomment. The issues of Amphipolis,the
largestof all the Alexandermints,outnumberthoseof any otherone mint,as
is only naturalfor a hoard foundin a
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26

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

countryenjoying close and constant


with Macedonia. This
communications
was even the case with such a distant
hoardas thatof Demanhur(q. v.). On
to obthe other hand it is interesting
the Asiatic
servethat,if takentogether,
Alexanderissues by far outnumber(43
as against30) theEuropeanones. This is
not usuallythe case withhoardsfound
in Europeand datingfromthelast quarter of the fourthcenturyb.c.8 In this
case, however,there may be an easy
thatin
solution. It will be remembered
before
the
the
or
probyear
316 b.c., just
able burial date of our hoard,Aristodemus was sent by Antigonusto the
Peloponnesuswith a thousandtalents
with which to raise troops.9 Again,
earlyin 315 b.c., Diodorus states10that
son, Alexander,returned
Polysperchon's
froma shortvisitto Antigonusin Cilicia
witha furthersumof fivehundredtalents. Thesehugesumswereundoubtedly
in the formof coined money. There
were no facilitiesin the southernPeloponnesusto convertso muchbullioninto
NUMISMATIC

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ANDRITSAENA

27

time
readymoney,and the all-important
was lacking. It would obviouslyhave
been far moreexpedientfor Antigonus
merelyto turnoveralreadycoinedmoney
furnished
himby themanyactivemints
at his commandin the east. Furthermore,we may gatherfromDiodorus11
that his recentsuccessfulcampaignsin
theeast had beenmostlucrative.
Antigonusat thistimewas assembling
a great armyin Cilicia for the coming
expedition
againstSyriaand Egypt.For
thispurposehe had probablyseen to it
thatthe satrapalcoffersshouldbe well
filledwith the "sinews of war" in an
available form. Any coins
immediately
and later,Alexander,had
Aristodemus,
with
them
fromAsia wouldsoon
brought
be certainto findtheir way throughoutthe lengthand breadthof the southern Peloponnesus. The newly hired
soldierswouldbe onlytoo readyto spend
thefirstinstalments
of theirpay. Their
becauseof politicalcondicommanders,
surroundtions,hadonlytheimmediately
fromwhichtodrawtheir
ingcountryside
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28

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

supplies. These would probablynot be


In a poorcountry
like
all commandeered.
and his allies had to
this,Polysperchon
dependtoo muchupon the good-willof
the inhabitantsever readyto welcome
a change-to risknotpayingforat least
some of the suppliesrequisitionedfor
the supportof theirarmies. Thus, very
soon, probablya considerablenumber
of Alexandercoins fromeasternmints
was in circulationamongthe peopleof
Messenia, Laconia, southernElis, and
southernArcadia. It is possible,also,
thatmanyof the earliereasternissues
had alreadyfoundtheirway to thePeloponnesus(as to the rest of Hellas) in
the hands of returningveteransfrom
Alexander'sarmies.
Providedthat we reallyhave the entire findbeforeus, it is curious,to say
the least, to note the entireabsence of
any of those Alexandrineissues which
were firstassignedto a mintat Sicyon
by M. Babelon.12 The very same phenomenonis also observablein theKyparissiahoard.13Of course,in such small
NUMISMATIC

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ANDRITSAENA
hoardschance must needs play a very
large partand too muchstressmustnot
be laid upon the absence of any one
if it be at all scarce.
variety,particularly
To thebestof the writer'sknowledge
the Andritsaenahoard,in pointof date,
is theearliest(of whichwe haverecord)
in whichposthumous
issuesof Philip II
(No. io, Plate I) make an appearance.
Later thesecoinsbecomequitecommon,
as in the Megara, Lamia, and other
Grecianhoards which it is hoped will
be publishedeventually.
As shownabove by the catalogue,includedin this findwas also an ancient
forgeryof the Alexandertetradrachm
(No. 84, Plate IV). The natureof the
coinis indicatedbyitsblundered
legends,
the drynessof the style,and the fact
that its obverseis imitatedfromgenuine Babylonianissues,while its reverse
copies certainearly Phoenicianor Cypriote Alexanders. Furthermore,
it is
the only coin in the hoard which,in
additionto the purpleoxideand yellowish dirtwhichit bears in commonwith
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29

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30

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

the remainingcoins of the fnd}is also


encrusted
withthickpatchesof verdigris.
This is a phenomenonfrequentlyobservedby the writerin certainhoards
whichhave containedboth ancientforgeriesandgenuineissues. Almostinvariably theseimitationsof the periodwill
be encrustedwithspotsof verdigrisnot
shown by any of the genuine pieces.
due to the poorer
This is undoubtedly
qualityof the silverof whichthe forgeries are made,the larger amountof
copperin theiralloybroughtto the surand otherchemface by decomposition,
ical changes which have taken place
duringthe long period in which they
have lain buried underground. The
accompanying
genuinecoins,havingbut
little,if any,copperin the composition
of theirmetal,will onlyshow the usual
formsof decomposition
customaryfor
silver.
pure
In view of the Peloponnesianorigin
of our find,it is but naturalthat coins
of .Egina,Sicyon,and Elis shouldhave
formedthegreaterportionof theautonNUMISMATIC

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ANDRITS

AEN A

31

omous coinages whichit contained. It


is noticeable,as was also the case with
the Kyparissia hoard, that Athenian
tetradrachms
and Corinthianstatersare
both absent. The Boeotian,Sicyonian,
and Olympianissues call for no special
remarks. They are preciselywhat one
wouldhave expectedto occurin a hoard
of thisdate and place.
The ^Eginetanstaters,Nos. 98-105,on
the otherhand,would seem to raise a
questionof dating. It will be noticed
that they are of the Testudo Grceca
(land-tortoise)typeand belongto the
anepigraphicseries, now assigned by
scholarsto theyearsimmediately
followof404b.c.14
ingthe^Eginetanrestoration
At leastthreein our findare of thelate,
spread-fabric
typewiththin(insteadof
bands
thick)
dividingtheincuseof their
reverses. All the specimensare in fine
conditionand could have seen but little
circulation.On the otherhand,not one
of theinscribedvarieties,bearingA, AI,
AIT, or AITI, turnedup. These are
supposedto have been struckduringthe
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32

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

yearsimmediately
preceding348 b.c. It
is curiousthatthese shouldbe missing
muchearlierseries
whenthe supposedly
was presentnot onlyin goodlynumbers
butalso in suchfinecondition.It would
seem as if the latter (the uninscribed,
fabrictype) had
and spreadthin-banded,
and not at the
been struckbut recently,
commencement
of
the
century.
very
The writermightnot have paid any
attention
to thiscuriousanomparticular
aly-in hoardsso muchis due to mere
chance-had it not been for the consideration that another little hoard (or
portionof a hoard), broughtto his atthe verysame
tentionin 1921, presented
feature. That lot consistedof six Philip
II tetradrachms
(Mller,Nos. 158,252,
263, two specimensof 269, 270) ; fourteen Alexander tetradrachms(Mller,
Nos. 3, 216, 392, two specimensof 550,
var. of 567,684, 697, var. 704, 853,860,
var. 1302,var. 1342, 1473); and three
^Eginetanstatersin fineconditionand
all of the 404-350b.c. typeoccurringin
the Andritsaenafind. Here, too, inNUMISMATIC

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ANDRITSAENA

33

scribed^Eginetanstatersare noticeable
by theirabsence.
The reader will forgivea slightdigressionto allow the discussionof this
second"find." A selectionof fourtypical specimens
is givenon Plate VI. The
coins themselveswere shown to the
writerin November,
1921,by Mr. A. H.
Baldwinof London. Accordingto the
latter'sstatement,
therecouldbe no question but that these twenty-three
coins
had reallybeen foundtogether.When
firstofferedfor sale theyhad all been
coveredwithan identicaltypeof patina
which,as was also the case with the
Andritsaenacoins,provedeasilyremovable,so thatthecoinsto-dayhave almost
the appearanceof havingbeen freshly
statedthat
minted.Mr. Baldwinfurther
the lot had beenbroughtin to him but
a shorttimebeforeby a Greek,a native
of the littlePeloponnesiancityof "Taipoli" (undoubtedly
Tripolis,also known
as Tripolitsa),who informedhim that
the coins had only recentlybeen found
"in thatneighborhood."
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34

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

The astonishingsimilarityin content


of this "Tripolitsa"findwithwhat has
cometo us of the Andritsaenahoard is
at once manifestand at least suggests
thepossibility
of a commonorigin. The
Alexanderissues in both cover exactly
thepossibility
of a commonorigin. The
same proportion
of Europeanto Asiatic
issues. As againstthe 30 Europeanand
43 Asiatic Alexandersof the Andritsaena lot, comparethe 5 Europeanand
7 Asiatic in the "Tripolitsa"-the proportionis practicallyidentical. Both
hoardscontained,in addition,a proportionate numberof Philip's coins and
.Eginetanstaters. The average condition of wear exhibitedby the coins in
the two lots is also absolutelyidentical.
Furthermore,
Tripolitsa,one of thelargest towns in the Peloponnesusand the
cheflieu of Arcadia,is moreor less directlyconnectedwith Andritsaenaby
carriageroadvia Megalopolisand Karytaena, so that it would not be so very
surprisingforcoins foundin the neighborhoodof Andritsaenato turn up in
NUMISMATIC

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ANDRITSAE

NA

35

Tripolitsa. It is curious,of course,but


not entirelywithoutprecedent,that so
longa timeshouldhave elapsedbetween
theappearanceon themarketof thetwo
lots. In Februaryof 1922,the writer
visitedAthensand made manyinquiries
concerninga possiblehoard of Alexander's coins supposedlyrecentlyfoundin
the Peloponnesus. On the last day of
hisstayin Athensa certaindealer15
came
to himstatingthathe had just received
wordconcerning
a lot ofabouta hundred
Alexandersfroma recentfind-but the
writercould not ascertainwhere the
findhad been made,nor could he delay
his departurefor the somewhatremote
possibilityof eventuallybeing able to
securethe"find." Whetherthislot had
anythingto do with the Andritsaena
pieces whicharrivedin Athensa year
later,is certainlynot at presentsusceptibleof proof. So muchforthe "Tripolitsa" find. For the time-being
nothing
moredefinite
can be said concerningits
origin,but in studyingthe Andritsaena
hoardwe mustnotlose sightof thecirAND

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36

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

cumstancethatthe "Tripolitsa"lot may


also originallyhave belongedto it.
The apparentabsenceof any inscribed
iEginetan statersin the two lots described above is brought into yet
strongerreliefby a large hoard of an
character. The writer
entirelydifferent
refersto the greathoard of 1596 Boeotian, Sicyonian, and -Eginetancoins
foundin 1914 in Thessalyand now in
the AthensNationalCollection.16This
remarkable
findcontained1078 Boeotian
statersfromthe earliest periodsright
downto,andincluding,
coinsoftheperiod
338-315 b.c. Because of the comparativelylarge numberof this latterclass
containedin the find,it musthave been
buriedwell afterthe year 338 b.c. Of
the accompanying
325 ^Eginetanstaters,
234 bore the sea-turtleas type,and so
belongto the sixth and fifthcenturies
b.c. The remaining
havethe
90 specimens
land-tortoise
testudo
and
(
belong
grca)
to the fourthcentury. Again it is to
be notedthattheyincludenot a single
specimenof thetypebearingtheinscripNUMISMATIC

NOTES

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ANDRITSAENA

37

tionsA, AI, Air, or Ain. This factis


all the more noteworthy
as the find
was a large one, and thus the element
of chance is almostentirelyeliminated.
Can it be thatthe mintingof silverstatersat .Eginadid not reallycometo an
end with the year 348 b.c.,17but was
laterdate
at a slightly
again undertaken
and undertheaegisof Macedn?
Any detaileddiscussion,or any tenof the ^Eginetan
tative rearrangement
series,wouldbe out of place here. That
mustbe left for othersto accomplish.
Leaving aside the mootquestionof the
real date of the inscribed.Eginetan
staters,the littleAndritsaenahoard has
at least sustainedtheassignment
by Fox
of the land-tortoise
type to the fourth
century.

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38

ALEXANDER

HOARDS

NOTES
1Muller,
in describing
is m the
thiscoinwhich
for
Pariscollection,
hasmistaken
thebeesymbol
a "lambda."
8Noneofthese
seenby
tencoinswereactually
Mr.Noe,andtheyhavebeenincluded
onlyon
of a statement
madebyoneof the
thestrength
coindealers
whosawthehoardbefore
Athenian
reason
itsdispersal.
Thereis no adequate
why
inthehoard.
nothavebeencontained
they
might
8Atthetime
wasredeath
thenewsofPhilip's
inBabylon,
thecoinsrepresented
ceived
byMller's
name
of
numbers
III)
n6, 117(in
Philip and
ofAlexander
IV) werebeing
1543(inname
1542,
hasbeenreached
struck.Thisconclusion
bythe
which
he
at Babylon
ina study
ofthemint
writer
we here
to publish.Unfortunately,
hopessoon
in
detail.
matter
into
this
cannot
greater
go
4Droysen,
desHellenismus,
Geschichte
II, i, p.
241,notei.
5Atthistime
heldbyPolysperchon's
son,Alexander.
8Droysen,
/.c. Ill, 2,p. 37.
TIt mustbe remembered
of the
that,because
thehoardcouldnot
of its contents,
character
to thecomhavebeenburied
previous
possibly
mencement
of316b.c. Therefore
Polysperchon's
in 318 b.c. and
againstMegalopolis
campaign
onTegeain317b.c.neednot
attacks
Cassander's
did
In 316b.c.Cassander
intoaccount.
betaken
andseizeArgos.
thePeloponnesus
invade
indeed
were
citiesof thepeninsula
andother
Messene
him.So faras
sidedwith
orvoluntarily
"freed,"
NUMISMATIC

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ANDRITSAENA

39

oursources
wouldseemto show,however,
the
forces
never
cameto anyactualfighting,
forthe
of
in
at
the
this
power Polysperchon Peloponnesus
time
wascomparatively
weak.
8Forinstance,
in theKyparissia
hoard(q. v.)
there
were15 European
as against
Alexanders,
only5 Asiatic.Alsoin theLamiahoard(inthe
National
Athens
wehave18European
Collection)
to ii Asiatic
Alexanders.
The Messene
hoard,
which
thewriter
soontopublish,
a
hopes
represents
andveryinteresting
case. Here,
special
namely,
turned
there
Asiatic
and
one
up30
only European
I
Alexander
8iodorus,
XIX,57,5.
10XIX,61,5.
11XIX,56,2 and5; XIX,57,1,where
wealso
learn
thattheother
wereonlytooanxious
satraps
to divide
thespoils.
12RevueNumismatique
, 1904,
pp.117-133.
18One,however,
in theEpidaurus
occurred
hoard,
1903,
Ephemeris,
pp.98-116.
14EarleFoxin Corolla
Numismatica,
pp.34-46.
2ndEd.,p. 397. Head,
Numorum,
Head,Historia
in thefirst
edition
of theHistoria
andin the
Brit.Mus.Cat.Attica,
asetc.,hadpreviously
thesecoinstotheimpossible
date480-456
signed
b.c. Curiously
Babelonhas recently
enough,
himinthis(Trait,
followed
IIs, pp.155-158).
15Notthesamedealer
from
whom
theAndritsaenapieceswereeventually
acquired.
18Published
inArch.
byJ.N. Svoronos,
Deltion,
Vol.II, pp.273-335.
17AsbothHeadandBabelon
believe.

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ANDRITSAENA

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Plate II

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ANDRITSAENA

Plate III

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ANDRITSAENA

Plate IV

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ANDRITSAENA

Plate V

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ANDRITSAENA

Plate VI

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