A8 > >

H O N O L U L U S TA R - A D V E R T I S E R > > S U N D AY 8 / 4 / 1 3


MOST RECENT ATTACKS There have been five shark attacks in Hawaiian waters this year.

















ANATOMY OF A SHARK The tiger shark is most often involved in attacks in Hawaiian waters. Caudal fin A shark’s main means of propulsion. Although it differs greatly among species, the fin is always divided into upper and lower lobes. The size of the lobes is key to a shark’s pattern of activity. For instance, a tiger shark’s upper lobe is longer and heavier than the lower. This configuration delivers powerful bursts of speed and quick turns and twists needed to pursue prey. A great white shark, on the other hand, has nearly symmetrical lobes, which deliver enormous thrust. Second dorsal fin Upper lobe Lower lobe First dorsal fin Prevents the shark from rolling over. Appears rigid, but is actually pliable. A shark’s skeleton is made of cartilage, not bone.

Ears Hearing is apparently directional, which may help sharks find struggling or injured prey. They are sensitive to low-frequency sounds — 10 to 800 hertz (cycles per second). The human hearing range is much greater at about 25 to 16,000 hertz. Snout Testes


Nostrils Known for its extrordinary sense of smell, a shark can track a scent many miles away. Eyes They are positioned on the side of the shark’s head, creating a wider range of vision than many other animals. The size of the eyes also is an indicator of activity. The sluggish carpetshark, for instance, has small eyes, suggesting it relies less on sight. A deep-dwelling shark, such as a great white, has extremely large eyes. CHOMP! A shark’s upper jaw typically detaches from its skull during an attack. This loose suspension

Anal fin Pelvic fin IN HAWAIIAN WATERS The most common sharks found in waters around the Hawaiian Islands: BLACKTIP REEF SHARK This active, shallow-water shark is found in lagoons and on coral reefs and moves with the tide. Not usually aggressive toward humans. SIZE AT BIRTH: 20 inches MAX. LENGTH: 6 feet HABITAT: Shallow reef flats to outer reef edge DIET: Primarily reef fish WHITETIP REEF SHARK This sluggish, shallow-water shark is found in caves or under rocks or coral ledges and is active at night and during slack tides. Not usually aggressive toward humans. SIZE AT BIRTH: 21-24 inches MAX. LENGTH: 7 feet HABITAT: Shallowwater reef dweller in depths to 1,000 feet DIET: Bottom fish, crustaceans and cephalopods GALAPAGOS SHARK This potentially aggressive shark does not normally attack humans. Performs a seemingly awkward threat display before attacking. SIZE AT BIRTH: 23-25 inches MAX. LENGTH: 12 feet HABITAT: Just beyond outer reef edge DIET: Reef fish TIGER SHARK One of the few true scavenger sharks, it is known to eat turtles, fish and virtually anything that falls overboard — cattle, pigs, sheep, humans. It enters shallow reefs and lagoons at night to feed. Can live for about 12 years. SIGNS OF TROUBLE It has been observed that when a shark feels threatened by other predators or humans who get too close, it exhibits patterns of aggression. Stomach Pancreas Gallbladder



Pectoral fin

THE SIXTH SENSE In addition to the five senses, sharks have a unique sixth sense — the ability to detect movement and disturbances from prey or predator even in murky water — through the lateral lines that run along the length of its body. Lateral lines A pair of sensory tubes filled with a jelly-like substance that extends from the head to caudal fin. Neuromasts Lateral tube




Cilia They are stimulated by movement and pressure, alerting the shark’s brain to nearby predators or prey. 1. The jaw begins to open as the shark attacks...

MISTAKEN IDENTITY Scientists theorize that sharks see silhouettes when hunting from below in deeper water.

2. The snout lifts as the upper jaw protrudes...

SIZE AT BIRTH: 20-30 inches MAX. LENGTH: 24 feet HABITAT: Beyond the reef’s edge during the day, inshore

Tail cracking: A shark swims toward a threat, turning suddenly and flicking its tail to produce a loud cracking sound. 3. The upper jaw moves downward and, along with the lower jaw, is simultaneously thrust forward. The moveable eyelid called the nictitating membrane moves upward to protect the eye as the shark feeds...

along coral and rocky reefs at night DIET: Wide-ranging, including seals, birds, carrion, almost anything GREAT WHITE SHARK The most feared of sharks, it prefers shallow, cool coastal waters, but occasionally has been seen in Hawaiian waters. Hunts during the day.

Hunched position: When approached too closely, a shark will arch its back and push its pectoral fins downward. The snout is also raised with its jaws slightly open.

Human surfer

SIZE AT BIRTH: 3-4 feet MAX. LENGTH: 24 feet HABITAT: Open ocean, tropics to cooler coastal waters DIET: Includes other sharks, dolphins, seals, sea lions,

seabirds, turtles and invertebrates
Sources: “The Little Guides — Sharks,” Cape Cod Times; Florida Sun Sentinel; Hawaiisharks.com; State Shark Task Force

Side display: A shark swims in a stiff fashion and follows a figureeight loop when confronted by another shark or predator. It also stretches to its full length to intimidate or establish dominance. If this fails, it attacks.

Sea lion

Sea turtle

4. Jaw closes again on the prey.



1 At 4:30 p.m. on Jan. 16, a man was surfing in 10 feet of water about 4 200 yards off Kiholo Bay, Hawaii island, when a 10-foot-long tiger 3 2 shark attacked him. He suffered lacerations to his right forearm and his lower right leg. 5 2 At about 6 p.m. Feb. 21, Jacob Lansky was surfing about 75 yards offshore of Paia Bay, Maui, when a 6-foot-long reef shark bit the rail of his foam board. Lansky was not injured. 3 At 8:30 a.m. on April 2, a 58-year-old California man visiting Maui was attacked off Kaanapali while surfing. He suffered two deep lacerations on his right thigh. 4 At 2 p.m. Monday, a 19-year-old Kaneohe man was attacked by what was believed to be a tiger shark at White Plains Beach. Kiowa Gatewood underwent emergency surgery. 5 Between 8:30 and 8:45 a.m. Wednesday, a woman was attacked about 30 feet off a rocky point fronting Ulua Beach in Wailea in murky water. The California visitor was taken to Maui Memorial Medical Center and underwent surgery.


10 8 Nonfatal Fatal


6 4 2


Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful