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E&-i^ ^^E^IMPOSED TRANSMUTATION GLAZE.) ILLUSTRATED VASE OF KANG-HSI CRAQUELE PORCELAIN WITH ^H ^P.&vitntal ^$vit^ CHINA Its History Arts and Literature VASE OF KANG-HSI KWANG-YAO TRANSMUTATIOxNT WARE. Baron Iwasaki collection. (See page 344.) Volume IX VASE OF S&RfAMWcdk^t-RED PORCELAIN. Baron Iwasaki collection. (See page 301. (See page 350.) MILLET COMPANY BOSTON AND TOKYO .

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CHINA Its History Arts and Literature BY CAPTAIN F. B. BRINKLEY Volume IX KERAMIC ART ILLUSTRATED J. MILLET COMPANY BOSTON AND TOKYO .

S. B. AND SON • CAMBEIDOE.J tmnrEKsiTY press • john -wilsOn U. London. England 0)5 7 35 V. igo2 By J. Millet Co. Entered at Stationers' Hall.Copyright. A. .

As facture of True Porcelain in China Manui CHAPTER Early Wares of China II 13 III . . Porcelain Decorated Over the Glaze (Continued) 218 CHAPTER Monochromatic Glazes iii IX 250 .CONTENTS CHAPTER I Page to the First Chinese Porcelain and Pottery. CHAPTER Wares of the "Sung" (960-1279) Dynasty . • . 23 CHAPTER The Celadon IV 61 CHAPTER V Sung and Yuan Wares {Continued) 85 CHAPTER VI Porcelain Decorated Under the Glaze 96 CHAPTER VII Porcelain Deqorated Over the Glaze 179 CHAPTER VIII .

CONTENTS CHAPTER X Monochromatic Wares (^Continued) Page 278 CHAPTER Polychromatic Glazes Glazes. XI Transmutation or . Flambe ^29 CHAPTER Chinese Pottery XII 348 CHAPTER Chinese Porcelain in the XIII West 366 CHAPTER XIV Manufacturing Processes 383 Index 4 15 IV .

Wine-Pot of Chiin-Yao Early Ming . Soft Paste Porcelain 208 Yung-Ching Glaze Lotus-Flower Porcelain. Wine-Pot of Cheng-Hwa. Enamelled 1 1 Porcelain . . . Vase of Kang-Hsi Craquele Transmutation Glaze Sacrificial Porcelain with Super-imposed Frontispiece Jar (Copied from an Old Bronze) of White i6 Ting-Yao Censer (Copied from Old Bronze) of Purple Ting-Yao 32 Vase of Early Sung Ju-Yao with Bright Green Finely Crackled Thick Glaze 48 64 80 96 112 . inches) of Kang-Hsi Ting-Yao . the . 240 272 288 Lamp of Cheng-Hwa. . .ILLUSTRATIONS Page Vase of Kang-Hsi Kwang-Yao Transmutation Ware Vase of Kang-Hsi Coral-red Porcelain . Enamelled Porcelain with Yellow Body-colour 304 . . Decorated with Red under . Spotted Celadon Bowl of Yuan-Tsii Scroll in Relief Early Ming Celadon with Peony 144 176 Vase of Famille Rose Porcelain Vermilion-Ink' Box of Cheng-Hwa. . Vase (Height. . Vase (Copied from Ancient Bronze) of Ju-Yao Celadon Vase (Copied from Ancient Bronze) of Ju-Yao Celadon Censer (Copied from Ancient Bronze) of Kuan-Yao . . .

Tiger-skin Porcelain 336 Vase (Height. 14 inches) of Kang-Hsi. Covered with Chi- 352 Hung Glaze Tea-Pot of Yi-Hsing Pottery 384 400 IX . Eggshell Ting- Yao Wine-Pot of Hsuan-Te Porcelain.ILLUSTRATIONS Page Vase of Yung-Ching.

idea of Chinese porcelain was a highly decorated. ByFrench amateurs only was properly understood the double triumph of aestheticism and technique achieved in the monochromatic vases of the In England. These fine pieces. derive IN additional value from the fact that.CHINA ITS HISTORY ARTS AND LITERATURE Chapter I CHINESE PORCELAIN AS AND POTTERT TO THE FIRST MANUFACTURE OF TRUE PORCELAIN IN CHINA former years France stood alone in her appreciation of Chinese keramic productions. IX. as well as their contemporaries of the monochromatic and polychromatic orders. the popular Ching-te-chen factories. chromatic or even blue-and-white pieces. so far as human foresight can reach. So little valued were monoformally painted ware. collectors have now learned to appreciate the incomparable beauty of the Kang-hsi and Chien-lung blues. Such All Western sacrileges are no longer perpetrated. Middle King- . the potters of the VOL. they were deemed unsaleable until their surface had received pictorial additions at the hands of Anglo-Saxon potters. that if any such found their way to London.

were not unworthy of the homage they received. — . was an accomplishment possessed by the those who are familiar most gifted experts only with all these things have no difficulty in understanding that the decadence of such extraordinary processes. to distinguish the to impalpable powder the Mohammedan blue. lute success. of men almost deified as the discoverers of some new hoccaro or who have heard the fond tradition how clay the pate of every choice piece fired at the potteries of the Po-yang Lake had invariably received a cenor how the materials of celetury's manipulation brated glazes were ground and re-ground during the life-time of half a generation until they were reduced or how. . — .CHINA dom will never be able to reproduce them with abso- Those who have read the accounts. true colouring pigment from the worth more than its weight in gold compounds which nature's laboramany imperfect tory offered. the Hawthorns and other hard-paste blue-and-white specimens which in recent years created a furore among English collectors. . such pieces are not to be placed in the very first rank of keramic The instinct of the French amateurs masterpieces. and which must become every day more unprocurable. as works of art which have ceased to be produced. such labours of almost crazy love. of former years directed them more truly when it inspired their love of monochromatic wares and of soft-paste pieces decorated with blue sous couverte^ and the instinct of American collectors has happily followed in the same direction. . was an inevitable outcome of the world's changed conditions. But from a Chinese point of view. recorded in Chinese and Japanese literature. Regarded. therefore.

for the most part. Ching Ting-kwei. namely.PORCELAIN AND POTTERY was natural. Julien laboured an authoritative text-book. He possessed no under a very great disadvantage. that to say. demanded. but without either the experience of a connoisseur or the education of an artist. Stanilas Julien led the way with his translation of the Ching-te-chen Tao-lUy or " History of Ching-te-chen Keramics. The object of both . when Chinese nearly half a century previously during the reign of the celebrated Chien-lung." written potters . and has remained since then But M. who. Nothing could have been It more extravagant than to expect that his interpretaThe tion of the Tao-lu would be free from error. He was simply a student of languages. was not calculated to facilitate a Compiled. The comdied before the volume was completed. or " Keramic Annals. the Tao-shu. M. work the author of the Tao-lu was able to consult. in is the early years of the present century. pilation and publication of the information he had collected devolved upon his pupil. its author relied upon tradition for the bulk of his materials and. knowledge of the processes described in the Chinese volume. judged by the account he gives of himself. had One valuable little knowledge of keramic processes. competent to render the meaning of an ideograph." This work was published in 1856. in view of this appreciative mood of French amateurs. to crown all. were already beginning to lose their ancient dexterity. that the first researches into the subject of Chinese keramics should be made byFrench authors. apart from the special attainments its subject translator's task. book itself. But neither the Tao-shu nor the Tao-lu aimed at furnishing such information as a Western student desires.

was followed. and that. an over-speculative connoisseur. all vases thus decorated must be Japanese and in the other. II s'execute sur la pate simplement sechee apres le travail du tournage. he allotted them to Korea or Japan content to assume. Pour prouver jusqu'a quel . falsely rendering a single word. great as was the debt of gratitude under which he placed collectors. Korea. some meagre details of their however conscientious as a could not fail to be misled and to mislead. Taking some of the choicest specimens of Chinese work. ciens. Thus wherever Julien had led the public astray. Jacquemart helped to render the aberration permaOne example is conspicuous nent. that any piece the decoration of which seemed to him to possess both Chinese and Japanese characteristics must come from a country between the two empires. from Korea. and Japan in confusion. Julien. who. et crue on pose la couverte ensuite. in 1875. : — . in the one case. namely. Jacquemart thereupon wrote. le cobalt n'etait pas d'une purete irreprochable son plus ou moins grand eclat peut done aider a fixer des dates approximatives. said that the most esteemed variety of the Kuan-yad (Imperial ware) manufactured under the Sung dynasty (960—1279) was blue. then. on cuit. wrote unfortunately in such a way as to mix the keramics of China. Julien. Dans les temps les plus an- He . manu- M. by M. " Le decor le plus ancien et le plus estime au Celeste-Empire est celui en camaieu bleu. that Chinese artists never depicted Mandarins on their vases. linguist. et des lors la peinture devient inattaquable.CHINA alike was mainly to preserve a catalogue of the most celebrated wares with their dates and places of facture and occasionally nature. Jacquemart. consequently.

and the very false conclusions to which they led Julien. Their number. there is talk of another species of ware called tao-ki which . founder of century B. Jacquemart. have contributed . and that the Kuan-ki never included w^are having blue designs sous couverte. semi-mythical sovereigns who are supposed to have flourished some twenty-five centuries before the Christian era. and so forth. 202). altar appear to have been funeral urns. tive They were and inartistic doubtless rude. nals add that these manufactures were earthen vessels. or vases of pottery. technically defectypes.c. and other less notable writers. or to that of Shun. The pieces produced jars. the fact blue under the glaze retained is that decoration in all the characteristics of a most rudimentary manufacture throughout the Sung dynasty that the colour erroneously translated "blue'' by Julien. Of these very early wares tradition does not tell anything that can be taken seriously or that need be recorded here. and moulding are described.PORCELAIN AND POTTERY point les porcelaines bleaes etaient estimees. referred to the glaze itself. More than nine hundred years later (b.). The whole import of these misconceptions will be presently appreciated by the reader. not to the decoration. libation The same andishes." Now.C. and in a record of the same dynasty the processes of fashioning on the wheel that Wu Wang. and that they were called pi-ki. Middle Kingdom attribute the infancy of the keramic art either to the reign of annals of the The Huang-ti. vases des magistrats. At a later date it is stated the Chou dynasty (12th appointed a descendant of the Emperor Shun to be director of pottery. to obscure a subject already sufficiently perplexing. cooking utensils. il suffit de rappeler qu'on les appelait Kuan-ki.

menclature. applicable to stone. 2698. and It is to be observed. four ideographs each translated " porcelain '' by him.'' was of "une argile jaune et sablonneuse. was originally employed to designate porcelain proper. is written in two ways. according to some scholars (whose dictum is open to much doubt). is used sometimes generically for all keramic wares. iron or pottery tsu. . that among 88 A. . he says that it was made of " une that a variety of the Chun ware (also argile brune '' of the Sung dynasty) which he equally describes as "porcelain. Julien's noat least equally inaccurate. signifies anything stoved or alone fired. sometimes in the sense of pottery the second. however. the latter of which. and that of porcelain between 202 B.CHINA some respects from its predecessor. the impossibility of relying implicitly on its evidence is shown by the fact that. . the the term " porcelain. ki^ simply means utensil. even among Western authors it is a common habit to employ the word " porcelain '' in reference to baked and glazed vessels. Chinese writers themselves some confusion exists on Of this subject. who flourished under the Sung dynasty (960— i 277). and has no more specific signification than " ware '* the third. tao. and to which Western interpreters of Chinese history apply differed in According to this theory.C. there is no difficulty in supposing that Chinese writers were As for M. Julien reflects their bewilderment. and is and the fourth. though both subsequently came to When the fact is recalled that be used in that sense." and that in other instances the pate of his so-called . yao. speaking of a so-called ^' porcelain " manufactured by the elder of two brothers (Chang). the first. 6 .C. whether translucid or opaque." manufacture of pottery commenced in China B.D.

the so-called " porcelain " of China. who unhesitatingly ascribe the invention of porcelain proper to the keramists of the Sung dynasty (960-1279). Turning now empire of Japan. It was then. Now it is known that. In addition to this negative evidence. have been anything better than glazed pottery. a Japanese Emperor. and despite the tolerably regular trade carried on by Chinese merchants with the neighbouring empire. therefore. reached Japan before the twelfth century. the same looseness of phraseology occurs. Yuriaku. whatever value the assertion may have that the ideograph tsu was first written in such a way as to indicate the presence of kaolin in the ware and it — . despite the importation of Chinese wares into Japan which had taken place either directly or through Korea from the earliest times. and the same is doubtless true of its synonym. the tao-ki.PORCELAIN AND POTTERY " porcelain '' was of an iron-red colour. they aver. Ancient Japanese commentators interpret this seiki as another expression for tao-ki. and it becomes evident that both in the original of the distinguished sinologue's translation and in the translation itself. issued a sumptuary decree requiring that a class of ware called seiki should be substituted for the earthen utensils hitherto employed at the Court. said to have been invented in China at the beginning of the Christian era. Plainly the " " applied cannot properly be to such porcelain term wares. fifth for information to the neighbouring it appears that in the middle of the century of the Christian era. there are the positive statements of Japanese antiquarians. . The seiki of Yuriaku's time cannot. not so much as one piece of ware to which the term " porcelain '' could be accurately applied.

was not yet absorbed by the porcelain industry. Yet there is is much to support the Japanese view. it was held in scarcely less esteem. also. and were themselves supplied by the Syrians. Its invention was still in the lap of a distant future. regarding it rather as ice a thousand years old. instead of seventeen as has hitherto been maintained. but all the while no Chinese porcelain found its way either to Rome or Japan. '* that peculiar fancy for objets de vertu which in Chinese life have at all times taken the place of other luxuries.CHINA from China specimens of coarse porcelain. were treasured by Japanese Emperors. will not be readily admitted. they lu-li or opaque glass. Hirth. a precious stone second only to jade. They had no suspicion that it was artificial. Beads. It known that before and after the time to is which the invention of porcelain commonly attributed. ** China " During the Taand the Roman Orient. plied the Japanese with glass. buried in their tombs. By the Japanese. some of which are still was then that Japan began to receive preserved and venerated by collectors. glass of which there were two principal classes. That the manufacture of translucid porcelain in China should have preceded its manufacture in Europe by only seven centuries. Dr.e. the period of China's commercial intercourse with the Roman Orient). and po-li or transparent paid immense prices. the Chinese were in commercial the eastern countries of the Roman communication with Empire. probably made on the coast near Sidon. in his recently published work.'' says ts'in period [i. The Chinese supor preserved among their relics. and that they received from thence various kinds of glass which For this they ranked with the seven Buddhist gems. which prob- — — : — 8 .

" says that under the Tang dynasty (618—907). as in Japan four centuries later. fashion. under the Tang dynasty (618—907). porcelain was discovered. when the distinctive meaning of the two ideographs did any distinction really exist in the sense indicated by M. which cannot for a rials.. As far back as the Wei dynasty (220—265).d. du Sartel would have been fully recognised. and glass is in all the older records mentioned among them. and they already excelled in Thenceforth glazed pottery or fine its manufacture. until." instead of " porcelain. together with the so-called precious mateA large portion of the latter came from Tats'in." Had Dr. The Chinese do not seem to have turned their attention seriously to keramics until. imitating the then archaic of the Chan dynasty.PORCELAIN AND POTTERY to the ably did not begin to assume large dimensions previous Clumsy copper censers and Tang dynasty. Du Sartel. there would have been nothing to question in this opinion. monopolised the attention of the rich. Neither the fact upon which this inference is founded nor the inference itself can be accepted. Its composition had become known to the Chinese about 430 a." industry. the growing popularity of tea. in the tenth or eleventh century. — — . stone-ware became the national taste. provided a new function for vesGlass was then comparatively out of sels of faience. Hirth written '* keramic. the term yao was applied to boccaro ware. the ideograph yao was used with reference to pottery and in comparatively modern times. the termj^^^ was substituted for tao in describing the keramic productions of the era. in his " Porcelaine de Chine. . style other sacrificial implements. and concludes that the substitution may be taken as indicating the first manufacture of true porcelain.

: — lO . There are two pieces of evidence which. it is related that they were as owing to the sweetness they were used like musical glasses. Witness. Solyman. the earliest manufacture first is The furnished by the Cha Chingy a treatise on tea. Water can be seen through them. but even of the finest and thinnest description of porcelain. than by their keramic qualities. which are said to have been made at a place called Yueh-chou (now Shao-hsing-fu) in the province of Chikiang. the so-called porcelain of Persia. Of the best. There seems little hope now of determining exactly what was meant by the author Liu Yu or the traveller Solyman. But their language does not necessarily refer to porcelain proper. The second piece of evidence is the story told by an Arab traveller. whatever may be their real value.'' This account has been held to indicate the existence of translucid ware . seem opposed as to to the verdict of Japanese antiquarians of porcelain in China. in the middle of the eighth century of the Christian era.CHINA moment to attach It is unsafe be confounded with porcelain. and that. He wrote is in this country a very fine clay with which they make vases that have the transparence of glass. " " for example. Translucidity alone is not an absolute proof of real porcelain. a transparent as jade. who visited China in the " There middle of the ninth century. the merits of which are judged rather by the effect of their coloured glazes in contrast with the colour of infused tea. the existence not only of porcelain proper. much chronological importance to differences of terms and ideographs about which confusion still exists. that is to say. written by Liu Yu. of their timbre. In this book descriptions are given of various kinds of tea-cups.

Hirth discovered two interesting The first is a statement by a pieces of evidence.d.PORCELAIN AND POTTERY ware which. Hirth a concludes that the silence of the former writer celebrated authority on pharmaceutical and scientific as to the use of this mineral for keramic subjects purposes. often acquired a certain transparency though his pate remained soft enough to be marked with a knife. Up to the Tang dynasty [i. Hirth's inferences are not — — .e. published about the year 1620: " In ancient times no vases were made of porcelain. and combining it with the statement in the Tang pharmacopoeia. quotes writer confirmation of this opinion. Recently Dr. and Dr.) that this same substance had been employed to make keramic ware during recent generations. poeia of the Tang dynasty (compiled about 650 a. to the eflfect that a substance called pai-ngo was then much used for painting picThe second is an assertion in the pharmacotures. in other words. Now paingo is nothing more or less than kaolin. that the manufacture of true porcelain proper had not yet been commenced. Assuming the correctness of this inference. II . may be taken to prove that it had not yet begun to be thus employed or. — : conclusive. '* But Chang's statement proves nothing as to true porcelain and Dr. the beginning of the 7th century) all such vessels (for flowers) were made of copper it was not till then that pottery came into vogue. Yin-chu) flourished in the early part who (Tao writer of the sixth century. by being exposed to an unusual degree of temperature in the kiln. the same the following passage from an essay on flower-pots by Chang Chien-te. it would follow that the first production of porcelain in China dates from the close In further of the sixth century of the Christian era.

d. vessels of glass. fine 12 . It seems fair to conclude. though thorough masters of the processes of porcelain manu. that although the keramic art was tolerably widely practised from the beginning of the Tang dynasty (6i8). for some of their greatest tours deforce. or bronze were chiefly employed.CHINA From all this it will be seen that little hope re- mains of arriving at an accurate decision as to the first manufacture of translucid porcelain in China. facture. however. and that porcelain did not make its appearance among the keramic productions of the Middle Kingdom until the beginning of the Sung dynasty (960 a. By and by.). it scarcely emerged from a mediocre condition until the tenth century that for any purpose higher than the role of ordinary household utensils. jade. evidence will be adduced to show that Chinese experts. in preference to hard-paste porcelain. deliberately chose stone-ware or semiporcelain.

the following remarks the term "early" is ware manufactured prior to the Sung dynasty (960—1279).EARLY WARES OF CHINA Chapter II EARLT WARES OF CHINA. the secret of manufacturing in the littoral 13 . President of the Board of Works in the beginning of the seventh century and an antiquarian of established reputation. tradition speaks of a species of green ware called Liu-tsu. at Wen-chou-fu. Under the next dynasty stated that a ware called 265—419) it is Tung-ngeu-tao was produced (the Tstn province now named Chekiang.D. In the Sui dynasty (581—618). or Ho Kuei-lin. and much esteemed for the brilliancy of its glaze. but no applied to all IN tradition exists as to the nature of the manufactures. A treatise on tea says that the best known vessels of this ware were shallow. Ho's object was to imitate a sort of opaque glass [Liu-li). It was green in colour.) keramic ware for the use of the Imperial Palace was supplied by two factories. The ware was probably green stoneware of comparatively crude technique. with straight rims and spreading bases. Julien's calculation it was from y^o^ to -3^ of a litre. It is recorded that under the Wei dynasty (220—265 A. It was the work of an expert named Ho Chou. The greatest capacity of the vessels is also mentioned according to M.

though no reason is apparent for thus differentiating it from the faience of the Wei dynasty.'* and therefore probably derived from the nature For he succeeded in turnof the man's productions. became famous for its keramic wares. to be distinguished by the that their first receipt of an order from the Palace keramist of note (Tao Yu) flourished at the beginning dustry in his time. ing out stone-ware so closely resembling green jade the Chinese beau-ideal of precious substances which had been — — that his pieces vases of artificial jade. or This man seems to have pedwares himself. living at the beginning of the seventh century. Contemporaneous with Ho Chou. that is to say keramic ware. perhaps. by way of impost. be gathered of the insignificance of the in- His example nevertheless imparted such an impetus to the art that the district of Changnan. however.D. where he resided. dled his were distinguished as Chia-yii-kt.) the people of Chang-nan-chin to send him.CHINA lost. the first emperor of the Sui dynasty had ordered (583 A. the great keramic capital of the Middle Kingdom. Chang-nan was known in later times as Ching-te-chen. It had already acquired a name for such work. a name signifying " keramic jade. nothing is known of the nature or quality of this production. Beyond this meagre account. from which fact an idea may. It would therefore seem that the potters of Chang-nan-chin (afterwards Ching-te-chen) had become sufficiently expert. for which some have claimed the distinction of having been the first celadon manufactured in China. 14 . at the close of the sixth century. Some twenty-five years before Tao Yii's time. He succeeded in producing green stone-ware. vases of the products yao and tsu. . was an expert called Tao Yu. that is to say.

and to have ' — is — and lustre. an artist by name Ho Chungchu was working with success at the same factories. Beyond no record of its qualities. Probably it was stone-ware with fairly manipulated pate. to have been comparatively thin. known as Ho-yao was intended to imiHis ware It is said to have been made of fine tate white jade. This is somewhat enthusiastically mentioned. Similar but inferior to the second variety of it was the Hing-yaOy manu- Coming now — — . the keramic production of note is the Sheu-yao. ice. Palace. or celadon. The colour of the former was green that of the latter. Tradition assigns to the Yueh-yao the first place among keramic productions of the Tang dynasty. At or about the time (615 circa) when Tao Yii flourished in Kiang-si.EARLY WARES OF CHINA of the seventh century. Two varieties are spoken of. the other. was Sheu-chou in the province of Kiang-nan. but depending chiefly on the brilliancy and solidity of its rivalled its original in softness this there It attracted so much attention that an order was issued for the supply of certain quantities to the glaze. and that his chef d ceuvre was green stone-ware. Japanese traditions describe this as stone-ware of crude technique Its place of manufacture and inartistic appearance. clay. intended to imitate jade. to the Tang dynasty (618—907). greenish white. is ascribed to the neighbouring province of Kiang-si. the one resembling jade. A still more meritless ware. a first yellowish ware of inferior quality. During the same dynasty there was manufactured which borders Kiangin the province of Chekiang nan and Kiang-si on the east the Tueh-yao. which may be passed over without further mention.

not very carefully manipulated. if the conclusions reached above be correct. is of dark colour. sometimes having fishes moulded in relief or wave ice or silver . There is. are to be found in the hands of Chinese collectors. however. manufactured in the province of Szechuen. Tang dynasty being only from the present time.chili. Another contemporary production vs^as the Shu-yao. no valid reason to suppose that the Shu-yao excelled its predecessors so greatly as to indicate any marked advance in the keramic art. to by the author of an early treatise on teadrinking. On the other hand. best it had uniform muddy white glaze. manufactured in the province Bowls and cups alone are said to have of Kiang-su. The eulogies of this w^are are sung by a poet of the time who says that it was light yet solid that the lustre of the glaze exceeded the brilliancy of snow. however. and that its timbre resembled that of jade. pressed. the Tsin-yao. been produced. and although nearly heavy enough to be called stone-ware belongs rather i6 . coarse in grain. fashions of decoration that occur frequently in choice wares of later date. At compared its pattern incised in the pate. It was probably semi-porcelain at best. no great inducement can have existed for preserving such wares as objects of attractive art or remarkable technique. A few.CHINA factured in the northern province of Pe. They are described as pure white. it might reasonably be expected that some specimens closing years of the centuries distant The eleven of the wares of that age should still survive. and there doubt their authenticity. is no apparent reason to They support in every respect the views thus far exTheir pate. One other ware deserves to be included in the catalogue of Tang productions namely.

sarfonl via mo^i aanoD) hai jAiDiamoAa (.fe aTiHW 10 (asMona ajo (.trIsiaH ^nuZ .^neia'H to ousoIbIbO) .dS 93Bq 632) .^isEn^h .OAY-O^^IT M^ .

ctors. ITit on to suppose that the S/ju-yao -' "^ to indi It " " was ^ are deserves to 1 notions ^ SACRIFICIAL JAR (COPIED Sung dynasty.. are u. (See page 26.) Height. c presr prert or vver. their and anther' the views arefully nianipulated. 1. bled that of jade. an'oLI> BRONZE) OF WHITE '^ TING-YAO.)iired to on teawas the /echucD.1 i' it". FRoisf ^ (Catalogue of H'siang. 4H inches. and although nearly e-ware belono-s rather .\t Its .) coration. ct of the L O d the bril 1 . \ >.

i- ^> .

.

EARLY WARES OF CHINA to the pottery class. condecorated " with blue under the glaze. This ingenious conjecture seems inadmissible. The potter seems to have taken shapes and decorative designs from ancient bronzes such as are depicted in the pages of the Pok-ku Tou-lok (Illustrated Catalogue of Antiquities). the beginning of the tenth entirely without the depth century)." Whether the Pi-seh- yao was only an improved variety of the Tueh-yao mentioned above or whether it was a distinct pro- — — VOL. and the glaze shows a tendency to blister in the furnace and subsequently to " flake away " from the pate." or " manuto some conjecture. for cludes that the Pi-seh-yao was porcelain factured for special purposes. How to reconcile the actual qualities of such ware with the poetic eulogies it evoked is a perplexing problem. however. or "secret-colour peculiarity of this The name has given rise example. IX. The name was used simply in the sense of " private. [i. It seems improbable that the potter's art should have progressed much during the five dynasties succeeding one another in rapid sequence after the fall of the Tang. and dis- The glaze is grass green. ware. 2 I y . The period covered by the five was only sixty years. du Sartel. To this epoch. the term hidden " or "seeret" being used to denote that the glazing material covered the colour of the decoration. M. being without timbre tinctly soft. lustrous but and richness that characterise subsequent productions of celebrated kilns. The technique is mediocre. This ware is identified by Chinese connoisseurs as the Tuehyao of the Tang dynasty.'' is referred the Pi-seh-yao. and during the whole time the country had no respite from internecine wars.e. indicating an art not yet enlisting earnest effort.

a fact The 'Tao-lu alleges was faience or stonethat specimens were often disfigured by coarse yellow clay adhering to the base showing that the processes of manufacture more or less crude.CHINA — duction. its polished. essentially a connoisseur's colour. A also more said celebrated ware than any of the above to is have had the later Chou (954—960). sonorous as a musical instrument. lustrous. who at that time enjoyed the distinction of supplying utensils for the Imperial Court. been much confusion about the colour of this ware. choicest celadon . The Chai-yao enjoyed an immense reputation. for the nature of the Chai-yaOy it As ware. the colour indicated by the Emperor was something much more than " blue/' in the ordinary meaning of the term. Julien renders it literally " bleu du ciel apres la pluie/' But there is no doubt that a natural interpretation. colour could not have been produced without great It is the tint of the difficulty or with any certainty. with a marked tinge of green. and remarkable alike for ceru- lean colour and the beauty of 18 its crackle. . A Chinese poet says that it were still was thin as paper. petitioned the Emperor Shih-tsung to desigThe Emnate a colour for the ware thus supplied. It was azure of peculiar lightness and Such a delicacy. peror in reply desired them to imitate the blue of the five lesser dynasties — its origin under one of these The result firmament after rain [Tu-ko-tien-ching) was the fabrication of a ware called CKai-yao^ Chat There has being the Emperor's sovereign name. Exagge- . The Keramists of Honan. the evidence of Chinese and Japanese writers goes to prove that it was green faience or stone-ware celadon^ in fact. not to be appreciated by the uneducated eye.

having two principal varieties of glaze celadon and white. " grassgreen " ware of the Tsin dynasty (265—419) "green of the thousand hills" of the T^ang dynasty (618— " greenish cerulean of the sky after rain. that up to the middle of the tenth century the choicest keramic manufacture of China was stone-ware. An ancient Japanese writer. The details here given about them have practical interest chiefly for the sake of the general conclusion they lead to. the Chat dynasty was the first to become celebrated for its keramic productions. the ware unquestionably attracted great such admiration at the time of its manufacture admiration that. or semi-porcelain. and yu ware of the Sung dynasty (960—1260). according to a competent connoisseur of six centuries later. namely. No specimen survived intact. The term " green of the thousand hills " is explained by another renowned Japanese dilettante who describes the colour as " the tint given by the breezes — — . 19 . says that they may be classified under four heads namely. .'' and 907) "secret-colour ware'' of the Chou dynasty (954— 960). Probably the manufacture was conducted on a very small scale. In fact.EARLY WARES OF CHINA rated as this eulogy would seem from a modern point . . summing up the most celebrated early wares of the Middle Kingdom. of all the keramic achievements prior to the commencement of the Sung dynasty (960) little is known beyond what may be learned from very meagre records and from a few scarcely identifiable specimens. and the only representative pieces those supplied for use at the Imperial Court were destroyed in the wars that interrupted their production at the fall of the Chou dynasty. of view. and fragments of Chai-yao were eagerly sought for by subsequent generations.

who imitated green opaque glass and green jade respectively. one of Japan's most painstaking antiquarians.CHINA to the thousand verdureIn short. a temple in the province of Omi. these records is that the keramic industry was pracexcellent in proportion as wide area. down to the potters of the Chai-yao. who sought to reproduce the greenish cerulean of the sky between clouds after rain.d. without. The late Mr. In view of the references made above to Japanese tised over a very antiquarian literature. from time to time. 20 . the reader will naturally be disposed to enquire whether specimens of early Chinese ware do not survive in Japan. Fire has been their great enemy. personally conducted investigations at the site of Bonshaku-ji. Many a storehouse of objects of art has been destroyed in conflagrations which. The collections of the latter country have always enjoyed comparative immunity from the dangers of war or political iconoclasm." early keramists was a celadon monochrome. sweep away whole acres of Japan's wooden cities. potteries were more or less frequent. which was built in the year 786 a. losing a Another fact established by nuance of the former. and among the ruins of others modern research has discovered specimens of great interest. Throughout the belt of provinces extending from Chien-si in the north-west to Chekiang and Kiang-si in the east of the empire. the beau-ideal of these and dews of nine autumns clad hills. Ninagawa Noritane. and destroyed within a decade by Among the ruins were found shards of hard fire. But of her temples some have survived. it may be confidently asserted that from the days of Ho Chou and Tao Yu. the more its colour partook less of green and more of blue. however.

and ample facilities existed for porcelain. perhaps. More satisfactory however. the principal varieties of which. 21 . as Theories stated above. unceladon certain piece of testimony is furnished by a celebrated collection in the Shos6-in. but some celadon and yellowish grey have two glazes run — — is in tesselated or scolloped patterns. seven rice-bowls with covers (called ha-gatame. be regarded as genuine examples of the Tueh-yao of the 'Tang dynasty. grey. It may further be presumed that they are fairly representative examples. covered with three varieties of glaze. evidence is furnished by a book [Kuishu Zatsuyd-sho\ in which the ceremonials observed at the Japanese Court during the ninth and tenth centuries are deThere is seen a coloured plate showing scribed. inasmuch as a very high standard of refinement was observed at the Japanese Imperial Court. In this collection are articles used in the Japanese Imperial household between the years 709 and 784 Several keramic specimens of Chinese manuA. founded on fragments of ware thus discovered are. These were ap- parently of Chinese manufacture. open to much doubt. or teeth-hardeners) which were used on the first three Nothing is said of the days of the New Year. and may. Japan. light green. and greenish v^hite. ware. — facture are included. are compared to jade and ice. brittle. The ma- have monochromatic celadon glaze.D. at Nara. The pate very and has no pretensions whatever to be called Here then are unquestionably authentic examples of Chinese ware potted during the Tang dynasty.EARLY WARES OF CHINA faience. Yet another and less monochrome. nor does the plate deexact nature of the But the glaze is light green a termine it. jority They are faience.

a conclusion already established. it will at all events be justifiable to infer that the general character of the ware produced at the time was faience of mediocre quality. by examination of specimens that Chinese connoisseurs refer to the liang dynasty. as stated above. and that the favourite colour was green.CHINA Without assuming exchanging products with the Middle Kingdom. 3a . that these specimens in the Shosoin collection are to be regarded as chefs d' ceuvre of Chinese keramists during the eighth century.

much of his time to collecting choice specimens of the wares of the Sung^ Tuan. Bushell of the British It is a manLegation in Peking. Henceforth firmer ground is trodden. and muddy yellow. and that his glazes were all monochromes. recently translated. uscript entitled Li tat ming ts'u fou fu^ or "Illustrated Description of the Celebrated Wares of different Dynasties. who flourished during virtuoso. the student can be reasonably sure that up to the middle of the tenth century the highest achievement of the Chinese keramist was stone-ware or semiporcelain. white.WARES OF -SUNG" DYNASTY Chapter III WARES OF THE ''SUNG'' DTNASrr {g6o-i27g) based chiefly upon written records. Japanese annals and traditions assist. he devoted ALTHOUGH been the conclusions hitherto stated An ardent the second half of the sixteenth century. W. S. green. especially as their trustworthiness is established from point to point by a remarkable work which Dr. From the pieces which thus came 23 . the first two being intended to imitate jade. Hsiang Tuan-p'ien. was a writer and artist of renown. and Ming dynasties." The author. have and therefore lack the certainty imparted by actual examination of a number of authentic specimens.

in the northern province of PeC/iun-yao. is some uncertainty as to the exact date According to the pharmacopoeia of the Tang dynasty. There were three principal varieties of glaze. executed original information they afford. viz. If it has marks as of tears: they may be taken as evidence of genuineness. and it has already been seen that during the Tang dynasty Pechili produced two varieties of white ware called Hing-yao and Tsin-yao. There origin. Ting-yao. Speci- — 24 . are nevertheless of the greatest value for the sake of both the confirmatory and the pictures. A work on antiquarian subjects. It was then a fine stone-ware or semi-porcelain. from those in the possession of he selected eighty-two. The Ting-yao was first manufactured at a place called Ting-chou. having light grey pate. It is possible that confusion may have existed between products of its presenting so events. though they leave much to be desired. as quoted by Dr. it many points of resemblance. Kao-yao Lung-chuan-yao Ju-yao^ and Chien-yao. namely. and black. Of these he gives with great care in colours and accompanied by descriptions which. Kuan-yao. chili. says: "Old Ting porcelain is valuable if the paste is fine and the colour white and brilliant.. Low qualities are coarse and of a yellowish colour. Of these the white was the most important. published in 1387. a powder prepared from white keramic ware of Ting-chou was used for medicinal purposes as far back as the seventh century.CHINA into his possession and his friends. At all was not till the Sung period that the Ting- yao of Pechili came into note. Hirth. grape colour (purplish). white. Under the Sung dynasty (960-1260) the principal wares manufactured were seven in number.

arabesques and pure white variety was called Pat-ting. specimens were made during the periods Cheng-ho (1111-1117) and Hsuan-ho (i 11 9-1 125). confor the most part. closely resembling the shell of an egg in colour. and a creamy glaze. of the Fei-feng (flying phoenix).WARES OF ''SUNG" DYNASTY also mens having ornamental designs cut into the paste are Plain pieces are the most excellent. whether above or below the glaze. usually incised in the pate. scrolls. "painting" probably meant decoration with slip.'' further from another Chinese work to the efquotes fect that the ornaments of the Ting-yao were ( ) eni graved. greyish pate. quer in colour. and (3) printed or pressed on with It will be well to explain at once that the mould. with fine. When that The showing . colours under or over the glaze. a tinge of buff was called Fan-ting. they were nothing more or less than technical imperfections. The a sisted. but there are no means of determining this with certainty. who gives this extract. the dragon. decorative designs. " painted '' is not to be understood here in its term Keramic decoration by painting with ordinary sense. was not practised by The process described as the Ting-chou potters. With regard to the "tear-marks " mentioned by the Chinese writers quoted above. (2) worked into the glaze or painted. seldom crackled. but sometimes showing a pronounced tinge of buff. but these are difficult to procure. Those which have ornaments worked into good. the peony. The general description of the Sung Ting-yao is that it was semi-porcelain. or cut into the paste. (or painted The best on) the glaze are of the second quality. tolerably thin and sonorous. Brown ware was also made at Ting-chou. Hirth. and a black variety resembling black lacDr.

globules or "tears*' are not unThat such a feature likely to make their appearance. To correct the unfinished appearance of such pieces. whereas the bottoms were often completely covered. Bushell. Another point to be noted with reference to the manufacture of this early 'Ting ware was that the cups and bowls were stoved in an inverted position.CHINA the glazing material is applied by absorption to ware that has already been fired. should have been esteemed by connoisseurs was doubtto obtain. it is rather because of the softness and comparative opacity of the pate than with any reference to the rank which the ware ought to occupy. From the pictures of these pieces and from the descriptions given by H'siang himself. or the colour of ripe grapes and one is black. the tear-marks lation before stoving and would naturally occur upon ware of such exceptionally thin pate that manipuwas difficult. mentioned above. it pointed to times when . If the Sung Ting-yao has been spoken of above as semi-porcelain. It is probable that the manufacture of hard porcelain was within the competence of the Pechili . forty-two specimens of Sung ware are depicted. a uniform surface is easy while the paste is still raw. In the Illustrated Catalogue of H'siang. six being white of the rest five are purple. . the consequence being that the upper rims remained without glaze. a thin slip of silver or copper was usually applied to their rims. 26 . Twelve of these specimens belong to the Ting-yao class. it is seen at once that there is question of keramic productions exhibiting an advanced condition of expert skill. But when the glazing is effected less because. technical excellence had not yet been attained in the second. in the first place. as translated by Dr.

In addition to the white. His ware was known as Hsin-Ting-yao (New Ting-yao\. but no specimens of it appear to have survived. like many they of their successors. He may have been occasionally baffled by the richness. nor is subsequent mention made of it. who compared it to mutton fat or fine jade. but the wares themselves he could easily excel. tors is The Ting-yao chiefly known to collec- of the Ching-te-chen factories durearly part of the present dynasty. in his translation of the Tao-lu. purple. lustre. but that. so that few pieces are likely to have been handed down to late latter as a basis Only with the duce the lustrous. translucid. to be by and by spoken of. It is said to have been exceedingly fragile. tradition says that a red glaze was manufactured. imitated with success in subsequent eras. and in a product ing the Ming (1367— 1644) and 27 . distinguished himself by such imitations. This is not necessarily an imitation of the early Ting-yao. It was called Hung-ting. During the Tuan dynasty (1260an expert called Peng Chiin-pao. tender pate. generations. The potter of the Ming and Tsing eras was not so faithful to his models that he deemed it necessary to reproduce their blemishes as well as their beauties. Julien. being usually of superior technique. was it possible to proand yet solid glaze so much valued by connoisseurs. and tone of the early glazes. and black varieties of the Ting-yao.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY keramists under the Sung dynasty. says that the red Ting-yao was much valued. whose factory 1369) was at Ho-chou in the province of Kiang-nan. It was. however. It need scarcely be observed that genuine specimens of the original Ting-yao are very difficult to procure. preferred the artistic quahties of a soft.

for the rest. soft lustrous glaze of the colour of rice-flour (white with a tinge of buff). and decorative designs incised or in relief. but the glaze was rich and lustrous. handed down to the effect that a batch which happened to be in the oven just as a is 28 . Associated with its production are the names of a potter. it may be regarded as a special and independent manufacture of great beauty and high artistic quality. since it was virtually nothing more than an inferior variety of Ting-yao. It does not. Shu Hung. according to the Tao-lu. or " rice-flour " glaze. and his daughter. The pate is said to have been thick and somewhat coarse. by what characteristics except excellence of technique and generally harder it may be distinguished from the Sung ware. in the province of Kiang-si. deserve to be separately classified. however. The Ting-yao of Ching-te-chen resembles the Sung ware of Pechili in having tender pate. the keramic manufactures of the Sung some importance was the Ki-chouyaOy produced at Kichou. Shu Chiao. so far as is known. But. pate there is no possibility of explaining. The grapecoloured and black varieties were not produced.CHINA nine cases out of every ten. The species of 'Ting-yao chiefly manufactured at Ching-te-chen was Precisely — — the Fan-Ting-yao.'' or Jlambe. at several ounces of silver each. by and by — — For a of tradition vases. who were noted for their skill. ware to be spoken of had its origin at the Ki-chou potteries. dynasty. the clay required to imitate their pate exactly was not procurable. Vases made by the latter were valued. showing the same white and grapepurple colours as the Ting-yao. a ware of Among There is some reason to suppose that the celebrated "transmutation.

to the effect that the nearest of the foreign places to which porcelain was shipped from the Middle Kingdom soon after 29 . there was also produced at the same factory (in Pechili) during the Sung dynasty. in his interesting brochure. and are still reThe origin of garded. which term literally signi- Ting pottery/' and the fine Ting-yao fies *^ The is difference between this that the pate of the former has much is greater thickness and solidity. a coarser species called Tu-Ting-yao. and was thus associated with southern potteries. "Ancient Chinese Porcelain. In addition to the choice varieties of Ting-yao described above. Possibly the Tu-Tingthe misconception is obscure.WARES OF "SUNG'* DYNASTY were changed into upon the workmen closed the kiln and high official passed. yao reached Japan in the first place via Siam or Canton. and that the glaze invariably crackled. where- fled in trepi- dation. as Cochin— Chinese products. Considerable quantities of it found their way to Japan. where they were erroneously regarded. Hirth. Occasionally the glaze is entirely without lustre. sometimes in large. where they constitute a source of persistent error. sometimes in small meshes. and it belongs altogether to an inferior order of manufacture. The colour of this Tu-Ting-yao has a distinctly deeper tinge of yellow than that of the fine Ting-yao. So far as is known. Dr. jade. closely resembling the shell of an egg. nothing resembling them in any respect was ever produced at the Annamese or Siamese factories. specimens of this so-called Kochi-yaki [Kochi is the Japanese term for Cochin China) are frequently found in Japanese collections. At all events.'' adduces evidence from a Chinese work (the Chu-fan-chih^ by Chao Ju-kua) published in the early part of the thirteenth century.

in his time. where such objects of art had been held in high esteem ever since the seventh or eighth century of the Christian era. Specimens of that particular ware may have reached Japan via Cochin China.C A. as was the case with the well known ** Old Japan " ware of Western collectors. during the Sung dynasty. the very author (Chao Dr. however. and were identified with their port of shipment rather than with their original place of manufacture. would have failed to bring Chinese keramic wares to Japan. found their way to Japan from Chan-cheng.D. was everywhere called Imari-yaki. It might be conjectured that specimens of Tu-Ting-yaOy included among these imports. has to be set the well established fact that there existed. Of course a general inference of this sort does not necessarily include a special product like the Tu-Ting-yao. Indeed. on their return journey. which. Unfortunately the evidence available does not suffice to eluci- — — date this matter. It has to be remembered that when the Sung dynasty is spoken of there is question of a period of over three centuries. made in the keramic 30 . though produced at Arita. and it is scarcely credible that these junks. says that quoted by Ju-kua) large Chinese junks were engaged. Hirth in this context. after its place of export (Imari). transnotably planks of the Cryptomeria porting timber from Japan to the Chinese port of Ch'uanJaponica chou. a district included in Cochin China. Against such a theory. H I NA I200. was Chan-cheng. a much brisker direct trade between China and Japan than between the former and Cochin China. and thus been erroneously attributed to the factories of the latter. great progress should have been Under ordinary circumstances.

Tradition says that the change of capital seriously influenced the potter's trade. Under the Sung emperors. or southern Ting. was re-commenced at the latter. This Nan-chang was in the immediate neighbourhood of Ching-te-chen. that of the northern factory of Ting-chou and that of the southern factory of Nan-chang. that of the latter from 1 1 27 to 1 279. for the Ting-yao produced there did not enjoy as high a reputation as its northern predein Pechili Connoisseurs distinguished the two wares. it is asserted that the material employed for the biscuit of the Ting-yao made at Nan-chang was not so fine or closegrained as that used by the Ting-chou potters. continued in after years to be the very metropolis of Chinese pottery. or Chingte-chen. The 31 .WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY But in 1 1 27 the Sung during that long interval. however. emperors changed their capital from Peking to Nankin. the great centre of Chinese keramic industry. The latter " " was also called Fan-ting. their ability to produce Tingyao. manufacture of the former lasted from 960 to 1126. cessor. But in the early part of the twelfth century the resources of the place do not appear to have been developed.'' resulted in the division of the empire into two Kingdoms. The factory at Ting-chou art was transferred to Nan-chang in Kiang-si. or rice-flour The Ting. the invading Tartars holding sway in the north. to Sung Ting-yao only. and the manufacture of Ting-yaOy ceasing at the former place. as Pai-ting. or white Tingy and Nan-ting. of course. and the Sung sovereigns reigning in the south. These dates refer. The reader will readily understand that as Nan-chang. its experts did not lose but rather developed. generally spoken of in Chinese history as " the passage of the Sung to the south. and that event.

whose work was published at the close of the sixteenth century. is reasonable to suppose that the po*tters did not leave Ting-chou.CHINA superiority in respect of delicacy oi pate and purity of On the other colour thus rested with the Pat-ting. It will be well to pass from the Ting-yao to the yu-yao because the latter is said to have had its origin in technical defects of the former. in 1 130 their technical skill at behind them that their work in the south continued to were issued for the establishment of a special factory at Juchou. hand. imperial orders 32 . and that the ware of the thirteenth century appreciably excelled that of the tenth in many important features.D. and improve as But there is little to guide it had done in the north. Chinese authors themselves state that the most beauwere manufactured in the interval between 1 1 1 1 and 1 1 25 that is to say. It tiful pieces of northern Ting-yao . These blemishes proved so embarrassing and unavoidable that. The Tao-lu says that the glaze of the Ting-yao was often disfigured by fissures and other faults. had ceased to exist The same writer's father. though the best of all. in his time.. Practical experience of the Ting-yao in this matter. of the Sung dynasty leaves the student completely in the dark in respect of such fine distinctions as Baiting and Nan-ting. however. in the province of Kiang-su. Here the Ju-yao was produced. A Chinese writer. mentions that in his day specimens of yu-yao were A. due to imperfectly prepared materials or unskilled stoving. says that the Chai and Ju porcelains. just before political troubles compelled the transfer of the factory from Ting-chou to Nan-chang. it is certain that technical processes were continually progressing through this long interval.

.as e.00) 5138^33 (.

It chat the potters did not leave »ehind them ' at Ting-chou.V ol pate and purity of ^-ting. (See page 26. . rhat )t A Chi- ished at the close the C/iai and Ju - had ceased to exi --^"ter's father. however. most beau- mu factored 'cn i 1 troubles compelled the trans? ing-chou to Nan-chang.) Height.es I I 30 I tablishment tne province of )roduced. and '' ntinued to improve as '-'-' ^" -ide CENSER (COPIED FROM OLP BRONZE) OF PURPLE. 3K inches. . On the other ^ processes iiterval. . were conand |)reciably iiu features.rw^^6^^K^(^/_ Shm^ dynasty. (Catalogue of H'siang.) V to the ts origin savs :. •jaens of Ju-yao were all.

.

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was celadon.'' he adhered to it consistently throughout. Thus the decoration on blue-and-white porcelain of later generations is called Chinghwa. Julien was naturally deceived. As for the nature of the ware. He repeats this same error more than once. Julien's misconception originally pointed out by the writer of these pages in 1 8 8 1 in the Chrysanthemum is alluded to at length in a recent brochure by Dr.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY chief variety. representative of early Chinese celadon. as will be seen by and constantly Its met with. he had committed himself to the rendering " blue. — 3 ZZ . and the same ideograph [ching) is used to describe the colour of the blue cotton coats worn by the lower orders in China. In the Tao-lu the pate of the Ju-yao is said to have been of fine quality and to have shone like copper. Julien. And of course when. The primary purpose of establishing the factory at Juchou seems to have been to produce this highly esteemed monochrome. it is on record that the clay employed at Juchou was red though there is nothing to indicate whether it was red originally or whether it became red in the furnace a peculiar property. IX. The fact is that the ideograph Ching employed by the author of the Tao-lu. falls into the error of calling the Ju-yao blue. from VOL. may be properly rendered by " blue '' in the great majority of cases.'' The yu-yao was unquestionably celadon. indeed its knov^n. only variety so far as is — — . — by. although it involved him in such anomalies as " onion-blue. in one instance. Hirth. not having the aid of research in loco and practical knowledge to verify his opinion. and his translation has thus been the means of deceiving connoisseurs with respect to the nature of several of the early Chinese wares. in his translation of the Taolu.

Indeed. showing considerable variation in respect to fineness of pate and thinness of biscuit. or red-brown tinge in the oven. Of course the conclusion is not to be drawn that to manufacture translucid porcelain was beyond the keramic competence of the time. It was so soft and lustrous that connoisseurs compared it to congealed fat. its clay. however. that. On the contrary.CHINA it may safely be inferred here no question of translucid porcelain. in short. specimens of the latter character being most highly In the Tao-lu it is stated that the crackle prized. Its colour varied from a green almost verging upon a blue to white barely tinged with green. that this so-called " iron base is not necessarily found in the best examples of Juyao. assumed a red. but never becoming true translucid porcelain. like all earlyperiod celadons. cir- which and other evidences that there is 34 . The glaze of the yu-yao presented great merits.' when not protected by the glaze. In the first case of the yu-yao was of two varieties. Paucity of authenticated specimens precludes absolute certainty about these points. and even the Ming dynasties were stone-ware. Reference will be made to the point hereafter. that Ju-yao had pate which was white except at places directly exposed to the heat of the kiln . though it does constitute a mark of authenticity in the case of early celadons generally. the statement may be made at once that all the choice celadons of the Sung^ the Tuan. Very frequently the surface was crackled sometimes it was entirely without crackle. an opaque pate seems to have been deliberately preferred as a suitable basis for Ching-tsu (green-coloured) glaze. the surface was covered with a network of close. Japanese connoisseurs maintain. It is exceedingly probable that.

The simile of " boutons de Aralia " has ref- erence to chagrined glaze." if indeed there is is to be understood by crackle compared. is to impart to the surface of the piece an appearance — — 35 . How pieces showing such blemishes can have been highly esteemed. and it is almost inconceivable that Resulting. etaient encore plus Concerning this perplexing passage M. as though a crab had walked over it before firing. at the same question of crackle at all time. says that these " crab's-claw marks. nevertheless. In the glaze of these antique wares especially in choice specimens of Sung Chun-yao. to crab's claws and Aralia leaves ? Dr. probably. so far from being an embellishment. " Les Salvetat makes only the following remark What pieces de cette sorte sont extremement rares. not inaptly likened : : — les raies : des pattes de crabes. Bushell. they can have been produced at will. from more or less accidental conditions of temperature in the kiln. one is at a loss to underbeaux : " — — — : stand. They are not continuous. These lines are not crackle they may be better described as dappling. the crackle assumed the roe of fishes an appearance distinguished as the " crab's claw " Suivant Fouvrage fashion. to be presently described serrated.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY by connoisseurs to in the second. Julien's words are intitule khe-kou-yao-lun. were imperfections that they were simply little holes in the glaze. or F-shaped. lines are sometimes found that have been erroneously supposed to belong to the " crab's-claw " type. their effect. something quite different from the so-called " crab's-claw " marking. than whom no higher authority is to be found among " Western connoisseurs. ceux qui ofFraient dans le vernis des yeux [boutons^ de Tsong (^Aralid^ imitant cular meshes.

but the translator. The shapes and decoration are copied from ancient bronzes. the potters are said to have powdered red calcedony and added it to the glazing Experience had evidently taught them material. three specimens of Ju-yao are depicted and described. copper or silver were fitted to them. and graving. originally dictated by the presence of a defect. Chinese keramists have always been remarkable for The great test of skill at the Juchou such work. and in order to hide their unglazed rims slender rings of This device. In the early days of its manufacture certain pieces of Ju-yao were stoved in an inverted position. designs incised and in relief scroll pattern. not unnatur- — — 36 . They are celadons^ having a glaze of " bluish-green " tint. but H'siang's catalogue does not support that dictum. and softness combined with solidity belong to a very high range of The best specimens are said to have achievement. moulding. translated by Dr. that this highly siliceous mineral turns white under the action of heat. and being employed to relieve the uniformity so forth To produce the peculiar delicateof the surface. factory was the quality of the celadon glaze. It is seen from H'siang's pictures that the potters of the Ju-yao exercised admirable expertness in modelling. Bushell. and continued to be employed long after its real purAllusion is made to the pose had ceased to exist. practice in the Tao-lu. subsequently came to be regarded as a distinctive mark. been without crackle. spirals. lustre. Its delicate greenish blue colour.CHINA of softness and richness greatly prized by Chinese virtuosi. In the " Illustrated Catalogue " of H'siang. green of this ware.

gathered of the pieces. to speak more correctly.D.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY perplexed by so strange a device. and that the pate at the base showed an iron-red colour.) established the factory where it produced. or moulded in Whether they were slight relief under the glaze. The clay is said to but that it was not a porcelain stone may be have been fine.'* The ally same criticism applies to this as to the so-called "painted" designs of the Ting-yao : the Sung potters did not paint their wares by way either of decoration The sesame flowers referred to here or of mark. It is stated in the Tao-lu that on the bottom of ^Juyao vases flowers of the sesame were " painted. yao Not less important than the Ting-yao and the Juamong wares of the Sung dynasty was the Kuan" Imperial Ware. but few are likely to place much reliance on such a feature as a means of identification. at Peng-liang or Kai-feng-fu. were either engraved in the paste." it yao. but the specimens figured in H'siang's catalogue do not appear to be thus distinguished. did not procure for self (i its distinguished It was was called " Imperial " simply because the Emperor him- 107 A. sometimes had glaze did not suffice to conceal the paste completely. in short. after stovpurple-brown tint. stone-ware. misinterpreted Most Western collectors have doubtless observed it. that bowls and cups of early-period Chinese wares generally have their rims protected. concealed by strips of metal. the dark colour of the latter became more or less 37 . It was. invariably employed to mark choice examples of the ware it is impossible to tell. or The quality of the ware title. in the province of Honan. or. Wherever the thickness of the fact that the rims a from the ing.

called the early days three varieties were produced In . i. The potters of the Kuan-yao models and decorative designs 38 as adopted the same the potters of the . It is compared by Chinese connoisseurs to the markings of starred ice. the piece appeared covered with a vermilion network. The great aim of the potters was to produce that peculiar delicate greenish blue compared to the tint of the firmament between rain-clouds. As a general rule the Kuan-yao was crackled. in richness and lustre of glaze the advantage is said to have been slightly on the side of the Ju-yao. Moreover. and after a time the typical Kuan-yao became a celadon. In their treatment of this crackle.. as well as in the fringe of subsidiary and almost imperceptible fissures that radiated from its edges and in the result the surface of — — . moon-white light green. and dark green. the Kuan-yao potters struck out a new line. bordered here and there by little clouds of red. the verdict will be that the yu-yao showed a more delicate tinge and verged more closely upon the ideal cerulean than the Kuan-yao. The pigment thus became permanently fixed in the main crackle. If a distinction is to be drawn between the results they achieved. The effect was novel and pretty. The first variety did not win public esteem. It will be seen. The crackle was large and regular.CHINA apparent.e. of the manufacture namely. therefore. of various shades of green. clair-de-luney by the Chinese Tueh-pai. before the cracks had entirely contracted in the process of cooling vermilion was strongly rubbed over the surface. that as to colour the Ju-yao and Kuan-yao potters worked on the same lines. after emerging from the kiln that is to say. For while the piece was still hot.

the to his capital move have been closed." and " bluish green. : from Kai-feng-fu to Hang-chou. were in great part occupied by a struggle between the Chinese and the Tartars. the Sung ruler decided." One only is not crackled.*' but more general Kuan-yoa. or " Impotteries at Peng-liang appear to perial ware. and their decorative designs show much wealth of A fancy. their colours ranging through " pale green." " onion green. years. or "ware duced there was of the palace.WARES OF -SUNG" DYNASTY Ju-yao and the Ting-yao : they copied ancient bronzes. The policy of the Sung emperors had been essentially one of peace under their rule the empire attained a high state of civilization at the expense of its martial Unable to make head against the valour of prowess. Simultaneously with this event. the invading Tartars. Throughout the whole of the Sung period the same better type of shapes and decoration is found. and in their stead a factory was opened within the precincts of the yamen occupied by the Mayor of the The ware proImperial Palace in Hang-Chou. The number of specimens of Kuan-yao produced at the original factory (Peng-liang) was probably not large. too. described above." In all its essential features it closely resembled the original Kuan-yao. which is generally termed the passing of the Sung to the south. Ten specimens of Sung Kuan-yao are depicted in the illustrated Catalogue of H'siang. They are all celadons. inasmuch as the manufacture continued for Those twenty twenty years only (1107— 1126). called sometimes Nei-yao." " light green. for the forms of many of the old bronzes are eminently graceful. 39 . choice could scarcely have been made. in 1 127.

signified simply " Imperial porcelain. For this 40 . ought to represent the highest achievement of the era's keramic art. To these two wares belong incomparably the finest celadons of ancient times.CHINA It is necessary to warn the reader against confounding the Kuan-yao of the Sung dynasty with the Kuan-yao manufactured during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries at Ching-te-chen." and not a special product of a particular epoch.' The term * red mouth refers to the brim. of an entirely different character. This was at the time called * red-mouthed and iron-footed. It will be described in its place. in accuracy of moulding and in general finish. technically that part of the bottom on which the vessel rests when being fired. is red. as the latest keramic effort of the Sung dynasty. the ware may be said to have excelled anything previously produced. of the vessel the latter becomes red by the enamel flowing down and away from it so as to be much thinner on the brim than on the body of the reason ' ' : Feng-huang-shan Hang-chou. for the most part. the fact is recorded that the advantage was with the Ju-yao in respect of richness and lustre of glaze and delicacy of colour. The Kuan-yao. Hirth translates the following passage from the " As reTao-shuOy as quoted by the Po-wu-yao-lan : — gards Kuan-yao. Here it need only be observed that the term Kuan-yao. especially applied to the rings seen on the bottom of old celadon vessels) resembles iron in colour. The latter is. earth found at it should be the foot known of the that the porcelain (Phoenix Hill) near * the foot [tsu. But although in the method of treating the crackle. or opening. and which is therefore not covered by the enamel . in its later use. Dr.

Pieces of the Jung-yao produced at Hang-chou. manufactured at the Liu-tien factory near Lung-chuan. Like the Kuan-yao. is figured in the Illustrated Catalogue of It has bright green glaze." It is convenient to speak here of another ware of the Sung period. Owing to thickness and solidity. appeared in most of the Jung-yao pieces. in the province of a 41 . yung-yao H'siang. was one of the principal channels of traffic between China and There can be the outer world during the Sung era. jade. of various shades. without crackle. and subsequently at Hang-chou in Chekiang. the Quinsai of Marco Polo. resembling. The glaze was green. examples of the Jung-yao descended to later centuries. This ware differed from the Kuan-yao and Ju-yaOy being coarser and heavier features that constituted decided inferiorities. in its general features.WARES OF -SUNG" DYNASTY vessel. but dark. compared to its with floral decoration in relief. which allows spots of red paste to become visible. One of the most important wares of the Sung dynasty was the Lung-chuan-yao. yao. One specimen of Sung it . The brown rim and iron-coloured base. This is the Jungboth the Kuan-yao and the Ju-yao. Hang-chou. It derived its name from the fact that Kai-feng-fu was the eastern capital [Jung = east) of the Sung. so common in old celadons. were probably among the number. and its colour was taken as model by the celadon manufacturers of Ching-techen in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. was manufactured originally at Kai-feng-fu. in Honan. The clay used for its manufacture was fine in texture. little doubt that numerous specimens of early celadon found their way from it to countries west of the Middle Kingdom.

glaze was strong sea-green. but as a general rule the tinge of blue so much esteemed by the Chinese connoisseur did not The typical variety of exist in the Lung-chuan-yao. term Lung-Chuan-yao. coloured with vermilion. It is said to have been originated by two . celadons. (first called Sheng-i born) was the younger. that produced by the younger as Originally. whose long 42 . persistence induces him the Lung-chuan-yao **blue porcelain. whereas in Sheng-erh's ware (the Chang-yao or Lung-chuan-yao) when crackle occurs it is simply untinted fissures in the glaze. henceforth be called Sheng-i's ware (the Ko-yao^ resembles the Kuan-yao in having a network of crackle sometimes fine. It is singular more or less impure Julien's to observe to call how M. be avoided it. elder ware produced by the — — — — The Lung-chuan celadon glaze was more distinctly green than the glaze of either the Ju-yao or the Specimens of the last two might doubtKuan-yao. Crackle is found is some invariably looked for. d'Entrecolles. but by connoisseurs in subsequent centuries the expressions Ko-yao [Ko signifies elder brother) and Lung-chuan-yao came to be used Both brothers aimed at producing distinctively. or Lung-chuan-yao as it will specimens of Chang-yao but it is never coloured crackle. the two were included in the Chang-yao. The brother was distinguished as Ko-yao . Each had his own factory. the chief difference in their methods being that the older employed crackle while the younger This difference must not." M.CHINA Chekiang. whose surname was Chang. brothers. however. less be classed with specimens of the first in respect of colour. Sheng-erh elder The (second born). often in tone. and occasometimes bold sionally with Indian ink.

— — kiln. Julien. A very common fashion in this style of decoration was to mould two unglazed Incised defishes on the bottom of a bowl or plate." adhering to his original interpretation of the ideograph Ching. or red- dish brown. and so forth. the Kylin or the Phoenix moulded in high relief. Occasionally portions of the arabesques. described the M. but they lack the " red mouth In the and iron foot " of the true Lung-chuan-yao. and upon the figure subas the Eight Taoist Immortals. and this change of colour an essential mark of genuineness. When so exposed. sometimes copied from ancient bronzes sometimes consisting of floral scrolls. however. In them. Beautiful celadons were manu- factured at Ching-te-chen during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. ware's colour as " vert-olive. the Seven jects were Gods of Happiness. plies to the condition of those parts of the stone not exposed to the direct action of heat in the porcelain Many mented with designs . writes de : — " La couleur bleue etait le ca- ractere dominant des porcelaines ajiciennes qui provenaient Lung-chuanT specimens of the Lung-chuan-yao were ornain relief. but whereas the porcelain stone used in the manufacture of the Kuan-yao appears to have been red originally. that 43 . met with. as well signs are also frequently as in raised designs. nothing is commoner than a scroll of peonies. the pate became is red. surface were left unglazed. The porcelain stone used in the manufacture of Lung-chuan ware is said by the author of the T^aoThis description aplu to have been fine and white.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY residence and practical experience in China ought to have rendered his testimony conclusive. Kuan-yao also the pate shows these colours.

— The Wu-ts^a-tsu says : ' Apart from Ch'ai-yao. Ko-yao will then have short cracks which [Lit. the second born).e.). 10 seq. the 44 . though there are few to be found at — present. Ch^un-feng-t^ang-sui-pH says : ' Ko-yao is of a short cracks. yao: 'Its colour is ch^ing-green of various shades. porcelain factories of Liu-t*ien at Lung-chuan were originally in the hands of two brothers. 1387] says of the old Ko2.) 4.' (The true significance of the " crab's claw " marks has been explained consists in its .' and thin. whose surname was Chang.. 2.CHINA used in the manufacture of the Lung-chuan-yao became red under the action of heat." of which specimens having a good colour may be classed with Tung-yao. and it comprises porcelains which have " the iron foot and the red mouth.) 6. to distinguish it from the produce of the other factory. this porcelain is highly valued. the elder of whom was called Sheng-i {i.' says : ' The characteristic feature having cracks underneath the glaze resembling the claws of a crab. whereas the younger brother's name was Sheng-erh (i. dangers.d. of Kuan-yao in the text. and the porcelain which came from the factory of the elder brother [in Chinese Ko] was called Ko-yao. Dr.' 3. Hirth has collected from Chinese literature the following extracts having reference to the wares pro- duced at Lung-chuan : — EXTRACTS FROM THE T'JO-SHUO 1.. the crackle of the hundred are called Pai-chi-sui. — The dead white and has — The Po-wu-yao-lan 5. P. the Sung Dynasty. or Elder Brother's Porcelain. (Ch. natives of Ch'u- — The Ko-yao of The chou. the first born). that of Ko-yao in its having cracks like fish-spawn with the difference that its enamel does not come up to that of Kuan-yao. Each of the two brothers owned a factory. The Ko-ku-yao-lun [a.e. — The P'^ai-shih-lei-pHen says: 'When its paste is fine and the enamel pure and clear.

. 45 .* 8. Moreover. and — — : chow/ 9. The better specimens may compete with the Kuan-yao but there is not much in the way of a crackled surface. Old Ching-ch'i and thin in paste and of ts^ui-ching There green colour (Kingfisher's green). — The or Ko-ku-yao-lun is Lung-chuan-yao chou-fu] now 1387) says: * The old called Ch'u-ch4 [Ware of Ch'u(a.. and an iron foot. and there is a variety consisting of basins which have a pair of fishes at the bottom or have on the Ching-ch'i if fine [Green Ware].' The ChHng-pi-tsang says: 'Old Lung-chuan porII. while the younger brother continued his factory at Lung-chuan. but it is only the Ko-yao.' — . [Green Ware]. those of Ting. viz. the pottery made by Chan Sheng-ehr. thick in make. they are of thick and heavy make and not very 10.e. The Pai-shih-lei-pHen says ' The porcelain of Lunchuan is up to the present day called Chang-yao [i. Chang the younger. outer side brass rings serving as handles . a brown paste. whereas it was difficult to preserve the Ting and Ju porcelains for such a length of time/ The Lung-chaun-yao of the Sung Dynasty: 'This is 7. — superior. they can stand a very good deal of wear and tear and will not easily spoil. is highly valued. of which it is not too difficult to obtain specimens.e. the workmanship shown in these . celain is fine in paste. and since the porcelain made by the elder brother was already called Ko-yao.WARES OF "SUNC DYNASTY of the Sung Dynasty. are specimens which are of a pale ching-grQ. But as the manufacturers were somewhat clumsy.. and has an intense onion-green or tree-green colour. Ju. Chang's Porcelain] by the people of Wen-chow and Ch'uporcelains Kuan. owing to their peculiar heaviness. i.tn colour (mealy or muddy green). The Po-wu-yao-lan says: 'The better specimens of Lung-chuan porcelain are able to compete with Kuan-yao and Ko-yao . which enables them to keep well.d. they can stand a very good deal of wear and tear and will not easily spoil. Ko have been preserved to the present day. the old name of this porcelain was Lung-chuan-yao. but there is not much in the way of a crackled surface or a brown paste and owing to their being thick and solid in make.

Dr. The Sung dynasty covered a period of three centuries. When the white paste is so covered with green enamel that. Liu-hua-shan). but they convey no special Doubts have been expressed about the date when Lung'chuan ware was first manufactured. there.CHINA porcelains cannot be classed as representing the ancient elegance in style. on the top of which there was supposed to be an unfathomable lake. unsatisThere is only one authority to fix factorily vague. Ch^un-feng-t^ang-sui-pH says: celain — The it displays greater delicacy of workmanship/ made by brother was of a fainter colour. white patches will shine through. to these wares are also quoted in Dr. when compared to the [ordinary] Lung- chuan 12. this is the porcelain burned by Chang Sheng of the Sung dynasty. Inferior 46 . sixty miles distant from The choicest celadon was produced The second was at a village called Chin-tsun. Hirth says that they lived during the Southern Sung dynasty (112 7— 1280). and the earliest Lungchuan celadons may therefore be referred to the first half of the twelfth century. A work quoted by the era of the Chang brothers. To attribute the origin of a factory to the Sung dynasty is. One was at Liu-tien. Hirth's brochure. it resembled The porcelain made by the elder the Kuan-yao in make. 'The green porthe younger brother was pure and clear Hke fine jadestone and much valued by the world . and considerable progress was evidently made in the keramic during that long interval. therefore. It is on record that there were two Lung-chuan facart tories.* Other extracts relating information. Lung-chuan. and therefore — called Chang-yao . at the places where it is not put on thick. specimens of Lung-chuan-yao were potted Liu-tien stood at the foot of a hill (called there.

There is not an intelligent native student (connoisseur) in China who is not able to pick out a piece of Lung-chaun-yao^ or a Lungchaun-ti. engraved. consist of floral scrolls and diapers. I understand from my Chinese informants that this peculiarity cannot be imitated. namely. that whereas with regard to many other antiquities it is often difficult to find two Chinese that agree. With exceptions so rare as to be scarcely worthy of mention. from a large collection of similar objects without the slightest hesitation. a most decided uniformity of opinion prevails about this class of porcelain. that of changing colour in the fire. censers and so forth. there is only one opinion as to the age of specimens which are not wanting in any of the characteristics. for such is the colloquial designation in the north. have convinced me of one thing. their decorative designs. Genuine but inferior examples are procurable with little difficulty. which may be proved by examining a broken specimen. They owe their preservation to their solid- among the natives." writes Dr. since the paste is originally white. but vases. generally whether impressed. Further. we have before us an earth possessing a natural quality not possessed by the produce of other kilns. in relief.. Their pate is heavy and dense. these pieces are of the clumsy thick variety. For. and . well calculated to resist the effects of ordinary accidents their glaze is olive or sea-green. may often be found. Plates and bowls are most common. whereas all parts of the surface not covered by enamel have turned red or brown in the fire. viz.WARES OF "SUNC DYNASTY Among bequeathed largest early Chinese wares to later the generations Lung-chaun-yao incomparably the number of specimens. not even at enquiries " My 47 . " Hirth. or ity.

but the productions lost their old excellence. This was at the close of the Yuan dynasty 48 . For the factories in Chekiang remained They were not. active until about the year 1620. in all cases. always at the same place. The manner half of manipulating the porcelain stone or its quality gradually deteriorated. that specimens of Lung-Chaun-yao.CHINA Ching-te-chen. but about J ^ miles farther down. since they reduce the value of the vessel if the colour of these patches is genuine. these spots coming forward against the intentions of the manufacturer. they were moved to Chuchou-fu. and the colour of the glaze lost its delicacy. it helps to increase the confidence in its age. a town on the same river as Lung-chuan. however. which. necessarily date from the Sung era. and one of the tests applied by the natives consists in looking for accidental patches or little spots where the enamel for some reason or other has allowed the raw paste to leak out. This is one of the chief characteristics. must be of a date prior to the closing of the factories at Lung-chuan and Ch*uchou/' It must not by any means be assumed. like that of the ring. The vast majority belong the to fifteenth and sixteenth of them probably centuries. way between Lung-chuan and Wen-chow. Here the manufacture was continued briskly. During the years immediately preceding the fer trans- of the factory to Chu-chou-fu. and thus situated . At the beginning of the Ming dynasty (1368). even though they present the characteristics enumerated here. and that in order to produce the ferruginous ring in other white porcelains the bottom must be coloured artificially. indeed. the potters of Lui-tien devoted much care to reproductions of the Ko-yao.

ya^aa ao a^ky noltosHoo a'lladfiua .iQ) uU ^o noiaaeaaoq sriJ nl yllenrgtio (.:iXAJxO (.trfglsH iitiv/ .I^C 99cq 093) .Yjavin Maa>io thoimcI ^orionl 91 .sni)-n9Y okx-\^\ v)A\i2>I3IHT CiaJ>IDAHD .

iie tu icai tiiese ..ro. ^ indeed.. the p( L h care 4X to reproduction K the close of the Tuan ayiiasiy . town on the saiv (1 5 miles fart! between nrifnrture ieir Lu' ana ^. always at the saniv «f the Ming dynasty a 368).^^40 v^nn (I^.^^m^. ^d vven-cnow..v. ror the rnaiued ..u.v present the chara^ ^f^:^J'^^. Liu Yen-ting. The manner g the porcelain stone or its quality orated.Ching-t< inusi I'lic reduce the the bottom ' of the chief chan nativ little '^ n^njied by the ')r patches or other spot has aiiv »•'-^ Lc .A ice the value oi is these } genuine iclps to increase i.. arid the colour of the glaze /enrs immediately preceding the trans Chu-chou-fu. t . 19 Inche.. intention^ .) centuries. active until about the y were not..) bright green finely Height...r.i^tn the possession of CRACKLED THICK GLAZE ctet page 34. wa briskly. n- ni. the coniidenc must be of a date pnur to iiic of the factories at Luug-chuan and Ch'uIt must not by any means be assumed...BusheU'ecolIectR. howrhat specimens of Lung-Chaun-yaOy even though Hi all cases. but the old excellence.

.

.

its timbre is bad. A fine celadon glaze had been the chief aim of China's best potters long before the days of the brothers Chang. Hirth. inasthe colour in part of the original enamel has by some unaccountable process during the firing. chalky pate. 4 49 . 1350). This is one of respect of colour. the points in which the superiority of the old ware becomes apparent. says " Kuan-yao as well as of Ko-yao vessels there are pieces which have changed colour during the firing [Tao-fieu^ and exhibit figures resembling from Hang-chou. the Ju-yao. fishes. or leopards. quoted by Dr.WARES OF "SUNC DYNASTY (about ers. The porcelain stone was procured as in the days of the Chang brothbut it gave a comparatively coarse. Hirth has helped to confirm this misconception. A book called the Po-wu-yao-lau. But really choice celadons belong either to the Kuan-yao. : — butterflies. Hirth. These alone are of the highest quality." It has been supposed that the Lung-chuan-yao was pre-eminently the celadon ware of former times. possible to reproduce the pale colour of the original If the reproduction is accurate in Lung-chuan ware. Certainly if there is question only of the specimens now procurable in bric-a-brac shops or existing in the collections of Western amateurs. translated by Dr. says imitate the Ko-yao crackle it is impossible to make If the imitation has this the iron-coloured bottom. Dr. birds. unicorns. " To A Chinese work. Similarly it is imcharacteristic. or the true Lung-chuanyao. IX. one may assert with tolerable confidence that whenever they date so far back as the Ming dynasty nine hundred and ninetynine out of every thousand were the work of the Chuchou potters. undergone a transmutation into light brown or red much as VOL. it will not ring.

from ancient bronzes. this or bluish green. In choice specimens the colour of the spots is lustrous. suggested to the early potters a variety of celadon much admired and greatly prized by amateurs in subsequent centuries. eyes one of the most attractive wares manufactured during the Sung dynasty was the ChunIn point of antiquity this ware ranks first 50 .'' Only one piece of the Lung-chuan-yao is crackled. gives them an held. but among the many grand celadons presented by the Shogun Yoshimasa (1490) and the Regent Hideyoshi (1580) to the principal temples throughout the empire. To Western yao. owing to the oxidation of the copper in the glaze." There will be occasion to speak hereafter Here it Transmutation ware. Good examples of spotted celadon practically unprocurable. will suffice to say that these accidental changes of colour in the kiln. Seiji. or it were. as of the Tao-p'ieu.CHINA brown. One interesting specimen of Sung Ko-yao ware and ten examples of the Lung-chuan-yao are to be seen depicted in the " Illustrated Catalogue " of H'siang. and they seem to float suspended. in the velvety green. golden brown. that of the Lung-chuan examples varies from " dark green'* and " deep emerald " to " grass green '* and the " bright green of fresh onion sprouts. distributed with more or less regularity. The colour of the Ko-yao piece is pale green . In this exceedingly rare ware the uniformity of the surface is relieved by metallic spots. are glaze. added to are they In Japan the ware is called Tobiextravagant value. and the estimation in which their scarcity. The forms and decorative designs are borrowed. A few pieces exist there in ancient collections. there is not a single vase of the spotted variety. in almost every case.

Like other Sung wares. were not the only colours produced. where. The aubergine variety of Chun-yao appears to have been a monochrome. but the so-called red glazes were polychronot. but rather soft and dappled. though well manipulated and having good timbre.d. During the Sung Dynasty Yu-chou was called Chiin-chou or Chiin-tai hence the term Chun-yao. depended entirely on the colour and texture of their glazes. The former was not a brilliant colour. The factory stood near the city now called Yu-chou. who spared no pains to reproduce the Chiin glazes. The factory dated from the beginning of the dynasty. the Chun-yao undoubtedly improved materially in quality during the three cenBut as its manufacturers turies of the dynasty. but by Chinese connoisseurs at the time (second half of the sixteenth the Illustrated Catalogue of H'siang was written. that is to say from about 960 a. century) when however. they did not attempt to produce a thin transGenerally their ware was thick and solid. These. It may be described as very fine stone-ware. and was certainly not admitted by the potters of Ching-te-chen in the eighteenth century. lucid pate.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY among the productions of the dynasty. in the Kai-feng-fu district of Honan province. Moonlight blue (clair-de-lune^ and green of various tints are also found. however. The most esteemed glazes were vermilion red [Chu-hung) and aubergine purple [ch'ieh-tzu). : 51 . it was placed at the bottom of the list This unfavourable verdict did of Sung products. receive the endorsement of subsequent critics. at a somewhat later date. The latter is compared by Chinese connoisseurs to the purple of ripe grapes. showing in places a reddish brown tint. the celebrated Kuan-yao celadons were produced.

the. In specimens of this class. class In this latter the typical variety had delicate clair-de-lune glaze covering the interior of a piece and passing. the difference between excellence and mediocrity. This feature occurs in the Chun-yao^ and its description by Chinese writers of former days has greatly perplexed modern translators. and three colours Chiin-yao. Specimens showing the cinnabar red. without suggesting any break of continuity. the reader — 52 . Like the clairde-lune^ this green also occurred in combination with red and even with purple.CHINA matic. their tints merging happily into each other at the edges while retaining their purity. that The external tint was not uniof red hawthorn. but minutely mottled or dappled throughout. clair-de-lune glaze is broken by flattened v-shaped marks. that clair-de-lune monochromes. The comhigher. in the eyes of some virtuosi. though manufactured at Chiin-chou. These marks are much valued by Chinese Their presence or absence alone conconnoisseurs. into a colour resembling. a pleasing play of light and shade being thus produced. It should be observed. but even softer than. however. stitutes. and indeed in all fine examples of old Chiin-yao. were not greatly esteemed. on the outside. ripe-grape purple. through which the beautiful azure of the heart of the glaze is apparent. recalling the depths of colour seen through breaks in a fleecy sky. bination of clair-de-lune with vermilion red ranked much With regard to the green colour of must not suppose that there is question of a celadon monochrome. Anyone who has seen specimens of Tueh-pai [clair-de-lune^ ware must be familiar with the fact that the deeper azure of the glaze gleams out in spaces of greater or less magnitude. form.

" Mu" " " pig's-liver. Among the manufactures of these early times the Chun-yao is distinguished by having marks on the bottom of the best specimens. four striking examples of the Chun-yao ware are depicted. in his pamphlet on ** Ancient Chinese Porcelain. the *' mule's liver " or " horse's-lung " glaze of fanciful collectors. These marks consist of deeply incised numerals. but Chinese experts of the present day deny this limit. but public acquaintance with them is confined to their reproductions in the Yuan dynasty (1260 and 1367) and by potters of later centuries." and mule's-lungs cus colour.WARES OF "SUNC DYNASTY were green of onion sprouts or kingfisher's plumage highly valued and must have been very beautiful. cf. Dr. very prominently the t^su-ssu pattern and the chUng (green or blue) colour " of a blazing flame. the numerals. and assert that up to " ten '' the numerals were employed indifferently. " The most esteemed had veins resembling the fur p." translates the following from the Tao-shuo ** on the subject of Chun wares The Liu-chUng-jih* cha says The Chun-yao shows in gradual shades the brilliant effects of all colours. According to the Tao-lu. Dr. Marry at.' With regard to this t'su-ssu-wen. History of Pottery and Porcelain." were used to distinguish choice pieces. 200 of the hare. Hirth says : — — : : — Julien translates this term by ' veines imitant les soies (polls) du lievre* and others have adopted this much too literal translation ." were terms jestingly and perhaps disparagingly applied by Chinese connoisseurs to impure Chun-yao glazes. from one to ten. " one " and " two." glance at the passages given under this : A 52 . Hirth. Three of these are purple monochromes and one has a reddish brown glaze. In the " Illustrated Catalogue '' of H'siang.

which is commonly called the green of the parrot and the purple brown colour of the skin of an eggplant fruit. Med. or of pieces red like rouge. Pieces which have one or two numbers on the bottom as a trade mark. What the passage in the Liu-cK ing-jih-cha conveys is that the colours of the Chiin-yao presented a variegated appearance. these three colours being pure and not in the slightest degree changed during the firing. : * The highest quality Po-wu-yao-lan says red as cinnabar. green like onion-leaves and kingfisher's plumage. which is neither the crab's claw muster. pieces having a colour as consists of and as green as onion-leaves and kingfisher's plumage. head ssu is the name of a vegetable parasite. and that the deeper azure at the heart of the clair-de-lune glaze gleamed out in places like the steely The fitness of this blue in the centre of a flame. as here translated. nor the fish spawn muster of the Kuan-yao and Ko-yao porcelains. is The — — latter simile is easily recognised. 8) shows that fuand as such is associated with that of a similar growth called nii-lo by the Chinese it is the plant known to botanists as Cuscuta. indeed perplexing. or as the dodder in common English. and are of a colour resembling " The 54 . p. Porter Smith. and purple like ink black. in the FHng-tzu-lei-p^ien (ch.CHINA 214. P* ^T* I ^"^ inclined to think that the metaphor impUed in this name refers to a peculiar crackled muster. and which may be seen on some old specimens of Chiin-yao. passage.. by the Japanese ne-nashi-kazura. but The dodder called to the variegation of the leaf. Chinese Mat. Cf. or the rootless parasite is often spoken of in this sense. like the green and white on the leaf of the dodder. . But it is pretty plain that the Chinese author refers not to the colour of the dodder or to any appearance capable of being associated with crackle.

those which have bottoms like ton-shaped censers. Dr. : — ." v/hich are given to this class of porceAmong these lain. against : : ss . /. the exact descrip- must have been very difficult to a Chinese writer.' Refering to the simile of kingfisher's plumage. have been invented for fun's sake. are considered the most excellent the others. vol. viz. besides the reddish colours. since the red. To a European eye the but tints appearing in old Chiin-yao that. are not to be distinguished as For. 311) 'Specimens bearing one or two numerical characters at the bottom. for which reason they are not good in appearance they have been made in recent years at I-hsing. Ho-fang jugs or Kuan-tsii. x. Referring says : to the numbers on the bottom. he ' Les vases qui portaient au desJulien (p. porcelains. 74) translates . though the enamel somewhat resembles the better class article but they do not stand wear and tear. (un). are all of a yellowish. are perhaps rather bluish than greenish tion it should be considered by the admixture of white and red materials. porcelains. . p. sandy paste. . which is so superior to all other varieties for its linguistic faculties.WARES OF -SUNG" DYNASTY chHng and green colours got mixed together like saliva hanging down through not being sufficiently fired." or different kinds...' I have. " pig's liver. . eul (deux) eitel [China Rev. those which have bottoms like the flowerpots in which sword-grass is grown. Hirth says pig's liver.. such names as " mucus. sous du pied les characteres numeriques. the paste consisting of a gritty clay. Probably no better metaphor could have been found for the colour described than the plumage of the parrot {ying-ko-lu)y if we think of the red-tailed bird of a greyish plumage..

or Kuan-tsu. viz. Hirth's pamphlet. those which have bottoms like the flowerpots in which sword-grass is grown.. {s) Lo fei or ' mule's lungs .^ (i) Mei-tzu-ch'ing or 'green or blue. square barrel-seats. (3) Hai-t^ang-hung or ' red. I would render it. viz. Dr.' ings. like plums . and brown or purple like ink. adopted the second rendering. p.' &c. * Among these porcelains the flower-pots and saucers for growing : — — .' The ChHngpi-tsang says : ' Of Chiin-chou porcelains the best quality consists of pieces that are red like rouge the second quality is green (chHng) like onion leaves and kingfisher's plumage. Hirth translates ' Among writes these porcelains. (2) Chia-pi-tzu or ' purple brown. 1857. he " Dr. J6 . Pieces that are of a pure colour and contain one or two numbers as marks on the bottom. the These things are all well jars with covers. are considered the most excellent the others. sword-grass are the most beautiful vases and censers and boxes. pieces that show mixed colours are in ' ' * ' . are superior . ' ' in Julien's translation (pp. no demand. the others. since have seen a Sung specimen bearing the number wu (five) as a trade mark. 86) of 'the most ancient examples of porcelain apparently refers to this class of Chiin-yao. . Referring to the caution that pieces showing mixed owing to being imperfectly fired. should not as different kinds. (4) Chu-kan or ' pig's liver [see above) .* Sec. be distinguished he says : — As is done seven classes are named. Ho-fang jugs. like (see above) . and (7) THen4an or ' sky blue. Bushell corrects a portion of the above renderIn his review of Dr. I * my grammatical colours..CHINA instinct. the egg-plant fruit like the Japanese pear . 74 and 75). The description given by Fortune {A Residence among the Chinese^ London. those which have bottoms like ton-shaped censers. (6) Pi-ti or ' mucus (see above) . where viz.

and its popularity thenceforth increased so rapidly that a subsequent exponent of its reputation under the Sung rulers (960—1279) ascribed to it seven incomparable properties namely. the one to hold the incense or chips of sandal-wood burnt in the other. clearing the throat. Messrs. and relieving fatigue. tea became an article of common consumption in China. that a bunch of sword-grass was painted on the bottom of choice specimens of Chun-yao. in the province of Fuhkien. Hirth and Bushell have disposed of this phantasy. dispelling drowsiness. assuaging thirst. The ware owed its character to the demand of tea-drinkers. idealistic philosophy of the Japanese cha no yu. if it be of rich ' auberCenser and box always stand together gine colour. The only marks on Chun-yao ware are deeply incised numerals. stimulating the kidneys.WARES OF ^^SUNG" DYNASTY known to the collector of this ware who will give hundreds of taels for a thick saucer. 57 . manufactured at Chien-yang. promoting digestion." all writers on Chinese keramics from Jacquemart to du Sartel. with a number engraved beneath as a mark. Under the Tang dynasty (618—907). The least known among the productions of the Sung is the Chien-yao. on a Chinese table. But Chinese tea-drinkers soon formed a clear conception of the qualities a tea-bowl should possess in order to render the beverage as grateful as possible both to eye and ' : — . raising the spirits." Julien " Parmi les porcerenders the same passage thus laines de cette manufacture on regarde comme excessivement beaux les plats sous le pied desquels on a Hence arose a legend repeated bypeint un glaieul. Chinese society lived a life too colourless and unpoetical to suggest anything like the graceful.

for the sake of its glaze. lines of soft silver.'' technically compared in colour to the fur of . — 58 . ble to the Japanese chajin. . In the Tao-lu it is stated that the choicest specimens of Chien-yao were generally in the form of Those bowls with narrow bases and wide mouths. cooling rapidly. the Chien-yao. must be ranked. a single specimen of the best varieties commanded a price of from fifteen hundred to two thousand dollars.CHINA palate. its pate was of such a nature tea from not to convey the heat of the beverage to the drinker's hand or lips. while its glaze not only offered a pleasant contrast to the bright green of the powdered tea. '* yellowish with glaze was spotted in which the black pearls. These qualities the Chien-yao exhibited in Thick enough to prevent the the highest degree. cups of this ware have been almost indispensaBefore the nation turned. regular as hair in specimens of later date. turies. as a triumph of keramic skill. as praise. from its life of luxurious refinement. the glaze of the Chien-yao deserves great On a ground of mirror-black are seen shiftreflections of deep ing tints of purple and blue green. In truth. the decoration takes the form of conventional Phoenixes. like the glassy colour of the raven's wing and sometimes. but was also admirable for its own sake. fourteen years ago. mapleleaves. The most dexterous workmen of later During the past five centimes failed to imitate it. and tints possess the same property as that described they seem to float in in the case of spotted celadon In short. and so forth. remained always a rather coarse stone-ware. in golden brown of the most All these designs satisfying richness and beauty. butterflies. though its pate the glaze.

Chinese collections." factured in the same district of Chien-ning-fu. A point worthy of note with respect to the Chienyao is that it was one of the very few esteemed wares of ancient times which the potters of Ching-te-chen do not appear to have imitated either in the Ming or To what circumstance this distincTsing dynasties. In Japan. but the opportunity thus offered to collectors did not long art During the period of continue. it has always been so much prized and so carefully preserved as to be familiar to connoisseurs and generally present in good collections. or " raven-clay ware. The Chien-yao presents two varieties is are stone-ware. it was nevertheless a product greatly inferior to the finer varieties of Chien-yao. tion is attributable. the other is 59 . decay and social confusion that immediately followed the fall of feudalism. in Fuhkien province. exist in are especially lauded. Examples certainly but the ware seems to be of the difficult to virtually unknown to the is ordinary experts Middle Kingdom. of somewhat lighter colour. The Tuan Tao-lu shows that the Chien-yang factory was in a flourishing condition at the beginning of the dynasty (1260). but while the one oi pate. it is difficult to surmise. Manuguished as U-ni-yao. tolerably close in texture. but of its subsequent fate nothing is except that it had ceased to produce ware of the above type before the end of the fourteenth known century. and almost as hard The former should properly be distinas porcelain.WARES OF "SUNG" DYNASTY a hare. and perhaps more find there than any of the products of the Sung kilns. a few pieces found their way into the market. on the contrary. with a dull timbre. Both dark and coarse.

of course. 60 .CHINA The clays for the quarries. Chun and Chang. two were taken. while by others they were relegated to almost the lowest rank among the The reader may be warned products of the time. here against confounding the Chien-yao of the Sung and Tuan dynasties with a ware of the same name but wholly different nature manufactured during the Ming dynasty (vide Ming Chien-yao). Many pieces of U-ni-yao were The Tao-lo says that by some connoisseurs they were placed in the same rank with the wares of Lung-chuan. from different celadons.

celadons were facile principes. monochromes alone were esChun-yao the The principal colours were green. the variety of wares produced in these early centuries of With one exception the art's history was not large. examination of early Chinese wares may be said to have led to three conFirst. more or less elaborate.THE CELADON Chapter IV THE CELADON THUS perts. preferred pate tendre or The latter stone-ware to hard porcelain biscuit. this of deliberate choice. and in the great majorThirdly. The potter's constant and highest aim was to produce the peculiar greenish cerulean glaze which had its origin in the Chai-yao of the tenth century. of different shades These monocinamon red. verging teemed. purple chromes were ornamented with designs incised or in relief. among the wares of the period. ity of cases copied from ancient bronzes. and lustrous monochromatic glazes so much affected by the Sung potters. But the former lent itself better to the solid. rich. more or less on blue white. Secondly. some they were probably able to produce specimens of later Ting-yao may be placed in this category. : — — . 6i . . thirteenth century. Chinese keramic exfar. indeed. up to the end of the clusions. and black.

Speaking of Persian Keramics. of course. large quantities of it had found their way to Arabia. as much as to the esteem in which they were held. the East Coast of Africa. is foremost among these theorists. they have the beausea-green tint of the old Chinese celadons^ and are to be recognised only by their style. of Vienna. magnificent celadon dishes and other vessels seen in the seventeenth century were manufactured and exported at Martaban in Pegu. On clad in green. Egypt. Ceram. the colour of the ware was identified with that of the shepherd's clothes. — was derived from the name of d'Urfe's UAstree a courtier — resented to who. But long before Europe knew anything of such ware." M. who died 1658.CHINA The term celadon the hero of a novel in rustic dress. The majority of such pieces were. Some are simply gadrooned tiful 62 . he wrote in : — Celadons are very common in Persia . Kuan-yaOy and Lung'chuan-yao began to come into French collections. Their large numbers and the wide area throughout which they are found has suggested to some writers the idea that China alone must not be credited with their manufacture. India. Morocco. and it is probably to their durable qualities. in the seventeenth century. In the writings of Hadschi Chalfa. Jacquemart had already suggested a similar belief. and other places. and when specimens of Chinese Ju-yao. repFrenchmen the type of an amorous the stage this character was always shepherd. a celebrated encyclopedist. Professor Karabacek. Borneo. the more solid and heavier productions of the Chinese factories. the Vienna savant found a passage to the effect that " the precious. Persia. Japan. relieved by tints of blue or grey. that they owed their preservation through long centuries.

immediately appeared — they distributed mahramas [blue squares of stuff used to wipe the fingers]. There is a kind of green porcelain so precious that one dish alone is worth four hundred crowns." Chardin cites a green porcelain. approaching stone-ware. others have ornaments in relief in good taste." " Six old slaves. then. As for the theimaginative. on the contrary. and served shortly afterwards. bright green glaze is applied upon a very white biscuit. Its name. kingdom the porcelain (Dr. which allows the light to appear through. Jacquemart's description of the martabani is His difficulty in attributing transparency to any specimen of Chinese celadon would have disappeared had he remembered that among celadons (to be presently spoken of) manufactured at Chingte-chen during the Ming period. He writes " Everything at the king*s is of massive gold or porcelain.) M. lemon-juice. but that is a fable its price arises from its beauty and the delicacy of the material. Martaban (Mo-tama) is one of the sixteen states which composed the ancient kingdom of Siam it may not be impossi. . a thin. Petis de la Croix mentions another coloured porcelain in his the translation of the "Thousand and One Nights. . dressed than those who were seated. It is impossible to suppose travellers would here allude to the sea-green celadon of which we have spoken above.THE CELADON or fluted." This last peculiarity has a great importance. this. and of so high a price. many had a genuine porcelain pate and were translucid. and slices of cucumber. ble. although above two crowns in thickness. leaves no doubt of its Persian nationality. Hirth's translation. which renders it transparent. laid upon a brown. which seems to be the same. They say this porcelain detects poison by changing colour. In the martabani. It is most wonderful that a material so esteemed. that we must restore to this mentioned in the Arabian story." he writes. close paste. is never translucent. " less richlyMartabani. in a large basin of martabani [green porcelain] a salad composed of whey. is not more common in our collections. on the other hand.

But the glaze might easily be mis64 . then British Representative in Bangkok. The dense stone-ware. Recent researches. of the latter pieces of pottery are dug up from time Mr.G. 1885. essentially different from the characteristic clay of Chinese celadon. They to time. Satow's tour. Chinese workmen were employed there and possibly Chinese materials were sometimes used. Satow secured three of them. he visited a ruined city called Sawauk-halok. and their condition alone. Satow's attempts. More than five centuries ago a keramic manufactory existed in this city. conducted by Sir Ernest Satow. it has little if anything to support it. and there is no evidence that the keramic art of the country flourished notably in other directions at earlier periods.CHINA ory that ware of this nature found in the countries influenced by Arab civilisation is to be attributed to Siam.ware. now in the possession of the Its pate is coarse. with its full coloured enamel.. The great scarcity of old specimens in the market interfered with Mr. but in December. reddish grey stone. at the request of the writer. vives of the Nothing now sur- town but the fragmentary walls of Buddhist In the vicinity temples and the remains of the kiln. do indeed go to show that celadon was among the ancient products of Siam. was the body of a vase. is well known to connoisseurs. are evidently failures in baking. which were rejected as useless. when on a tour in northern Siam.M. furnishes an almost conclusive argument against the probability of their having been imported from China in recent times and carried 400 miles to a ruined city never visited by any Western previously Among these three fragments to Mr. C. apart from other evidence. writer. produced in Siam during the past two or three centuries.

zedonl ^1^ .gncfa'H ^o su^oUJbO) . .MlaBnyb ^««'2.(.d8 33Bq esa) .trlgiaH (.

apart ence. reddish grey stone-ware. of the om time ey Mr. he visited a ruined city called Sawniikhnlok.ng the ancient products of Siam. furnishes an inclusive from other argument to the probability ot their having been imported hina in recent times and carried a Mjtiicd city 400 miles never visited by any Western previously Among these three fragments Mr. . now in the possession of the writer. conducte then British Repr ^he writer.G. 1885. and there is no evid that the keramic art of the country flourished influenced by Arab civilisation ^^ in other directions at earlier periods. evidently failures in eless. Satow se^ . and the rem latter pieces. but in December. the town uu low surBuddhist c vicinity ' _. ^ft^S^aWR^ jMOMi >a«nceb:nt W r-. at the request 'r . »*. to was the body of a vase. ' 64 . Recent researches. The great scarcitv of old specimens in the market interfered with Mr.. Satow's attempts. C. '" *iit from the characteristic clay of essentially But the glaze might easily be misChi^^-. Satow's tour.) mQnmy ^^vu^y^o c^iMxm^ Height. The dense stone-ware. is well known to connoisseurs. \\\\c\i on a tour in northern Siam.) hineSe materials wert ^ r . 4J^ inches. e in Bangkok. (See page 36.M. it has little if anything to support it.a go to show that celadon was v.. produced in Siam during the past two or three centuries. Its pate is coarse.CHINA ory that ware of this nature found in the countries is to be attributed to Siam. were rejected and their con . do xaatc.i?rv^cT?'^(vc-*^'°^^ °^ H'siang... More than five centviries ago ' Ernest Satow. with its full coloured enamel.

.

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and the pieces may easily be distinguished from their Chinese contemporaries and predecessors by the pate. This is reddish grey. It is of a light green colour. and presents a glistening. crude appearance not unlike that of half-burned tiles which offers no resemblance to the reddish brown. are between which is incised leaf scrolls. it is possible to judge Siamese capacities in respect of celadon in early times. The upper portion is decorated with horizontal flutes and bands. interior portion of the vase is vertically fluted. — 5 65 . the portion attributable to her is probably very small. and I believe that. which have been found in various countries between the island of Ceram on the one hand and Africa on the other. and the technique of more than medium quality. passing almost into white. dense. A. and why it was so much appreciated. ably describes the general type of celadon — — found from Egypt to Borneo is : — The celadon porcelain extremely heavy. or light brown. IX. The piece artistic. Meyer. and close-grained biscuit of the Chinese ware. B. i to 2 centimetres in breadth and from about lo to 15 centimetres in diameter.THE CELADON taken for a manufacture of the Middle Kingdom. as quoted by Dr. and the glaze in the interstices of the flutes assumes the aspect of green streaks. in selecting this hue. Dr. and being redthat this was the reason The articles voL. consist in dishes measuring up to about half a metre. the makers intended to imitate the colour of jadestone. the quality of the glaze good. The It is light green. covered by green enamel all over with the exception of a ring on the bottom. From this specimen of Siamese ware. though Siam may unquestionably have furnished some of the celadons found in the former Arab possessions. manufactured probably in the fourteenth century directly under Chinese instruction. Hirth. and to conclude that.

as embodied in a pamphlet published in 1888 in Shanghai. Hirth has all investigated the subject with infinite pains and wide of reference to sources of information. impressing or engraving it on By putting on the the paste previous to the enamelling. the concave parts of the surface. but tDrown in colour. and so is the heaviness and the colour. for instance. of these dishes. or some sort of a checkered pattern spread over the whole surface. that the red-brown colour of the ring has its origin it appears changes of colour produced on the surface of the in certain covered parts as are not by the enamel. Dr. the The ring on the bottom is characteristic of these old celaThe musters dons. is. produced by It is a point of some interest to ascertain how Chi- nese celadons found their almost way in these early days to the countries included in the region between Japan and the Key Islands. In the thirteenth century there were two important channels of traffic from the keramic centres of the Middle Kingdom to the outer world. whereas the pattern appears in a somewhat I have seen the lotus flower in the middle darker shade. Thus. like all ornaments shown in these porcelains. or the fish ornament. These dishes never bear a mark underneath the enamel it appears therefrom that they were made at a time when the custom of marking the period of manufacture did not yet exist. the capital of Chekiang (spoken of by Marco Polo under the name of **Quin-sai") and at Zaitun. representing the pattern. his researches The results may be summarized here. a place 66 . The termini of these channels were at Hang-chow. for which reason the white paste shines through in brighter tints where the enamel is thin. enamel. It is. first .CHINA The paste consists of white porcelain. tern is often seen. the fluted patare of all possible kinds. that such in paste ring on which the vessel stood while being fired. were filled up deeper with this semi-transparent material than the plain parts of the surface.

Hirth has ingeniously shown that. though now a poor. The specimens exported were undoubtedly of the commoner class for the most part. Of this place there is nothing further to be observed than that cups or bowls and dishes of porcelain ware are there manufactured. which during the Sung dynasty was called " Chien-chuan.'' a name that becomes Tindji that flows by the port of Zaitun in the Shanghai dialect.THE CELADON about the exact position of which opinions differ. others at Chang-chou-fu with its port of Geh-kong. comparatively resourceless district. But Dr. : Marco and a Polo. It does not greatly matter which hypothesis be accepted. was then a place of considerable wealth. and others again interpreting the word to signify Amoy waters generally. Lung-chuan. Their solidity made 67 . Ting-ui was no other than Lung-chuan. Hirth seems to attach identification. in all probability. with fine roads in its neighbourhood and brisk tradal connections.'' Hugh Murray and Colonel Yule supposed that by " Ting-yui " Marco Polo meant Ching-te-chen. owing to his apparent belief that practically celadons all the early Chinese were manufactured at Lung-chuan. speaking of Zaitun. and that each was easily accessible from Lungchuan. undue importance to this Dr. At the place where it separates from the principal channel stands the city of Ting-ui. some sinologues placing it at Ch'uan-chou-fu. whereas it has been shown above that the finest types of such ware belonged to the Ju-yao and Kuan-yao. where quantities of celadon were manufactured at the close of the Sung dynasty. branch of that which passes the city of Quinsai (Hang-chow). says — " The river is large and rapid. The important point is that a large outward commerce was carried on from both places.

to Sumatra. and in that capacity he compiled a work called "Annals of the various Districts'' [chu-fan-chih). The to Ceylon. to India. its ruler attended by a numerous suite. nearest market was Borneo. then a city of more than ten thousand inhabitants. the post of inspector of foreign trade and shipping in the maritime province of Fuhkien. describing how was sent from China to so-called — and how it passed from country to country until it reached Morocco. to Malabar. porcelain India. to Java. to Cochin-China. on the north-west coast of that island. to Persia. an author to whose works Dr. to Zanzibar. about the year 1 220. and an interchange of costly civilities took place during about a month before the question of trade author. — and their cheapness offered a Ibn Batuta. In the days of this Fuhkien was foreign of China's commerce. The king visited the of much ceremony at Bruni. and to various other places. ship. Much valuable information about the exis port trade from China in the thirteenth century given by Chao Jukua. with a fleet of over a hundred vesThe arrival of a foreign ship was an occasion sels. and thus preserved to later generations. the city of Ch'uan-chou-fu in 68 I .CHINA them easily portable. to Mecca. Junks from Ch'uanchou-fu proceeded direct to Bruni. and its safety guaranteed by soldiers wearing copper armour. reaching it by a gangway covered with silk brocade. mart the principal Thence the products of the Kingdom were exported to Borneo. says that in China it commanded about the same price as earthenware in Arabia. to Japan. further inducement. which was happily embodied in the encyclopedia of the Ming Emperor Yung-lo (i 403-1 425). He held Hirth has been the first to call attention.

from the Naga. in his list of articles sent to Bruni as gold and silver coins. Soon. and tortoise-shell produced in islands in the vicinity Constant importations of these keramic of Bruni. which is rudely traced upon them. deer's horns. and the current value of them is 40 dollars . quotes in his History of Pottery and Porcelain. and among the Kadyans and other tribes of the north. and are the property of the Ma- 69 . the products of the Chinese kilns began to be appreciated. but those which are found among the Kyan tribes. yellow wax. the smaller ones among the land and sea Dyaks are common. are called Nagas. Despite all this luxury. as described in Chinese annals of the sixteenth century." and elsewhere says that " white ware '' was exchanged for incense. the household use of keramic utensils had not yet become habitual. They are glazed on the outside. are valued so highly as to be altogether beyond the means of ordinary persons.THE CELADON Ultimately the Court regulated under which commerce should be conducted and determined the prices to be paid. however. the manufacturers of which are forgotten . Sarawak : — the following from Low's in Among They the Dyaks are found jars held by them high veneration. Joints and leaves of the Palmyra palm served for dishes and cups which were thrown away after the meal was finished. laka wood." Marry at. or dragon. glass beads and glass bottles. the conditions — — outer surface. and those of South Borneo. brocades of Chien-yang and other silks. lacquered bowls and plates mentions ^* vessels of green keramic ware. Chao Jukua. specimens gradually changed the habits of the people until. rouge. they freely employed porcelain utensils. and for wooden coffins in burying their dead substituted Chinese jars " having dragons represented on their might be broached. bangles.

but the artists of that country could not. 70 . . it is presumed that these jars This statement of Low's that the Chinese of later times were not able to reproduce the celadons of the Sung period. From their price.CHINA layan Rajahs. and belongs to the modern aesthetic school. and which it derives from the jar which has contained it. who hoped to make a profitable speculation by their credulity . copy these with sufficient exactness to deceive the Dyaks. cannot be at this time determined. and consequently set no value upon them. I never had an opportunity of seeing one of these valued reUcs of antiquity. and by what means they have been thus distributed and the veneration for them so widely spread. Some of the jars were sent from Banjor Massim to China by the Dutch. owners they are a source of great profit . but am told that. As for the taste educated among the people of Borneo by gradual acquaintance with Chinese wares. they are kept with pious care. called ears. Water is kept in them. near the fireplace. but larger. They have small handles round them. they are glazed.. will generally be found stored a collection of crockery ware. In a corner. setting great store by the china vessels which he procures in exchange for the various products of the country from the Malay merchants. and figures of dragons are traced upon their surface In the houses of their their value is about 2. Mr. in The Head-Hunters of Borneo^ conveys a good idea : — Chairs and tables form no part of the furniture of an ordinary Dyak's house.. who immediately discovered they were not those they esteemed. for the Dyak is something of a china-maniac. or of the chiefs of the native tribes. like the Nagas. will be explained when the subsequent history of the manufacture is considered. are very rare. being covered with beautiful cloths. which is sold t© the tribe. Carl Bock's description of Dyak life. By what people these relics were made.000 dollars. though famed for their imitative powers. and valued on account of the virtues it is supposed to possess.

and very clever imitations of old vases. H. T. and they are regarded as affording complete protection from evil spirits to the house in which they are stored. blue. The Dyak representative of the blue-china school. old age combined with who to the native legend. Medicinal virtues are attributed to these urns. cious vases are According made of A teresting work. Each true plastic relative of the sun and moon has its pedigree. and above all. your Dyak is never taken in by these spurious gudji blangas. W. .000 florins (8/. the nearest of approach to that by which I have always heard them called being Balanga. are offered for sale at Samarinda at ^yq. This China craze among the Dyaks has proved. age-stains. of gudji blangUy a sort of glazed jar imported from China. its Its interest in this context centers in the fact that story supplies a strong con- of the conclusions recorded in previous 71 . to 240/. and other indications of antiquity. gives them different names. tion to generation. however. unlike many London connoisseurs. preferring to give hundreds of guilders for a real specimen. however. Perelaer's most in- good condition. very full account of the various legends connected with these gudji blanga is given in Mr. comparatively speaking.THE CELADON again have purchased them from the Chinese traders at Singapore or Macassar. according to size. most exactly reproduced by them. " Ethnographische Beschrijving der Dajaks. for the keramic productions of the Middle firmation Kingdom. ornamented with figures of lizards and serpents in relief. pattern. in green. chips. or brown. That author. florins each but.) each. Borneo. goes beyond the European devotee in his veneration Among his greatest treasures are a series of old crockery. These pots are valued at from loo florins to as much as 3." 1 12-120. with cracks. offered but a small market. these prethe remnants of the same clay from which " Mahatara ** (the Almighty) made first the sun. and then the moon. an excellent opportunity for the exercise of John Chinaman's skill . which is passed down from genera- pp. however. as in England.

as to the true nature of early Chinese Concerning the other countries to which such wares were exported. From Lambri Chinese junks pushed on to Coilam. via the Straits of Lingas." camphor. and " green and white porcelain. who them tion before one enters the Indian Ocean in travelling from Sumatra to Ceylon.CHINA chapters wares. "porcelain. Here. in the north-west of Sumatra. cinnabar. borax. on the coast of Malabar. lacquered ware. as the people are said to have eaten their meals from their hands and used household utensils of copper. the local products were exchanged against Chinese " porcelain. and Western Asia. though this distant voyage does not seem to have been regularly undertaken. where ** gold. samshu. etc. Dr. 72 . samshuy and sugar. Chao Jukua. rhubarb. silver. Hirth extracts many details from Chao Jukua's work. the last stacarried to India. rhubarb. At " Lambri. iron. This depot seems to have existed from the T'ien-yu period of the Tang dynasty ( 904—907 ). silk piece-goods. porcelain.'' umbrellas. however. and camphor " were stored for sale to Arab traders. cloves. lacquered wares. gauze fans. distinctly stated that the products of Malabar were exchanged at Palembang against flower-tanks ( probably of pottery)." At Palembang in Sumatra there was a depot of Chinese products and manufactures. ginger. it was doubtless intended for re-export chiefly. Hirth. which was within a month's sail of Ch'uan-chou-fu. as translated by Dr. Africa." another depot existed. silks. In Cochin China. with damasks. iron tripods. In Java. alum. silver. although "porcelain" was imported. as well as in Cambodia. sugar. the pepper of the country was purchased with imitation gold and silks. drugs. It is.

The Nara teaches that. being classed with either the Ju-yao. and measuring fully four Chinese feet in diameter. It has already been noted that a brisk trade in Japanese lumber was carried on at Ch'iian-chou-fu in the days of Chao Jukua says : — " The THE CELADON . turn cargoes." The " porcelain " here spoken of was brought from Ch'iianchou-fu to Guzerat by way of Palembang. porcelain. and it may be taken for granted that keramic wares formed part of their reImperial Collection preserved at long ago as the eighth century.'' Planks of this valuable timber were carried by Japanese junks to Ch'iian-chou. she had no keener customer than Japan. the articles of exchange being white cloth. and yellow sandal-wood. the Kuan-yao. . That author speaks of the Lo tree (Japanese (1220). as 73 . and red cotton. the well-known cryptomeria Japontca^ as '' attaining a height of from fourteen to fifteen ch'ang. copper. Among the countries to which China sold her keramic productions at this early epoch. Every year the country of Hu-ch'a-la and the settlements on the sea-coast of Arabia send out ships to barter with this country ( China ). ambergris. Sugi. lages are mostly built terrace-shape in the ravines of wooded hills. and there is no The products are elephants' teeth.country of Ts'eng-po ( Zanzibar ) is on an island in the south of Hu-ch*a-la ( Guzerate ). Chinese glazed pottery was among the apparatus of But of ware capable of Japanese aristocratic life. gold. In the west it is bounded by large hills its inhabitants are of Arab descent and observe the rites of the Mohammedan religion shey wear blue cotton cloth and shoes of red leather their daily food consists of Their vilrice or flour cakes and roasted mutton. The climate is warm. raw cold season. .

however. ostensibly to convey Japan's good wishes to its rulers. There is a tradition that this prince. When he wanted a specimen of this or that ware. To Japanese connoisseurs this piece seemed to stand at the summit of keramic skill. It is a question simply of traditional and historical deficiencies. a part of the best outcome of the Chinese facThe luxurious old tories was diverted to Japan. that to say. it was placed among the treasures of the Temple of Todaiji. farther back than the fifteenth century. it passed into the possession of lyeyasu. velvety glaze was greenish blue of wonderful depth and delicacy.CHINA or the Lung-Chuan-yao of the Sung dynasty. whiter and harder than kinuta\. but really to bring back the coveted piece. must not indicating that no such specimens had found their way to Japan. two hundred Jukua wrote. more than a century later. the pate of previous specimens. be taken as years subsequent to the time when Chao This uncertainty. being in need of funds for military purposes. pledged the wonderful vase for a sum of ten thousand masa's 74 . whence. ruler did not allow political conventionalities to interfere with the gratification of his new hobby. the great founder of the Tokugawa Dynasty. After it had remained for a time in Yoshimasa's collection at Higashi-yama. Among these importations was a vase in shape and size closely resembling a fuller's mallet (Japanese It was of fine clay. he despatched a special envoy to the Middle Kingdom. What is beyond doubt is that so soon as the Regent Yoshi(1490) cultivation of the tea ceremonials turned popular fancy into the direction of dilletanteism. no speci- mens in Japanese possession can be confidently traced is. and the colour of its perfectly uniform.

whose life it is said to have saved by a miraculous power of uttering a warning cry when danger was at hand. and thenceforth the best pieces of celadon were designated At about the same time. were also distinguished by two fishes on the This ware received the name bottom. as priceless heirlooms. it afterwards came into the possession of Hideyoshi. a or Tenriuji. Many are the pieces of celadon that have been handed down. another variety. which still to generation in Japanese families. unanimously elevated to the rank of a standard. pieces of gold. forms the gem of a well-known nobleman's fine collection. name derived from the rank of an official who first It is distinguished from the imported it into Japan.THE CfiLADON hundred and fifty thousand At any rate. and many of the The patspecimens had designs in relief or incised. pate and lustre were equal to those of the Kinuta class. but choice pieces. or about a — — 75 . tern held in the highest favour represented a scroll of peonies. more prized varieties by its fuller green tint as well as by its greater solidity and heaviness. Kinuta-Seiji. from generation One. in high relief. the Taiko. had coarse pate^ deeper and less deliern collectors cate colour. and thicker glaze than either the Kinuta This was called the Shichi-kan-Seiji. Its of scarcely inferior quality. in allusion to the fact that the first vase which came to Japan was presented to the Temple A third variety the sea-green of Westof Tenriu. The legend relates that supernatural quality was firmly credited by the men of the time. is the Chidori no koro. made its appearance. the specimen was pounds sterling. both in this and the former variety. of Tenriu-Seiji. or Peewit Censer. but the colour was a little deeper. Originally the property of the Regent Yoshimasa.

in the same province of Che-kiang. of fine celadons remaining in Japanese Scarely a temple of note is collections is very great. The manufacture of the Ju-yao and original Kuaji-yao celadons ended with the Sung but the manufacture of the Lung-chuan-yao continued at the Liu-tien and Chintsun kilns throughout the Yuan dynasty. It had only three beauties. entering the Taikos chamber with the intention of assassinating him. soft-voiced bird. and how This highly their appreciative sense was educated. it seemed to him a fitting thing to call the peerless censer after the solitary. indeed. safely be referred to factories of earlier date than the The number Yuan It is. throughout a considerable portion of the Ming dynasty. At these same factories imitations of the era. however. and at Ch'u-chou-fu. Yet it inspired its first owner with such poetic admiration that. about four inches high and as many in diameter. ( 1 279-1 368) or Ming (i 368-1 644) dynasty.CHINA and that the prince of Japanese robbers. the majority cannot censer. Ju-yao and Kuan-yao were also made. and there is no reason to think that they differed greatly from their 76 . a wonderful colour. scarcely possible to distinguish between two specimens of Lung-chuan-yao dating respectively from the Sung and the Ming dynasty. and the lustre of a gem. perfect uniformity of glaze. marvellous censer was a tiny cylindrical vase. without some example of the ware. silenced the censer by muffling it in an an equally miraculous tabard. Such fables show in what degree of estimation a choice piece of celadon was held by mediaeval Japanese. Ishikawa Goemon. carrying it home in his bosom and hearing the musical note of the peewit sounding over a moon-lit moor. whether vase or Among these.

Contemporaneous with. Pots). some few miles inland from Shanghai). of close 77 . time the characteristic iron-red pate and thick. or perhaps a little earlier Hu-kung. an artist named Ngeu. Tradition says that he marked his pieces Hu-yin-tao-jen. is recorded as having imitated His ware the ancient Ko-yao and Kuan-yao celadons. but if this be so they must have been at once distinguishable from their prototypes. than. chou-fu ceased to be active. but his work was sufficiently exteenth century. He appears to have shown some want of strength in respect of crackle. much at the of the sixteenth century. or Hu~yin-tao-jen (the Taoist hidden in a pot). to that Up cellent to which it make his name remembered. a fact from may safely be inferred that the manufacture of celadons of the old type had ceased to be carried on successfully before his time. whose reproductions of the Kuan-yao and Ko-yao celadons of the Sung dynasty enjoyed considerable reputation. however. Neither of these practical interest manufactures possesses except as showing that. no accurate information is obtainable as to the time when the factory at Ch'uThe date may. was known as Ngeu-yao. be approximately fixed at the early part of the sixoriginals. during the Wan-li era (1573-1619). It is not to be supposed. who worked at the factory of Yi-hsing (a place situated on the western shore of the Tai-wu Lake.THE CELADON Unfortunately. lustrous glaze of the Lungchuan-yao were produced without much difficulty. celadons of the recognised class had become so difficult of production that skilled artists acquired permanent fame by imitating them. A little later. there flourished an expert nicknamed Hu-kung (Mr.

that the Ch'u-chou-fu potters had lost all Doubtless they could still produce Lung-chuan-y ao of the ordinary variety. discerned errors if the student desires to away these something of the truth when he wrote in the preface to his well known Catalogue : — ** Among tint. must remember. had ceased to make their appearance in the market. and finally the not infrequent specimens of inferior quality offered for sale in the markets of China to-day. W. and it is It is probably of considerable anremarkable that one of the earliest 78 . date from a period prior to 1550. It is essential to clear form any just estimate of the progress of the keramic art. Alone among European authors. being to a great extent dependent upon individual expertness. their old ability. first place must be assigned to the bluish or sea-green termed by the French tiquity. It may. however. as well as those to be found throughout the area of mediaeval commerce described above. seem to the reader that over much space is here devoted to the discussion of celadon alone. It may be concluded that the ordinary class of celadons preserved in Japanese collections. with his wonted judgment.CHINA course. the simple colours (of Chinese ware) the celadon. impure monochromes of the Ch'u-chou factory no longer found favour in their eyes. Franks. Mr. that great misconcephave hitherto been entertained by Western virtuosi as to the proclivities of Chinese amateurs in ancient times and the direction taken by the genius tions He of early Chinese keramists. perhaps. A. of the British Museum. But such tours de force as the delicate colours of the Chang brothers and of the Kuan-yao and Ju-yao. and the connoisseurs of the Ming dynasty had learned to be so exacting that the comparatively heavy.

'' of the ware to be found in Europe are those in the Kremlin at Moscow. he will experience an ever-growing appreciation of the refined celadon. far in excess 79 . which has baffled the skill of all Western workmen and can no longer be produced by the Chinese themselves. Specimens of this pdrcelain were sent to Lorenzo de Medici in 1487 by the Sultan of Egypt.THE CELADON specimens of porcelain that can be referred to as having been brought to England before the Reformation. Like everything possessing real excellence. where they were placed by the Empress Catherine. is of this kind. Apart. prized in China and Japan that very few find their way westward. no doubt. By Persians and Turks it is termed martabani. can be teurs. with its glaze of velvet-like lustre and its delicate green or bluish-green colour. however. the cup of Archbishop Warham. Chinese celadon is historical aspect of the ques- interesting for its own sake. viz.. formed from the have been given fact that for single pieces prices of any European preceEven now the choicest specimens are so highly dent. It owes its preservation. and it is mtlch valued by them as a detecter of poisonous food. from the tion. at New College. Nothing but the evidence of actual observation could convey an idea of the enthusiastic admiration lavished upon this ware by both Chinese and Japanese amaAn estimate of its value. too. more especially as the merits of the ware are by no means calculated to strike an uneducated eye. Oxford. and the collector can be very certain that. it improves upon acquaintance. Probably the best examples to its great thickness. long after he has grown weary of elaborately decorated and brilliantly enamelled pieces.

in the province of Kiang-si. and the imitations of Ko-yao and Kuan-yao made by Hu-kung and Ngeu about the close of that century and the beginning of the next. in Chekiang. celadons were also produced during the Ming dynasty at the Imperial Keramic Factory of Ching-te-chen. 80 . beautiful examples of their class. They of ware showing the highest these celadons kilns. in name identical with. Here it is enough to say that. were converted into celadon and that the ware produced at them. and were undoubtedly numbered. This factory's early history will presently be given. was termed Kuan-yao. the original Kuan-yao of the Sung dynasty. and there can be no doubt that some of the most prized specimens of celadon now extant came from the hands of the Ching-te-chen experts. some twenty-five the beginning of the dynasty (1368) for the manufacture of large fish-bowls ornamented with dragons. is easily conceivable. and in appearance closely resembling. That these celadons. at any rate.CHINA In order to complete this important branch of the subject. up to the middle of the sixteenth century. In addition to the Lung-chuan-yao manufactured at Ch'u-chou-fu. it will be advisable at once to carry the history of celadon down to modern times. being intended for the use of the Court. year at among It is recorded that. may often have been mistaken for the latter by connoisseurs of later times. and artistic excellence. under the Ming emperors. its experts had become incomparably the most renowned in the Middle produced many technical skill varieties Kingdom. How then are these Chingte-chen pieces to be distinguished from similar wares of earlier date and different place of manufacture ? [Ching-yao) kilns. They were. in the established 1430.

.ae e'SBq 992) .lilgBn^b gnuS (.}ri3i9H .gnsuH IfiiensO ^o noHosIfoO) (.gnisJs'H io 9U3oIb}bO 10^ ria£o 000.ti -50 svfiri axMoia tvisidma mo^'^ aaiqoD) asAV .zsdoni ^.021 bi£q oJ bisa ai orfw .d .(MOQAjao oAY-ui .

his In 'addition ?th .. i. 6>i inches. niddle of tht •f cen- Ko-yao and Ku^ the.) .. it were ig the dynasty hing-te-chen.\\\. ^^^ut ic nade cenal?^o next.000^ cash for (See page 0ftd it. It is VASE (COPIED FROM ANCIENT BRONZE OF JU-YAO CELAnON).. /tM/c/^^:'. in the iVf///^ pr^ i lao lactory's early history will it is presently Here ' ors. m name iden- in appearance closely resembling. and there can that some of the most prized specimens tant ciame from the hands of the en experts. the ~yao of the Sung dynasty.•! Height.branch of the •ry the V. close (u \r. (Collection of General Huang. They were. may often en mistaken for the latter by connoisseurs of asily conceivable. have paid 150. Sung dynasty. at of the Court. was 1 liiit ixiic^c jHadons.. under the had become incomparably ned in the Middle Kingdom. at any examples of their class. Liic iDaiunacrurc ui dr^r^s.j . its experts to say that.^ r produced ise :':o.VO. They varieties of ware showing the highest enough . How then are these Chinglished from similar wares place of manufacture ? . who is said to Catalogue of H'siang.ured at Ch'u~chou-fu. ^ dynaSty sii-bowls ornad into celadoti u itb -r..

.

.

But at an early period of the reign of Kang-hsi (i 662-1 722). during the reigns of Yung-ching (1723— 1735) and Chien-lung (1736— 1795). Among them many beautiful specimens of celadon are found. During an interval of about thirty years preceding. and perhaps of the Ju-yao. while the celadons of the Ming and earlier eras manufactured at the Lungchuan factories. the keramic art in China lapsed into comparative neglect. the gist of which is that. must not be too rigidly applied. had red. trustworthy. during the present. the Kuan-yao of the Sung dynasty is not necessarily thus distinguished. or reddish-brown pate. called also Nienkung. Hirth. Later on. For although a reddish tinge of greater or less intensity is essentially characteristic of the Lung-chuan-yao (including the Ko-yao). on the whole. the fall of the Ming dynasty (1644). and as many following. who has made a special study of the subof celadon. however.THE CELADON ject Dr. and Tang Ying. or Tsing dynasty. Sometimes an attempt was made to given to this raised the VOL. IX. the Ming celadons of Ching-te-chen had white pate. an energetic revival took place. who was associated with Nien from 1727 and succeeded him in 1736. already quoted. They were Nien Hsi-yao. The wares made at Ching-te-chen under the direction of these masters are commonly known as Nien-yao and T'angyao. gives information. Two celebrated experts keramic art to its highest point of excellence. —6 81 . and fine celadons began once more to appear among the products of the Ching-te-chen factory. The It rule is rough but. still greater attention was class of ware. who occupied the post of superintendent at the Ching-te-chen factories under the emperor Yungching.

the comparison is difficult. porcelain. fine. being executed . Notably charming is a variety in which the decoration is made to appear like a tracery of white lace lying under the delicate green glaze. For these Nien-yao and T'ang-yao celadons undoubtedly rank high among wares of the Midimitate dle Kingdom. The emerald tint of precious jade is seldom found. too. Their glaze. Good examples of these comparatively modern celadons are to be found in European and American collections. on the other hand. less dense and which true on the whole better manipulated than the Lung-chuan-yao biscuit. there is a wonderful gradation of tints from green so pale as to be almost grey to grass colour and azure. lacking of the early celadons. especially since the shapes are often fine and the dimensions of the pieces noble. They differ from their prototypes is primarily in the nature of their pate. is thinner and the wonderful depth and solid softness arabesques and scroll patterns. or the indescribable nuance of bluish green that constituted connoisseurs' delight in preceding centuries. incised or in relief. heightened the decorative effect by adding elaborate less lustrous. which invest the Nien-yao with admirable skill. These restful and aesthetic monochromes deserve even more notice than they have received. designs. But in the majority of cases the potters frankly depended on the resources of their own skill and were fully justified by the result.CHINA old ware of the same type by artificially colouring the lower rim of the pate. white. In respect of colour. or the delicately fresh colour of young onion sprouts. and T'ang-yao celadons with great attractions for Western collectors. But. In many of them the potter. not relying wholly on beauty of colour.

Each is of the same colour and lustre as the ancient Sung ware manufactured for imperial use in the Ching-te era (1004. Tung-ching. themselves easily To above liang. constituting in Very little knowledge is recognised indications. are often supplemented by year-marks. With regard to the tint and lustre of the glaze. and crackle of the fish-roe variety. Ju-yao. or . Ware with iron-coloured pate and the glaze of the Ko-ki. or Kuan-yao. or vases of the elder Chang. Ko-yao. the same observation applies as in the preceding cases. Ware with the whitish. Ware with copper-coloured pate. Ware with the glaze of the Chunyao. namely celadon of dark and light colour. it will be well a book called the " Annals of Fu- following account of " Imitations ancient wares. required to distinguish the glaze and finer pate of the Kangthinner the two. glaze of the Fun-ting-yao (the choicest variety of the Tingyao) of the Sung dynasty. glaze of the Ju-yao. manufactured at Ching-te-chen '' the : — of Ware III cies i). or meal-coloured. come under this head. These 83 varieties are: — violet. without crackle. for hsi. from the nature of Sung wares.'' conclude as to this part of the subject and as an interesting confirmation of the deductions recorded to quote. which are never found on Lung-chuan-yao. and moon-white. Of with iron-coloured pate of the Ta-kuan era (1107this there were three kinds. and Chien-lung pieces. Ware with copper-coloured pate and glaze imitating that of the Ju-yao of the Sung dynasty. These three speof glaze had the same tint and lustre as the glaze of the vases manufactured for imperial use in the Ching-te period (1 004-1 007).THE CfiLADON whereas the genuine old types are exceedingly rare. Imitations of the five varieties of Chun-yao glaze manufactured for imperial use during the Sung dynasty .1007). This and the preceding ware are of the same colour and brilliancy as the toilette basins of the Sung dynasty. Of this there are two varieties rice-coloured glaze and pale celadon.

84 . about five miles (English) from Ching-te-chen. Pieces of the ware manufactured there were picked Their glazes were of two colours. in the same catalogue. the remains of an old pottery of the Sung dynasty were found. glaze . Hght green up. green. while excavating at a place called Shang-hu. it is stated that. Farther on. and horses* lung glaze. {celadon) and rice-white. aubergine glaze . or bluish white. or plumcoloured.CHINA sapphire-coloured glaze . of the colour of the Japanese pear-blossom . red glaze.

SUNG AND YUAN WARES Chapter V {Continued). Many minor kilns were active . A neighbouring factory at Sz'-chou devoted itself to similar work. where it is recorded that large quantities of imitation Ting-yao were produced under the Sung dynasty. in the province of Nanwhei. they differed from their originals in inferiof techique only. or Chiln-yao types. and its outcome fell into the hands of persons who valued cheapness as much as quality. mens which have been preserved as examples of Sung chefs-d'ceuvre are in reality the outcome of minor factories. to enumerate them here would be at once confusing and uninstructive. in addition to those their products mentioned in these pages but were invariably imitations of the 'Ting-yao^yu-yaOy Lung-chuan-yao. this Su-chou-yao was greedily purchased by dealers who sold it as genuine Ting-yao. nevertheless. Thus there doubtless still exist specimens honestly dating from the Sung and as ority 85 . SUNG AND rUAN WARES THE as reader must not suppose that in the preceding pages he possesses an exhaustive catalogue of wares manufactured during the Sung era. It probable that some of the speciis. When the true products of Ting-chou became rare. By way of illustration mention may be made of a kiln at Su-chou.

but in the Ching-te era (1004— 1007) of the Sung dynasty its name was changed to Ching-te-chen (town of the This change was in commemoration of the establishment of a special factory for the production of pieces to be used by the Court.'' gives the following interesting account of the place as it was in his time a special magistrate to act as overseer. and here have been produced the vast majority of the works upon which the fame of Chinese potters rests. d'Entre" LeW'es edijiantes. and the Tartar Tsing.CHINA era. the Tuan Mongols. Ching-te-chen. and in 1369 the Ming sovereign appointed Ching-te era). are generally without walls. in his (1625):Ching-te-chen wants only walls to merit the name of and be comparable with the vastest and most populous towns in China. but which are easy of access and have a large trade. a branch of the great Yangtze-kiang. Ching-te-chen is situated on the banks of the Changkiang. Under the Tuan emperors the inspector of the factories was no less a personage than the Governor of Kiang-si. Here during the past eight centuries have stood the Imperial Factories. in the Its potteries were established province of Kiang-si. Ching-te-chen continued to be the great centre of the potter's art. of which but few exist. in the sixth century under the Chin dynasty (557— The place was then known as Chang-nan588). The record arrives now at the keramic metropolis of China. M. perhaps in order that they may extend and grow as much as they please perhaps becity . 86 . chin (town on the southern bank of the Chang). colles. These places named Chen. Under each succeeding dynasty. but not to be regarded as truly representative examples of the wares after which they are named. the native Ming.

The profits made by letting shops render the Chinese very active in repairing losses of this kind. Ching-te-chen is the asylum of a number of poor families who have not the means of subsisting in the neighbouring villages. if one may judge by the multitude of carpenters and masons employed in the quarter. despite the high cost of living. fail to make a living by grinding the colours. The mountain on the east. " Ching-te-chen counted only three hundred porcelain kilns. even to the wood for the kilns. Young people and men of the poorest physique Not even the blind and the deformed find employment. short time ago. and the houses are.SUNG AND YUAN WARES cause their better at facilities for the import and export of gooas are exists. From is these hills issue two rivers which join. one imaOn all sides are heard gines oneself in the midst of a fair. The expense cries of porters making their way along. nearly a league long. "In ancient times. Passing through them. when no enclosure Ching-te-chen. if anything. for which reason several temples have been erected to the God of Fire. but the other very large and forms a port. For the rest. for everything that is needed has to be imported. is One of them fine small. Some There are 18. takes the shape of a semi-circle on the outer A side. They will be quickly rebuilt.000 families are large merchants whose dwell- ings occupy a vast space and contain a prodigious multitude It is commonly said that the place has a of workmen. Chingte-chen is situated in a vast plain surrounded by high mountains. merely a heap of houses. Yet." At present it has fully three thousand. too close together the streets too narrow. The worship and the honours paid to this deity do not diminish the number of calamities. They intersect and cross The whole space is occupied each other at fixed distances. No wonder that conflagrations are often seen there. eight hundred houses were reduced to ashes. The streets are as straight as a line. on the banks of a fine river. forming the city's background. as might be supposed. by them. the much than living is more considerable of at Ju-chou. in a vast basin where the 87 . the town is at least a million souls in it. It is not league in length." says the history of Fu-liang.

and the shape of the city. and so do the mandarins of Fu-liang. Clouds of flame and smoke. or lodge with responsible for their good behaviour. It is astonishexists. quell it and give information of it to the mandarin. rising in difl^erent places. There is always a disposition to lay the blame on his shoulders and he escapes a beating with difficulty. area of water. where such wealth where an infinity of junks arrive daily. to As the nature of the 88 work done first at its this great industrial centre during the cycle of existence. Their duty is to preserve good order. in this wide stream loses much of its rapidity. Each street has barricades which are closed at night. te-chen is only a league from the district of Fu-liang and eighteen leagues from Ju-chou. Each head-man has ten subalterns. a head-man appointed. but it must be confessed Each street has that the police system is admirable there. which is liberally used. Chingrin without the least failure of good order.CHINA Sometimes. . from time to time. At night. Moreover. one might imagine oneself looking at a vast city all on fire. the Mandarin of the district goes his rounds frequently. the depth. or an immense furnace with numerous outlets. Perhaps this environment of mountains forms a situation suitable for the porcelain industry. Often the head-man himself vainly gives notice of a trouble and declares that he has taken every step to calm it. ing that a place so populous. and where there are no enclosing walls. under pain of the bastinado. should be governed by a solitary mandaIn truth. one sees as many as two or three rows of Such is the spectacle ships ranged one behind the other. The police preserve perfect order and establish complete security in a place rich enough to excite the cupidity of an acquaintance who is infinity of thieves. Further. They some must either pass the night in the ships. each of whom is responsible for ten houses. direct attention to the width. repair at once to the scene of any disturbance. presented when one emerges from one of the passes into the port. and must not be opened without certain signals. strangers are not permitted to sleep at Ching-te-chen.

further than to say that their pate was white and comparatively thin. the Kuan-yao. or rice-white. and the Chiin-yao. celadons." When it is remembered that under the Sung rulers wares of such note as the Ting-yao. suffice to show that the wares did not differ from their contemporaries in excellence of technique. described in a previous chapter then made their appearance and were compared to white jade. pieces. It is — — . They were." In what nothing is known. Not till the beginning of the seventh century.SUNG AND YUAN WARES recorded that an emperor of the Sui dynasty (583 a.) ordered the potters of the district to furnish keramic wares to the Court by way of impost. Imitations of them are said to have found ready purThat alone would chasers throughout the empire. does not describe the wares manufactured there at this epoch. The manufactures of the place received no further notice for nearly four hundred years. in the period Ching-te (1004—1007). though nominally a history of Ching-te-chen keramics. the yu-yao. is any clue obtained as to the The Tao-yao and the Ho-yao wares themselves. the fineness of their biscuit. which signifies " made [chi) in the Ching-te year.d. that their surface was polished and lustrous. however. and that they were distinguished alike by the eclat of their glaze. when. The Tao-lu. and the elegance of their shape. and white. were produced. in fact. the Sung emperor Chin-tsong conferred on the workers in a special factory the title of " Keramists to the Court. the conclusion cannot be avoided that the potters of Ching-techen must have developed a high degree of skill to be honoured by such a distinction. The emperor ordered that specimens intended for imperial use should be marked Ching-te nien chi.

It thus appears that at Ching-te-chen also celadons of the finest quality and wares of the Ting-yao type were potted during the Sung era. and the boccaro the practice does not seem to have been of Yi-hsing extended to the manufactures of other kilns. At Ching-te-chen. from the place of their manufacture. manner. an expert called Pong Chun-pao. and there he manufactured pieces which. whether bymeans of a seal or by a graving tool." He had his kiln at Hoshu. in the province of Nanwhei. or '' new Ting ware. from their close resemblance to the Ting-yao of the preceding dynasty. however. To One imitate such these. is mentioned in the " History of Ching-te-chen Wares. and with three exceptions the Chunyao. No marked progress took place in keramics. were commonly called Shin-tin-ki.CHINA manner this mark was originally made. and sometimes 90 among . the Kwang-yao (ware of Canton). This period of less than a century ( 1 279— 1367) was not favourable to the development of art industry. tradition does It was the first instance of using marks in not say. an active demand certainly sprang up for the products of factories celebrated under the previous dynasty. pieces successfully was probably the highest aim of most of the skilled potters.'' but sometimes also Ho-yao. The student comes now to the Tuan dynasty of Mongols. it continued uninterruptedly this — — until the seventeenth century. In respect of these wares the test of red or iron-brown pate does not apply. as it does in the case of the Lung-chuan-yao and Ju-yao. patronise The Mongol the industry. sovereigns did not greatly During the period when Kublai Khan held his Court at Cambaluc.

not lacking. however.SUNG AND YUAN WARES Pong-yaOy after the name of their maker. at Hu-tien-shi. which has already been spoken of in connection with the Chiin-yao of the to-day.delicacy of porcelain. Specimens of this ware are to be found occasionally bility rather their preservation to their duraThe pate is thick than to their beauty. and dense. however. in allusion to the nature of the incised designs. and the glaze is muddy yellow. which deserves admiration. gray or reddish gray. The body colour is that peculiar delicate blue. where they are known as Japanese Ningyo-de (figure-subject variety). but heavy stone-ware. aptly compared to moon-light. porcelain. The surface of these pieces in lustre or uniformity. attention may be at once directed to the ware regarded as so essentially representative of the dynasty by Chinese connoisseurs of the present day that they call it Tuan-tsu. which were simply imitations of antecedent types. They owe and in it are seen floating splashes or clouds of blood red. of which. without any of the . Sometimes the clair-de-lune surface is speckled with red. and wholly opaque. or '* Tuan porcelain. indeed. the Tuan-tsii is evidently an oif-shoot and for which some specimens of it may Su?2g period. In the neighbourhood of Ching-te-chen also. 91 . The beauty of the ware resides entirely in the glaze." It is not. Without dwelling further upon minor products of the Tuan period. fine pate. after the fashion of the Chun-yao. figure subjects being Some examples are preserved in most common. there was a factory the productions of which are specially mentioned under the name of Hu-tien-yao. having dense. by deeply incised designs of is generally relieved somewhat archaic character. collections.

tolerably common and not easy to distinguish from The chief differences are that the genuine pieces. glaze of the former is comparatively thin. the latter of the choicest description and very highly valued by Chinese connoisseurs. the nature of the service required of the official factories was so onerous that only private kilns enjoyed prosperity. and lustrous. According to the author of the Tao-lo. they may have excelled. They are chiefly bowls and small cups. The ware being very solid and durable. undertook to imitate the latter's pieces. their originals. A majority of them are imitations. and the bottom of the specimen more neatly finished. Crackle is sometimes present. dynasty the Chin-te-chen factories continued to be specially distinguished by imperial patronage. Although under the Tuan. they did not entirely monopolise the duty of supplying the palace. but were not likely to fall It is not by any means to be short of. the pate finer. carrying with it an idea of wonderful depth and richness. generally more beautiful than the real Tuan-tsit itself. supposed that the richly glazed and delicately coloured specimens of so-called " Yuan-tsu " off^ered for sale by Chinese dealers are all genuine examples of the Tuan ware. as well as under the Sung. examples are not infrequent. but many of the finest pieces are without this addition. The connoisseur will of course understand that when later experts of Ching-te-chen. possessing all the materials and more than the ability of their predecessors.CHINA The glaze is unusually thick readily be mistaken. Pieces of exceptional excellence appear to have been either purchased at the ordinary workshops or presented by manufacturers in lieu of taxes. 92 . Imitations made in the Ming and Tsin dynasties are. however.

A : — vases of Ching-te-chen. made of plastic clay. in his logue.SUNG AND YUAN WARES Unfortunately. *' He then goes on to say The porcelain of our own [Ming) dynasty." shows a specimen of the ware. arose the habit of distinguishing between wares The intended for sale and those for imperial use. and of Kwangtung. chen eclipsed them sufficiently to become alone tra" The book quoted in the Tao-lu says ditional. or " ware for the use of the palace. doubtto working for the ordinary market. It was in chief variety of this Shu-fu-yao was white." They were sometimes marked Shu-fu.'' Pieces destined for the Court were distinguished as Shu-fu-yao. of Hupeh. them in lieu of keramic services. come from the Ching-te-chen factories. The Shu-fu porcelain itself was copied from the Ting: — 9Z . Often a money supplying the wants of the palace. an imitation the celebrated Ting-yao of the fact of " Illustrated Catapreceding dynasty. The author of the Tao-lu speaks of these wares as the product of private workshops. decorated with patterns engraved under a white glaze. of the reigns of Tung-lo and Hsuan-te. was made after the imperial porcelain. He describes it as a small bottle-shaped vase. H'siang. of such kilns few records have been Whatever their achievements. but his evident meaning is that their manufacture was not confined to Government The latter were not constantly employed in kilns. less. are of : perfect whiteness and without faults." And again " The white and the celadon vases used in the prov- inces of Chekiang. Ching-tepreserved. of Szechuen. under a white glaze. all faintly engraved in the paste. tax was levied from and at such times they naturally devoted themselves Thence. decorated with dragons in the midst of clouds and having lion's-head handles.

Summing up the keramic products of the time. Some also were ornamented with gold and had flowers in relief (of glazing material). white. It will further be remembered that . in the colour of the design." during this dynasty Lung-chuan celadons continued to be manufactured at Liu-tien. then in its elementary stage.CHINA chou porcelain of the Northern Sung dynasty. it will be seen that humble private manufacturers could not attain the necessary perfection. steps were imThe clay used had mediately taken to execute it. porcelain or stone-ware with enamel decoration over the glaze. and finally the remarkable Yuan-tsil with its clair-de-lune bodyglaze and blood-red marking. these vases should have little thickness. In the interior of these vases the words Shu-fu were marked. as well as of another product. Imitations of them were made by private potters. Under the same dynasty porcelain decorated with blue under the glaze was also manufactured. they are Lung-chuan and Ching-te-chen celadons (the latter differing from the former in quality of pate and delicacy of colour) white soft-paste ware of Ching-te-chen. only ten were chosen out of every hundred. The vases with large bases were uniform and brilliant. It was preferred that to be fine. 94 . and plastic. and and form. The majority of them had a small base and moulded flowers. but it will be more convenient to speak of this later on. but inasmuch as when there was question of vases destined to be presented to the emperor. in its paste a Ting piece/' The Tao-lu also gives the follov^ing particulars about the Yuan dynasty Shu-fu-yao : — " So soon as an order reached the factory. this bottle. is altogether like and in engraved the glaze.

Java. as regards porcelain. passing from is country to country till it reaches us in Morocco.* The Chinese themselves. and constant intercourse took place through Central Asia between the east and west of that gigantic The journeys of Marco Polo and Ibn empire.SUNG AND YUAN WARES The keramic annals of the Yuan dynasty may be concluded by noting that opportunities for the westward export of the products of Chinese kilns continued much as before " The Mongol rulers '' (according to Dr. and whatever may have been the success of Kublai Khan's expeditions against Japan. and other southern islands. but the fact that Bagdad and Peking were ruled by the same sceptre. they show that maritime enterprise had not declined among his subThis state of warlike jects on the coast of China. 95 . were pervaded by a desire to extend their power by maritime warfare. that ' it exported to India and elsewhere." effervescence was not particularly well suited to the circulation of the products of peace. Hirth's ** Ancient Chinese Porcelain") were masters of Bagdad as well as of Peking. is in itself sufficient to indicate that Chinese wares must have found their way westward in considerable quantities. Batuta bear witness to the continuance of the sea trade between the coast of China and Arab provinces. Batuta states distinctly. during the Mongol period.

But the glaze was everything.CHINA Chapter VI PORCELAIN DECORATED UNDER THE GLAZE Tang. The Ting-yao proves this. Its tender. brilliant and yet restful. and tone the whole beauty of the specimen depended. did not find a place among his methods. On its lustre. to which the comparative thickness or thinness of the superincumbent glaze imparted an appearance of dark or light colour. Sungy and Tuan dynasties a period of eight centuries (581-1367) indicates that to produce a single-coloured or white gla^e was the potter's first aim. opaque or semi- opaque glaze. a mere agent for preserving and revealing decoration beneath. and. To make it perfectly colourless and translucid. THE history of Chinese keramics under the — — to find a place in the case of most of his pates. It has been seen that the manufacture of finer pates was within his competence. The dense. solidity. He understood and largely practised the device of ornamenting the surface of a piece with designs incised or in relief. fine and pure biscuit indicated a high degree of 96 . grey clay of the old celadons and their contem- porary monochromes could scarcely serve a better purpose than that of carrying a rich. indeed. was not likely Sui.

(.PC 9SBq 992) .

On hole ' beauty of the spcv fectly colourless per- ana . i aicrc agent lor pre- ». |kit||||^l0SS dyn^styv. and Tuan dynasties a period of eight centuries (581-1367) indicates that to produce a single-coloured or white glaze was the potter's first aim. The dense. -Pai^/ ^^j^Jij witi^j ftarre^-in crackle. a place among his hr r i^etence.. He understood and largely practised the device of ornamenting CENSER Sun^ .w.v .CH IN A Chapter VI PORCELAIN DECORATED UNDER THE GLAZE Sw\ Tang.. It has been seen that the manufacture of finer pates was within serving and revealing v. ANCIENT BRONZE) OF (Catalogue of :H'siane. and. indeed. brilliant and yet restful. Sung.): ''J^OAJV^VAm rcHojght. did not find methods. grey clay of the old celadons and their contemporary monochromes could scarcely serve a better purpose than that of carrying a rich. was not likely to find a place in the case of most of his pates.1 beneath.. opaque or semiopaque glaze.) liie superuj' lit it appearance -' v>f dark or is every- thing. Its tennure biscuit indicated a high degree of 96 . (See page 39. -nid The Ting-yao proves this. THE I history of Chinese keramics under the — — (GQFKKfc l^RpM .

•^fS?*^ ..

.

IX. it seems impossible to avoid the conclusion that this branch of the art was still in a tentative and elementary condition. But a new impulse was imparted it is impossible to The meagre evidence available points. so far as they have hitherto been explored. side by side with keen appreciation of the graceful and the beautiful. H'siang. And when to the negative information afforded by 'slang's Catalogue is added the fact that the blue-and-white of the Sung and Yuan dynasties is absolutely ignored by other records. " Catalogue was compiled during the second half of the sixteenth century. Here the Japanese come to the student's aid. describes eighty-two specimens of the wares most valued by connoisseurs at that period. whose " Illustrated are silent on the subject. Forty-three of these specimens are pieces manufactured during the Sung and Tuan dynasties. Even though it stood alone. Among them there is not even one example of decoraThe first specimen tion with blue under the glaze. — 7 97 . These enigmatical people. technical skill. such an item of evidence would suffice to show that. to the close of the Sung era i^circa i 200) as Chinese the probable date of the new departure. if porcelain decorated with blue under the glaze was manufactured before the Ming dynasty (1368). it did not succeed in establishing a title to be ranked among objets d'art. devel- and how this — — H voL. records. however. say precisely.PORCELAIN DECORATED decorative impulse was When needed to subordinate glaze to decoration. H'siang mentioned by this sort a virtuoso whose of reputation as a connoisseur obtained for him complimentary notice in the great Bibliographical Cyclopebelongs to the dia of Chien-lung (1736— 1795) reign of the Ming Emperor Hsuan-te (1426— 1435).

in the case of imitators so faithful as the Chinese. an antiquarian taste of the most severe description. he would doubtless have made the attempt. The genuine Chajin aspired to simplicity before everything. however. however. The epoch is fixed. carry him quite so far. A Chinese potter would scarcely resort to the manifest fraud of producing an intrinsically worthless specimen of blue-and-white merely for the sake of marking it with the date of a period when nothing of the kind had existed. or even of Kang-hsty to supply the demand of Japanese collectors.CHINA oped. not alone by tradition. But some of the specimens here referred to are said to have come to Japan as long ago as the 98 . He was content to use the closest procurable representatives of nascent art. His austerity did not. Such deceptions might have been practised at the factories of Chien-lung. they do show. the more faithfully was he obeying the tenets of his philosophy. and in these his sympathetic eye detected excellences which were doubtless present. since the efforts of all successful pioneers show traces of original genius. but also by inscriptions which the specimens carry. As a general rule year-marks are quite untrustworthy for What determining the date of a keramic specimen. under the influence of the Cha no Yu cult. The closer he could get to nature. to some extent. Among them are examples of blue-andwhite ware dating from the Sung period. To this propensity is due the preservation of many specimens which would never have survived for their own sakes. is that ware of a certain description was manufactured at a certain epoch. Could he have dispensed altogether with manufactured utensils without outraging refinement.

its tone being muddy and unsatisfactory. days of the Tuan dynasty the show fourteenth century does this signs of skilled manufacture.e. either technically or artistically. in Japan as Tai-so-yaki. The earlier pieces are known " Tai-so " being the Japanese " method of pronouncing the ideographs " Ta-Sung They are stone. is — — Not the until the latter i. ceases to be stone-ware glaze a whiter and more even purer. translucid glazes for the surface of their pieces. but roughly of manufacture. or " insect erosions '* a term that glaze. inexperienced or careless in the management of white. or fully two hundred years before the dilettanteism from which they subsequently derived their value had begun to be largely developed. fine. Working with such a pigment. from every point of view. and well manipulated. Thus. especially defects at salient points. . To this 99 . is often disfigured by doubtless due originally to blisters in the Blemishes of this peculiar nature are regarded as marks of authenticity by the Japanese. and the blue is evidently of very inferior quality. executed. . the pate hard. aptly describes their appearance.PORCELAIN DECORATED thirteenth century. but genererally too thick and solid to suggest any great skill The designs are bold. the keramists of those early days had little to encourage elaborate or artistic They seem also to have been more or less effort. beginning of ware begin to The pate then .ware (the great Sung dynasty). It was not a notable accomplishment. much though still inferior. there is reason to believe that they are genuine representatives of what the Sung and Tuan potters were able to accomplish in the way of decorating with blue under the glaze. and becomes porcelain the and the blue has . who call them muhsi-kui. tone.

of course. as in the case of blue-and-white quality of the body of a vase naturally underwent some change. to But when colourless. and the nature of the ware produced would have varied.). The progress of the two processes decoration with blue under the glaze and the manufacture of a true hard-paste porcelain biscuit may therefore be said to have occurred simultaneously during the same epoch the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and to have attained appreciable development. with what seems to have been a gradual transition. a solid pate was probably found to possess special advantage. such as that Were there question of a made by John Schnorr Ane. it was necessary to mix other clays with this petrosilex. it might be easy to be more explicit. though by no means yet reaching a point of culmination. translucid glaze be required. In order to manufacture fine porcelain. It is impossible. But the story deals. with the proportions in which the ingredients were combined. at the close of the ware. per100 . or by Madame Darnet at St. the came — — — — Yuan dynasty. kaoliriy or porcelain earth. however.d. was used at the factories. from the time when the potter's industry first began to flourish there (circ. to speak with absolute certainty on such a point. So long as thick lustrous glazes constituted the chief decoration of a piece. 580 a. Among the keramic products of China. of course. The records of Ching-te-chen show very plainly that.CHINA period may probably be assigned the first manufacture of hard-paste translucid porcelain in China. none. Indeed it was the presence of feldspathic rock that lent the locality its importance as a keramic centre. new at discovery. rather. Yrieix.

Summing up what spehas already been stated. the result is that. first directed really expert attention to decoration with blue under the glaze. at the beginning of the fifteenth century. the Tuan-tsii. the the blue — — saw no inducement to expend strength upon a manufacture that gave so little promise. rudely of impure tone without either brilliancy or depth. in the form of tribute. and that. and diapers the ware was evidently destined for common purposes of household life.PORCELAIN DECORATED haps. as an artistic product. or any of their celebrated contemporaries. in the tenth century. the arrival of a purer mineral from abroad. has greater interest or importance for foreign collectors than ** blue-and-white/' It deserves cially careful notice. Disfigured by discontinuities glaze. pieces of cobalt blue [JVu-ming-yi) lOI to China. Bushell. They suppose that the cobalt used by the first manufacturers of blue-and-white was of native origin. other presents for the emperor. and the decorative designs formal if not archaic the painter's range of conception not extending beyond scroll patterns. The potter. in or blisters in painted. clumsily finished. As an object of art it could not possibly rank with the Ting-yaOy the Kuan-yaOy the Chiin-yao. among . speak of the '' Arabs bringing short. clumsy figuresubjects. the difficulty of refining it exceeded the skill of the time. though it was not incapable of producing a rich colour." quoted by Dr. What chiefly deterred him is said by some authorities to have been the want of a good pigment. the Sung and Tuan eras. dating from (i 368-1644). the manufacture commenced under the Ming dynasty The earliest examples. According to this theory. But the ^* Annals of the Sung Dynasty. are inferior in respect of pate and colour alike.

and an inferior blue was produced from the incineration of JVu-ming-yiy a cobaltiferous ore of manganese found in different parts of China. In other books of the period it In the reign of Chiais called Su-ma-li. impurities drawn off by magnetic iron ore. and the pieces which showed on fracture vermilion spots were picked out as the first-class blue. ching (i 522-1 567) Mohammedan blue was again obtained by a eunuch governing the province of Yunnan. and the residue yielded another thirtieth part by weight of the true blue. Bushell has the following note on the subject that were among the scientific : — blue colour used for painting under the glaze was brought from one of the Mohammedan countries on the West of China as tribute. as it was this "Mohammedan blue'' called. and it was necessary to add a proportion of native blue. and from each sixteen ounces of these pieces three ounces remained after the incineration in a The remaining fragments were thrown into closed vessel.CHINA time been employed in Western Asia in the decoration of pottery. blue. If this blue were employed alone the colour was apt to spread. and it is recorded that the supply of it faded before the reign of Cheng-hua (1465-1487). A more reasonable improved methods of treating it and technical developments for which the Ming epoch was remarkable. had undergone any change between the tenth this which had long before and the hypothesis fifteenth is centuries. or Su-ma-ni. The " first-class blue " was a mixture of ten parts of the 102 ." There is no apparent reason to suppose that the nature of [Hui-ching). not too much or the colour would be dull and heavy. Dr. In the reign of originally The Hsuan-te (1426-143 5) it was called Su-ni-po blue. and the blue-and-white of this reign is still celebrated for its brilliant The supply again ran short towards the end of colour. The Mohammedan blue was broken up with the hammer. water. this reign. those with silver stars being used for the medium colour. according to the Official Description of the Province of Kiangsi.

The first-class blue mixed with much water and spread over the surface in mass." Nothing is known as to the exact composition of this Mohammedan blue.PORCELAIN DECORATED latter . gave a pure and transparently bright tint. The which the potters of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries produced beautiful results. To the choicest grade they gave the fanciful epithet " blue of the head of Buddha. and this came out of the kiln with each stroke of the brush clearly defined. Thus after the cost refinement was more than a dollar and a half per ounce. has been analysed by M. voted A special class of experts de- themselves to judging its quality. native Chinese mineral. Salvetat. the average blue of about equal parts. former with one of the The blue in Tao-lu states that ten ounces of the imported its unrefined state cost three dollars. with the His result is as follows : — Silica .

of course. on imitations manufactured at Ching-te-chen by comparatively modern potters. With respect to the four points here enumerated. Thus. in the reign of the Emperor Chin-tsong. At this time. In blue-and-white porcelain the connoisseur has to look first to the nature and quality of the pate . The marks are found. Collectors should hold to the general rule that such marks are untrustworthy. can usually form an idea approximating more or less closely to the truth. It is not men** History of Ching-te-chen tioned at all in the Keramics. blue-and-white of the Hung-wu era (1368— still an inferior product. although various marks will henceforth be mentioned in connection with blue-and-white ware.CHINA from the original Kuan-yao of the Sung dynasty. Genuine specimens of ware bearing the Ching-te or other Sung marks are. also. next to the purity and brilliancy of the blue decoration ." unless the jars there spoken of as orna- The 1399) was 104 . The same is true of Ming year-marks. the reader will understand that they are not quoted as true indications. and is then enabled to decide whether the year-mark may be taken as a final indication. the custom of using marks to indicate the epoch of manufacture careful to distinguish came into general vogue. Features permitting such explanation will. virtually unprocurable. be carefully noted in their proper place. thirdly. verbal descriptions cannot be wholly satisfactory. Many forgeries exist for one honest mark. however. he texture and colour of the glaze. It will be remembered that the custom originated three centuries previously. to the manner in which the design is executed. and fourthly to the Thus guided. however.

Premising that very scanty materials exist for forming an opinion. and timbre. and says that they were refined and artistic. " History of Ching-te-chen Keramics speaks of Tung-lo cups decorated with flowers in blue of a very deep colour.PORCELAIN DECORATED mented with dragons. though superior to that of the Tuan and Sung wares. specimens preserved it would appear that the pate of the blue-and-white Hung-yao was dense and heavy . and that the colour of the decoration. who call them " Seki'heki^' that being the Japanese name of the sonnet generally represented by the ideographs. and more brilliant than that of the preceding reign particularly lustrous is that the overlying glaze and of velvet-like texture of fine pieces. The is year- mark is The Hung-wu-nien-chi. Remembering the reverence in which writing has lighter than that of Hung-wu The '' 105 . it may be is asserted that the blue of the Tung-lo epoch is somewhat clearer . with landscapes or figure subjects on one side and a mass of ideographs on the other. student It But in truth the possesses little knowledge about the ware. was evidently unworthy to be mentioned in writ- ten records or remembered in tradition. it did not apparently contribute much to the art of decoration with blue sous-couverte. altogether lacked the brilliancy and permeated by depth of subsequent manufactures. belong insignificant to this category. that the glaze was of medium lustre. Remarkable for great progress in the technical processes of porcelain manufacture. next period calling for attention that of Yung'lo (1403— 1425). and . are prized by Japanese virtuosi. that the pate close-grained. Bowls of Tung-lo blue-and-white. are known to exist in China — in Japan — none From a bluish tinge.

CHINA always been held by the Chinese. The Hsuan-te era (1426— 1436) is in many respects the most remarkable period of the Ming dynasty. ware having a soft pate. In the quality of the porcelain itself a special change is observable. semiporcelain.e. . however. in fact. By the term "soft^^/^" the reader must not understand an artificial porcelain mass like that originally used by the potters of Sevres. It was. The Yung-lo potters were little. so thin and of such thoroughly refined materials as to be often translucid. The year-mark of the period is Tung'lo mten-chi. it seems reasonable to class them among representative specimens of blue-and-white of their If this conclusion be correct. made. less skilled than those of the next reign in the manipulation of their materials. 106 . As to the composition of the soft pate of the Sung Tingperiod. . The blue-and-white porcelain of this date was the first ware of the kind that really deserved to rank among beautiful and artistic productions. i. The soft pate of the Chinese keramist was distinguished from hard porcelain biscuit simply in having a much greater admixture of argillaceous matter. and considering the labour bestowed on the decoration of these bowls as well as the care with which the paste and glaze are manipulated. manufactured in the Yung-lo period but the ideographs are usually written in a more archaic form. the qualities of the ware did not yet entitle it to high rank among keramic productions. if at all. Now for the first time blue decoration was successfully applied to soft-paste porcelain. But the idea does not appear to have occurred to them that blue decoration sous couverte might be applied to ware of the Ting-yao type that is to say.

the snow-like purity of which contrasts exquisitely with the colour of the decoration. however.PORCELAIN DECORATED yao and analysis soft pate its successors. The Hsuan-yao is the type of a large number of porcelains manufactured continuously by Chinese keramists from 1426 to 18 10. differing essentially from all other glazes run over blue decoration.'' and that " all the materials . employed were of the finest quality/' M. The glaze being perfectly translucid. on the preparation and application of which much of the specimen's beauty depended. has been made in modern times. Salvetat was led by this description to conjecture that the author of the Tao-lu referred to fine stone-ware of Such was not the case. and regarded by the connoisseurs of the Middle Kingdom as the choicest and most valuable ware of their kind (blueand-white). d'Entrecolles speaks as follows of this mineral — — : — 107 . and no But the of the Hsuan-te blue-and. it is evident that the blue decoration cannot have been applied directly to the reddish brown biscuit. The latter had to be previously covered with some white opaque substance. the Grh de Flandre class.white ware is said to have been obtained by adding to porcelain-stone clay taken from the bed of the river at Ching-te-chen. The Tao-lu. and a waxy white ground. tradition says nothing. plastic clay '' that their " biscuit was like cinnabar. Possibly steatite was employed for the purpose. Its distinctive features are great thinness and lightness of pate though many beautiful specimens lack these special qualities a peculiar crackled glaze. M. speaking of the vases manufactured at the imperial kilns during this epoch. says that they were made with " red.

with great care and worked down to almost waferlike thinness. Porcelain made with steatite is rare and much dearer than the other. io8 . Some experts do not use steatite for the porcelain mass. It is is also much more than common ware. But in the ware now discussed the pure white of the waxlike covering applied to the pate constitutes an inimitable field for the blue decoration. and set once more to dry. But the Chinese potter did not stove his pieces before applying the decoration sous couverte and the glaze. which stands out with dazzling brilliancy and distinctness and is yet charmingly soft. bluish tint. its lightness appears astonishing to a paper. named Hwah hand accustomed fragile to other porcelains. and for purposes of painting it is to ordinary porcelain pretty much what vellum is to Moreover. and there difficulty in obtain- ing the right temperature in baking it. It has an extremely fine grain. Either of these drying processes might have been easily accomplished in the kiln. He preferred to take the trouble of drying them for months. offering a weak and unsatisfactory contrast to the colour of the decoration. had to be sun-dried until it became tough enough to handle. certain thus acquired. A The conspicuous fault of a vast majority of blueand-white porcelains is that the body of the piece has a watery. It was then dipped in a solution of kaolin or steatite. The manufacture of such ware inThe pate having been prepared volved much labour. The potters conceived the idea of It is employing instead of kaolin. in order that the body of the fore piece may become is receiving the degree of beauty coated with the mineral bedecoration and the glaze. They content themselves with making a solution of it into which they plunge the ware when the latter is dry.CHINA this stone (soapy) because it is unctuous and in some degree resembles soap.

namely. appreciable diff^erence lies in the quality of the blue. hard porcelain as thin as paper.PORCELAIN DECORATED they acquired suffiThis seemingly well repaid by the ultimate superfluous labour was appearance of the glaze. manufactured in the ordinary manner and without crackle. Kai-pieUy or open edges. concerning which it is not possible to give any written description other than that it is deep. translucid glaze. became covered with a net-work of crackle that imparted an aspect of indescribable softFrom this crackle the ware derives the name ness. lustreless covering obtained by the easier process of application after presecond drying was of course liminary stoving. and finally the whole was covered with per- sometimes even for a year. expanding more slowly than the body of the piece under the influence of heat. The decorative design was then traced in cobalt. The only ducts of the same dynasty is not marked. By some connoisseurs it is also called Weitsu. Undoubt- 109 .white egg-shell of Western colis the lectors.k. necessary after the coating of steatite or kaolin had been given. Among all the blue-and-white wares of the Ming epoch. differing palpably as it did from the comparatively wea. A fectly which. however. brilliant.'' '' " blue-and. that of the Hsuan-te reign ranks highest in But its superiority to some of the later proChina. who. a term possessing no distinctive significance. pdte^ so intimately are the two associated. and that it seems to be actually inlaid in the colourless. as It its literal meaning is simply ** baked porcelain. apply the same appellation to another and not less remarkable species of ware similarly decorated. until cient consistency to be manipulated. and clear. by which it is known in China.

as Malacca and Bengal. there may be truth in the hypothesis advanced by some that the first plentiful supply of it reached Ching-techen at the beginning of Hsuan-te's reign. been the case it is not easy to determine. The two first Ming sovereigns were at war throughout nearly the whole of their reigns. who happily found leisure to He received devote attention to peaceful pursuits. despite the high value set upon them from the moment of their production to the present day. judging from the great rarity of surviving specimens.CHINA edly the blue of this era offered a striking contrast to Why such should have anything that went before. and less at variance with history. Looking at the history of the time. What is more probable. the inference is that but a limited supply of it was turned out. it will perhaps be right to refer the general art progress that took place during Hsuan-te's reign to the peaceful state of the empire. however. Not until the life can the authority of the closing year of Yung-lo's dynasty be said to have been firmly established and The third the tranquillity of the country assured. On the contrary. is that the manner of employing this blue for painting designs on porcelain was not fully understood by earlier experts. Of course the Kai-pien-yao was not the only kind of blue-and-white ware manufactured during the Hsuan-te era. and since it is known that the mineral used for painting porcelain in blue under the glaze was originally brought as tribute from one of the Mohammedan countries to the west of the Middle Kingdom. envoys from remote States. Much commoner and more plentifully manufactured was ordiIIO . emperor reigned only a few months and was succeeded by Hsuan-te.

. Ill . birds alone Even in painting human figures. conventional Floral designs. that impart such beauty and character to the master-pieces of Japanese keramists. clouds. it vogue. Here again an important distinction is established between hard-paste and soft-paste blue-and-white.PORCELAIN DECORATED nary hard-paste porcelain decorated in the same manner. Certain it is that examples of Hsuan-te hard-paste blue-and-white are not less scarce than specimens of Kai-pien-yao dating from the same period. One man traced or painted flowers only . have survived in larger quantities than the Kai-pienyaOy but the far greater esteem in which the latter was always held doubtless gave it an advantage in this respect. it is difficult to give a comprehensive description. the same subject was the work of several artists. dragons diapers among landscapes. and so on. it ought to tone of the blue. Seldom are there found on Chinese porcelain the charming and delicate sketches. As to the decorative subjects employed at this early era. another confined himself to mountains a third depicted nothing but trees a fourth made a study of a fifth of fishes. and Speaking generally. was distinguished by the grand Being more durable. Except in the case of very choice pieces. scroll-patterns. This. grasshoppers. figures. . The natural result of this piecemeal method of building up a picture was that the ensemble lacked force and originality. the hands and feet. whether under or over the glaze. all were in . may be asserted that a grave defect of Chinese decoration. the faces and the drapery were often undertaken by different decorators. is its mechanical character. too. often as redolent of life as they are faithful in detail.

and so forth are always decorated with minute care. But the rule. Every stroke is firm and distinct. It also holds. as between the two classes of porcelain. generally insignificant as to dimensions tiny cups. In this respect they rank almost on an equal plane with the beautiful Kai-pien-yao^ though to a less class — — — 112 .CHINA For while the former. There are exceptions of course. These pieces. in the vast majority of cases. the designs on the latter are invariably the work of one hand. however. ricebowls. though marked extent. and leave little to be desired in respect of conception or execution. succeeded perfectly. especially when the painter attempts to depict some mythical animal. may be accepted in the sense herein indicated. and so translucid that there is difficulty in conceiving the existence of any pate at all between the inner and outer coats of glaze. This is nothing more than hard-paste porcelain of exceeding thinness. as the Dog of Fo or a bushy-tailed tortoise. unless its decoration be of purely conventional or geometrical type. To obtain a pure. Often it is scarcely thicker than a sheet of paper. brilliant tone of blue in the decoration of such ware is quite beyond the capacity of any but the most skilled expert. with regard to the second of " egg-shell " blue-and-white porcelain. he was able to stove his cups and bowls on their inferior (and therefore narrow) rims without suffering them to shrivel or warp under the influence of the high temperature necessary to develop the colour of the blue a feat demanding wonderfully skilled manipulation. The Chinaman. is disfigured by an aspect of patchwork crudeness. and not infrequently the motive is treated with boldness and fidelity that recall the genius of the Japanese keramist. Moreover.

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when tnc as paincer . .(Seepage 53. may be accepted the sense herein indicated. he was able to stove his cups and bowls on their inferior (and therefore narrow) rims without suffering them to shrivel or warp under :... Jthough to a les^ marked extent. Height. In this respect they rank almost on an equal plane with the beautiful Kai-pien-yao. . It also holds. as or a bushy-tailed tortoise..pict some mythical animal.. the inner and out brilliant tone of bliigj^f... . jMiuii or — little* •- '"*^- be Every to 'v ict.. The Chinaman^ however. and n the oldness an^ lapanese »keram] course. gen-': .classes of porcelain.1.v aventional or •d by an aspect of patchcJuvaria- ad leave . This is nothing more than hard-paste porcelain of exceeding thinness. succeeded |>erfectly. These pieces. . and so forth — — 1 12 . especially . the Dog But the rule. ^}^g high temperature necessary to olour of the blue a feat demanding wonderfully skiiled manipulation.. wiMtosD-Jtcfe gcsJtoej^dlhicker than a sheet m 111 v :nv /':^/'' at all between conceiving tnc •^ nnre.^£ . .y v.rity » of cases. with regard to the second class of " egg-shell " blue-and-white porcelain. is quite beyond the capacity ui auv Dut tiic most skilled expert. een the two.!. though erally insignificant as to bowls..c. — dimensions tiny cups.. riceare always decorated with minute care. Moreover.. ... 3 inches.) r ' .

I .

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. the mutton-fat-like '' colour of the body. as becomes — . The decorative designs on all these examples. a teacup. mechanical type. and a lamp. as is the colour of their decoration. . the tea-cup excepted. 6 inches long an elephant-shaped jar. 5 inches high and 4^^ inches in diameter. 2j^ inches in diameter. This method of distinguishing wares by the year-name of the period of their production came into general vogue among Chinese connoisseurs as far back as the fifteenth century. 2 or 3 ink-pallet.PORCELAIN DECORATED their inferiority from an artistic point of view can scarcely be questioned. The subject on the teaa gnarled pine-tree.'' But the remaining designs are essentially of the formal. 6 inches long . — 8 1 13 . they lack the dazzling Brilliant and pure contrast shown by the its Kai-pien-yao' s snow-white soft waxy body and deep but blue ornamentation. The brilliant tone of the blue. under the name of Ming Hsuan-yao. pure white and the caligraphic excellence of the year-mark these are things which constitute the important " points " of the specimens. There is no attempt to convert the surface into a painter's canvas. but the reader must understand that under the title IT suan-yao not blue-and-white porcelain alone but all the choice varieties of the reign are included. 3 J^ inches long inches high a jar in the form of a goose. *•' — — — VOL. with orchids and fungus cup springing from the grass beneath is eulogised as " being evidently from the pencil of a celebrated landscape painter. and skilfully executed as are their miniature designs. IX. are wholly subordinate to the shapes of the pieces. H'siang's specimens are small pieces an a miniature vase. In the " Illustrated Catalogue '' of H'siang six specimens of Hsuan-te blue-and-white ware are depicted.

for ten taels. purchased from a collector at Wu-hsing however. these examples could be confidently classed with the soft-paste variety. Concollection of from the cerning the tea-cup. Such a strange and troublesome tour de force was only employed in exceptional cases and is not to be regarded as an essential mark of excellence. showing the nature of the pate. the artist employed by H'siang to portray these specimens did not think it worth while to give representations of the under surfaces. years. that they do belong to that category. Glazing material of a certain consistency having been first blown over the biscuit through a tube covered with very thin gauze. until finally the surface of the glaze assumed a lumpy granulations. and having been sun-dried for a time. 114 . It will presently be seen that the value put upon such specimens increased largely in later Among the glaze. The resulting compared in China to millet seed. appears to have been produced by combined processes of insufflation and immersion.C H I NA Unfortunately the pieces to which they are applied. the whole piece was afterwards covered with a thinner glaze by dipping. were known in Japan as mashihada^ or pear's rind. Neither are his reproductions so accurate as convey an exact idea of the surface. not without value in the eyes of Chinese connoisseurs. or that the glaze was crackled. which is H'siang himself. At comparatively modern epochs they became larger. to known The descriptions in the text indicate pretty clearly. Were it certainly either that the pate was reddish brown. the author says that it was one of a set of four. these six specimens there are two which H'siang describes as having millet-like elevations in This feature.

In the Tao-lu it is nevertheless stated that boutons d' Aralia^ this Tsung-yen-yao. This crit- must not be understood as applicable end of the last The granulated glazes of the Ming and century. of the Hsuan-te period is Hsuan-te " manufactured in the Hsuan-te '' (era). the year-mark was prefixed by the ideographs Ta-ming. Chiang-tai. Lo's time are said to have amused themselves pitting these insects against each other. whose specialty was the delineation of Fashionable folks of fights between grasshoppers. Frein this. note.'' The three eras immediately following Hsuan-te were Chang-tung. and Tien-shun. from 1457 ^^ They produced nothing specially worthy of 1464. an artist called Lo. signifying ** Great Ming./ ^/^/. to specimens of earlier date than the attractive. down But one only is mentioned. hard-paste porcelain. No reference is made in Chinese works to the manufactures of this interval of nearly thirty years. The year-mark «/>. Since Chinese connoisseurs place the Hsuan-te era at the head of blue-and-white porcelain epochs. principal Tsing factories were both interesting and icism. it might be expected that the names of some of its distinguished keramists would have been handed to posterity. in fact. ordinary porcelains and did not choice production. from 1436 to 1449. as quently in all the Ming periods. though the nine years (1426— 1435) of Hsuan-te's reign receive extended and enthusiastic IIS . more curious than beautiful. from 1450 to 1456. was rise classed among the dignity of a really It was. and their year-marks are rarely found upon keramic specimens. or is ware a which the to Chinese term for strongly chagrined glaze. however.PORCELAIN DECORATED appearance.

was in some respects even more . The Mohammedan blue was capable of resisting the temperature of the open furnace the Chekiang blue could not be used except on porcelain protected by muffles. It is distinctive recognition. in the case of the former. But whatever pigment they employed. Cheng-hwa. the former is of a more superficial character. namely. The result was that. The supply of imported Mohammedan blue is said to have failed. 116 I . thus acquiring remarkable depth to 1488. and the potters were obliged to content themselves with native mineral. the designs became. as it were. that whereas the latter conveys the impression of being engraved in the pate. . The decoration differs from that of the Hsuan-te epoch in one important respect. Thus is furnished a suggestion as to the difference between the imported and the native mineral in the matter of behaviour during manufacture a difference that may be independently gathered from the text of the records. and it is known that the supply of choice Mohammedan blue did not fail. it is certain that many pieces of great brilliancy and beauty were produced.CHINA not easy to account for this silence or for the comparative absence of specimens bearing the cachet of any of the three reigns. the works of those years failed to obtain notice. Probably the most reasonable conclusion is that the Hsuan-te types being closely adhered to by keramists and recognised as standards of excellence by connoisseurs during the years immediately succeeding the celebrated era of their production. That fine pieces were manufactured there can be little doubt. The next era. which continued from* re1465 markable than the Hsuan-te era. wedded to the pate.

the Cheng-hwa blue-and-white ware not at inferior to that of Hsuan-te. here made to Kai-pien-yao In all eras this ware stands at the head of blue-and-white specimens. that allusion is (soft-paste porcelain). it was of ordinary quality. and beautiful as is the effect of this transmitted tone. Need it be said that genuine examples of soft-paste Hsuan-yao and Cheng-hwa-yao are well-nigh unproTheir Chinese possessors set an almost curable ? In judging their authenprohibitive value on them. In so far as this point is concerned. Sometimes in Cheng-hwa specimens the colour of the biscuit shows through its covering. a class of produc- tion that does not belong to this section of the subject. But the former surpassed all antecedent and subsequent productions in regard to painting and coloured enamels. of white porcelain also. what the connoisseur has to examine first is the It should be fine as colour and nature of the pate. pipe-clay and of distinctly reddish brown tinge. 117 . give the palm to the former. is how- ever. But his verdict as to the pictorial skill of the Cheng-hwa decorators certainly embraces blue-andIt will be understood.hwa-yao ware " As for the blue employed. all agree that the artistic skill shown by the Cheng-hwa decorators was distinctly superior to that of their predecessors." here speaking chiefly of porcelain decorated with vitrifiable indeed. the Chen-hwa ware fell far below the ware of Hsuan-te. ticity. The Tao-lu says of the Cheng. Some connoisseurs. With regard to general technique.PORCELAIN DECORATED and all softness. Its merit consisted in the skill of the painters and the The author is fineness of the colouring matters. and imparts a Soft pearly grey tinge to the surface of the piece. and enamels over the glaze. course.

Gorodayu ii8 . and the collector may safely regard them as typical. one interesting feature. Of the ordinary hard-paste blue-and-white Chenghwa porcelain. indeed. ways be finely and strongly executed.CHINA it scarcely ranks as high as the snowy wax-like white The decoration should alof the choicest Kai-pien. The pieces depicted in H'siang's " Illustrated Catalogue '' are of diminutive size. and so forth. Very soon. as Japanese evidence shows. It presents. for it the only surviving specimens of are a few plates. the higher the rank of the specimen. It has virtually no place in the Western collector's field. and the crackle must not be so strong as to constitute a striking feature. pears is a clouded blue ground with floral subjects. however. but there — What apblossoms of white plum in a blue field. censers. birds and so forth. the potteries at Ching-techen were visited by a Japanese expert. Europe and America to-day. bowls. In its decoration white designs on a blue ground are found the fore-runners of the celebrated " Hawthorn Pattern. had the idea been developed of the " Hawthorn Pattern" proper that is to say. branches and in existed before.'* so much prized . the typical " Hawthorn " was produced. No large examples of soft-paste blue-and. there is not much to be said. however. and the closer the blue approximates to the typical brilliancy and purity of the Mohammedan mineral.white Hsuan-yao or Cheng-hwa-yao are known to exist. Not yet. The glaze should be as smooth as velvet to the touch. It makes its first known appearance on undoubtedly genuine specimens af Cheng-hwa porcelain. The style may have is no evidence of the fact. in white. Within forty years of the expiration of the Cheng-hwa era.

though not motive. No mark. not at all likely to strike the eye of an ordinary connoisseur. big bowls. The rare examples of genuine early Ming blue-and-white hard-paste porcelain that come into the market. On the other hand. and close grained. fragments of the sand with which qualities 119 . and imposing jars which bear the Cheng-hwa mark. to warn collectors against the delusion that large vases. it is difficult to furnish any written data whereon to base an accurate estimate of the period of a hard-paste specimen. Occasionally one finds clinging to the bases of bowls and plates. for it on his own pieces. if at is all. heavy. Reproductions by such experts were the ceal little.PORCELAIN DECORATED his country. has been more forged than that of Ta-Ming Cheng-hwa nien-chi. case different in the present modern when a hopelessly deteriorated art endeavours to con- its palpable shortcomings behind the cachet of It famous periods. and the timbre remarkably sharp and clear. whose productions were well worthy to stand on their own merits. Even the potters of the Kanghsi era (i 661-1722). and generally commanding prices out of apparent proportion to their merits. may be well. reputation enjoyed by the Cheng-hwa ware led to its extensive imitation in later times. the originator of porcelain manufacture in In his day the ** Hawthorn " design figured conspicuously as a principal was certainly employed by Chinese decorators. therefore. like that of all the Ming wares. did The high not hesitate to manufacture imitations of the celebrated Ming wares. inferior to their originals. The pate of the Cheng-hwa porcelain. or reproduce the fine of its manufactures. But times. really date from that era. Shonzui. are small pieces. is hard. perhaps.

adhering to the base. had hitherto served as a means of supporting the piece during the various processes of manufacture. as though the glazing material had been laid on with a paint brush. and perhaps it would be misleading to regard them as distinctive of such pieces. and a brush would have been a convenient method of performing the operation. indeed. the specimen was replaced on the wheel for the purpose of removing the superfluous clay which. and especially during the Cheng-hwa era. whatever some connoisseurs may allege. however. is that within the circular base of the piece a number of hair lines radiate towards the centre. though not confined to wares of the Chenghwa era. evidences of such a process should be particularly visible in pieces manufactured during the first cycle of the Ming dynasty. any other Chinese porcelains. The supply of fine cobalt. The next year-period after Cheng-hwa was Hung- chih (1488— 1506). One peculiarity. although from its nature likely to occur in the case of inferior wares alone. Such. from native and foreign sources alike. After the decoration and glaze had been applied to the body. is perhaps more noticeable in them than in ing. is said to have failed. is not uncommonly seen in pieces upon which great pains were evidently lavished. The glazing of the base was then effected. was probably the case. The base of a piece was always the last part which a Chinese potter finished. and the manufacture of ware decorated with that mineral under the glaze consequently received a 120 . there is nothing to indicate. It was not remarkable for blueand-white porcelains.CHINA the bottom of the oven was strewn before the stovThis technical accident. Why. which.

if at all. and they certainly possessed no features to distinguish them above their immediate predecessors. when. — — sources. necessity stimulated their inventive faculties. they succeeded in so preparing and employing their native cobalt as to obtain a colour scarcely. inferior to the finest Hsuan-te and Cheng-hwa blue. one is inclined to suppose that its colour must have been But there is a strong probaexceptionally beautiful. being thrown on their own re(i now under consideration. bility that the reputation it enjoyed was partly due to Certainly in the inexperience of Chinese keramists. and that rules of great strictness were adopted by the superintendent of the kilns to put an end to the practice. however.PORCELAIN DECORATED check. comparable with pieces of the Hsuan-te and Chenghwa eras. It is seldom found upon blue-and-white porcelain. later times. The mark of this period is Ta-Ming Cheng-te nien chi. appear to have survived. though no repeated reference 121 the distinction . Cheng-te The following period Governor The is more important. nien chi — The mark is Ta-Ming Hung-chih of the era rarely found on porcelains of the class — 506-1 522) of Yunnan succeeded in procuring a fresh supply of the celebrated Mohammedan blue. and with it many beautiful porceThey are said to have been lains were decorated. It is mentioned in the Tao-lu that during this era the workmen of the imperial factory dishonestly sold pieces of the precious Mohammedan blue to private potters. Judging by the value set upon the imported mineral and by the details recorded with reference to the failure or renewal of the supply. Perhaps it will be wise to remind the reader to that. Few of them.

has been more abundantly Ming Chia-ching mien chi forged than that of any other period except Chenghwa." and that " most of the subjects enumerated are still employed in ornamenting the imperial porcelain of the present day. The Cheng-te period was followed by Chia-ching The year-mark of this era Ta(1522— 1567). This was indeed the last era of the Ming dynasty when Mohammedan blue was procurable. Lists of the porcelains requisitioned by the Court during this and the two subsequent reigns are preserved in Chinese records and have been translated by Dr. and is separated by a long interval from every competitor. but also as indicating the style of decoration then adopted. bowls. and other utensils went up every year to Peking. and the resources of the factories at Ching-te-cheng were subjected to an ever-increasing strain. Softpaste blue-and-white ware stands always at the head of its class.CHINA between here account of the products of an era." The following is the portion of the list bearing upon our immediate soft-paste is and hard-paste porcelain made in each — — 122 . Dr. They are interesting not alone as a record of the nature of the pieces required for imperial use. From this fact alone may be inferred the quantity and reputation of the porcelains manufactured by the Chia-ching keramists. Pieces were ordered not by dozens. Another noteworthy fact is that the supply of porcelain required for the use of the Court had now become enormous. but by hundreds. Bushell observes that " the designs are said to have been principally derived from brocaded satin and ancient embroidery. Bushell. the difference must never be lost sight of. Scores of thousands of vases.

Bowls with four fishes. BUSHELL. CHING ERA (1529). inside. and plum. a pair of phoenixes." two Taoist Wine Cups with a pair of dragons among clouds. " old as the genii. . outside .PORCELAIN DECORATED subject. . hills. peony. inside.) Bowls decorated with dragons pursuing pearls. mackerel. within. outside . inside. carp. Bowls with dragons. lotus. Tall Cups with celestial flowers under the inscription shou shan fu hai. dragons and phoenixes flying through flowers. side. seasons. W. inside. outside. Bowls with bamboo leaves and polyporus fungus. S. namely. rich as the sea. Tea Cups with dragons emerging from water with lions. " happiness. phoenixes. and other dragons birds. dragons soaring from waves into clouds. porcelain decorated with blue under : the glaze LIST OF — BLUE-AND-WHITE PORCELAINS REQUISITIONED FOR IMPERIAL USE IN THE 8th YEAR OF THE CHIA(TRANSLATED BY Dr. Wine Cups inscribed fu shou kang ning. birds flying in clouds. with sea-waves and eight dragons emerging therefrom holding up the mystical diagrams in. with the three Taoist alchemists compounding the elixir vitte. health and peace. among clouds. Tea Cups with playing boys and the flowers of the four chrysanthemum.'* Tea Cups with a myriad flowers dragons grasping pearls. Bowls with sprays of flowers completely covering the ground inside and out. outside a balance weighing gold and playing children. medallions containing dragons among clouds. and. JVine Cups with antique dragons. marbled perch and another. 123 inside and out also . outside. longevity. inside. inside. dragons mounting upwards. Tall Cups with a pair of dragons inside. Bowls decorated. outside. storks flying in clouds. . outside.

inside. dragons among clouds. Dishes (saucer shaped) with floral ground inside and out. bamboo. Jars of octagonal form. floral medallions. floral ground. outside .CHINA Cups with playing boys. phoenixes flying through flowers. with branched fungus supporting the eight precious emblems. Wine Jars (beakers) decorated with the emblems of longevity. inside. outside . the lobes filled with dragons in sea-waves. . Jars with waves and flames supporting the eight mystic diagrams. Jars with covers. outside Dishes with dragons coiling through Indian lotus flowers. Jars with plants. inside. and plum. outside. 124 . Vases with fabulous lion and dragons. different kinds of fish and water Jars with the eight famous horses of the ancient Emperor Wang. inside. outside . Jars with peacocks and mutan peonies. Dishes with phoenixes flying through flowers. Dishes decorated inside and out with cranes flying through clouds. Jars with the eight Taoist immortals crossing the sea. Jars with waterfalls of Ssuch'iian province and flying Mu lions. floral medallions. inside. Jars with children playing masquerade revels. Jars with sprays of fairy flowers bearing the eight precious emblems. Vases with branching fungus and the emblematic flowers of the four seasons. Dishes with fruit-bearing lotus. inside. Jars with lions sporting with embroidered balls. ascending and descending dragons sporting. Cups with clouds and dragons. Tea Cups with dragon medallions and water caltrops dragons among clouds. the fir. Large round dishes with the flowers of the four seasons.

were Porcelain supof the soft-paste [Kai-pieri) variety. clouds and dragons above a border of sea-waves. Large Wine Vessels of oval form decorated with sprays of lotus supporting the eight precious symbols and the eight Buddhist emblems. if not the whole. Wine Vessels with sprays of lotus supporting the hundred forms of the longevity character. were alone in favour. three rams as emblems of spring. Boxes with covers for holding fruit. Large Bowls for gold-fish. plied for use in the imperial palace would naturally be of the choicest kind. cranes flying in clouds." 125 — . . Dishes with four Taoists. For the same reason vases painted with blue flowers of the Chia-ching era also enjoyed considerable reputation. inside. the eight Taoist immortals worshipping the god of longevity. inside. with cranes and dragons flying among clouds. Dishes with sea-waves enveloping flying lions and dragons holding up the characters for happiness and longevity. But it is safe to conclude that the greater part. decorated with a pair of dragons. Boxes with fabulous lions and dragons. Fish Bowls with dragons and clouds painted inside. outside . sang yan k'ai faiy Dishes with nine dragons and flowers. outside . This list unfortunately gives no indication of the nature of the wares enumerated. The Tao-lu alludes in the following terms to the : blue-and-white porcelain of the Chia-ching era " Vases in blue monochrome. a balance weighing gold. Dishes with clouds and dragons. outside.PORCELAIN DECORATED outside inside. manufactured with the Mohammedan mineral. Boxes with dragons and phoenixes and a group of immortals worshipping the emblem of longevity. and playing children. on account of the charming tone of their deep-coloured glaze.

ingly probable. until the end of the Ming dynasty (1644). bottom is not depressed. too. that from 1570. A principal ingredient for its biscuit was taken. the larger are more or less clumsy and roughly finlain were made. as though no distinction existed between The important points to be noted the two reigns. Lung-ching {i S^7~'^S7'i) (1573— 1620). In such specimens the year mark is written usually round either on the outside of the piece the upper or lower edge or in a rectangular space cut in the centre of the under surface and glazed. In the Tao-lu their wares are called Lungwan-yao. may be conveniently classed together as to their blue-and-white porcelains. instead of being turned on the wheel as was the case with preceding wares of the better class. as has been already stated. and this source of supply came to an end or ceased to be available during the Lung-ching era. — — 126 . On the other hand.CHINA next two periods. but filled up level with the rim. generally exhibit marks of the knife Often. though the fact cannot be asserted with absolute confidence. the used to remove superfluous clay. with regard to these wares are that Mohammedan blue was no longer procurable and that the materials for manufacturing the porcelain mass had become in It is exceedpart exhausted and in part inferior. In all of them the biscuit is dense and Small pieces show excellent technique. The type of blue-and-white Lung-wan-yao is essenished. approximately. Their bottoms. very little soft-paste blue-and-white porcelain was manufactured at Ching-te-chen. large quantities of hard-paste porce- The and Wan-li Numerous surviving examples may be seen. from the bed of the river on which the city stood. but heavy.

The body of the piece in a marked degree partakes also of that defect more or less common in all hardits white. contrasts weakly with the colour With regard to the designs of the decoration. to which durable quality doubtless be ascribed the fact that survive. But such a theory is not reconcilable with either the past or the subsequent history of the ware. Five of them are figured in the " Illustrated Catalogue *' of H'siang. chosen by the potters. Red by itself had already been used as a sub-glaze pigment during the Hsuan-te era (1426— 1436). colour : 127 . but disSeldom does it approach tinctly tinged with purple. they became more elaborate in proportion as the ware forfeited its claims to consideration on account of brilliant colour and fine pate. decoration in blue alone thus ceasing to be sufficiently attractive. Tradition and the evidence of existing specimens go to show that the innovation may probably be ascribed to the second half of the sixteenth century. the brilliant pure tone of its celebrated predecessors. About this period the use of red under the glaze began to be largely resorted to. The date of their first appearance in combination is not easy to determine. Pieces of the choicest character were thus decorated. may many examples of their blue decoration is is deep and full. the maroon and liver-colour. The fashion is supposed by certain commentators to have owed something of its popularity to the failure of choice cobalt supplies from foreign sources and native mines alike.PORCELAIN DECORATED tially thick and solid. who speaks of quality Its The characteristic. Red and blue are the only colours thus employed by the Chinese potred varying from brilliant vermilion to ters. pervaded paste blue-and-white porcelains by a tinge of blue.

The substance employed was a silicate of copper. Of the cups decorated with " peaches he adds that only two or three are known to exist within the four seas. 128 . These last were sometimes combined with different forms of the ideograph [fu). and the number of ideographs five.'' Tiny cups or miniature bowls seem to have been the only examples surviving in H'siang's time. But H'siang's illustrations show that though this may have been true with regard to the peaches.CHINA great enthusiasm. peaches. it appears that red them with ple. during the present dynasty. or agarics depicted was always three. and such was certainly the case at the factories of Kang-hsi. Chinese connoisseurs seem to have preferred Hsuan-te specimens of this class to all others. of a brilliant colour. From the list of porcelains requisitioned for the palace during the Wan-li era. and after them the " peach of longevity/* or agarics (a species of fungus). Tungching. and Chien-lung. but there is no reason to doubt that pieces scarcely if at all inferior were produced by subsequent Ming potters at any rate up to the end of the sixteenth century. the colouring matter. The ground of H'siang's specimens is said to have been " pure as driven snow." So much prized were choice examples of early wares decorated in this style that they received the name of Pao-ki. the number of fish.'' According to the Tao-lu. The designs were simFish (carp) were the favourite motive." the fish " boldly outlined and red as fresh blood or vermilion. or precious Vulgar tradition says that the grand tone of vases. signifying " good fortune. the red was obtained by mixing powdered rubies with But that is evidently a myth. the rule did not invariably hold in the instance of the fishes. dazzling the eye.

Bowls decorated outside with lotus flowers. outside. ning. jasmine flowers. the fir. interlacing sprays of fairy flowers. the seal characters///. Bowls.PORCELAIN DECORATED under the glaze constantly occurred side by side with Appended is Dr. is Otherwise the reader may assume that the decoration in blue alone. inside with dragon medallions. Bowls decorated outside with dragons and clouds. LI (1573-1619)./^. the fact is — Where mentioned. inside with cranes and clouds. a dragon band interrupted by the eight Buddhist emblems . and plum blossom. a pair of dragons. cloud dragons and phoenixes flying through flowers. boxes of the flowers of the four seasons . inside. VOL. and longevity. 129 q — . the eight immortals crossing the sea. outside. OR RED. inside. Bowls with. JBushelFs translation of such blue. phoenixes. sea monsters and lions playing with embroidered balls . arabesques. rank. fish. lotus flowers. red decoration occurs. sceptres and clouds . and coloured phoenixes flying through the flowers of the four seasons. full-faced dragons with seal longevity characters. portions of the list as have reference to this branch of the subject. shou^ kang. dragons and phoenixes in clouds. with the inscription Ta- Ming Wan-li nein chih. including in the category specimens decorated with blue alone. sea-waves. Dishes with. with interlacing sprays of Indian lotus and fairy flowers . IX. on the border clouds with crested waves and sceptres. a single spray of lotus. and branching fungus . /«. OR BLUE AND RED. boys playing. a border of sceptres and hibiscus flowers.B. or red alone : — LIST OF PORCELAINS DECORATED WITH BLUE. outside. scroll waves. shoUy the gods of happiness. a pair of dragons upholding longevity characters. the eight precious symbols on brocaded ground. or blue in combination with red. lilies. SOUS COUFERTE. bamboo leaves and branching fungus. REQUISITIONED FOR THE PALACE DURING THE ERA OF WJN N. dragon medallions. fragrant flowers. with.

inside. 130 . fruit and flowers. medallions of fabulous animals and fungus. in the centre. Dishes with. flowering plants and animals. bamboo leaves and fungus. dragons and phoenixes and historical scenes. sceptres. outside. and plum. pao. phoenixes flying through flowers. floral brocades. Wine Cups with. pearls emitting flames. with a border of bamboo leaves and polyporus fungus. dragons and phoenixes flying through flowers. inside. dragon medallions. on the border. clouds and cranes. interlacing sprays of lotus with the eight precious emblems. lotus flowers and fish. wan. the eight immortals worshipping the god of longevity. dragons holding the characters yung. Dishes with. and plum . in the centre. inside. outside. longevity flower scrolls. antique dragons. and fragrant plants .CHINA bamboo. inside. lotus flowers and dragons and phoenixes flying through flowers. longevity inscriptions and peonies. dragons and phoenixes. inside. dragons in the midst of flowers. bamboo. outside. Sanscrit characters. bamboo. the eight precious symbols. the fir. separate sprays of flowers of the four seasons . and flowers engraved under the glaze. his- playing boys . the peach tree of Taoist fable with antique longevity characters inscribed on the fruit. Dishes with. with dragons among clouds torical scenes with inscriptions in verse. fairy flowers. a border of flower sprays and dragons. Cup with. and plum. the fir. outside. fruit and birds. and plum. flowers. outside. on the border. sceptres. historical scenes. lotus leaves and dragons . bamboo. inside. river plants supporting Sanscrit inscriptions. celestial flowers supporting Sanscrit Buddhist inscriptions. sprays of flowers of the four seasons. branching pomegranates. phoenixes and fairy flowers. a pair of dragons and clouds engraved under the glaze. arabesques of fairy flowers . garlands of fruit in Mohammedan style. Saucer-shaped Plates with. lotus flowers and fish in azure waves. fragrant bamboo leaves and branching fungus. outside. shou. branches of the flowers of the four seasons. inside. Sanscrit inscriptions . flowers of the seasons. the inscription yung pao hung fu cKi fien and playing boys. the fir. foreign tigers.

fungus branches and ancient coins. nine blue monsters in red sea-waves . cranes in clouds. dragons flying through flowers. musical instruments.PORCELAIN DECORATED outside^ clouds and dragons. the eight Buddhist syminside. jasmine flowers. monsters and tigers. hibiscus flowers on brocaded ground. the flowers of the seasons and historical scenes. and playing children. figures of immortals with propitious inscrip! tions.nd yang. flowering plants and animals. dragons and clouds in relief. t'ien hsia f ai p'ing. Censers with. grapes. dragons and fairy flowers executed in openwork. plum flowers on wave ground. landscapes. " Propitious wind and favourable rain. arabesques of fragrant flowers. the inscription /^«^ fiaoyii shun. sceptres. Cups with. and dragons. Vases with dragons and phoenixes flying through flowers. jasmine flowers. the eight diagrams and the hemp-leaved Indian lotus. clouds and dragons. clouds. flowers and fruit. sea-waves and fairy flowers. fungus branches. pomegranates and fungus . Boxes with propitious sentences on the sides . with sceptres. ladies . sprays of flowers of bols on fungus branches the four seasons. " Ever preserving lasting spring " the eight diagrams and symbols oi yin 3. Censers with the symbol of light and darkness and the eight diagrams. inside. . Sanscrit dharani and longevity garlands. pheasants flying through flowers. birds. flying lions in sea-waves. cal scenes." a head with hair dressed in four puffs inscribed yung pao ch'ang cKun. outside. dragons and phoenixes flying through flowers. on the cover. TVine Bowls with interlacing sprays of golden lotus flowers supporting antique longevity characters. Boxes with sceptres. scep- and fragrant plants. birds. inside. histori- Cups with. interlacing sprays of flowers of the four seasons. brocades and pheasants. JVine Cups with. longevity fungus. red sea-waves with white tres crests. dragons. hibiscus flowers and moutan peonies. Boxes with strange monsters in attendance on the celestial dragon. scroll brocades. lotus and fragrant flowers. peonies. outside. peace throughout the empire. outside. insects and flowers. floral ground patterns.

and phoenixes Jars with nozzles for oil-wicks decorated with dragons flying through flowers of the four seasons. and plum. branching fungus. sea-waves and plum blossom. sceptres and dragons in clouds. Pencil Handles with the eight precious symbols and dragon medallions. ornamental designs in the form of the double gourd. fruit and birds. medallions with boys plucking olea fragrans flowers. winding sprays of fairy flowers. Vinegar Bottles with dragons in clouds and twining sprays of fairy flowers. two dragons grasping pearls. lotus leaves and flowers. fairy flowers. dragons and clouds. fragrant plants and insects. Perfume Boxes with kylin and round ornament. Screens with brocaded ground. Slop Boxes with a pair of dragons among flowers and flocks of magpies. fruit and branching fungus. golden chrysanthemums and hibiscus flowers. Chessboards with clouds and dragons. historical scenes. Hanging Oil-Lamp with sea-waves. Pencil Barrels with brocaded ground. water-plants. Fan Boxes with dragons among clouds and spiral scroll ornament. the flowers of the four seasons. flowers. historical scenes. Slop Boxes with clouds and dragons. Pencil Rests with sea-waves executed in relief and three dragons in openwork. fruit and birds the border. the eight precious symbols. Vases with dragons and clouds above clumps of reeds. the bamboo. 132 .CHINA fir. spiral scrolls. Vases with flowers. flowers. the river pictures and writing of ancient story. flowers and fruit. Pricket Candlesticks with jewel mountains surrounded by sea-waves with dragons in clouds. Pricket Candlesticks with longevity inscriptions and emblems. fairy flowers winding through clouds. and eight Buddhist emblems. branching fungus. arabesques of fragrant plants.

The glaze. the fir. the collector may still procure good examples of Wan-li blue-and-white. flying dragons. Garden Seats carved in openwork with dragons grasping pearls. which is not only found on a tolerably numerous class of authentic specimens. historical scenes and the flowers of the season . Hat Boxes with brocaded ground in round patterns and dragons coiling through the flowers of the four seasons. but these defects are often relieved by brilliancy and decorative boldness. and in many cases somewhat clumsy. and choice specimens support comparison with the work of other eras. too. fragrant plants and lotus petals. They are solid. Ta-Ming Wan-li nien <hi. lions. jewel-bearing elephants and figure scenes. the fungus of longevity.PORCELAIN DECORATED Pallet Water Bottles with couchant dragons. but has also been extensively forged. The mark — — . This is absolutely true of soft-paste porcelain in respect of every reign in the dynasty. the great majority not exceeding a few inches in height. The former occurs much more rarely than the latter. bamboo. Betel-nut Boxes with historical scenes. All the pieces that remain from preceding eras are small. Even at this time. brocaded ground patterns. Handkerchief Boxes with. and sea-horses. outside. inside. a pair of dragons supporting the inscription. is rich and lustrous. when the markets of China have been so persistently and diligently exploited during a quarter of a century. and ihat of the Wan-li era. From the factories of these eras Lung-ching and Wan-li came the comparatively small number of surviving Ming blueand-white porcelains that attain any considerable dimensions. " Ever preserving long life tribute arriving from the four seas " . though lacking in purity of tone. : ! of the Lung-ching era is Ta-Ming Lungching nien chi. plum and orchids.

the manufacturers of hard-paste porcelain seem to have frequently turned out pieces of imposing proportions. seven days a slow fire was kept up. and the aperture of the kiln having been sealed. but few have way Westward. Some of these were decorated with floral designs. indeed. with the object of gradually expelling the porcelain mass. some found survive in their Chinese collections. vases. for the most . During the first their baking occupied nine days. appears have been continued down to the it to but end of the JVan-li period (1619). purplish jars and of medium 134 . and jars. part. fish-bowls decorated with dragons their pate dense and quality. when four thousand flowervases of various shapes and sizes and five thousand jars with covers appear in the imperial requisition at one time. Specimens of smaller but still imposing dimensions dating from the latter period are familiar to American and European collectors. first At what era their manu- facture was undertaken the records do not say. ten days were allowed Of these monster pieces for the cooling process. and periods. Vases of huge dimensions had. their glaze lustrous but lacking purity. a subject repeated ad nauseam upon Chinese porcelains of all They were stoved one or two at a time. They are. After this the fire was extinguished. and the blue sous couverte of deep. moisture contained for in the Then two days and two nights the furnace was raised to such a temperature that the porcelain became perfectly red and afterwards white.CHINA But in the JVan-li period. as much as six feet high and having biscuit five inches thick. been manufactured at an earlier date. The Tao-lu states that special kilns existed at Ching-te-chen for baking monster bowls. but the majority had dragons among clouds or waves.

fewer still . be stated with regard to all tone. the decorated porcelains dating from the final reigns of the Ming dynasty that they are distinguished by brief acquaintance with genstrength of colour.PORCELAIN DECORATED It may. the noble glow and richness of Kang-hsi Hawthorns it is essential that they be placed in a full clear light the more directly the sun strikes on them. Few as are the names of Chinese keramic experts remembered by posterity. did the potter succeed in imparting to his sous-couverte blue a more distinctly encaustic character. He is said to have excelled in imitating the blue-and-white soft-paste porcelain of the Hsuan-te and Cheng-hwa eras. and since the glaze is exceptionally solid and lustrous. His fidelity as a copyist extended. the greater the brilliancy. For purposes of room decoration in Western houses the blue-and-white porcelains of Lung-ching and JVan-li possess special merits. uine specimens enables the amateur to recognise these A porcelains with tolerable certainty. In the Tao-lu the name of a celebrated keramist. pre- vious or subsequent. and warmth of their effect. the ultimate effect is one of softness and strength very admirably combined. Lung-ching and Wan-li blues stand effectively in any nook or corner: even in a sombre atmosphere their decorative strength is not to be subdued. for in no era. It seems as though the colour were veritably burned into the pate. since they adapt themIn order to bring out selves to almost any situation. though not of the Hawthorn class. to the marks on his originals. Tsui. of course. is recorded as having flourished in the second half of the sixteenth century. glow. in short. The delicate richness of fine Kang-hsi and Tung-ching pieces. are scarcely But the less dependent on the light they receive.

The dynasty of Tsing Tartars. however. at the factories in Siao-nan street. During the first reign. but sometimes also Hia-moh-yaOy or "frog-sized wares. With the close of the Wan-It era (1619). various porcelains of small size. Their pate had a yellow tinge they were thin. mentioned in the Tao-lu that during these years of comparative inactivity there were produced. however. Ching-te-chen. as well as of the custom of the upper classes. the designs were limited to flowers and leaves of the epidendrum (Chinese. was established at Peking in 1644. but its last two decades were so disturbed by struggles with the Tartars that the keramic industry was virtually deprived of imperial patronage. — — 136 .'' in allusion to their tiny. and the fact that such and such great artists Hved at such and such eras.CHINA are the instances of potters putting their own names on their works. Shun-chih (1645— 166 1). The dynasty continued to occupy the throne until 1644. but very solid. They were called ^' Siao-nan-yao.'' after the place of their manufacture. A certain quantity of blue-and-white hard-paste porcelain was. Specimens of this insignificant character do not redeem the general unproductiveness of the era as to blue-and-white porcelain. and in such of them as had blue decoration sous couverte. now ruling in China. Lan) a plant that has always been highly esteemed by Chinese and Japanese or to one or two circles round their outer rim. Such specimens as survive . manufactured. no marked revival of art industries seems to have taken place. the production of Ming porcelains may be said to have terminated. possesses only historic interest. Thus there is no hope of identifying the maker of a piece. It is. squat form.

The design referred to is really flowers of the plum in white on a blue ground. heavy. solid. His achievements almost justify this superstition from a Chinese point of view.PORCELAIN DECORATED are of fair quality. an expert of remarkable ability. the under surface characteristics that render them apt to be confounded with ware of the Wan-li era. and that the ware made under his direction was necessarily of super-excellent quality. not It undeservedly popular '* need scarcely be pre" mised that the term Hawthorn is a figment of Western fancy. Tang. especially as the tone of the blue decoration alike in both periods. of the renowned Kang-hsi (1661— 1722). seldom met with. or " plum-blossom ware. is virtually is The mark It is of the era T'^- Tsin Shun-chik nien chi. Under his enlightened and liberal rule the potteries at Ching-te-chen developed a degree of excellence and prosperity without parallel. somewhat rudely and generally having no depression in . it will perhaps seem fit to speak first of the so-called " Hawthorn the accession With Pattern. The era has been well called the golden age of Chinese keramics. finished below. and porcelains thus decorated are known to Chinese connoisseurs and dealers as Mei-hwa-yao. the keramic art began once more to flourish. superintended the factories at Ching-te-chen. It had been conceived as far back as the Chenghwa epoch (i 465-1 487). Chinese records say that he held constant communion with the Genius of Pottery. second sovereign of the Tsing dynasty. With regard to the blueand-white porcelains of his time." so highly and collectors. and may be of even greater 137 among Western ." The idea of decoration in white on a blue ground had its origin long before the Kang-hsi era.

sugarjars. Neither the experts nor the virtuosi of the Middle Kingdom appreciated the charms of a ware for pieces of which every Western collector of taste searches with wise avidity. were reserved. The colour and tone of the blue in the best Hawthorns of the Kang-hsi period show that a mineral was used in no respect inferior to the and delicacy. glowing colour. or. best Mohammedan first — who ited that the pigment. It has every quality that should be possessed by ornamental porcelain ness. having vis- — China in 1510 to study keramic processes. dynasty. among which flowering branches of plum. in less elaborate specimens. solidity. showing white and soft upon a ground of deep. Previously to the Kang-hsi era the : method had been merely accessory it was used in parts only From about the middle of of the general design. softness. the seventeenth century Chinese potters began to act upon the inspiration of entirely covering the surface of the biscuit (beneath the glaze) with rich. for example. 138 Among all the . petals only of the blos- som. An interesting fact is Gorodayu Go-shonzui Japanese potter manufactured translucid porcelain. — grace. returned to Japan with a conviction that sprays and blossoms of the plum were eminently suitable for purposes of porcelain decoration.CHINA But there are no " Hawthorns/' in the Western sense of the term. richparticularly high Yet that Chinese connoisseurs is proved by the nature of the specimens upon which the decoration is chiefly found as. and vases of comparatively mediocre quality. dating from the Ming antiquity. it did not rank . brilliancy. Unquestionably this fashion of decoration is one of the most beautiful ever invented in China or anywhere else. ginger-pots. brilliant blue.

in the moundig for it. or angular in shape. It is possible that the grace . wash them carefully and sell them to the potters. porcelains of For Hsuan-te. quoting common vases. by means of baskets. It is dark yellow in colour. the monochrome called Chia-ching^ or blue of the sky after rain. tain streams to remove the earthy matter adhering to it. The same says : from an encyclopedia. part of the subject has so much interest for American and European collectors that the portions of the Tao-lu bearing on the subject may be appended in full : — Porcelains decorated with blue sous couverte^ whether round. azure has also to be combined with the glazing matter. Those who procure it go to the mountains and They wash it. The mineral is found in two districts of the province of Che-kiang. Large round pieces are of the first quality. Traders carry them to the porcelain kilns. and appropriateness of such cially a motive may have spebut inasmuch as appealed to Japanese taste Japan sat humbly at China's feet in the matter of keramics in the sixteenth century. for example. as. but it is pale in colour and incapable of enduring the action of the fire. roast them there for three days. They are distinguished by the names of the places whence they come. ^39 . of Cheng-hwa^ of Chia-ching^ and of Wan-U. square. are distinguished by the epochs of their manufacture .PORCELAIN DECORATED specimens into in attributed to him there is scarcely one whose decorative design the plum does not enter some form or other. There is a species of blue found in the mountains of Kiang-si and Kuan-tung. It serves only for decorating writer. it seems a reasonable inference that his free use of the meihwa reflected the This tendency of Chinese potters also in his time. and as many considerations must have swayed Shonzui to faithful imitation of his teachers' models.

That found elsewhere is inferior. Even when the best and difficult to prepare. Blue of the first treated. It is is found at no great distance below the surface of the ground. with dragon and Thus 2^^ dollars must be spent to obtain phoenix designs. however. barely seven ounces are obtained. Ching-te-chen is found in the province of Che-kiang. but they cobalt of subject embody little information and are grouped in a conThe substance of what they convey fused manner. It occurs in all the provinces of the empire and there are Before use it has to be baked to red three grades of it. any slight excess of temperature in the porcelain kiln sufficed to burn out its tint. but used it in such a manner as to obtain a colour little. if at all. the excavators not being obliged to dig to a depth of more than one metre at most. and afterwards moistened with water. It will be observed that in these extracts no menHui-ching. painted on the surface of the ware it is black.CHINA Generally the matter used for painting blue porcelain cobaltiferous manganese. The Kang'hsi potters and their successors used the native mineral only. There was. mineral was employed. After the mineral has been roasted it is ground very fine in a mortar of unglazed When porcelain. This choice mineral ceased. or tion is made of the the Mohammedan blue. but becomes blue by exposure to the heat of the furnace. expensive. . one-half of that sum for a thirteen litres of first-class blue similar quantity of second-class mineral. to be procurable after Chia-ching era (1522— 1566). quality is always used for the decoration of very fine porcelains. or on pieces destined for the palace. are given in the Tao-lu. From each pound of mineral thus heat in a mass of clay. apparently. inferior to that of the Many other details on the choicest Ming specimens. and one-seventh of All the best blue used at it for the third-class variety. a particular variety capable of 140 . is that blue of the choicest quality was scarce.

latter method. not uniformly. is not an essential mark of quality. The duty The pigment was laid on with a brush. generally resorted to when the decoration consisted of clusters of petals only (without connecting branches or trunks). for the Kang-hsi era bequeathed to posterity porcelains of unsurpassed brilliancy and beauty. Pere d^EntrecoUes. this of selecting the mineral devolved upon a special class of experts. the better the specimen. though what it loses is compensated in the connoisseurs by the stronger play of reflected light on a surface thus treated.'' and in all designs where very fine blue had to be used. belongs to an inferior order of art conception. hnes occurred.PORCELAIN DECORATED resisting great heat. purer and more brilliant the colour. though highly prized by many connoisseurs for the sake of its fine contrast with the white design. but in overlapping layers. The design it- point The 141 . The beauty of the surface was wonderfully enhanced by this simple device. Sometimes a marbled or tessellated aspect was obtained by means of dark lines intersecting in diamonds or squares. This method was not resorted to in the case of " Hawthorns. so as to produce the effect of clouds varying in depth and brilliancy. amounting almost to darkness. Great depth. The result amply justified this toil. in his description of the processes witnessed by himself at the Kang-hsi factories. and the whole art of refining and employing it was evidently carried to a high pitch of development. says that when a vase was intended to be entirely blue. it was dipped in a solution of cobalt. In judging a specimen of " Hawthorn " the first The through excessive formality opinion of many to be considered is the nature of the blue.

CHINA be boldly and clearly executed. and many of them show colour of most admirable depth and brilliancy. In at least ninety-nine cases out of every hundred the bric-a-brac dealer is obliged to replace the original porcelain lid with a cover of carved teak142 . but every collector is familiar with the fact. Very rarely indeed does the collector find a flawless specimen with intact lid. They vary in size. No explanation is furnished. and flowers. from tiny pieces to specimens fifteen or sixteen inches high. But an even more pleasing method is to show the branches and their blossoms hanging down over the rim of the vase. Finally the pate should be tolerably fine and the bottom of the piece well finished. Decoration in the " Hawthorn " style appears to have been applied to two classes of specimens only. branches. In every case lustre and smoothness of glaze are important self should best pieces — Spots where the surface has become rough and the blue verges upon black owing to faulty firing or an excess of moisture in the pigment. blemishes. It is strange that these limits should have been observed. are emphatic criteria. and vases with trumpet-shaped necks. The commonest type has clusters of petals scattered regularly over the surface. It is on these jars that the beautiful "spray'' decoration is chiefly found. On the there is generally found a plum tree painted in its entirety. But the comparatively coarse use to which they have been applied has resulted in frequent accidents. as though the stem were within it. The finest and most imposing examples are the sugarjars. Their shape is graceful and the swelling contours of the body are continued appropriately in the lid. pots for sugar or preserved ginger.

where the art of repairing porcelain is understood. As to colour. being generally only their contour is simten or eleven inches in height pler and their lids are flat. : . as well as to their comparative neglect by Chinese virtuosi. and into them hammered little clamps It was a frank kind of proceedof iron or copper. they stand neither higher nor lower than the sugar-jars. the fracture. and there remained a truncated vase or a segment of a or he bored a row of holes on either side of pot wood. Much of this well be conceived. the majority of those procurable have already gravitated westward. but they differ from the latter in the much more frequent tessellation of their surface. larger They are smaller to the ginger-pots also. nese. and owing to the great and just esteem in which such pieces are held by European and American collectors. a very much larger number of these beautiful objects would have been But the Chipreserved in a presentable condition. than the usual type of sugar-jar. and the Chinese market is virtually empty. ing.PORCELAIN DECORATED In Japan or Europe. never made the smallest progress in work which a people so appreciative of porcelain and technically so expert might have been expected to carry to a high degree of development.'' The applies . but nothing clumsier or more disfiguring can few of the The result of it all is that very " and finer types of " Hawthorns have survived entire. . trumpet-necked vases are the 143 least attractive of all. curiously enough. A Chinaman saw only two methods of dealing either he cut down the with fractured porcelain piece until the injured section had disappeared. and in the more constant occurrence of the " petal-cluster " style of decoration as distinguished from the " spray.

it occurs too often to permit the supposi144 . having regard to the great activity of the keramic industry at that epoch. the Kang-hsi era to 1667 the Emperor prohibited this manner of distinguishing porcelains. Marks of date are not found on " Hawthorns " of or. are so rare as be virtually non-existent for collectors' purposes. That is a matter of taste. or historical quotations. since inscriptions that deserved reverence were thus condemned to share the fate of the perishable substance on which they were painted. and at the same the fact that in time ordered that verses. in blue. within which are painted In *' '' many specimens of formal designs. and the painting within the panels is weak and mechanical. But. there is nothing primarily to choose between the three kinds. however. The absence of a year-mark is partially explained by . jars. Sometimes a leaf of the artemisia. should not be used in decorating ware. On specimens of seventeenth-century manufacture the Kang-hsi year-mark nien chi — certainly occurs much more Ta-Tsing Kang-hsi rarely than might be expected. In respect to quality.CHINA their shape being apparently unsuited to the " Haw- thorn '' decoration. or a representation of the Che plant (silk-worm oak) is painted on the bottom of such specimens. a conventional lotus. Yet reasons exist for suspecting that such was the case. Hawthorn the surface is broken by white medallions. sonages. mythical animals or perIn such cases the surface decoration generally of the petal-cluster type. There is no record to indicate that this prohibition was removed at a subsequent period of the same reign. pots and vases. on the other hand. recording the actions of great men. is floral subjects. if they occur.

o^^Bc.vi noifid lA^orr VII J l>IAd .0. -. iS- .-.noitoslloo ijlB^x-.

ere is no record to indicate that this prohibition was removed at a subsequent period of the same rcien. and the painting within the panels is weak and mechanical.LY MING CELADON . ' 144 . chi — — certainly occurs much more rarely than having regard to the great activity he keramic industry at that epoch. pots and vases. Marks of date are not found on " Hawthorns '' of tiiiraU^iijt.ai^^itb4(^l or.» cording the Kttons in rev< "^^ not be used fate decora! vere thus jcibuiible ascriptions that deserved condemned to share the substance on which they were of painted. or a representation of the Che plant (silk-worm oak) is painted on the bottom of such specimens. a conventional lotus. are so rare as be virtually non-existent for collectors' purposes. Ha%§Pw9ara£QL^yf ven^^enfh-cent^ manu^ x!ti^ Kang-hsi year-mark Ta-Tstng Kang-hsi \ ' . The absence qfo^]y^ft^-J^^|^krM partially explained by .et^. nothing jars... it occurs too often to permit the supposiht be expected. In Hawthorn the surface is broken by white medallions.C thorn *' IT I NA Hawis their shape being apparently unsuited to the " decoration. But. in M'H^iyasak{fi!i^^qch(^?as«»the surface decoration is generally of the petal-cluster type. In respect to quality.^YYYi PEONY SCROLL ^N RELIEF. That a matter is however. manner of di ' " time ordered t. on the "d. Sometimes a leaf of the artemisia. animals or personages. .. re. the Kang-hsi era to the fact th'c»roiijvas*^)n6i^tioth(5eeKiMp©ror ' prohibited this ind at the same ^^otai ions.. there of taste. within which are painted ** ** many specimens of formal dcAguv. if they occur. Yet reasons exist for siispectine: that such was EAR. primarily to choose between the three kinds.

I .

.

The Kai-pien-yao of the Kang-hsi era is scarcely. if ever. in blue-and-white.PORCELAIN DECORATED tion that the imperial veto held reign. The is master-piece of the time. but because of its merits from a decorative point of view. The only immediately perceptible difference is that the pate of the former does not show the distinctly red tinge peculiar to Hsuan-te and Cheng-hwa specimens. found. impossible to believe that the numerous and unsurviving examples of porcelains years. The " Hawthorn Pattern " is here placed first among the blue-and-white porcelains of the Kang-hsi era. other than those decorated with On them a year-mark is selthe Hawthorn Pattern. and that their manufacture virtually came to an end at its close. not because it is technically entitled to that rank. when of the epoch were manufactured This observation applies. ** really fine Hawthorns " belong to the Kang-hsi era. It is evident that slightly different materials I VOL. the bottoms being quite plain. In the great majority of cases they are without a mark of any description. to wares justly enjoys among European and American collectors. or having only a blue ring within the rim. — lo 145 . porcelain. Of produced again in all its forthis charming ware so much has been already said that a few words will suffice here. inferior to its predecessor of the Ming dynasty. dom. good throughout the five Kang-hsi had only occupied the throne years It is the prohibition in question was issued. and its special connection It may be safely asserted that all with the period. to be the Kai-pien-yaOy or soft-paste craquele which now began mer beauty. IX. if at all. the reputation it doubtedly genuine bearing the mark during those five however.

146 . The Kang-hsi keramists had recourse to some other place. in waxin like purity and softness of glaze and body colour brilliancy and depth of blue pigment. and in boldness. figures and floral subjects on vases of Kang-hsi Kai-pien-yao are pictures that any master might be proud to have painted. and that the supplybecame exhausted in the second half of the sixteenth century. mens are often of tiny dimensions. Gracefully shaped vases from eight or ten inches to a foot and a half in height may be occasionally found. . whether on account of the — — decorative instinct are limned. is trifling may be fairly matched by the superiority of the former's decorative designs and their highly artistic execution. as might almost be anticipated from the delicate nature of the ware. constitute an inferiority. The choicest speciposing pieces of Kai-pien-yao. for holding a single blossom snuff bottles of even smaller size vermilion boxes rice-bowls cups plates. .CHINA were used in manufacturing the porcelain mass — a conclusion consistent with the recorded facts that the clay of the Ming potters was taken from the bed of the river at Ching-te-chen. nature of their ware. though not to be denied. . advantage the latter period possesses in the inimitable quality of its blue and the advantage. two or three inches high. and such things. or because of the vigour and feeling with which they im- The collector must not expect to find large. . Little vases. constitute the bulk of procurable examples. . spirit and skill of decoration. shown in their subtle distribution. Kang-hsi will Whatever almost bear comparison with Hsuan-te. and the change is apparent in the This does not by any means In fineness oi pate. Some of the landscapes.

was also produced with signal success by the Kang-hsi potters. decorated with blue under the glaze. and so forth. The year-mark of the era often occurs on hard-paste egg-shell pieces. appear to have been chiefly manufacVases. the blue of fine. chefs-d'oeuvre of the period. command almost prohibitive prices. the dazzling contrast presented by the wax-like white body and brilliant blue decoration of soft-paste porcelain." and it unquestionably occupies a high place among the Cups. clear but not necessarily deep tone. Further reference will be made to this point by and by. the glaze lustrous. On smaller specimens of Kai-pien-yao the Kang-hsi year-mark frequently occurs. Exceedingly thin. If the decorative design is well executed. but larger pieces seldom have this indication. in the case of such specimens. bowls. plates.PORCELAIN DECORATED but they are exceedingly rare. lacking. stands on the same plane as the Kai-pien-yao from a technical point of view. that such a distinction is neither essential nor trustworthy. and the general technique plainly excellent. the biscuit thin. The clear and pure quality of their blue is the safest and readiest means of distinguishing them from their successors. by Chinese connoisseurs. as thin as paper and nearly as translucid as glass. Deception need not be greatly feared. 147 . able size scarcely exist for the ordinary collector. however. the collector may be confident that he has to do with a genuine example. ewers or fish-bowls of any considertured. however. but is artistically inferior. hard-paste porcelain. if without blemish. as it necessarily does. set much store hard-paste blue-and-white " egg-shell. This exquisitely delicate ware. and. but it will be understood from what has been already said.

their uninstructed days 148 . diplomatic. Many fine collections of various porcelains have been made by men whose commercial. and whose tastes led them to utilize the golden opportunity that a sojourn in that country afforded two decades ago. as a necessary consequence. but so small was their number and so slight the consideration bestowed on them. of these collections did the prince of blue-and-white porcelains hold a representative Specimens of medium quality were indeed place. present. But in few. according to the standards that he applied. if any. in part. . to the comparatively high prices that specimens of Kai-pienyao always commanded in the Chinese market. Hard-paste pieces. But for soft-paste porcelains of high quality and celebrated eras. except of the egg-shell type. It is remarkable that only in recent years have the merits and beauties of soft-paste blue-and-white porcelain obtained recognition outside China. traffic in such ware was confined to the Chinese themselves. or even from foreign virtuosi residing in China. he was prepared to pay prices that would have seemed quite extravagant to Western collectors in Modern potters were not competent cessful imitations : and. had little attraction for him however fine their colour and rich their decoration. that their possessors had evidently acquired them accidentally.CHINA to produce sucof work requiring so much skill. they did not represent really choice porcelains. or consular duties held them in China for a term of years. This singular fact may have been due. and without any real cognisance of their excellence. But when closer and more intelligent scrutiny began to be directed to the subject. A native collector seldom thought of seeking any other kind of blue-and-white ware.

in all of which Mandarins. and boldly curved scroll patterns constitute another class of latter is I 149 .PORCELAIN DECORATED and when the standards adopted in China itself began to be recognised as technically true at least. the glaze an attractive feature. pure Kang-hsi blue from anything of later date. In addition to " Hawthorn/' Kai-pien-yao. namely. often betraying distinctly Egyptian affinities. Chien-lung (1736— 1795). while the only Ming specimens large enough and numerous enough to create any confusion. Palm trees and quaintly shaped rocks appear everywhere. liancy. garden scenes. on their side. and ingenious arabesques. wares is that the grand colour of the blue is always The pate is fine. Especially addicted to figure subjects. dames of high and low degree. bril- from the blue of the rival epoch. Geometrical diapers. unmistakable features. The Kanghsi decorators took their designs from a very large field. though the full. present. war scenes. the workmanship skilful but over and above these recommendations the tone of the . and children at play occupied a great part of the space to be decorated. smooth and lustrous. soft-paste blue-and-white ware quickly rose to its due place in the esteem of collectors. A very little experience will enable the connoisseur to recognise the bright. and give it a marked advantage over the colour of the Lung-wangyao (1567— 1 6 19). solid tone of the and depth distinguish it unquestionably imposing. those of the Lung-ching and Wan-li workshops. and hard-paste " egg-shell/' large quantities of ordinary blue-and-white porcelain were manufactured during The general verdict as to these the Kang-hsi era. braves. they loved to depict hunting scenes. blue especially attracts attention. Its clearness.

the whole of the rest of the surface being occupied by arabesques in low relief. was more likely to assume this character than to display originality and vigour. is manufactured by hundreds. others the blue decoration is confined to medallions. incised in the pate. 150 . in one studio. between a large number of workmen. Thus each employs his hand always on the same object without dividing his attention. may be gathered from the records. it That the expert who sketches the design does not study . One's sole duty is to form the first coloured ring seen near the rim of the piece another traces flowers for yet another to paint. In many of the better specimens bands of scroll pattern or diapers. great irregularity results. another does not go beyond birds and animals. Those who sketch and those this who colour are separated in work may be uniform." What was gained in celerity by this division of labour was often lost in originality. the man who applies the colours does not learn how to sketch. Yet these Kang-hsi porcelains are always redeemed by their fine colour. For this reason.CHINA motives borrowed chiefly from ancient bronzes. Too frequently the painting itself is weak and mechanical. adding appreciably to the decorative effect. surround the bases and In rims. ** Each variety of round vase decorated with blue sous couvertey' says the Tao-lu. ** The d'Entrecolles business of painting is divided. whether the artistic features of their decoration be good or bad. If the pictures are not identical. the art of laying on the colours and per contra." uniformity of work actually meant in practice will be understood from the account of M. One confines himself to sketching landscapes. the same studio so that their And what : — .

landscapes. the Ming dynasty. and sometimes not fired at all. showing a charming play of light and shade. The end of this tube is lightly dipped in the colouring solution so that the gauze becomes saturated. or figure sketched in gold upon the surface of the glaze. suggested the idea of an accidental adjunct. M. is dearer and rarer than that not having its colour souffle. especially as the gold. of which the surface becomes This species of ware covered with little blue specks. and very soon disappeared under friction. d'Entrecolles describes the process thus : — " The Then a tube is taken. applied by blowing it through a tube covered with Thus the surface became covered with gauze. In other instances subjects. addition cannot be called a happy inspiration. being inperfectly fixed at a low temperature. leaving only unsightly traces The fashion had descended from of its presence. in which case it ranked monochrome. because the execution of the process is very blue is orifice the requisite proportions are preserved. speckles of colour. designs. whereupon the workman blows through the tube against the porcelain. for in the imperial requisition of the eighth year of Chia-ching (1529) it appears were This . more or less minute and close. and depended entirely upon the its as a bril- liancy and depth of floral colour. that to known Western collectors as souffle. is and called The colouring matter was in China Chui-ching-yao.PORCELAIN DECORATED Another class of hard-paste porcelain decorated with blue sous couverte. of which has very fine gauze stretched over it. numerous and beautiful examples of which were manufactured during the Kang-hsi era. one fully prepared.'' Sometimes the piece received no other decoration difficult if than this souffHe blue.

painted in gold over the glaze. A much more artistic style was to employ the souffle blue as a ground for reserved designs in white. the only difference being that instead of limiting himself to blossoms and branches of plum. face Yet another method was to interrupt the souffle surby medallions containing designs also in blue Very pleasing effects were thus under the glaze. however. To this class of decoration belong porcelains covered with souffle or plain blue and having designs or inscriptions faintly picked out in white. and so forth. and ideographs. a cloud-scroll ground with three lions and dragons. inside. outside. The effect was exceedingly delicate. The Ching-te-chen expert plainly regarded 152 . the inner received finely executed diapers.CHINA that among : were — the articles required for the palace Large round dishes of pure blue glaze with dragons in seawaves. The plan pursued was to apply the colouring matter uniformly. by a want of contrast between the decoration within the medallions and the colour of the surrounding field. scrolls. obtained. Immense care was taken in the execution of such specimens. the artist depicted figure subjects. Beautiful and striking results were attained. Occasionally. precious emblems. slightly marred. The fashion is analogous with that of the " Hawthorn " ware. To accomplish this the design must have been protected with paper when the colouring matter was blown over the biscuit. incised or in relief. and afterwards intersperse sketches by removing portions of the blue with a pointed instrument. mythical animals and personages. while the outer surface of a bowl or libation cup was thus treated.

Moreover. This variety of blue-and-white porcelain is not specially distinguished by name in China. for as chefs-d'oeuvre. They were manufac- Ming dynasty as well as in the Kang-hst among the items of the imperial requisition is of the Wan-li reign the following found — Tea-dippers with white flowers on blue ground.PORCELAIN DECORATED such pieces tured in the period. deserve the favour they have found with Western collectors. But it and artistic delicacy of decois without crackle. They belong to a grade of technical and artistic achievement below that of the Kai-pien-yao. it appears to be as far beyond the tages 153 . latter. considered from the point of view of decorative effect. but they have the practical advan- of being procurable in incomparably greater numbers at less cost and of much more imposing size. and white dragons coiling through the flowers of the four seasons. possesses all the fine qualities of the thinness of biscuit. but it takes a high place in the esteem of Chinese connoisseurs. The collector recognises it easily by its lightness. thinness and the pure white of its body. milky whiteness of glaze. Undoubtedly the Kang-hsi hard-paste porcelains. brilliancy of blue colour rative design. and the absence of this feature certainly deprives it of the peculiar wax-like aspect that adds so much to the charms of the Kai-pien-yao. hst At the Ching-te-chen factories during the Kangand two succeeding eras there was produced a porcelain which may be classed mid-way between the ordinary hard-paste ware and the soft-paste KaiIt pien-yao. this last feature constituting the chief distinction between it and hard-paste egg-shell porcelain.

coral. though not absolutely of eggso closely as to be scarcely shell thinness. apple-rind. the ideal objects the noble reds (peachof virtu are monochromes bloom. . and the strong. bean-blossom. too. remain. constitute a catalogue of masterpieces within the range of which a collector with ample means and wide opportunity may well be But how many amateurs content to limit himself. soft greens (cucumberRose-du-Barry) the glowing rind. precious-ruby. them very close to the rank There can be no doubt that. rouge. cerulean of the sky after the shell-like or solid yellows rain. can afford. have a charm of raises The more their own to : brightness of effect they add a suggestion of restfulness and purity that of fine monochromes.CHINA capacity of is modern potters to reproduce them as it Their magnificent colour. Ting-yao) many other colours at once curious and lovely that bear witness to the Chinese keramist's inventive genius and fertility of resource. even though their resources permit. incomparable. sang-de-hoeuf. speci- mens are found which. how many. and the thoroughly satisfactory quality of their beauty have thus far remained. 154 . . liquid-dawn. jujube. connoisseur frankly admits their merits. Not it infrequently. and celadon) and delicate blues (Mazarin. . . to procure any large assemblage of specimens so costly and now so rare ? To those not . so far as porcelains are concerned. solid pieces. can hope. peacock. and kingfisher) the exquisite satin or waxy whites (above all the the transmutation tints and the soft-paste. approach : These are keramic chefs-d'ceuvre of even the most fastidious Chinese the highest order distinguishable. . too. and will apparently continue to to imitate the Kai-pien-yao itself. vermilion. the rich lustre of their glaze.

he assumes an altogether shape. but need. No detailed reference has thus far been made to the subjects chiefly chosen by Chinese potters for the On a vast majority of decoration of porcelains. thus blessed . found so thoroughly conventionalised as to be almost unrecognisable . and is limned performing a dance intended to be terrible but usually only grotesque sometimes he is depicted with skill such as could be realistic inspired only by a belief in his reality. hardly give less prominence to a monster that occupies such an important place in the traditions and 155 . as a rule. as to be able to decorate a room with blue-and-white and blue-and-white only. specimens the dragon [lung) figures in some form or His shapes are numerous. has beside him a perpetual Other porcelains source of aesthetic enjoyment. But it must be confessed that there is something distinctly wearisome about this unceasing repetition of a fabulous monster which cannot be rendered picturesque except by methods of representation scarcely possible Yet the Chinese decorator could on porcelain. . sometimes. The virtuoso who is so fortunate always delightful. specimen of this charming ware never palls upon the acquaintance only develops appreciation of its taste As an article of ornamental furniture it is qualities.PORCELAIN DECORATED by fortune and happy in opportunity there remains an alternative not very much less satisA good factory. the collection of blue-and-white. an over-mantel or a cabinet of chinghwa specimens will probably find a place in every artistically furnished house. Sometimes he is other. an appropriate environment adapts itself every to companionship. blue-and-white and when its advantages in that respect come to be more generally recognised.

Tung-chingy and* superstitions . . guardian and buttress of the dwellings of the deities the spiritual dragon that makes the wind blow and the rain fall the terrestrial dragon that shapes the the treasure dragon that courses of rivers and brooks keeps watch over the precious things invisible to human eyes the holy dragon that protects the Buddhist faith the majestic dragon that appears on the imperial ensign and serves as a synonym for the all these are forms in occupant of the throne which the fabulous snake presents himself to Chinese imagination. and the outward semblance of a dragon. The dragon is also incised in the paste of egg-shell porcelains of unsurpassable quality. a swallow's bill. Tradition assigns to the phcenix a pheasant's head. It must be noted. — Chien-lung eras. It is one of the Four Supernatural Creatures. a tortoise's neck. It is 156 The . phoenix [Feng^ stands next to the dragon in frequency of use as a decorative subject. . some of the very choicest specimens of blue-and-white porcelain carry this design.washers of soft-paste ware [kai-pien-yao^ upon which the potter has evidently lavished all the resources of his technique. however. . especially vermilion boxes and pen. The celestial dragon. and is modelled in relief upon grand celadons and enamelled wares of the Kang-hsi. and on porcelains destined for official use his introduction into some part of the decorative design becomes almost a necessary tribute to his supernatural ubiquity. the Ky-lin (unicorn) and the tortoise (kwei).CHINA of his nation. the others being the dragon. But these characteristics are seldom apparent in its ordinary delineations. that though the iteration of the dragon is a defect in Chinese keramic decoration.

like the phoenix. most conventionalised it is almost tolerable. Chinese have not shown as much taste as the Japanese In in adapting the phoenix to decorative purposes. It is. it is seldom more than a strange-looking bird. it is supposed to tread so lightly that the air is insensible of its foot-prints and no living creature. though occurring with tolera- the decoration of blue-and-white porcelains can scarcely be called a favourite design as compared with the dragon and phoenix. The tortoise [kwei) . the chief emblem of longevity. shoulders and clouds playing round its with flames supporting it. is crushed by its hoofs. The decorator's fondness for it is due in some degree to superstition. is. howble frequency in ever. or fabulous unicorn. Ky-lin. the emblem of perfect good. is invariably When depicted with very little realistic success. least The commonly ^57 .PORCELAIN DECORATED frequently employed with successful decorative effect. used of the four fabulous animals for decorative purposes. a composite animal with the body of a stag It is generally depicted and the bushy tail of an ox. however fragile. but as a rule the Chinese keramic artist shows conspicuous want of skill in delineating this " King of Beasts tiger [hu). and as such oc- cupies a place of importance in the painter's range of subjects. reign. for it is regarded as an emblem of national prosperity and the herald of a beneficent . one of its happiest shapes being seen when it is disBut the posed circularly so as to form a medallion. the hands of the latter it is often idealised into a crein those of the ation full of grace and symmetry former. for as the divinest of animals. The K'i-lin.

one of the Four Sleepers. Bushell. doubtless because the " mystic trigrams. or Wen Siao. and sometimes with a bushy tail. and that most accurate writer's classification is here and the companion of followed. W. the ^^ Pa-pao'' with any particular religion has not.CHINA Sometimes it is shown as of Wisdom/' the Taoist Rishi Ku Ling-jin sometimes as the steed of Tsai Lwan. sporting with a ball which represents the sacred gem. from information furnished by Dr. often carefully plaited. "Type The Ordinary Symbols favourite are known in China as ^^Pa-pao^'' or the eight precious things. however. and is often used as a mark. Used generally for purposes of subordinate decoration. The lion of the keramic decorator is usually depicted with an immense mane. An oblate spherical object. These eight symbols are as follow : Eight is a the grouping — I. their own special meaning. but is a half playful.'' which constitute the alphabet of Chinese astrologers and philosThe connection of ophers. in truth. A.S. He bears little resemblance to the gaunt. represented sometimes white and sometimes yellow. it. These are well described by Mr.R.. half ferocious beast. but have. been traced. number with the Chinese in of objects that have religious affinities. are eight in number. with a ribbon entwined around — This represents a pearl {chin). or even associated with peony flowers. F. either the object itself or the ideograph chin being It is the gem shown in the claws of dragons or depicted. 158 . of the British Legation in Peking. Franks. there are numerous symbols which at first sight suggest mere fanciful devices. fierce animal of the jungle.

with stone of honour for officials. overlapping ends. and " may generally be distinguished from other ornaments by ribbons or fillets entwined about them. horns (se-keo). lozenge-shaped object having fillets threaded 3. This is supposed to be a variety of No. This has been circular object enclosing a square." The Buddhist Symbols are called Pa-chi-siung. above. but was originally a representation of the Chinese " cash. or the eight lucky emblems of Buddhism. of variable form. kingy a sonorous stone. '*They are carved in wood or moulded in clay. identified as the Kwei^ or honorary tablet for little there appears to be doubt that it —A —A — — ." " prosperity. A pair of curved objects. possibly tribute-bearers of the Man. An object resembling a mason*s square. lozenge-shaped object having a compartment 4. and occasionally flame-like rays of effulgence issue from it. which the Chinese hold in highest esteem. leaf. used like a bell in China. probably a leaf of the 8. An ideograph having the same sound {king) signifies " goodness. Two oblong objects placed close together. They are also used as marks. — —A These symbols from the tribes are sometimes seen carried by a procession of fantastic figures. This also is supposed to represent the Kwei." a small copper coin having The decoa square hole through which a string is passed. 6." " fortune. 2. being carved in that sense on the ends of rafters and on articles of furniture. or southern barbarians. and supposed to represent books hence symbols of literature." and the instrument is consequently depicted instead of the ideograph. form the dual symhoX fang-shang. being the 5. and offered on 159 . through it. or Two of such lozenges. rative purpose of this symbol is to typify riches.PORCELAIN DECORATED object which they seek to grasp. 3. representing rhinoceros 7. as the —A officials. or bronze plate. artemisia {ai-yeh)^ which is an emblem of good augury.

" a bat. They occur frequently in relief.'* —A — —A 12. as well as repeated ad injinitum in architectural decoration. the intestines (^/t^w^). This is sup15. upon plates and bowls of Sung celadon. ity." Two fishes. original in proportion to the painter's want of skill. 18. not necessarily united by a fillet. It is carried by masters of ships to insure a prosperous voyage. State umbrella (san)^ supposed to represent the Wan-min-san^ or " umbrella of ten thousand people. sacred urn {kwan). lotus flower {hwd). 11. and not infrequently a vase or a cup has for sole decoration different forms of the ideograph. or chakra. posed to " allude to domestic felicity. as a token of the purity of his administration. The word "fuh. and shares with the ideograph fuh (" felicity "). 14. because a fresh-water fish like a perch is said to go about in pairs. They are derived from India/' This is often replaced by the lun bell (chung). 10. — Some 17.CHINA the altar of every Chinese Buddhist temple. used as an emblem of longevity. other common symbolical devices are : — —A circularly arranged seal character for sho. Hence a delineation of a bat has come 160 . always faithful to each other. the wheel of the law. 9. An univalve shell {lo\ the chank-shell of the Buddhists. It occurs In all kinds of combinations. This is the sacred blossom It takes several forms. The angular knot. varying from the of the Buddhists. or incised. longev- This ideograph has no less than a hundred different forms. of which also there are many forms. 13. — A canopy — The —A — (kae). Two fishes {yu) united by fillets. 16. are the oldest of all ornaments found on porcelain. A bat {fuh). has exactly the same sound though of course its ideograph is different — — — as fuhy felicity.'* " which is presented to a Mandarin on his leaving his district. the distinction of figuring most frequently in keramic decoration.

love of virtue. the north by three "The circular figure in the centre is the mystical broken). in which they are supposed to be connected with the points of the compass. IX. 3852 to 2738. or terrestrial. the legendary founder of the Chinese is stated to have lived b. legendary beings of the Taoist sect.e.c. device. and they were revealed by a dragon horse. " They consist of combinations of broken and entire lines. and the broken. the Pa Sien being then depicted in 43lue among a and sometimes they are shown diaper of red waves as separate figures. They are said to have been first published by Fuh-hi. peace. according to the Chinese system (i." polity." Occafound in combination. and a happy death. who to whom on porcelain none are Eight Immortals. and even the dishes at a feast are arranged in accordance with these diagrams. occurs VOL.PORCELAIN DECORATED as a synonym for " felicity. of which there are two sets. E^ach group has its own the female. longevity. This device is not infrequently employed as an ornament in China. the south represented by three entire Hnes.. the Tang and Tin. to be commonly used sionally five bats are — The entire lines represent the each differently placed. or — — standing the other seated. namely. however. reversed. the north and south being. the male and female elements of nature. Each figure has an emblem of its own. They are especially where found sometimes in combination the decoration consists of red and blue sous couverte. II I 6T . They symbolise the five blessings. and occasionally the emblem. 19. known as the Pa-kwa. The eight trigrams. In other cases they are represented riding upon various animals among the waves of the sea. male. or symbol. said to have lived at various times and attained immortality. weak. strong. or celestial element in nature. riches. one figures depicted so Among the common as the Pa Sien. By them the Chinese philosophers attempted to explain all the secrets of nature and of being. The diagram shows the oldest arrangement. name.

the emblems of longevity occur very frequently on porcelain. carried this still farther. Many employed " typifying. holding a sceptre of longevity. all symbolising good wishes It may be useful. The Taoists." writes Mr. like the mediasval alchemists. the luminary that presides over human life. speaks of him as the Ancient of the South Pole Star. or Five Blessings. published in 1720. therefore. The greatest desire of a Chinaman is long life. in the search after the elixir of immortality. " One of ' the emblems briefly. spending their time. to to the possessors. and sometimes resting his hand on a deer. with an elongated bald head. or followers of Lao Tsze. The story 162 . found as a mark. and ensures his receiving the respect paid to old age in a country governed by the Longevity is therefore the first and greatest of the Wu Fuh. " w^hich prolongs his enjoyment of this world's goods. supposed to be The Taotist god of longevity is often shown on porcelain.CHINA alone as a device. of almost dwarfish stature. He Lao-tze himself an old man of in the garb of a appears in the form scholar of ancient times. commonest of the seal characters with which porcelain is decorated is the word sho^ * longevity (already spoken of) of which the varieties A set of a hundred varieties is seen on are endless. A Japa- same ideograph is also — — nese work [E-hon Koji-dan). as might be expected. another set is given a roll in the British Museum The in Hooper and Phillips Manual of Marks. sometimes riding on a stork or tortoise. for other decorative devices are the most part. and take a great variety of forms." . Hence. and by its appearance heralds tranquillity to the world. longevity. describe these maxims of Confucius. Franks.

but in late years representations of the deer. drunk freely a sage." Chinese modern literature identifies the old man as Tung Wang-kung. one of whom holds a dish of peaches. The Emperor then comprehended that the old man was an incarnation of the Star of Longevity. but told many stories of bered. and presented it to the Emperor. and after regaling him with sake^ asked how many were the years he numHe made no reply.d.) there lived an old man in the capital of China. * I am and can bestow the gift of long life. and as the husband of the fairy Si Wang- mu form of (Japanese Sei-6-b6). On the following morning it was announced that the light of the South Pole Star had. the future to the people. crane. moity. touched the Imperial palace. and tortoise. on the previous evening. who usually appears in the a richly dressed female with a royal tiara. and preserved his portrait with the deepest veneration. and suddenly vanished. no one knew whither.PORCELAIN DECORATED told in support of this identification in Anderson's British is thus translated : Museum catalogue — "In the period Tuan-Tu (1086— 1094 a. The pictures drawn at the present day are derived from this. standing on a cloud and accompanied by two girl attendants. one of the first beings evolved from chaos by the spontaneous volition of the primordial principle.' A certain man having seen him. who summoned the strange being to the palace. With the proceeds of his prophetic trade he bought sake^ and when he had He was only three and of this measure his head formed the Every day he went into the city and foretold he would strike his head and say. feet high. painted his portrait. have been placed by the side of the sage. animals emblematic of long life. the 163 . past ages.

its term of life being supposed Mr. however. It sometimes carries in its mouth another emblem. symbol of official emolument or prosperity. rabbit. occurs on porcelain both as decoration and as a mark. the other bears Tung Wang-Kung two rolls suspended from a long staff. and to become white when it has reached The hare. and a single body horn deer i^luh^ is also an emblem of longevity. having the same sound as the word for the latter (/z//^). white stag frequently accompanies the God of Longevity. one of whom carries a peach. which is at once a symbol of good government and of longevity.'' the decoration of porcelain as an emblem of longevity. it is admitted to the heavens and becomes the fox [hu) is It is used. in celestial fox. as noted above.CHINA other a processional or ceremonial fan. Reference has already been made to the Ki'lin or Ky-lin. when " considered a very mysterious aniIt is said to attain the same age as the hare. but not frequently. the fungus (to be spoken A deer. Franks notes to extend to a thousand years. that most of the animals commonly but erroneously called Ky-lin are other monsters. is also used as a of presently). where the pounding the drugs that to live a thou- form the of It is stated sand years. the on his forehead. especially the fabu- lous lion of Korea. The mal. The A The Taoists hare {tu) it is sacred to the believe elixir to live. tail of a bull. The Rishi is also frequently attended by two boys. moon. The tortoise i^kwei) was also regarded as a super- natural animal and its shell was used in divination. the true Ki-lin having the and hoofs of a deer. 164 . life. often miscalled a the first five centuries.

Bamboo and Plum are like three friends. are closely connected with it these are the pine. of longevity. though not all strictly speaking emblems of longevity. " Among plants there are three. the yellow. Its elegant form causes it to be frequently traced on works of art. because they keep green The pine [sung) is a very common in cold weather. and is used as an emblem of longevity. bamboo and plum. " May your days be as long as those of the tortoise and the crane/' The crane [ho) is among the commonest emblems Tradition assigns to it a fabulous age. as the philosopher Lao Tsze. ' i6j . The bamboo (chuK) is another emblem. The plum tree (niet)^ though not properly an emblem of longevity. and the blue. been as happy as the Japanese in his use of the crane for decorative purposes. but it nevertheless appears sometimes on his wares in a sufficiently pleasing form. is indirectly connected with it.the tortoise The on the God — .PORCELAIN DECORATED with a hairy tail appears as an attendant of Old Age. The Chinese say the Pine. Longevity has already been mentioned. A Chinese phrase kwei ho tung chun signifies. and that after two thousand years The Chinese keramic artist has never it turns black. which. there the black.'' and is constantly found in keramic decora" Its sap was said to turn into amber when the tion.. tree was a thousand years old. the being in all four varieties Its association with the God of white. owing probably to its durability. According to some expounders of Chinese mythical zoology the black crane is a special species. It also appears as the aerial steed of Wang Tsz'kiao. and as the companion of the poet Lin Hwa-ching. and says that for six hundred years it requires no sustenance but water.' emblem.

" Of all plants the most common emblem of Its duralongevity is the fungus [chi or ling-chi). not. however. often enters into decorative designs. are preserved in temples. Imit is accompanied by actual grass grass-like leaves representing the among which it grows. i66 . occur frequently. The peach (fao) is a symbol of marriage but Great virtues were attributed also of longevity. the palace of Si Wang fruit ripened only once in three thousand which grew near Mu. Buddhist sceptre {^jo-t) which is presented at marriages and to friends as an emblem of good luck. to the peach. that The gourd {hu-lu) is also an emblem of longevity. porcelain. and which occasionally forces its way through the fungus while the The fungus is used not infrequently latter is soft. such as jade. carved lacquer. It is made of a great variety of materials. Large specimens of it. is said to have been born under a plum tree. and it frequently occurs in pictures of Lao Tzse and the other Sometimes mortals. especially where the years. or imitations carved in wood and gilt. and so as a The forth. mark. which grows at the roots of trees. possesses and being largely used as a wine-bottle.'' bility when dried is doubtless the origin of the sigThe particular fungus nificance attached to it. depicted in decorations is believed to be the Polyporus lucidus.CHINA '' founder of the Taoist sect. and is always shown in the hands of the God of Longevity. it It does another significance in decorative designs. enamelled metal. Queen of the Genii. or in the mouth of deer.

frequency on specimens of famille verte and famille Indeed no device is commoner on fine porcerose. with the exception of snuff-bottles. however. no explanation tree. and not because of any emblematic significance attaching to them. the decorators of this choice ware seem to have been guided chiefly by canons of chastity and refinement. and to have avoided the incongruity of attempting to produce dazzling effects on a surface that lent itself best to delicate and soft found. and the fruit in the broken tints and half tones peculiar to the famille rose. subjects affected above all others — — forthcoming. of course. and some of them Garden scenes are also uncommonly having a more or less close Figwith the familiar old willow pattern. showing affinity a fine artistic sense. the by decorators the is the pomegranate ubiquitous dragon excepted Why this should be the case. be understood that the objects mentioned above are not restricted to the decoration They occur with equal of blue-and-white porcelain. not subjects. On the whole. other than the obvious fact that the branches and fruit lend themselves readily to graceful composition and distribution over the surface.PORCELAIN DECORATED It will. As to blue-and-white of the pate tendre class. the leaves executed in translucid green enamel. their details finished with the utmost care. 167 . lains of the last named variety than a branch of peach tree with fruit. but they are chosen solely on account of their suitabiUty to the palette of th^ famille rose painter. Strawberries are almost as often found on fine specimens of this family. Landis scapes too are very frequently depicted. ure subjects. are comparatively rare on softpaste porcelains.

and they applied it much in the same manner as that followed in painting with cobaltiferous manganese. Tungching and Chien-lung did not fall behind those of Hsuan-te in this branch. It is easy to find Chinese dilettanti who still maintain that nothing comparable with the Hungyu-pa-pei in brilliancy and depth of red and snow-like purity of white. the potters of the golden age of the Tsing dynasty called red sous couverte Tu-li-hung a term intended to convey the idea of red seen floating in a limpid medium. In all ages connoisseurs have had their special favourites. and it was there stated that without doubt the same style of decoration continued to be produced equally skilfully on porcelains of later dates. for an exceedingly high value has always been put upon it by Chinese connoisseurs. as is proved by the fact that they are found occurring together in perfect tones upon the same piece. ever emanated from any workshop after the Hsuan-te era. however. the most celebrated examples of which ** were the Hung-yu-pa-pei. The temperature of development in the kiln was also the same in the case of blue and red.CHINA speaking of the choicest wares of the Ming made to decoration with red sous couverte. The points of excellence are the quality and tone of the red which must be at once brilliant like a the purity of the white ruby. They that is to say. But unless that preference be based on points not perceptible to every-day eyes. They employed the same colouring matter silicate of copper as that used by their Ming predecessors. allusion was When — — — — — — i68 . great difficulty attended the production of fine Yu-li hung. or " red-fish-stemmed cups of the Hsuan-te era. it may safely be said that the experts of Kang-hsi. Evidently. and soft as velvet dynasty.

or peach-bloom but falls below them in strength and brilliancy. of course. It lectors — — need scarcely be said that no variety of choicer than that in which the red (or ** this ware is of the beanMoreover. In the great majority of really choice examples the red shows dappling and spotting with transparent green. a slight clouding of red appears at the edges and in the interstices of the design. dis- — — A impure muddy red alone condemns the ware. reddish brown. This feature is considered tinctly 169 . ripe-cherry. But in some examples highly prized and plainly deserving the esteem in which they are held. al") though the colour does not belong to any of the is blossom peach-blow type. bow in such matters that the potter's highest aim was to produce a colour combining brilliancy and strength with softness and liquidity. however. the choicer the specimen. liver colour and It is maintained. what the amateur has to look for is the red of fresh blood or of a ripe cherry. In old-time descriptions of such decoration sharp definition of the red design's contours is spoken of as a special tour de force ^ the sudden juxtaposition of the snow-white ground tending to give salience and emphasis to the decoration. varying from emerald to the colour of powdered tea-leaf {chamo^. bean-blossom. the specimen may still have claims to a prominent place in any collection. ruby. by Chinese colmaroon. to whose verdict the foreign connoisseur must. very rarest types fresh-blood. sang de hoeuf^ ruby. According to this canon. are found on porcelains thus decorated.PORCELAIN DECORATED Many varieties of red and the lustre of the glaze. and his standard may be that the purer and more dazzling the tone. and the result is soft and charming.

Finally it may be noted that many specimens of these porcelains carry the six-ideograph mark [Tatsing Kang-hsi nien chi/i. their branches and leaves in blue and their fruit in red. . Favourite subjects with the decorator were the Eight Taoist Immortals in blue walking on red waves red flowers suspended among blue scrolls blue dragons among red clouds or waves white dragons. mens decorated with the two colours under the glaze are occasionally found. with finely engraved scales. characteristic of those epochs. pomegranate trees.CHINA of the highest importance. In these examples also the presence of green spots or dapples. pure and brilliant. but where red alone is employed the choicest examples are generally small. delicate. in which the grand blue. It establishcvS an affinity between the Tu-li-hung and the celebrated Pin-kwots'ing ("peach-bloom''). As to red sous couverte found in combination with blue. and floral or leaf scrolls in red Large and imposing specidivided by blue bands. The next year-period after Kang-hsi was 170 Tung- . among red waves. That belongs to an entirely different . The reader should perhaps be reminded that no reference is here made to over-glaze decoration in red combined with blue sous couverte. Many of the specimens in this class are of remarkable beauty and value. floating in the red field. or Ta-tsing Tung-ching nien chth^ in blue sous couverte. especially those of the Kang-hsi and Yung-ching eras. sometimes the other. consorts most effectively with the red. constitutes a mark of special choiceness. and frequently helps to give point to the decorative design. category. sometimes the one colour predominates.

It will be seen by and by that under his guidance the experts of Ching-te-chen manufactured monochromatic and polychromatic glazes of great variety and remarkable quality. Ta-Tstng Tung-ching nien chi ching. and that delicate processes of enamel decoration (over the glaze) were The also carried to a high degree of excellence. was unquestionably an artist of conspicuous ability.PORCELAIN DECORATED lasted only thirteen years (1723— 1736). chen factories were then under the direction of Nien. or Nien-Kung (the Sieur Nien) as he is comcalled. nothing So need be said of this era except that the manufacture of all the varieties of the preceding reign was conThe Ching-tetinued with undiminished success. to whom everything bearing the Tung-ching mark is of beauty and value. Twice a wares of his era were month quantities of them used to be forwarded to Peking for imperial use. called Nien-yao. concerns blue-and-white porcelain. and at frequent intervals the Emperor was solicited to convey his wishes to the Thus stimulated the keramic art could factories. Pieces thus produced were said to be " of a high degree of fineness and elegance/* which verdict is unquestionably endorsed by the experience of modern collectors. of whom the Tao-lu records that he himself selected materials for the imperial porcelains and personally supervised the processes of the potters. far as which — — Nien. consideration. In the absence of year-marks the connoisseur will find it almost impossible to distinguish between Kanghsi and Tung-ching specimens of the classes now under The quality of the pate is identical. catalogue of choice productions in respect of decora- monly tion sous couverte. But it added nothing to the scarcely fail to flourish. 171 .

who is mentioned above. The perfection of his porcelains In his day the left nothing to be desired. commonly called Tang-Kung (the Sieur Tang). the era with great enthusiasm. and the fashions of decoration differ only in one respect. as assistant-superintendent under Nien. He could also imitate the most celebrated antique wares. never failing to obtain the same degree of elegance and beauty as his originals. and served. But at the commencement of Chien-lung's reign Nien was employed elsewhere on duties of a different character. and purity. namely. and the wares manufactured under his direction are known as Tang-yao. when he returned to Kiukiang and became joint superintendent of the potThese two masters carried the teries with Tang. This expert really trolled belongs to the Tung-ching as well as to the Chien-lung era. and all the vases manufactured under his direction were consequently of the most perfect delicacy. if considered with respect to the number of specimens it has furnished to WestThe author of the Tao-lu speaks of ern collections. The Chten-lung period (i 736-1 795). . reproducing them with rare skill. which occupied him until 1743. He further imitated all varieties of most prized glazes. 172 . apparently. He came to Ching-te-chen in 1727. which followed that of Tung-chingy was perhaps the most prolific of all Chinese epochs. and his eulogies were The imperial factories were connot exaggerated. brilliancy. that figure subjects were more affected by the experts of the former era. : — . . by Tang. . Of Tang it is keramic art of China to its zenith.CHINA the tones of the sous-couverte colours are similar. " recorded He employed the greatest care in choosing materials.

in connection with which a celebrated Chinese author wrote of * Alone Tang he deliberated on the flower and the fruit (that is to say. Tang was especially- ordered by the Emperor to design plaques representing the various processes of porcelain manufacture. though well merited on the whole. Their pates were just as fine and hard. on the brilliant and solid qualities of porcelain). long interrupted. the Chien-lung potters were not less expert than those of Kang-hsi and Tung-ching in any direction. and his individual genius supplied all the resources he required. their glazes as brilliant and their decorative designs as happy. and to accompany them by was detailed explanations.e. monster vases for gold fish) and wares of CAiin {vide Chun-yao of the Sung dynasty) ** and revived the processes of ancient experts. He renewed the manufacture. there can be scarcely tenable little doubt that the Chien-lung blue stands almost in the same relation towards the Kang-hsi and Tungching colour as that occupied by the Wan-li blue of the Ming dynasty in comparison with its prederesult : The — * — — 173 . The Whether a quality of the blue was not so pure. twenty-two plaques.PORCELAIN DECORATED productions of the imperial factory attained their highest point of excellence. of jars decorated with dragons [i. They continued to manufacture the delicate and beautiful Kai-pien-yao and hard-paste egg-shell with unsurpassed skill. less choice mineral was used or whether the proand this hypothesis seems cesses of preparing it had deteriorated. All these eulogies. Speaking technically. Yet in one important respect their blue-and-white ware showed inferiority. must be taken with reserve so far as regards blue-and-white porcelain.

decorated with admirable care and well directed choice of motive. intense Certain it is that tones of the Chien-lung ware. The For Chien-lung potters sity instead of relying entirely their blues on of colour. The mark of the era is Ta- Tsing Chien-lung nien chi. The rieties Chien-lung potters produced all the other va- of decoration under the glaze enumerated in the above notice of the Kang-hsi era.CHINA cessors of the Hsuan-te and Chia-ching evidently appreciated eras. many grand pieces were manufactured. No further reference is necessary here. In many cases the stippled portions assumed a metallic appearance under the action of heat. They differ from each During the in degrees of decadence. It is not difficult to distinguish between the blueand-white porcelains of Chien-lung and those of Kang-hsi and Tung-ching. in others they showed merely as Strength and density were spots of intenser colour. imposing in size. which immediately followed that of Chien-lung. ( The succeeding eras of the present Tsing) dynasty may be briefly dismissed. thus obtained at some cost of depth and brilliancy. The stippled or spotted appearance of the colour on specimens of the firstnamed period. and altogether highly satisfactory for ornamental purposes. epoch (1796— 182 1). the potteries at Chingte-chen still sustained something of their former repuother only Chia-tsing 174 . is an easily identified feature. It Opinions will probably differ as to this verdict. this. is and intenheighten the effect of brilliancy conceivable that some connoisseurs may see evidences of high artistic instinct in the deep. they tried to by stippling. whether a beauty or a blemish.

are comparatively coarse few exand meritless. of affairs culminated in 1852. In China the prosperity of the keramic industry appears to have been pracUnder tically dependent upon imperial patronage. and Ming dynasties intervals of the Sung. which became more and more marked in the next period. the treason of secret societies was alIn 1803 he achieved ready becoming formidable. When Chien-lung's successor ascended dynasty also. with ceptions. Before he had been half a dozen Chia-tsing. tween the wares now produced and their admirable predecessors of the Chien-lung and Kang-hsi periods. Doubtless the decadence which commenced during the reign of Chia-tsing is to be attributed to the troubled state of the empire. Many pieces dating from that era show beauty a dis- and technical excellence. Elements of disturbance.PORCELAIN DECORATED tation. of years in power. the notoriety of barely escaping from a murderous at175 . Taou-kwang (1821— 1 851). The porcelains of the latter. They were subsequently restored. tinctly But the art had taken downward tendency. difficulty and disturbance preceding the downfall of the reigning house were synchronous with a decay The analogy holds for the Tsing of the potter's art. he found the empire at the zenith of its power and renown. during the Hien-fung epoch (1851 — 1862). had been successfully held in check by the clear judgment and iron will of the They speedily eluded the feeble control great ruler. when the factories at Ching-techen were destroyed in the Taeping rebellion. alike Yuan. The impure colour of their blue decoration accords well This unsatisfactory state with their faulty technique. and are at present toleraBut it is difficult to trace any affinity bebly active. the throne. though always existing.

To students of history these two events — during which China had external complications. has been largely dimin- ished by Japan's competition. Whatever stimulus the export might have affi^rded.CHINA In 1800 the tack in the public streets of Peking. Her manufacturers. But there is no such precedent. Connoisseurs and men of taste generally will not look at wares belonging to an epoch more recent than the eighteenth century. Before dismissing this portion of the subject. so far as can be discerned. a word should be said about a variety of blue-and-white porcelain known to Western collectors as " Nankin ware. Did Chinese annals contain any instance of the keramic industry recovering its vitality during the same dynasty that witnessed its decay. Nor is there." and by the Japanese ascribed to workshops at Canton. mencement of a long period — more than from recall the com- sixty years little rest internal or Not only her art excellence. seems to have disappeared. in addition to rapid rejuvenescence of technical skill. if not the ultimate monopoly. of the Western market. much chance of a genuine renaissance. There is practically nothing except the demand of the foreign market to encourage modern effort. show adaptability that ought to secure for their wares the permanent favour. The latter misconception is evidently due 176 . the outlook might be less unpromising. first edict prohibiting foreign opium was issued. It appears as though any sensible improve- ment must be preceded by one of two events the comparative probability of which is difficult to estimate of scale — — a official change of dynasty or an intelligent revival patronage on something like the ancient trade of magnificence. but even the ability that inspired it.

.sarfoni d4>.bis \z^--^«ftA .UIISe3Bqa98) .nofloeKoo s'fbrisua iQ) .td^iaH (.

Lave afforded. to rapid Her manufacturers. (Dr.. *• . :\ In 1800 the opium was issued. ment must be preceded by one 46 Inpfies. ^.. so far as can be discerned. much chance of a genuine renaissance... Buthfell's collection. There is practically nothing except the demand of the foreign market to encourage modern effort.ne Western market. ^" ""'• comparative probability of whir*^ mate a change of dynasty or of official patronage on something like the ancient Whatever stimulus the export ice. . Did Chinese annals contain any instance of the keramic industry recovering its vitality during the same dynasty that witnessed its decay. a word should be said about a variety of blue-and-white porcelain known to Western collectors as " Nankin ware.upan's competition.** and by the Japanese ascribed to workshops at The latter misconception is evidently due Canton. but even th<.'^mpPl^'^^ ^^^^ ^^iWMIiMble improver ir^^-Xster&. during which China had little rest from ' — events recall the sixty years internal or external co dons. ion . But there is no such prejpedent.) Height.^eking. Before dismissing this portion of the subject. (See page 2 1 1 . Nor is there. in rejuvenescence of technical skill. Not only her art excellence. if not the ultimate monopoly. Connoisseurs and men of taste generally will not look at wares belonging to an epoch more recent than the eighteenth century. the outlook might be less unpromisins:..) oi vents — the . 176 . v>. To com- students of j — more than period mencemcn.iy that inspired it. seems to have disappeared. has been largely dimin- — . show adaptability that ought to secure for their wares -ermanent favour.

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but in those of the people. It was manufactured at Ching-te-chen. not at those of the Emperor. too. and the makers of blue-and-white porcelain may thus have been indirectly inspired. But orders for the latter would of course have been executed at the people's factories. There is no doubt. seems also a distinct reflection of foreign fashions. The difference is merely an affair of quality. not to the fact however. does not suggest the . The disposition of the potter to construct pieces of polygonal section and to break the surface by fluting or convex panels. But the ware had nothing to do with either Nankin or Canton. and others display distinctly Indian or Persian features. that during the reign of Kang-hsi when the propagandists of Christianity possessed idea VOL. It is not likely that orders for blueand-white porcelain were often given by European merchants in China during the last century. pdte^ though exceptionally thin. Its special appellation in the West and in Japan must not be taken as indicating radical dissimilarity from ordinary blue-and-white porcelains. Enamelled wares would rather have been chosen. — 12 177 . and was therefore supposed to Japan be the product of factories in or near that city. and has no claim to solidity the decoration.PORCELAIN DECORATED that the porcelain originally came to from Canton. and the blue. In the case of much of this " Nankin '' ware the subjects chosen by the decorators were evidently influenced by European suggestion. IX. Some of the designs closely resemble the formal floral scrolls of Delft and Sevres. is thin and shallow. if not impure. of a fine manufacture the glaze is vitreous rather than lustrous. The in the imperial factories. though elaborate and profuse. is of the mechanical type.

except that the Seal Character was seldom if ever used by the makers of great the former. European designs were copied at Ching-te-chen and European tastes consulted. The year-marks upon this so-called " Nankin blue-and-white do not differ from those on finer varieties of porcelain.CHINA influence and won many converts in China. Evidences of this tendency will be furnished later on. 178 .

As in Japan porcelains loaded with ornament were largely manufactured at Arita expressly for purposes of exportation. so in China the potters of Ching-te-chen departed from their own canons to meet the taste of European dealers and clients." It will presently be seen that the earliest.PORCELAIN DECORATED Chapter VII PORCELAIN DECORATED OVER THE GLAZE decorated with vitrifiable enamof various colours over the glaze has always been a favourite variety with European collectors. fashions of enamel decoration were comparatively simple. Thus. floral subjects. and animals " in the European fashion. But among all the keramic productions of China it has been most subjected to foreign influences. one variety is said to have been decorated " according to a recent conception *' with enamels which were used to depict landscapes. and that the subsequent demands of the export trade had probably much to do with those elaborate and highly ornate styles empirically distinguished by French amateurs as Famille Chrysanthemo-pceonienney els PORCELAIN Famille VertCy and Famille Rose. Ware of this class naturally attracts attention for the sake of its brilliant appearance. figures. birds. and by Chinese connoisseurs the most esteemed. among wares of the Kanghsi era (1662— 1722). 179 The standard for- .

Their phraseology. and gold (unfortunately burnt in).C H I NA merly set up for themselves by English amateurs may be gathered from a passage in the recent writings of Mr. referring to ware made in the opening years of the Tuan dynasty at Liu-ch'wen. many colours. had only one conception of Chinese porceThey regarded it as ware brightly painted in lain. in order to render them saleable." he says. and it is no longer admitted. that innumerable specimens. were hopelessly spoiled by being daubed over with green. that to the latter class belong some of the most beautiful and remarkable efforts of Chinese keramic art. chromatic and blue-and-white wares are placed on an unreasonable eminence as compared with specimens of the enamelled style. A. " In England. red. of the British Museum. and to be esteemed chiefly for purposes of decorative furniture. this also Chinese annals give no is wrapped in obscurity. Fortunately the error of such But the tendency at an idea has been recognised. including even those of high quality. " till lately. too. Decoration by means of vitriiiable enamels and pigments over the glaze seems to have had its origin But. Monopresent is to run to the opposite extreme. Probably trustworthy information on the subject. says that some of the pieces had " flowers rudely painted. is unhappily loose. W. near Foochow. comparatively their silence is attributable to the worthless character of early essays in the style. so little was blue-andwhite porcelain esteemed. as it should be.'' In this vague statement connois180 . Thus the Tao-lu. The majority of English collectors. Franks. many other points in the history of the art. like under the Yuan dynasty (i 260-1 361). in short.

this point first became really attractive. in Chekiang. and that at Ch'uah-chou-fu. potters would have what the Tuan produced on the the hypothesis that. attach much importance to historical specimens of a seurs have ware. was one of the principal starting points of China's export trade during the Sung and Tuan dynasties. is evidently unvi^arranted. The Chinese themselves do not affect to pronounce a It has never been their habit to decided verdict. They did not value it until its qualities.ware of medium quality. of vitrifiable is enamels. in the neigh- — — i8i . decorated with diapers and conventional flowers in red and gold with green in a subordinate role. whether correct or not. Japan is a stone. The designs are of an archaic character. of Chekiang. they were still inexperienced in the application dynasty. on the contrary. and from of view they are unanimous in attributing noteworthy use of vitrifiable enamels to the early eras of the Ming dynasty. despite their highly developed skill in the manipulation of glazing materials. but their inference.PORCELAIN DECORATED been disposed to find evidence of the origin of decoration over the glaze. and the method of applying the pigments and enamels indicates imperfect technique. and in choice specimens possesses an ivory tint Such ware is precisely of much beauty and softness. By Japanese to the connoisseurs the ware unanicall it mously ascribed Tuan They Gosu Aka-e^ or " red-picture Gosu'' This word Gosu is written with ideographs which in China would be read Wu-shuan. is lustrous. of fine texture. Japanese traditions Highly prized by the Tea Clubs of give some aid. The white body-glaze. a name identifiable as that of an anthe most easterly of the province cient division Now it is known that Hang-chow. tech- nical or artistic.

plates. though it cannot have failed to obtain favour at the time. quantities. This beautiful style of decoration. province of Chekiang contained several important potteries. and is not accorded any appreciation by Chinese connoisseurs. During the first half century (i 368-1400) of the Ming dynasty no appreciable progress took place in this branch of the art. But in the Tung-lo era (1403— Red came to be 1424) a new departure was made. perhaps accept their testimony. leaf-like character. and that the celebrated Kuan-yao and Lungchuan-yao of the Sung dynasty were manufactured there. They profess no knowledge about its provenance . Several specimens are still carefully preserved and highly esteemed by Japanese virtuosi. They consist chiefly of bowls. however. the last originally intended to contain vermilion. or small boxes. do not assert that the Gosu Aka-e was a product of Chekiang. did not rank high in the estimation of Chinese connoisseurs. a green enamel. and regard the Gosu Aka-e as the earliest representative of Chinese ware decorated with vitrifiable enamels. Japanese experts. chiefly from historical considerations. a steady trade was carIt is known also that the ried on by Japanese junks. brilliant but not very pure. and the designs are usually picked out with gold of The ware derives its value rich. No specimen of it is given in the " Illustrated Catalogue '' of H'siang. — — 182 . in small of the decoration. but used in Japan as incense-holders.CHINA bouring province of Fuhkien. merely claiming that it came to them from the place by the name of which On the whole the student may they designate it. Red is the dominant colour as the name Aka-e denotes With it is associated. used as a body colour on which were laid elaborate scroll patterns or formal designs in gold.

the fashion of covering the surface of a vase with elaborate and brilliant designs came into vogue. The latter. but subserved them always to the design of his piece. Not that. but in the Hsuan-te era. tively easy to — — 183 . however. and indeed throughout the Ming dynasty down to the reign of Lung-ching (1567— 1572). even then. The Tung-lo potters do not appear to have employed this fashion of decoration in direct association with blue sous couverte. Eiraku (Chinese Yung-Id) from the period of its original production. instead of making the latter a mere field The " Illustrated Catalogue '' for their display. and the greatest keramist of Kyoto. is occasionally found on the interior of specimens covered externally with the former. Such a style had certainly been conceived by previous potters. The Hsuan-te era ( 1426-143 5) of the Ming dynasty is remarkable for the first use of vitrifiable enamels in a manner so skilful and artistic as to command the highest admiration of Chinese connoisseurs. of H'siang gives four representative specimens of In two of these red Hsuan-te enamelled porcelain. delicacy and fineness were the chief aim of the Chinese expert. however.PORCELAIN DECORATED being comparamanufacture and not belonging to the In the neighbouring category of " delicate '' wares. it was esteemed. is the dominant the " colour of fresh blood " Red persimmons with sepals and stalks in colour. The celebrated factories at Kutani took it as a model. but also derived his artist name. not only owed much of his fame to imitations of the ware and to developments suggested by it. it Probably failed to attract attention. He appreciated the value of vitrifiable enamels as a decorative agent. Zengoro Hozen. empire of Japan.

covered inside and outside with scroll-pattern engraved in the paste. or at any rate were not valued. but also carefully reproduced in its illustrations. its all these colours balustrades red. rouge-pot is 2I. inches high. H'siang says that only two or three of these beautiful little cups remain throughout the empire. Its owner asked a hundred taels for it at the time when H'siang wrote (second half of the sixteenth century). and that " a hundred taels is not considered too much to pay diameter.CHINA brown and skill into leaves in green. and it would command many times that price to-day. in the greatest keramic periods of the Ming dynasty. a foot and a half high. The third specimen is a tiny wine-cup. a clear idea may be formed of what kind of enamelled wares constituted the ideal of Ming collectors.'' such authenticated examples. But even here the From — — 184 . There is no question of anything falling within the category of the various " families " into which European connoisseurs have divided the enamelled porcelains of China. The brilliantly massed enamels and elaborate " designs that distinguish members of these " families did not appear. One piece depicted by H'siang would probably be classed It is a with Famille Verte by Jacquemart's disciples. not only accurately described in the text of the Catalogue. are moulded with much The the forms of an ink-pot and a rouge-holder. dragon with teeth and foreclaws fixed in the rim. and having a diapered border of red sous Round the body is coiled a vermilion couverte. its tiles green. and four inches in It was used by one of the imperial princesses to hold vermilion for painting the lips and face. its doors yellow and its base inscribed with the Hsuan-te in enamels year-mark in blue sous couverte. pagoda. for a specimen.

with occasional addition of blue under the glaze. and gold. From the few ex" amples now surviving. green. the Hsuan-te era there were the manufactures white tea-cups." The reader will observe that the term " porcelain " is here properly . many pieces of a common. " and above these a tiny On colours dragon and a phoenix were traced in enamels with extreme delicacy. The small specimens were the most remarkable from an artistic point of view. coarse type were included. in his work "La Porcelaine de Chine. Beneath the flowers the year-mark was engraved. . but that such ware was not classed among choice products. The Ming porcelains shone with greater eclat at this epoch." maintains that the process of enamel decoration over 185 . brilliant as the inside were painted flowers. this common " porcelain seems to have had brilliant.PORCELAIN DECORATED subordinated to the general design. which feature must be taken as essentially characteristic of all the Ming masterpieces. fine ware. In the Tao-lu it is strictly enamels are stated : — " During '' among jade. It will easily be conceived that among the enamelled porcelains of the early Ming potters. du Sartel. The surface of these cups was granulated like the flesh of a fowl or the skin of an orange. which says that white porcelain was manufactured in the Hsuan-te kilns for the purpose of subsequently receiving decoration in colours over the glaze. Ta-Ming Hsuan-te nien chi. with white biscuit and clear timbre. used — not soft-paste porcelain. . in subdued (blue sous couverte). but comparatively sparse and formal decoration in red. M. Evidence of an indirect nature is furnished with regard to these by the Tao-lu. There was no article of Hsuan-te porcelain that was not charming. but hard.

capable of being used for such He is further guided by the term Tena purpose. du Sartel's theory as to the date of the first use of enamel decoration over the glaze. the decora- tion was applied directly to the surface of the biscuit. according to the " History of Ching- te-chen Keramics. the common ware spoken of above. element of the decorative . and pieces decorated with enamels were It — 186 . he at all. impossible to en- simply a technical appellation for pieces of white-glazed porcelain destined to be decorated with surface colours. and glaze was not used dorse this conclusion. that in most of the choice enamelled porcelains of the early Ming eras the enamels were an accessory. But their technique indicates a certain want of care on the potter's part a feature entirely consistent with the rule formulated above. in fact. It " " was. The " History of Chingte-chen Keramics. In Japan specimens of this inferior ware are to be met with at rare intervals.ki was design. In the case of such pieces. says: *'Thin porcelain was most esteemed. Their enamels are brilliant their colours rich and full. the " Illustrated Catalogue '' of H'siang alone would suffice to upset M. was during th^Cheng-hwa era (1465-1487) that the art of enamelled decoration received its most remarkable development. which.CHINA the glaze was not practised by Chinese potters even at He bases this so late a period as the Hsuan-te era. pai-ki. conclusion on the hypothesis that red was the only colour then known. not a principal. Even though no other evidence were forthcoming." speaking of the wares of the Cheng-hwa period. Ten-pat. It is says." designated vases having a white surface intended to be covered with painted decoration.

PORCELAIN DECORATED placed in the first rank. decorated with grapes in coloured enamels. In a work entitled * History of Yu-chang Keramics/ it is stated that among the porcelains of the Cheng-hwa era there were wine-vessels and cups ornamented with barn-yard fowl. as follows : — . like all Chinese connoisseurs. The names of these. wide-mouthed cups with handles. On the upper part was depicted a peony plant. In former times the Ming porcelains were classed in order of merit . Their merit consisted in the skill of the painters and the beauty of the colouring mate. were various. those of the Chia-ching era. sec- third. In truth the designs painted upon porcelains of this latter era had an air of life and movement which no painter has since been able to imitate. with blue flowers under the glaze." There were also shallow. thin as paper. As for the blue employed. In the latter respect the Cheng-hwa porcelains were not comparable with those of the Hsuan-te era but in the matter of enamelled decoration the former far surpassed not only everything that had preceded but also everything that succeeded them. like their shapes. But the pieces of the Hsuan-te period decorated with coloured enamels were far from equalling those of the Cheng-hwa period. First. These were of exceptional excellence." It is necessary to make some allowance who. 187 . Then came cups ornamented with figure-subjects and lotus plants. These were extremely beautiful. or with grasshoppers and then wine-cups.. it was of ordinary quality. those of the ond. those of the Hsuan-te era . . full of life and movement. those of the Cheng-hwa era Tung-lo era and fourth. . and below a hen with her chickens.. was evidently laudator for the conservative propensities of this writer. rials.

Plain white cups of Wan-li (1573— 161 9) porcelain were several taels of silver each those with the marks of Hsuan-te or Cheng-hwa. d'ceuvre of the Cheng-hwa era." and the same fancy exists equally strong among fashionable Japanese to-day. while at the capital.. Ko Tan-jin. One.'* It is plain that very few of these celebrated cups have ever found their way out of China Western collectors have not yet lived up to the standard of paying a hundred and fifty dollars for a baby cup. Bushell. twice as much more. Another Chinese work. " On the days of new moon and of full moon says I often went. To — : — . Among the experts of the era the names of two have been transmitted. too. from the close of the Ming dynasty downwards. which could not be bought for less than a hundred taels of the purest silver. about an inch and a 'half in depth and as much in diameter. for it is recorded temporis acti. where rich men thronged to look at the old porcelain bowls exhibited there. One hundred and fifty dollars. pottery being valued far more highly than jade. " every man of taste tried to put wine-cups of Cheng-hwa porcelain before his guests. 188 . was famous as a manufacturer of wine-cups. Chinese records mention that. up to the tiny cups decorated with fighting cocks. written about 1640 and translated by Dr. was remarkable for ability in depicting a hen and her chickens or two fighting cocks designs which subsequently came to be regarded as the chefsThe other. CHINA maintain that the Cheng-hwa enamelled porcelains remained always without peers would be an exaggeration. to the fair at the Buddhist temple Tsu-en-ssu. does not appear to have been the limit. though they certainly deserved much of the praise bestowed on them. Ko Chu.

Catalogue there are four Two of them of the celebrated little wine-cups. Every one of H'siang's Cheng-hwa specimens is a The miniature wine-cups dainty and choice object. yellow. Lotus leaves and blossoms. have a diameter of two inches and a height of one and a half. The two other cups shown have flat bottoms and are of similar They are decorated with blue sous coudimensions. and floral designs. blue. ing enamel pictures on their pieces. designs ming waves. from which spring flowers — the coxcomb. and regarded its colours. practised the former method. were among the Among the specifavourite decorations of the era. narcissus. but used them to depict independent subjects on its white surface. have the lower part of the outer surface coloured so in as to represent mens depicted H 'slang's sward. yet they are said to have been valued at loo taels the pair in H'siang's day. H'siang's Catalogue contains exquisite examples of 189 . green.PORCELAIN DECORATED that an official who lived at the beginning of the seventeenth century had two of these little cups which were valued at fifteen hundred dollars the pair. they no longer subordinated their enamels to the general form of the specimen. skilful employment as their greatest tour de force. and marigold. A dragon-fly hovers in the white field of one cup and a mantis The tiny vessels creeps in the green of the other. geese swimcocks and fighting are flowers. figure subjects. the palette of the Cheng-hwa decorator contained five and purple. insects. The verte in combination with vitrifiable enamels. spoken of above show that the experts of the time had conceived and skilfully utilised the idea of makThat is to say. indeed. They still. red. especially grasshoppers. Judging from these four specimens.

the paintings in enamel colours. a wine-cup in the shape of a magnolia yulan flower.y CHINA this nature : a lamp in the form of a lotus flower. is there any question of those large. the other with a censer. or other selves more modern. and the in it emblem yet some connoisseurs pride themon being able to distinguish the genuine Ming this class from the false. Such things are conspicuous by their absence from H'siang's Catalogue. purple outside and resting on a brown stem with green leaves. commenting on " One may be disappointed to find among the says pictures none of the large vases and jars of the early by Albert Chrysanthemo-Pceonienney H : reigns of this (the present) dynasty of are included in really which so many These are European collections. Bushell. with green leaves and delicate pink petals. But. 190 . elaborately ornamented pieces. that : is a difficult matter. and so on. Not yet. round the lobe of student is which runs a band of green vine-leaves and tendrils with purple grapes. Dr. flower. confessing. the enamels now began to be used for picture painting. The reign of Hsuan-te has always been celebrated for reign of Cheng-hwa for its its blue-and-white. Nevertheless. however. fondly ascribed by Occidental collectors to Ming factories. the tazza-shaped cup depicted by him. 'slang's Catalogue. indeed. finest belong to the reign of Kang-hsi. in addition to these charming fashions. is This well exemplified in a tazza-shaped cup of pure white. and Rouge. if not actually a member of the Famille Verte would probably be regarded as a very near relative. Thus the brought into contact with the enamelled porcelains familiar to Western collectors and divided Jacquemart into the three families of Verte. so that one of a pair is often found with a Ming mark beneath.

a transparent deception. Cheng-hwa enamelled porcelain are virtually unknown outside China. indeed. be more largely represented. or " five-coloured porcelain. will be seen that the colours actually at the service of the decorator were seven. though very few of them probably belong to a period more remote than the end of the seventeenth century. by a connoisseur of unequalled knowledge. and 191 . yellow. they cover leaves.PORCELAIN DECORATED and a visit to any crockery stall in China will show most of the commonest articles with two marks. colour is pale yellow and the enamels are green and brown. and black Adding blue under the glaze and gold.e. green. perts Another development made by the Cheng-hwa exwas the application of enamel decoration to Two beautiful specimens of this coloured grounds. — — were red. kept up to the present day/* This criticism. and even in the country of their origin they cannot be found without great difficulty. cannot be too strongly emphasised. In each the body nature are depicted by H'siang.y ware having the surTo ware of this class face decorated with independent designs in coloured enamels the name Wu-tsai-ki. violet or purple. tendrils. that is to say. The term " Ming porcelain '' has long been applied with absolute assurance to many imposing specimens of highly ornamented ware in European collections. though the nature of their Genuine specimens of wares renders this unlikely. Thenceforth the designation continued to be employed even when it had ceased to be The original " five colours " numerically accurate. The closing periods of the Ming dynasty may. The latter are applied in the subordinate style . it or brown. i." seems to have been first applied in the Cheng-hwa period.

and this colour occupied a prominent place in the choicest works of the time. for imperial porcelains were Ching-te-chen to " drawn in the palace by celebrated artists. would be attractive objects in the eyes But they are virtually non-exof Western collectors. In the Cheng-te era. did were manufactured. renewed supplies of the much prized Mohammedan blue having been obtained.CHINA branches twining round melon-shaped or chrysanthemum-shaped vases. show that the fame of the Cheng-hwa potters was not H^siang says that the designs supplied undeserved. as well as in the Hsuan-t^^ comparatively coarse varieties of enamelled porcelain Doubtless many of these. they survive. In the Tao-lu it is stated that only vases decorated with blue under the glaze were — — 192 . Chen-te (1506— 152 1). worth preserving. The same remark applies to the next era. During the next three periods of the Ming dynasty Hung-chih (1488— 1505)." and that " the different colours were laid on and shaded with perfect skill. special skill was developed in the production of yellow monochromes. and Chia-ching ( 1 522— i 566) the manufacture of enamelled porcelains appears to have been continued pretty much on the lines of the Cheng-hwa experts. In the Hung-chih era.'' In the Cheng-hwa era. These pieces are examples of They highly refined taste and excellent technique. Chinese connoisseurs did not think them istent. and were preferred to enamelled wares. pieces decorated with blue sous couverte came again into fashion. and the rare specimens found in Japan cannot be confidently regarded as genuine. Chia-ching. though excellent specimens of the latter were no doubt made at Ching-te-chen.

IX. or chocolate. so as to receive the yellow enamel. Among Requisition for the Wu-tsai-ki class. enamel au petit feu. — 1 1 93 . and that the number or pieces having enamelled designs was small. which covered the whole of the surface exGreat skill cept the part occupied by the design. was in In rarer cases the places of the two colours were interchanged the design being in yellow enamel and the body of the vase blue. transkind . was similarly employed in the spaces between yellow Finally. and both were covered with colourless. — — lucid glaze before stoving. which was fused by a second stoving A deep brown. white-slip decoration was or blue designs.'* The enamels used to depict the design were not superposed each was run to the edge of the other. VOL. there is not one piece fairly belonging to Requisitions. applied to the biscuit at the same time as blue {sous couverte).3 PORCELAIN DECORATED then esteemed. In support of this statement there is the evidence of the Imperial the w^ares enumerated in the the year 1529 (translated by Dr. apply enamels needed to this manner. for the year The : Imperial Requisition exceptions. . 1529 includes It runs thus — all these varieties with two Rice Bowls with blue ground surrounding yellow phoenixes flying through fairy flowers. Of this variety the best known and not the least beautiful had blue designs sous couverte surrounded by yellow enamel. Bushell). To manufacture such pieces the potter must have contrived that after the stoving au grandfeu by which the blue was developed the design should emerge white. Another important style of decoration was of the known to Western connoisseurs as " reserved.

jars with covers surmounted by lions. the Lung-ching and Wan-li eras was valued chiefly for Blue sous couverte occupies a richness and profusion. tea-cups and wine-cups of different form. prominent place in the Wu-tsai-ki of the period. although parts of the designs are sometimes described as filled up with enamel colours. vinegar droppers. flowervases and flower-pots. The surfaces of pieces. and full-bodied rouge mat appeared in nearly equal masses. jars. and saucers. The decoration is far more elaborate. In t\iQ Lung-cfling (1567— 1572) artistic 3. JVine Cups and Libation Cups with blue ground surrounding yellow phoenixes flying through fairy flowers. brilliant emerald green.nd fFan-/i (1573— have undergone a 16 1 Wealth of ornament became the fashion of change. &c. Dr. rice-bowls. or painted in gold. brated Cheng-hwa era had been valued not more for brilliancy and purity of colour than for delicacy and The enamel decoration of fidelity of delineation.'' To the same classes belong the following. censers and scent-boxes. copied from the Imperial Requisition of Wan-li^ where they are described as '* Porcelains Painted in Blue on White Ground " 9) eras taste appears to : — : — 194 . The enamelled decoration of the celethe time. over the glaze. evidently manufactured with great care. Dishes and Plates with deep brown ground enclosing pairs of yellow dragons and clouds. but is all put under the one class of blue painting on white ground. deep blue of the time. were loaded with designs in which the heavy. Bushell incidentally notices this fact when he " The Imperial Requisition of the Lungwrites ching era includes table-services.C H I NA Cups with yellow ground surrounding blue clouds and dragons.

. . crested waves. Cups with. inside. PORCELAIN DECORATED Plates with. fruit. fragrant plants. with fish painted in gold.^ y . bands of fairy flowers and ribbons with the eight precious symbols. flowers and fruit. branching fungus inside dragons and phoenixes in enamel colours on the border the inscription. flowers of the four seasons. longevity inscriptions in colours. Indian lotus flowers. flowers. branching fungus. fairy flowers. with dragon medallions. floral brocade designs inside^ a pair of dragons among clouds. lions sporting with embroidered balls. chrysanthemum flowers in enamel colours. grapes and western watermelons. familiar scenes. with Sanscrit Buddhist inscriptions round the edge. the Indian lotus supporting Sanscrit characters. a border of grapes. Plates with. Plates with. on the covers. Cups with. pairs of dragons and phoenixes . outside^ interlacing sprays of peonies with the eight precious symbols. nine red cloud scrolls dragons in blue sea-waves. the eight Buddhist symbols. Vases with spouts. dragons and clouds in enamel colours. water plants in enamel colours. the eight precious symbols. phoenixes flying through flowers of the seasons. inside. dragons flying through flowers of the four seasons. outside^ interlacing bamboo leaves and fungus. outside^ winding sprays of jasmine and fairy monsters and tigers. apricot leaves. dragons. pomegranates. inside. Fu ju tung hai. flowers and fruit. playing boys. fairy peach-trees . Boxes with historical scenes . sceptres and cloud scrolls. and birds. pairs of phcEnixes and dragons in pairs . fungus branches with antique longevity characters. a pair of dragons interrupting a band of foreign balls . brocaded vases. outside. lions playing with embroidered dragons flying through flowers. water birds in enamel colours and lotus flowers. the eight Buddhist symbols. fabulous monsters in enamel colours. sceptres and . yellow hibiscus flowers. on the border. dragons grasping sacred longevity characters. the flowers of the seasons. interlacing branches of fungus. outside. flowers. ^9S . dragons and phoe- nixes faintly engraved under the glaze.

sea into Pencil Dippers with dragons in sea-waves. employed. dragons and phoenixes. and phoenixes in blue clouds. outside^ peonies. and historical scenes in enamel colours. fVine Cups and Plates with. From the same requisition the following is taken In all these : — 2. inside^ hibiscus flowers and peonies. clouds. Pricket Candlesticks with green hills surrounded by seawaves with clouds. antique longevity characters. Chopstick Dishes with sea-waves. fragrant plants and lotus petals.CHINA anthemums. soaring dragons. the lotus painted in enamel colours. Pencil Handles with dragons rising from the clouds. bees round a plum-tree . the eight precious emblems on fungus supporting jewels and fragrant plants. inside. specimens blue sous couverte enters largely into the decoration. peacocks and peonies. — Painted in Enamel Colours. Chess Boards with clouds and dragons. and ancient coins. grapes. the eight precious symbols in colours. covered ground with dragons in colours penetrating flowers of the seasons. side. Fish Bowls with landscapes surrounded by flowers. Vases with landscapes and flying lions. Flower Vases with bands of sceptre ornaments enclosing landscapes and branching fungus. Enamels alone were. out- Vases with phoenixes flying through flowers of the seasons. dragons with clouds. dragons in relief. historical scenes. dragons. the flowers of the seasons. however. golden chryshibiscus flowers. floral and dragons. the eight immortals crossing the sea. Oil Lamps with dragons in clouds and phoenixes flying through the flowers of the four seasons. circular orna- ments and the flowers of the four seasons. 196 . longevity inscriptions.

sented technical features almost worthy of the dynasty's best traditions. the flowers of the four seasons. BushelFs Dynasty. Wares thus profusely decorated exhibited more of the Some small specimens preartisan than of the artist. w^arriors of fame. Jars with brocaded ground in round patterns. arabesques. but also combined and massed so to produce a Immense quantities strong and harmonious effect. but they were not the The Mandarins and slender ladies familiar to Western colthese belong to a later era. and fragrant plants. play. Pencil Rests with mountain scenes in openwork. The colours. carved in openwork with fir-leaf brocades and with flowers of the seasons. Fish Bowls with dragons soaring into the clouds. birds. ubiquity of the dragon in the designs of this period cannot fail to strike the reader." that " the imperial potteries were still at Ching-te-chen. Handkerchief Boxes with flowers emblematic of the four seasons. arabesques. but in large pieces the pate was heavy and coarse and the designs were clumsily executed. They took with them 197 . Fan Boxes with dragons in clouds and arabesques.PORCELAIN DECORATED Perfume Boxes with fragrant flowers. in their historical scenes. were always not only rich and full." or. Figure subjects also came into vogue. and the eight precious symbols. " before the Present Porcelain Chinese Dr. The Lung-ching and Wan-li decorators chose the Taoist Immortals and the ** hundred boys at other mythical personages lectors : . It is stated in of porcelain must have been produced. Slop Boxes with cloud dragons. and flowers of the four seasons. however. fruit. and it was the practice to appoint eunuchs to superintend the manufacture and to bring up the porcelain to Peking.

duction of the large dragon fish-bowls. ject. and boxes. and vases of bright red colour inside and out. covered jars. on the trifling importance of the screens.750 before the twelfth month. jars to put them in.000 vases for flowers of varied shape. is not too large a number and whether dragons and phoenixes. 1583. . and 5. 4. including bowls. and more remonstrances are made by censors on the quantity of pricket candlesticks. flowering plants tion. the second of 10. and paint-brush vases. large and small dragon-painted bowls for fish and It was ordered to be sent boxes of rectangular form. 1 57 things were ordered. which were to be decorated with ornaments in relief and to have broad bases and bulging bodies the great expense of the large fish-bowls to be painted in enamel colours and the fear of their being broken in the kiln the too elaborate designs for the square boxes in three tiers.. of Lung-ching no less than 805.597 P^irs in capital to the by the ninth month of the same year. a. Wan-li^ in the eleventh year. CHINA the imperial order for the quantity required to such an extravagant amount that several pages of the Chianhsi tung-chihy which gives the statistics of the province. wind screens.000 pieces. winecups. which would require almost a life-time to turn out. are filled with remonstrances of censors on the subAccording to one of these..870 pairs of 1. tea-cups. 198 .000 jars with covers.d. . there is on record another imperial order for over 96. on the uselessness of such things as chessmen. One censor ventures to ask whether 20.. in the fifth year. flower-vases. paint-brush barrels. the first lot of 10. In the next reign. the remainder in He explains the difficult proeight successive lots. and chessboards. batches.000 covered boxes of different form and decora.

and Tu. the use of vitriIt fiable decorating large pieces." with good glaze and a brilliant style of colouring characteristic of the period. generally broken. and there is hardly a butcher's shop without a large Ming jar. whose vessels are said to have been unvarnished. and he appeals to his sovereign to imitate them. such as flower-vases. ancient emperor Shun.'' may. where a street hawker may be seen with sweetmeats piled on dishes over a yard in dameter. it is true. Such wholesale production accounts for the abundance of porcelain of this date in Peking. This is the Ming Tzu. but of coarse paste and often clumsy form. screens. fish-bowls. on the counter for throwing in scraps of meat. or ladling iced syrup out of Ming bowls.PORCELAIN DECORATED and such like elaborate decoration. "red picture ware of Ban-reki'' (Chinese 199 Wan-li")^ a . where the slightly archaic character of their decoration gave them value in the eyes of the Tea They were known as Ban-reki Aka-e. who refused to chisel his sacrificial bowls. came into vogue during the last century of the Ming enamels for The wares of this period are dynasty (1550— 1650). or Clubs. The result of this memorial was the lessening by one-half of the quantity of pricket candlesticks. covered jars and so forth. indeed. be confidently asserted that from the Western collector's point of view. virtually the only representatives of the dynasty that have found their way westward. Many of them went to Japan. chess-boards. and paint-brush vases. and the mark of the reign inscribed outside near the rim. the porcelain of the Ming dynasty " par excellence. carved in openwork [ling-lung)^ and painted in enamel colours. is He quotes the not work of too complicated a kind. the bottom of the vase or jar may be unglazed.

The potters Tao-lu records the who eras.CHINA term which almost became a synonym for " Ming enamelled porcelains. One. heavy blue under the glaze." The second expert. very soon departed from the stiff. Hu. conventional fashions of the Chinese decorator. In both wares is found the same massing of full-bodied. He excelled in reproducing the choice wares of Hsuan-te and Chenghwa eras. The Japanese. but in delicacy and beauty they were entirely similar. just then beginning to practise the art of decoration with enamels. markable for imitations of Sung specimens. flourished Chiefly retowards the close of the same century. But the advantage in colours remained always with the experts of the Middle Kingdom. " During his lifetime his productions were held in the highest esteem. by name Tsui. The purity and lustre of their enamels and the depth of their blue sous-couverte were so unrivalled as to be characteristic. But they must be mentioned here also. brilliant enamels with strong. They were called TsuiKung-yao (porcelains of the Sieur Tsui). All over the empire men purchased them with the keenest empressement. Among his pieces the cups were sensibly larger than those of the periods Hsuan-te and Cheng-hwa. however. and developed a much more artistic style. lived in the middle of the sixteenth century." The example set by these wares undoubtedly exercised strong influence on the style of the Japanese Imari potters. he seems to have also produced small pieces enamelled after 200 . flourished Wan-li They names of two celebrated during the Lung-ching and have already been referred to in connection with porcelains different from the class now under consideration.

The quality of the pate soon began to show an improveall 20I . or Shun-chih (1644— 166 1) of the to the first era The point is not of much importance. It has already been recorded that with the close of the Wan-li ^r-dL (1619) the porcelain manufacture of the Ming dynasty ceased to flourish. have refined character. having heavy. in potters belong. from 161 9 to 1661. very rare surviving specimens of enamelled porcelain that bear the Shun-chih mark show the era to be unworthy of special attention from a keramic point of to seem — — view. somewhat coarse pate. from the characteristic Lung-ching and Wan-li enamelled porcelains. and the manufacture of enamelled porcelains. therefore. Nor does it have sensibly recovered its previous prosperity until the Tsing Tartars had occupied the throne for a In fact there is an interval of 42 considerable time. With ( 1 the accession of the great emperor Kang-hsi factories passed 662-1 722) the imperial under the Tang. the last twenty-five years of the Ming dynasty. and decoration of a brilliant but not overThese pieces may. The Tsing. concerning the keramic productions of which little can be stated with cerOccasionally specimens of enamelled or tainty. been produced at the Kang-hsi factories before the latter had begun to develop the technical excellence and artistic taste that made their chefs-d'ceuvre so But the probability is that they belong to famous.PORCELAIN DECORATED The wares of both these the Cheng-hwa fashions. years. to a category distinct. respect of style. indeed. in common with that direction of the celebrated of other wares. received a great impulse. blue-and-white porcelains are found which strongly resemble the Wan-li genre.

ofi^er examples of the official costumes prescribed by the Tartars. it would not go far to support the theory or warrant the fancy that Japanese keramists could have chosen as a favourite decorative subject the persons and costumes of a foreign people. because the decoration on other Chinese articles of vertu did not. domestic scenes. Thenceforth close-grained.'' which M. Jacquemart assigned to Japan. elaborate arabesques. as stated by M.CHINA ment which increased until a very high degree of excellence was attained. patterns forth. so far as his knowledge went. landlife. objects comparatively unfamiliar and quite unpicturesque. rich floral scrolls. figures and copied from contemporary flowers. intricate dia- and in short everything that could serve such a purpose. Liberally as the potters of the latter country borpers. Jacquemart. of pictorial scapes. rimless base disappeared. the girdle with jade 202 . rowed decorative designs from the Middle Kingdom. and so the decorator went to the realm inspiration. The " Mandarin Porcelains " had nothing whatever to do with Japan. dragons and phoenixes. Even if this absence of parallel really existed. Similar progress was made in the domain of decoraInstead of confining himself to archaic art. The heavy and often un- even texture of the biscuit in large pieces of Wan-li ware and the rudely finished. All that need be noted with regard to the use of figure subjects on Chinese porcelain is that when the long flowing robe. grotesque figures of mythical tive beings. trees. they seldom copied the official figures of the Tsing dynasty. art for borrowed from textile fabrics. homogeneous pate and careful technique in every detail became essential. To this new departure are due the socalled " Mandarin Porcelains.

elled damsels and richly robed such subjects seemed to him not less natural than nude nymphs and muscular heroes have always seemed to the potMoreover. selves cannot be said to have been purer or more bril- were — — 203 . it is possible to be sure that there is no quesIn Oriental art the soft folds tion of Ming ware. not as an enamel. invariably appears. if used. his palette enabled him to depict luxuriantly apparofficials. the colours of the still Ming employed. in China ters of Europe and America. phoenixes. Accordingly the ration prevalence ladies. could scarcely have hesitated to derive inspi- from what may be said to have been the only gay objects amid his surroundings. officials. and seeking to travel beyond the range of dragons. and supernatural beings. a striking feature of Kang- With potters respect to enamels. since before the Kang-hsi era blue. decoration to porcelain.PORCELAIN DECORATED pendants. and the queue of the Tartar epoch. — — sovereigns. the bright colours of apparel offisr official uniforms and private a marked contrast to the generally som- bre scenery of the country and the ungraceful archiAn artist applying polychrome tecture of the cities. but there was often added varying from brilliant blue to them a blue enamel the presence of which is alone suffito lavender cient to mark a piece as belonging to a period later than the Ming dynasty. of figure subjects hsi is and children enamelled porcelain. but The enamels themas a pigment under the glaze. and the crape head-dress of ancient times are replaced by the full-sleeved surcoat. and flowing curves of drapery take the place occupied in the West by the graceful contours of the human So soon as the Chinese keramist found that figure. the round cap with button and plume.

howor miniature landscapes. cups and bowls of egg-shell China for which less famous than the Cheng-hwa. ever. Green was the dominant colour of the Their porcelains constitute the Kang'hsi experts. The He was generally stiff and conventional. for the most part. the latter often convey an impression of greater richness and solidity. On these exquisite specimens of keramic skill groups of bending grasses. Its technique is perfect. the purity and brilliancy of the enamels not being more remarkable than the skill displayed in applying them. in the colours of landscapes with fantastic rocks and partially conven- which nature is not medallion fashion of decoration. necks or in on the of vases other occurs secondary positions. " Famille Verte '' of French collectors. wealth and brilliancy of decorative effect rather than grace or vigor of artistic conception constituted a chief merit. flowering shrubs. phoenixes. repeating his figure subjects with persistence as stubborn as that which marks his Occidental confrere' s love of the nude. In combination with figure subjects there are usually found tionalized trees. bunches of flowers. though already familiar. and so forth are represented with fidelity and grace. little the Kang-hsi era was scarcely 204 . dragons. On the contrary. Only in some of the choicest pieces did the potter apparently think of anything beyond a striking always consulted. From this criticism must be excepted the ensemble. The subjects within the medallions are. more profuse employment. It must be admitted. It is difficult to speak too highly of this egg-shell ware.CHINA liant than those of the to their owing Ming epoch. that in the case of the larger Kang-hsi specimens. blossoms and branches. may be said to have It constantly first come into large favour in this era.

Year-marks occur seldom commonest upon small and choice specimens. though not applicable to the But there was also egg-shell ware spoken of above. Other marks are found. verging on identity. is a well chosen epithet. " Famille VerteJ' in short. Jacquemart. It is easily conceivable that Western connoisseurs have often been perplexed to distinguish the one from the other. Neither among wares that preceded nor among those that succeeded it were there any of finer pate or more lustrous and uniform glaze. or something equally without chronological significance. In the majority of elaborately enamelled Kang-hsi porcelains blue under the glaze is either absent altoGreen is the gether." false denomination of theory Japanese M. so smooth are they to the touch and so compact in texture. who applies to such porcelains the term " Famille : Chrysanthemo-PaeoneenneJ' observes: necessary to create a cally — "It is the more it name for this family since includes Chinese and Japanese productions empiriis confounded under the porcelain. exists between the style of this ware and that of the celebrated Imari porcelain of Japan.PORCELAIN DECORATED The is quality of the Kang-hsi enamelled porcelain exceptionally good. most conspicuous colour. a leaf. resemblance. manufactured during the same era a class of porcelain in the decoration of which blue sous couverte constituted a feature scarcely less important than The fact is interesting because a singular enamels. with very rare exceptions. the bottom of every piece is carefully finished they are and glazed. or plays a very subordinate role. but they usually take the form of a four-footed censer. As a rule. 205 Jacquemart's . The exposed portions of the biscuit resemble soap-stone. M.

A. W. Or again. thousands of Japanese are to be found. birds. that this fashion of decoration. That most conscientious of connoisseurs. constantly recurring feature in the design is the hanakago. crustaceans. but remains evidently uncertain as to its extent. Mr. or independently. the former under the glaze. he proceeds to make it worse confounded by ascribing to China wares which are unquestionably Japanese.CHINA good. though the rule in Japan. but his practice is bad. The fact is. and miniature figures. conventional rocks with flowers growing from them form the central design. The term invented by Jacquemart conveys It is at once a good idea of the style of the ware. or basket of flowers. Diapers and arabesques are freely used. For having observed the existence of such confusion. marine animals. detects the French writer's error. so A known to collectors of Japanese porcelain. The only easily detected diflference between the styles is in the well 206 . Even in the absence of other evidence. was the exFor one piece of Chinese porceception in China. are masses of chrysanthemums and flowering peonies. flowers. around which are disposed bands of blue with gold scrolls. The salient colours are blue and red. lain thus decorated. phoenixes. almost equally balanced. In conjunction with this. and broad rings divided into panels containing fishes. " " distinguishable from the Famille Verte by the fact that green occupies a comparatively insignificant place in the decoration. insects. bordered by floral scrolls traced in gold on a blue ground and generally broken by medallions. Franks. these porcelains alone would suffice to dispel all doubt as to the existence of an intimate relation between Japanese and Chinese decorative motives.

There are Chinese and Japanese specimens of which the photographs could not be distinguished. nor yet the greater freedom. acquired much individuality that to contrast. delighted to divide its surface by some eccentrically symmetrical disposition of lines and curves. when he sat down to decorate a vase. remembering to fill. His conception of division was purely mathematical. and to enable him to distinguish between the styles of the neighbouring empires. At the same time. Here. them with wholly is diverse decorative subjects never suggested cordant Little observation any disneeded to with this prevailing bent of Japanese decorative art. and fidelity of the Japanese decorator's brush.PORCELAIN DECORATED manner of nese. Here the Japahe had without any idea nese shows a far higher artistic instinct than the Chi- The latter. and if he found that he had to occupy two spaces of wholly different dimensions. He parcelled out the surface by the aid of concentric borders or parallel lines. neither this guide. separated. boldness. the spaces enclosed within which. This is especially the case with plates. But the Japanese." or little points familiarise the connoisseur — 207 . chiefly that it a certain ground filled of charming the fancy as well as dazzling the eye. however. while they admirably preserved their mutual equipoise so as well as their sensible though not easily traceable relation to a common fill centre. mechanical practicality was the same bird. it did not shock him to fill one with a big phoenix and the other with a miniature specimen of Hard. the connoisseur has the assistance of " spur-marks. and other flat objects. can always be implicitly relied on. the prominent trait of his methods. by a leafy branch or a bunch of flowers. perhaps. distributing the design.

however. Jacquemart. which forbid the student its to accept such a theory in An examination of Chinese paintings 208 . When course. Such porcelains have always been. whereas the red of the latter But even these The pate. on the contrary. or jars. These scarcely ever occur on Chinese wares. appear upon the showing where the tiny pillars of clay that supported them in the oven were broken off. There are reasons. After what has been written above. the blue of the Chinese is potter lighter than that of the Japanese. the connoisseur has learned to discriminate between the close-grained. Some critics have inferred that the origin of their peculiar decoration is attributable to Japan. it should not be necessary to correct a misconception originally due to M. the common furniture of China. of differences are not always observable. it need scarcely be discussed here. full-bodied. they must not So far always be looked for on vases. atively porous. is the ultimate and unerring guide. exceptional in China. and so forth. They were freely copied in Japan. so far as But inasmuch as their use was generally they go. are at an end. and constituting the greater part of the utensils used at table. bowls. gritty material of Japan.CHINA generally three or five — which under surface of Japanese pieces. that porcelains of the ChrysanthemoPceoneenne family are the usual ware. and though the nature of the penmanship may have significance for ideographic experts. dishes. limited to plates. and are therefore a criterion. seen about houses and in gardens. as colours are concerned. are Marks of Chinese eras and factories no index. entirety. and his red is is semi-transparent. oily clay of China and the comparstrong. his difficulties and opaque.

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Some critics hav' of their peculiar decoratir ere are re ^leory ?' . .. .N vve A ap.s common >bout houses and in ^^arden have always been. oi jid unerring guide.: in the oven . so far as inasmuch as their use d so forth. China. bowls. or . -. ' . -nal bis difficulties penmanship may have '""Sj it need scarcelv ove. But even thes-: . lU >. '. .. he bhxe of i of the Japanese.pied lu Japan. . When seur has learned to discriminate ' ^y between of China and the comparof Ta 0-3 VERMILION-TNK BOX OF CHENG-HWA. l>nnches. DECORATED WITH BLUE SOUS COUVERtE':^^^^^^^^^'^^^ Height.. the t of th .) . e pieces. SOFT PASTE PORCELAIN.^ occur on Chienerallv cherefore a criterion. on ti. and hib the red of the latttrr u upuque. (See paga M 7. it should nc ception originally di I poi ceiains of the Chrysanthemo ^he usual ware. V s observable. The pate. the th showing where ^em ^ -.)on — which.

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The question reduces itself. if Japan owed much to China. though they derived their decorative origin from China. Thus there is no reason to be surprised that the porcelains of Imari. finding their way to the Far East via the Factories at Cambron and Deshima.PORCELAIN DECORATED dating from the Tuan and Ming periods reveals nearlyall the elements of the Chrysanthemo-Pceoneenne decora- while the purely decorative elements. was in possession of all these elements before her keramists thought of attempting polychromatic decoration. therefore. then. or mathematical. she partly repaid the debt by re-grouping the decorative elements which she had received from the Middle Kingdom. to the method of combining the elements. in contradistinction to the artificial. there is warrant for saying that. are to be found in textile fabrics of the same eras. as scrolls. to either China or Japan alone. and in all probability the parent. diapers. and evolving what may be called the natural style. Japan. IX. and it is easy to conceive that Persian examples. style of her neighbour. and arabesques. borrowing freely in every age from her neighbour though often modifying what she borrowed. and here the credit does not apparently belong tion. may have inspired a fashion of combination and arrangement largely adopted by the potters of Imari and sparingly copied at Ching-te-chen. It is known that the style of Japanese polychromatic decoration was largely modified by Dutch suggestion. of the Japanese and Chinese fashion. the Middle Kingdom 14 209 . The " Dessin cachemire " of the early Delft potters is certainly a near relative. soon attracted favourable notice in VOL. Perhaps. It is impossible to mistake the presence of Persian influence in the floral traceries of the Chrysanthemo-Pceoneenne family.

together with the appearance of a beautiful ruby red derived from gold. jj. in the early years of the eighteenth century. falls into a serious error with regard to the antiquity of such ware." 210 . Evidently it did not occur to the distinguished connoisseur that this absence of relationship to the Famille Rose on the part of porcelains sent to Europe in the seventeenth century. 78). attested by the Missionaries in China during the seventeenth century." he writes (" Histoire de La Ceramique.CHINA and were admitted to a place among the ornaments of refined households. W. **An incontestible fact." pp. Franks as " a prevalence of half-tints and broken colours. but to the sidered least ancient. not to the disuse of colours employed during the two preceding centuries. decoration of this class underwent a marked change. A. M. ** is henceforth established. flowers. This last fact. Jacquemart." This misconception is the more surprising inasmuch as the same writer notes that the porcelains sent to Europe by the Jesuit missionaries during the reign of Kang-hsi and manufactured under their very eyes " had nothing in common with even those pieces of the Famille Rose which are conitself. to whom this classification is due. might be attributed.'' Porcelains thus decorated constitute the Famille Rose of French connoisseurs. Toward the close of the era. that during the Hung-chih period (1488— 151 5) the Chinese Famille Rose furnished cups of the most admirable pate on which birds. the characteristics of which are well described by Mr. and insects were represented with the greatest perfection. that is to say. confirms the hypothesis mentioned above that the Chinese Famille Chrysanthemo-Pceoneenne borrowed much of its beauty from Japanese models.

Collectors may be assured that. such as rose colour and light pink. to be extended so as to include the opening years of the Chia-tsing era say. subdued colours. more like the pigments of the Western potter than the original vitrifiable enamels of the Chinese. It is further distinguished by white. blossoms and offering a field exceptionally suited to his new palette. . up to 1 8 10. the epoch of the family's most highly developed manufacture ought. and began to be largely practised in the following reign. or greenish white enamel. But such precision is seldom possible or the decorator's palette. perhaps. the Ching-te-chen artist He no longer should vary his decorative fashions. took figure subjects as his principle models. The pear on other wares. To be strictly accurate. good specimens of the Famille Rose belong to one or other of the two eras Yung-ching (1723— 1736). but sought inspiration rather in the floral fruits kingdom . presence of ruby enamel passing through rose to very light pink and the prevalence of half-tints or broken colours are sufficiently characteristic of this beautiful porcelain.PORCELAIN DECORATED fact that such colours had not yet been added to Independent observation and the direct testimony of Chinese virtuosi establish beyond all doubt the fact that the use of ruby enamel and half-tints. More charmingly 211 decorated ware it would . commenced in the closing years of the Kang-hsi era. with very rare exceptions. essential. or Chien-lung (i 736-1 795). A which does not apgeneral and even more easily : recognised feature is that many of the enamels of the they do not show the Famille Rose are not vitreous brilliant transparency that marks the decoration of It was natural that in using the " Famille Verted the soft.

leaves. and nothing could exceed the delicacy and truthfulness of their pictures on his pieces. pure perfectly uniform glaze. Milk white. The collector should have no difficulty in recognising a good specimen. It will be understood that reference is here made not to porcelain of the Kang-hsi era alone. the inferior 1 851) and Hien-fung (i 851-1862) quality of their pate and glaze determines their date at once. for though similarly decorated porcelains were produced in quantity. and other graceful objects of the floral kingdom were included in the decorator's repertoire. luscious strawberries. close-grained biscuit are absolutely essential good examples of the Famille Rose. the stems. During the period of about eighty years from 1720 to 1800. though their decoration may be skilful and attractive. Pieces younger than the early years of the present century. and fine. the greater part dating from the reigns of Yung-ching and Chien-lung. lotus flowers. cups. blossoms of plum and magnolia. Perhaps the most celebrated porcelains of this class in the eyes of Western collectors are the " rubybacks " and " rose-backs. generally bowls. especially during the Taou-Kwang (1821 — eras. features in 212 . an unvarying level of excellence was maintained in Famille Rose ware.CHINA be difficult to find than choice specimens of the Famille Rose over the surface of which spread branches of peach or pomegranite. having their under surface covered with ruby or rose glaze. but also to ware manufactured down to the end of the eighteenth century. the natural colours reproduced to perfection. are always deficient in these important points. and fruit depicted with perfect fidelity. or plates. apparently growing in the glaze.'' They are ware of eggshell thinness. and the varying tones of Rich.

The upper with surface is sparsely or profusely decorated finely executed designs in coloured enamels. vitreous colours of the Famille Verte are employed. pink. The porcelain itself is not so thin and does not belong to so high a technical grade as that of the ruby-backs and rose-backs. In some specimens. ruby. In these pieces the inner surface is either white or has floral designs in blue sous couverte. Frequently the brilliant. which is chagrined and enriched by floral scrolls engraved in the paste. Such ware is well known to are found designs incised in the biscuit faintly through the glaze. It is characteristic of an era when the keramist depended on wealth of decoration rather than on quality of paste and 213 . green. Another very beautiful variety of the Rose Family is distinguished by the distribution of the decoration in medallions. perhaps the most elaborately decorated examples of Chinese porcelain. Western collectors.PORCELAIN DECORATED the colour of which is transmitted through the trans- lucid patCy producing an indescribably soft and delicate effect like that seen in the enamel of a sea-shell. this enamel decoration is absent : in its place and showing enamels used in decorating these ruby-backs and rose-backs are not always of the Famille Rose type. highly prized by Chinese connoisseurs. and in such cases the designs are not confined figures and landscapes also make to floral subjects their appearance. are divided by a yellow. landscapes. or red ground. It includes the much prized " Medallion bowls. birds and so forth. On the outer surface medallions containing floral or figure subjects.'' made for imperial use. These latter porcelains belong to the Rose Family chiefly in respect of the enamel covering of their under surface. The .

Chien-lung predecessors. pink and green being most common. In speaking of the Rose Family no attempt is here made between porcelains dating from Kang-hsi era and those of the years the of the closing to distinguish No distinction Yung-ching or Chien-lung factories. employment of full-toned enamels they inaugurated a virtually new and pleasing departure by means of delicate tints of green. the potters applying themselves especially to But in their decoration of the Famille Rose type. in fact. non-vitrous enamels. This fashion belongs it seems to have been sugto an inferior type of art can. : 214 . and red combined This type of sparsely with blue under the glaze. pears. but in the matter of porcelain decorated with vitrifiable enamels its keramists struck out no new They merely carried the old to an unsurpassed lines. these more modern wares are always lacking in delicacy and finish as compared with their Yung-ching and glaze. and diapers. ware is distinguished by its subdued tone and by the conventional character of the decoration. Green Family practically disapthe (1736— 1795). yellow. presently shown. And within certain limitations the same may be said of enamelled wares genThe Yung-ching era (1723— 1735). From the latter years of the same era dates also the custom of covering the inside as well as the outside of a piece with half-toned. Coming to the Chien-lung time point of excellence. arabesques. as will be erally. be made. which consists usually of floral scrolls.CHINA Indeed many of the Medallion Bowls treasured by European and American collectors belong to the Chia-tsing (i 796-1 827) and Taou-kwang (18211851) periods. is not without titles to independent fame. Estimable enough in their line.

noted also that the habit of gilding the rim of a piece does not appear to have been practised before the Chien-lung era. Specimens of that nalamp-shades or lamp-globes. Numbers were found in the celebrated Summer Palace. however. became common in proportion as the potter developed a tendency to rely on decorative profusion rather than on technical excellence. comparatively ture were course. Occasionally. Special reference must be made to a very lovely egg-shell porcelain of namely. at Yuen-min-yuen. their use being. but. Their pate is fine and pure. Sometimes.PORCELAIN DECORATED gested as a device to replace excellence of pate and ^laze. Wares with polychromatic decoration manufactured during the present century are. The bottoms oiTung-ching and Chien-lung enamelled porcelains are always carefully finished on the wheel and glazed. in the manufacture of the hard-paste type. a similar piece may be proThe cured from one of the great dealers in Peking. choice examples of the potter's skill seem to have been ruthlessly destroyed by the ignorant soldiery. seems a little more chalky and porous Year-marks in seal-character than Kang-hsi biscuit. it is combined with decoration of the most elaborate and minute descrip- tion. which was rifled of its treasures and burned to the ground by the French and These English invaders of China forty years ago. and even then was seldom resorted The custom to in the case of very choice specimens. limited to houses of very wealthy persons. biscuit is as thin as glass and the decoration is elabo- and effective method of using 215 . however. of rare. thus distinguished. for the most part. It may be are used in the great majority of cases. in later specimens.

The very beautiful. Amateurs familiar with the faiences of Gubbio and Majolica attach conspicuous importance to this feature. An amists interesting fact in the annals of Chinese keris that. black. There is no evidence that they were specially admired by the Chinese themselves. though they do not appear to have the they. and purple glazes. that probably in no field have the keramists of recent eras been more successful than in the reproduction of Specimens from the Taon-kwangy these lamp-shades. devoted much kind of European porcelain. approach very closely to the masterpieces of Kang-hsi and Chien-lungy for which many of them have doubtless been. They are believed to be due to an admixture of lead in the enamel. and are still. as a feature of merit. namely. and their technique always excellent. and even later kilns. or iridescent tints. in all matters relating turn. of a profusion of floral scrolls effect seen by transmitted These are probably the lar- gest examples of egg-shell porcelain ever produced by is the Chinese potter. generally consisting and figure light is subjects. Western connoisseurs regard. It should be noted. the painted ware of Sevres. Such effects are most usual in the case of green. however. in effort and ability to imitating a certain 216 . the presence of metallic reflection. while Europe sat at their feet and bor- rowed to inspiration potter's from them art. Heen-fungy Tung-chi. So far as concerned decorative technique. though when viewed by strong sunlight they certainly possess considerable beauty. yellow. they succeeded perfectly. mistaken by Western collectors.CHINA rate. They are found in the Famille Verte and Famille Rose types. in the enamels of polychrome porcelains.

2x7 . For when. usually of insignificant dimensions. a figure is asked that bears comparison with the fancy values set upon the finest old Sevres by Western connoisseurs. and is astounded at the prices they command in Peking. but can not admire them. palpably lacking grace or originality. copying mechanically and with- out feeling or education. and continue to attract them. a specimen. The Chinese potter. comes into the hands of any of the great bric-a-brac dealers. not even modifying the motives so as to render them Chinese. at rare intervals. or to have detected that tenderness derived from its artificial composition constituted a special beauty. achieved a stiff transcript. Nevertheless the curiosity and novelty of such pieces strongly attracted Chinese dilettanti during the eighteenth century. Naturally their rich palette of exquisite Famille-Rose enamels enabled them Into accomplish their purpose without difficulty. deed. The foreign collector finds them interesting as imitations. They were content to imitate the surface decoration.PORCELAIN DECORATED paid any attention to the peculiar pate of the original Sevres. skill of the French decorator was wanting in China. if technical excellence alone be considered. the But the artistic imitations excelled the originals. but frankly copying what they found on the French ware.

red. Another branch of the same family is the Hei-ti-wu-tsai. Nothing can be softer or more graceful than pure white sprays and blossoms wreathed over a deep black glaze. This ware differs from the celebrated blue Hawthorn only in having a ground of uniform black. other varieties. The conception is worthy of high praise.CHINA Chapter VIII PORCELAIN DECORATED OVER THE GLAZE {Continued) SPECIAL VARIETIES examining the subject of enamelled porcelains the wares hitherto discussed have chiefly been IN those in which the coloured decoration is applied It remains now to notice to a white glaze. or ware with five colours on a black ground. and in the fact that the white decoration is in opaque enamels over the glaze. In both cases the decoration consists of plum branches and blossoms in white. and yellow enamels are the " Black The most Hawthorn 218 . important of these is the Hei-ti-pai-hwa. instead of being simply reserved in the sous couverte colour. green. instead of clouded or tesselated blue. which. In this variety. possess characteristics that distinguish them as separate genera. though belonging to the same species. purple. '' of Western collectors.

in this class. the black ground is pervaded. Very often. however. The earliest authenticated specimens of both wares alike date from the Kang-hsi era. in specimens of the highest excellence. and free from metallic tints. For some unex" " plained reason fine specimens of Black Hawthorn often bear the mark of the Ming Cheng-hwa era. It should be glossy. though they were plainly manufactured during the eighteenth century. Imitations manufactured during the present century are always faulty in this respect.PORCELAIN DECORATED used to colour the leaves and stems of the plum trees. unless the use of a spurious Ming-cr^. not general character of . are equally excellent. and the manufacture was continued with excellent results until the close of the Chien-lung period prized in China. They appear to have been pro: duced in limited quantities good pieces are not prowithout considerable difficulty. seeing that the productions of the two periods. These porcelains are (1795). The fraud was easily detected owing to the palpable inferiority of the imported pieces. So valuable has the " Black Hawthorn " become. that European potters recently thought it worth their while to forge some imposing specimens and send them to China for sale. by a sheen of dark green. or to pick out the rocks from which they grow the decoration the does differ. and so scarce is it in the Chinese market. An important point is the quality of the black glaze. however. from that of the Hei-ti-pai-hwa. mark may be curable — 219 . or broken. There is no evidence that any such porcelains were produced by the Ming potters. uniform. The pate alone guides the amateur to determine whether a specimen belongs to the Kang-hsi or the Chien-lung era an unessential distinction.

and probably will continue to deceive. indeed. The collector must be prepared to encounter many modern reproductions of the celebrated old ** Black Hawthorn/' and still more numerous imitations of porcelain having decoration in coloured enamels on a black glaze. in any other fine varieties. their glaze thin and dull. His essays in the former country are seldom such as to deceive a connoisseur of experience. The collector whose knowledge is not sufficiently exact to guarantee him against mistakes. That the collector is not invariably proof against such chicanery. 120 . Nevertheless. To such specimens a general criticism applies. many an amateur. and whenever comparatively cheap specimens are offered with assurances of genuineness. namely.CHINA regarded as a proof. Ming specimens of this class are not now seen in the Chinese market. and their technique altogether inferior. it may be taken for granted that they are not what their vendors allege them to be. It is not very likely that highly expert Chinese potters would have carried forgery to the extent of marking fine porcelains with the date of a period when nothing of the kind existed. they have deceived. namely. that he offers his pieces at prices mid-way between the value of genuine specimens and the cost of reproductions. but it is worth while to note an invariable feature of his procedure. that their pate is comparatively coarse. or. Their value is thoroughly understood by every dealer in China. In both China and Japan the imitator is very active at present. Still. would do well to divest himself finally of the delusion that " bargains *' may be found in these varieties of porcelain. may be assumed from its continued practice.

PORCELAIN DECORATED black glaze of the same nature designs in gold were also applied. Both the early examples and those of the Kang-hsi and Chten-lung eras are open to the same criticism the gilt designs. small vegetable dishes and cups. It has been shown that this fashion. Enamelled decoration on variety a red glaze is another which may be practically attributed to the Kang-hsi era (1661— 1722). On the whole these porcelains may be said to occupy the highest place among Chinese wares decorated with enamels over the glaze. among whose authenticated productions there are little vessels moulded in the form of red fruits with green leaves and brown stalks. But the ware particularly alluded to here is covered with a soft." or kuanyao. The ware occupies a high place among — — keramic productions. Vases are rare. and so forth in brilliant enamels. Some choice pieces have their red surface broken by medallions enclosing beautifully executed designs in enamels of the Rose Family type. Its manufacture cannot be ascribed to a period more remote than the reign of Kang-hsi. present a crude appearance and are easily effaced by : To use. and the very few specimens now procurable probably belong to the Yung-ching or Chien-lung era. red. It is among those described " by Chinese dealers as Imperial porcelain. The conception of such a method belongs to the Hsuan-t^ (i 426-1 435) potters of the Ming Dynasty. were practised by the Ming potters. or ruby glaze obtained from peroxide of iron forming a ground for floral design. insects. being insufficiently fired. as well as a similar application of gold pictures to soujfle blue grounds. The technique leaves noth221 . The specimens usually found are rice bowls.

and owing to the thinness of the pate the fine tint of the body colour shows faintly through the pearl-like glaze. but in either case the technique perfect. and many of them give indications of having been manufactured for ordinary The best pieces may be identified by the lustre use.CHINA ing to be desired the enamels. . or covered with microscopic scrolls. ground. yao mentioned above. and richness of the body glaze. To the same class [kwan-yad^ as the variety just de- scribed belong specimens having a rich black. but their decoration does not demand any very exceptional exercise of skill. The Chinese connoisseur values these porcelains highly. ground is sometimes finely chagrined. by the delicate tracing of the decorative design. These porcelains often show admirable technique. in others is it is superposed. or ideographs indicating esteem. the name of a factory. pure and brilliant. They nearly always bear a year-mark. or dark green. More frequently found than either of the above specimens covered on the outer surface generally jujube or coral red with red glaze among which arabesques and scrolls are reserved in white. are rare. cups and small plates. the best specimens bear the mark of the Tung-ching era in blue sous couverte. or very dark green. by the care shown in pickvarieties are — — 222 . confined to bowls. are worked out in the most careful manner. extreme exercise of the workman's skill. Many of producing an effect of charming delicacy. to which decoration in vitrifiable These porcelains. The black. and the enamels are of the highest quality. In some speci- mens the enamel design indicating an is reserved. like the Kuanenamels is applied. for the most part. and examples are.

Another favourite and less uncommon type had green designs surrounded by yellow glaze. The same style of decoration is applied to a light green ground. for in the "Illustrated Catalogue '' of H'siang a miniature box of that period is depicted having spiral scrolls in green on a yellow ground. The same style was successfully continued at the Kang-hsi and Chien-lung factories. The box is shaped like a cash of the time. It is still largely practised. Its association with *' blue under the glaze after the reserved '' fashion is a conception already credited to the Ming keramists. however. It is noticed here only as a body colour for enamelled decoration. Further reference will be made to it in the section on monochromes. Among the choicest and rarest glazes of Chinese potters yellow stands near the head of the list. the blue design generally floral or arabesque being applied sous couverte and the spaces between its parts covered with yellow enamel. The use of Indian ink for decorating porcelain above the glaze had its origin during the reign of Chien-lung. Such a method requires little comment. light green enamel.PORCELAIN DECORATED for which ing out the floral scrolls or arabesques used and always by the purpose the body colour is thinness of the biscuit. was sometimes used in decorating specimens of this class. with charming and artistic results. easily distinguished by fineness of pate and general excellence of technique. and is said to have come out of the palace where it had been used by one of the Court ladies — — — — 223 . This style also dates from the Cheng-hwa era (1465-1478). In addition to yellow and blue. specimens are. every variety of design Chien-lung being thus produced on a white ground. a third colour.

is generally an opaque and somewhat heavy colour. To this category also belongs yellow decoration on a red ground.CHINA for holding rouge. and to be therefore classed with inferior orders of manuthe 224 . Large quantities of yellow and green porcelain were manufactured during the Taou-kwang (1821— 1851) and Hien-fung (i 851— 1862) periods. and specimens of these dates are freely offered for sale by Chinese dealers who confidently refer them to the Their comparatively hard colChien-lung factories. Western collectors usually class pieces thus decorated among the " imperial wares *' of the Ming dynasty. Such pieces as have left the country belong The yellow of to the Chien-lung or Kang-hsi era. an appellation particularly unhappy in this case. the latter colour (of the garnet type) being " reserved '' amid the yellow ground. ours. Their yellow. however. of which some specimens dating from I and Wan-li (1573Chia-ching (i 522-1 567) The ground colour 1620) eras are still to be found. and chalky pate should enable collectors to distinguish them without much difficulty. the Ming dynasty appears to have been canary. though the decorative effect of the combination is undoubtedly beautiful. an enamel but rather a pigment incapable of resisting the effects of wear and tear. but always remarkable for shell-like softness and semi-transparency which even the Chien-lung experts evidently found difficulty in reproducing. A rarer combination than any of these is that of yellow and purple. varying slightly in tone. lustreless glaze. surrounding either blue or green designs. is not. inasmuch as genuine specimens of yellow and green porcelain dating from the Ming dynasty may be said to have no existence outside China. or straw colour.

Similar ware was produced with down to the close of the eighteenth century. Delicate celadon glazes from the Kang-hsi or Chien-lung factories. This is found sometimes as a body-colour VOL. Others again. and deservedly prized. It maybe taken as a rule. — 15 225 . especially on those destined for impe- use. These are rare. but more common. however. though the two differ more in reality than in description.PORCELAIN DECORATED facture. Fine pieces of mazarin blue with enamel decoration were produced as late as the Chia-tsing era ( 1 796-1 821) or even during the early years of Taoukwang's reign (1821-1851). Later epochs produced few specimens of this kind. are celadons having red peaches or pomegranates suspended in the glaze. Entirely distinct from this unique celadon colour is thin grass-green with metallic iridescence. Much commoner are pieces having mazarin blue grounds with rich enamelled decoration of the Rose Family type. show flecks or spots of golden brown floating in their velvet-like glaze. IX. not the least beautiful of the three. that the younger the specimen the coarser its pate and the less brilliant its glaze and colour. On these the Chinese potter expended much care and was justified by the result. have brilliant red dragons or lizards coiled round the vase. They Ming rial figure upon almost choice porcelains of the success dynasty. The decorative design all is usually dragons. Ware of this nature scarcely deserves to be classed separately from that having enamelled decoration on a souffle blue ground. Green was seldom chosen by Chinese potters as a ground for enamel decoration. Yellow designs with blue environment have already been noted as a Ming invention. Belonging to the same era.

This glaze. Chinese experts refer their origin to the Cheng-hwa era of the Ming dynasty. who conceived the idea of reproducing not only the shapes and designs of The the In the early years of the Ming dynasty there had been manufactured in China an exceedingly beautiful bronze. realistic manner peculiarly by the Tunglowed in a ching (1723— 1736) experts. will be It does not spoken of in a subsequent chapter. the fond lacque of French collectors. They produced solid tea-green fields. except where it was interrupted by Round these golden flecks floating in the glaze. or floral scrolls fine bronzes. in gold. The Yung-ching potters set themselves to imitate this and succeeded admirably. Chocolate glaze with floral designs in coloured enamels is another chaste and beautiful variety. in respect This fashion was folof shape and decoration alike. speckled with yellow so finely and uniformly that the latter colour seemed to pervade the whole. pieces ran bands of diaper. and so forth.CHINA surrounding light purple (garnet) designs Such porcelains are exceedingly dragons. arabesques. Green of less transparent character was also used as a field for arabesques. This fashion seems to have originated in the i8th century. reader will have noticed that the potters of Sung dynasty almost invariably took ancient bronzes as models for their choicest pieces. but also their surface. — generally rare. for the enamels applied to it are always of the Famille Rose type. but there are no specimens to be seen dating from so distant a period. floral scrolls. 226 . pervaded by a golden hue and having its surface dappled with gold. appear to have been used as a field for enamel decoration before the close of the Kang-hsi era.

They were from two or flattened to three inches bodies. coloured in the various styles described above. The jade carver. Sometimes the design was picked These porcelains are out with silver instead of gold. and therefore called Hu-pi. enamel decoration applied to a surface plain white. Monochromatic and polychromatic glazes. other varieties of decoraBut as a tour de force the gold-flecked wares of many Tung-ching and Chien-lung are most admirable. with cylindrical circular and from the stopper there projected into the interior a tiny spoon that served to carry the snuff to the nose.PORCELAIN DECORATED portions covered with gold. and the potter devoted all their skill to the adornment of these little vessels. The Western collector in relief. Enamel decoration was sometimes applied to a glaze mottled so as to resemble tiger's skin. collections of each of which have been made by Western amateurs. the glass-cutter. high. their raised low strongly burned in. the designs in relief being either gilt or glazed like the rest of the piece and having their interstices only in darker colour. the Chinese keramist lavished most elaborate decoration. On these two classes of objects. will probably prefer tion. granulated. In another variety of the same genre the patina of ordinary bronze is imitated with wonderful fidelity. Choice specimens have an almost extravagant value for Chinese connoisseurs. The gentleman of the Middle Kingdom regarded his snufF-bottle with much the same pride and afltction as the European beau used to bestow on his snuff-box. chagrined — it would 227 . not at first sight very striking. carved in relief. such as snuff-bottles and sacrificial cups. This is a very uncommon style. It appears to have been employed in the manufacture of small pieces only. reticulated.

Wells Williams from China. Such a theory did not long survive. waves. supplemented by the subsequent discovery of three similar bottles in Egypt. was employed. and has no more historical significance than the discovery of Chi- nese ivory-white porcelain seals in an Irish bog. On the strength of this evidence. in his ^^ I Monumenti dell Egitto. who showed objects. Medhurst. Sir Francis Davis concluded that the manufor the bottles were facture of Chinese porcelain of true porcelain and undoubtedly Chinese origin dated as far back as the eighteenth century before Christ. They are When their manufacture originated it is not possible to say with certainty. which was supposed to have never been opened before. Their presence in Egyptian tombs remains unexplained. Stanislas Julien. ety. terest in — — that the inscriptions on the bottles were extracted from the writings of poets of the eighth century of Exactly similar bottles were afterwards sent our era. Attacked in the first place by M. it was finally demolished by Mr.'' described one found by him in an Egyptian tomb. by Mr. dynasty. usually distinguished at Porcelains thus decorated are by careful technique. but it probably dates from the closing reigns of the Ming once brilliant and restful. for Rosellini. Though or tongues of flame. supplemented by clouds. where they could be purchased in any porcelain store. scarcely worthy to be called a special varimention may be made of porcelain in the decoration of which one enamel only.CHINA be impossible to enumerate tive device employed in the the varieties of decoramanufacture of these little all Fifty years ago they acquired historical inEurope. The designs were almost invariably dragons or phoenixes. deep emerald green. No specimens older than the 228 latter half .

used sometimes alone. chiefly to later periods of keramic development. pierced. and nothing could be softer or more brilliant than the effect of the enamelled pictures and reticulated or incised ornamentation seen by reflected light when Profuse decoration belongs the lamp was in use.badge of rank. v^ere constantly him to decoration in enamels. he held his hatrest higher than a Western lady holds her jewel-case. sometimes in conjunction with coloured enamels or blue sous couverte. incised or in relief.PORCELAIN DECORATED of the sixteenth cated. Hat-rests dating from the Chien-lung era show an extraordinary wealth of technical effort. century have yet been authenti- The Chinese keramist showed much use of graving and moulding tools. and in the nineteenth century the artist lost himself in confused elaboration. The keramist obeyed this foible by manufacturing cap-supports ornamented in the most unsparing manner. skill in the Elaborate de- signs. their embossed or latticed designs picked out with enamels and gold. consisted in cutting a design in the pate and filling the excised portions with glaze only. His Chten-lung successor sought the aid of moulded. The Kang-hsi potter depended on the brilliancy and purity of his enamels. Prob229 . Such a tour de force must have demanded great skill and care. or incised designs. resembling lace-work. lanterns of egg-shell hard-paste These were employed after the manner of transparencies. There resulted a transparent pattern. A curious and beautiful method of decoration. The button on a Chinese ofRciaFs cap being his . delicate ornamentation of this added by Perhaps the most kind is to be seen on porcelain.

but there is no evidence to show in which country. as well as on account of the extremely perishable nature of porcelain thus deco- exceedingly rare and highly generally of a formal character. gritty porcelain were made. such a mode of ornamentation originated. white bowls of a A. Mr.'' or fire-fly style. The design is . " in Persia. lustrous porcelain and accurately cut designs into which the transparent glaze is run with uniform precision.'* In " " Hotaru-de." Numerous specimens from the workshops of the nineteenth century are to be met with but if the collector remembers to look always for a pure white. as bands of diaper or star pattern but occasionally dragons or leaves and blossoms are thus treated. which have rude decorations of the same nature. porcelain with pierced ornamentation is rated. In America. as " Grains-of-rice-ware. China or Persia. Franks says that soft. which show unevenness of surface and a distinctly marked tinge of green in the glaze of the pierced portions. They employed it chiefly in conjunction with the brown or coffeecoloured glaze called Tsu-chin-se. ware is called Ten-ching-tou-hwa. These features are invariably absent in modern pieces. specimens are prized. Porcelain ornamented with white slip may be spoken of here as occupying an intermediate place between enamelled wares and monochromatic or polychromatic glazes.CHINA ably for that reason. the fond lacque of 230 .'* Japan it is called The precise date of its origin is uncertain. Chinese potters do not seem to have practised this method largely. In China this commonly known . he is not likely to fall into error. W. but there is every reason to conclude that it was not manufactured before the Kang-hsi era (i 661 — 1722).

PORCELAIN DECORATED Over this were moulded floral and geometrical patterns in white slip. slip fashion of decoration . Many examples of the last variety are to be met with among the productions of the Taou-kwang and subsequent eras. French collectors. designs. clumsy porcelains.*' quoted in the Tao-lu. It is certain that glazes of light golden brown or deep coffee colour were then in vogue. but in more modern pieces it passes into a species of slate-colour. They are generally coarse. That Chinese decorative fashions were largely influenced by European intercourse from the Kang-hsi era downwards is beyond question. scrolls. the latter class the tone of the blue is rich and pure. 231 . It would be a hopeless task to attempt the enumeration of all the fashions developed by Chinese keramists in the decoration of enamelled porcelains. and these. It is there recorded that the Chinese potters ** imitated European vases having figures chiselled or moulded. are to be found on pieces that exhibit all the characteristics of later Ming porcelain. with white slip decoration. The principal types only have been mentioned above.'* and that " in the manner of painting. the various enamels and ancient porcelains produced or imitated at Ching-te-chen in the eighteenth century are catalogued. towards the end of the sixteenth century. the effect being at once rich and soft. or greyish blue. evidently manu- The white probably had its origin about the close of the productive period of the Ming dynasty that is to say. they copied closely the European style of art. or applying enamels to these vases as well as to other pieces." factured for use rather than ornament. In the " Annals of Fu-liang. A rarer variIn old porcelains of ety has mazarine blue ground.

figures. were open recipients of the emperor's favours.CHINA The same says catalogue includes ** vases decorated enamels in the European style'' that " landscapes. Looking back to the brilliant style of the Lung-ching and Wan-li period (1567— 1620). were replaced in later times by elaborate diapers. although foreigners. Decorative methods became more and more ornate. rich scrolls. be denied that foreign inspiration was needed to develop these into the exuberance of adornment with which their successors were loaded two centuries afterwards. the mythical beings. until they culminated in the infinite elaboration of the later Chien-lung porcelains. it seems natural that not European science only. should have obtained some favour in the Middle Kingdom. Moreover. the decorative enamels 232 with (Tang-tsai-ki)y and . there were the markets of Europe to be supplied. but European art also. For the dragons and clouds. the phoenixes. perhaps. Besides. it may. the sacred horses. the waves. plants. the fishes and the aquatic plants which chiefly furnished motives to the early keramist. or at any rate the European art tendencies of the age. flowers. birds and quadrupeds were depicted on these porcelains When it with marvellous delicacy and perfection/' is remembered what a large measure of imperial patronage was extended to the Jesuit missionaries in Kang-hsi's time. and Chinese keramists had not only Japan's example to stimulate them. But the difference is not one of degree only. soft floral designs and graceful arabesques. but also the counsel of learned men who. The result may be traced in two directions. Japan had adapted herself to their demand at Dutch inspiration. and how they were honoured as the representatives of advanced erudition.

has studied this branch of the subject with his In the fine collection presented by wonted care. traders. the wares furnished to other Asiatic nations for China or to Egypt. A. and lastly those made for Europe. or in Japan next. half-tints of the latter had a marked affinity with European style. the ruby or crimson. the lemon yellow. Franks. It would appear from Pere d*Entrecolles and other sources that. of the West two centuries ago had very few features in common with the contemporaneous keramic decBut the difference between the oration of China. subject are well worth quoting : — specimens modified to modern taste would made in China for Japan. W. Japan was a purchaser of porcelain in China. or rose du Barry ^ and the brilliant differing essentially from the dull greenish black are spoken of black of the ^^ Famille Verte'' wares ** European colours/' In fact. much direct copying of European models and designs took place at the request of foreign Mr.PORCELAIN DECORATED It is a notable themselves underwent an alteration. numerous specimens of Chinese and the him to Japanese wares are included. was largely due either to European inspiration or to some newly formed conception Certainly the keramic decoration of European taste. betraying unmistakable His remarks on the evidence of foreign influence. of the British Museum. nation. " two was much less marked after the " Famille Rose The broken colours and type made its appearance. colours of the " Famille fact that all the principal Rose'' porcelains. . the pink. in 17 12. Moreover. earliest The naturally be anything . though the decorative designs chiefly employed might easily be mistaken for Japanese. the in the Tao-lu as distinct change of genre that occurred at the close — — of the Kang-hsi era.

In the History of King-te-chen there are numerous notices of porcelain made in the European taste. "which is transported to Europe is generally made on new models. Their Chinese origin is. " of most delicate execution and marvellous early as his . M. which rose in the shape of a pyramid to the height of another foot. etc. there are five specimens in the collection . two of these are saucers with Arabic inscriptions from the Koran. for the least defect the European [merchants] reject it. and of vases painted with enamels in the European style." he says. which. Two others are painted from Indian drawings which have been copied with great fidelity and care. Another dish has evidently been made for the Indian market.." He afterwards speaks of the models as having been sent from Europe. name of d'Entrecolles' letters it is clear that even as time the great manufactory of King-te-chen made specimens with foreign designs for instance. without the covers. These pieces had been ordered by the merchants of Canton. figures. which are inscribed with the the provost of merchants at Cairo. incorrectly written. betrayed by other portions of As we have already stated. who cannot sell it to the Chinese because it is not according to their taste. of Paris. Jacquemart the ornaments. " the porcelain. had been made to be smuggled into Japan at the close of the 17th century. has described a similar specimen as Indian porcelain. and had taken a great deal of trouble to make. and difficult to succeed in making. and resemble a bowl and saucer in the collection of Charles Schefer. landscapes. he was informed. however. and was the case at King-te-chen. In his letter of 1722 he mentions that there had just been made large vases of three feet high and more. often of a strange form. that in China porcelain was made for exportation if this from designs furnished by Europeans. flowers. who did business with Europeans. M. With regard to porcelain made for the Asiatic market. animals." It is evident. and it remains on the hands of the workmen. as out of eighty only eight had succeeded. therefore.CHINA and he further mentions a little plate painted with a Crucifixion. From Pere perfection. we should naturally find 234 .

either in England or at Canton. There is such a similarity of style in the arrangement of the decoration of much of this armorial china that there must have been some agent. proceeded the numerous services for dinner and tea. and our country had no direct communication with 235 . Jacquemart has ascribed to Japan what Abbe Raynal calls "porcelaine des Indes.'* as well as the armorial specimens . quite overlooked the very important India companies of England. that from these two factories. portions of services made for Frederic the Great. Angrand de Fonpertuis. and naturally those of wealthy merchants both in England and abroad. Sweden. in 1774. M. The arms of families of rank are often found. and states that the porcelain known in France under the name of " porcelaine des Indes " was there. vice made for the Palace of the Swedish Kings at Gripsholm. Many of these services have on them the armorial bearings of the persons for whom they were made. is made It probable. prepared by Gersaint of Paris in 1747. and the royal families of Denmark and France. the name of which is inscribed on the various pieces. the porcelain with armorial bearings is probably far more common in England than in Holland. and that even the Dutch carried on a very considerable commerce with that country. Even royalty patronised Chi- nese porcelain ." our "India china. He has. using Batavia as their In the elaborate sale catalogue of the collection of depot. and Denmark. the Chinese and Japanese are generally spoken of as " Indiens. are in There seems also to have been a large serthe collection. differing altogether from the appliances of the same kind used in China. therefore. but he has come to this conclusion on the most slender grounds . he argues that the Dutch India Company was the only important company which could have caused such a name to be given to its imports. men- tions this factory.PORCELAIN DECORATED that the factory at Shaou-king must have made still more. which had a large trade with China. and especially from the latter. who supplied the designs and superintended their execution. M. and that that company traded with Japan. Fu Abbe to the west of Canton Raynal. however." Moreover.

eight years earlier than the supposed time of Why. There are also many specimens which can be traced to families connected with China. as a Punch Bowl in this collection. but it is to be hoped that in time it may find its level. the invention. dated 1769. however. few specimens of white Oriental porcelain may have been decorated at Lowestoft. The result has been that a class of Oriental porcelain formerly little cared for. is apparently mistaken in his inference of manufacture of some of these porceThe Kwang-tun (or Canton) potteries do not lains. seem to have produced any wares of the kind. has been elevated in popular esteem. and by the occasional occurrence of dated examples too old for the so-called invention of hard paste at Lowes- A . Their outcome. nearly exploded) must have been embarrassed by the enormous number of specimens that exist. it has on the other. but this was of the The evidence of hard paste havusual English soft paste. and possessing no great merit. however. toft. such as one belonging to Lady Charlotte Schreiber but they must be rare. such. been ascribed to Lowestoft in England. as most of the services of such porcelain with European decorations seem to belong The supporters of the Lowestoft theory to an earlier date.. the most unsatisfactory kind there is of made ing been chiefly the indistinct recollection of persons not acquainted with the difference between hard and soft paste. consisted Mr. for instance. Franks as to the place 236 . in executing European designs. moreover. the "India China" has on one hand been attributed to Japan. known to While. give in the minor details those Chinese touches which at once reveal the Oriental Had the subjects been Chinese such a proceeding artists ? would be natural. There can be no doubt that there was a considerable manufactory of porcelain at Lowestoft. which will be spoken of later on. (which is now. CHINA Japan. or which are have been made to order in that country. should English painters. and by a still more singular hallucination.

The well-known keramist. would have been difficult. that a profit might also be realized by importing white porcelains for ornamentation at the hands of Delft experts. and adorned it with pictures sometimes of purely European genre. Saxony. the decorated in Europe. To employ these colours for decorating faience. It then occurred to the merchants who had hitherto included Chinese decorated porcelains among their articles of trade. Note must also be taken of Chinese porcelains About the year 1700. and England. such as that manufactured at Delft. Austria. and during this interval of thirty-five years many specimens were produced. du Sartel. excellent alike in technique and artistic conception. in his " Porcelaine de Chine. M. Accordingly the first essays were made with porcelains imported from China. offering a greater or less expanse of white surface for the exercise of the enameller's art. Such essays were speedily followed by similar imitations from the factories in Italy. Gerrit von der Kaade. The industry lasted until 1740. with monochromatic or polychromatic glazes. these also began to be decorated with Delft enamels after Chinese fashions. About the same epoch the pdte-tendre ware of Sevres and the hard porcelain of Bottger making their appearance. Dutch keramists discovered the method of preparing some of the colours used for painting over the glaze.PORCELAIN DECORATED of pottery and stone-ware. sometimes of Chinese type." says that a regular business of this nature sprang up in 1705. Their enamels lacked the brilliancy of the ^' Famille Vertey^ and the continued solidity and delicacy of the 237 . and his confreres at Delft purchased quantities of Chinese undecorated porcelain. if not impossible.

The stalks and the delicate strokes have lost their clearness. without counting vases the entire surface of which. The painter charged with the task of applying these coloured grounds. you not then recognise as having had surface decoration applied to them by a second firing: blue grounds. green. skilled though he may have been. and in places overrunning the less fusible Chinese enamels. has not been able to prevent these secondary colours from spreading during the stoving. or of an unscrupulous hand. or are partially obscured by the ground colour. An intimate union of the two 238 . or with reserved medallions enclosing polychromatic flowers.'' " Famille source of some confusion arose for the amateur. and that the added fields of colour encroach upon the ancient contours. with salutary distrust. du Sartel has paid much attention to this branch In his interesting work " La Porceof the subject. that they cross each other and cover certain parts clumsily. collectors of the future. presented some feature But they were unthat betrayed European origin. and absolute Let your first care be. enriched with designs in gold. uniform will How many or mottled. even when copied directly from Chinese subjects. originally white. the repairs craftily concealed by unfired decoration. is now red. '' laine de Chine he offers advice which well deserves to be remembered : — Arm yourselves. the imperfections. in every case. and that two of the finest character. M. and as Chinese doubtedly fine porcelains of year-periods or other marks were often added. their class. specimens. will unveil to you the cracks. or of filling the vacant spaces with flowers and new subjects. this precaution will cause the enamels to resume all their pristine brilliancy. or black ? Then study the specimen closely. a Rose. to clean the porcelain with a slightly acid solution in order to remove the dirt accumulated by the action either of time If the specimen is really old. and you will see that the additions are badly adapted to the original design .CHINA and their designs.

while all engaged — — '^Z9 . produces a character of spuriousness so peculiar and betraying such inferior quality. plain. which are very fusible. as would have been the case work executed at one time with enamels subjected to the same temperature. Whatever is to be said of copies applies also to added decoration. and having a yellowish green tone. It consists not only in re-covering the white portions of the surfaces of old specimens. This superposition of two colours. the first examples of which made their appearance lately. originally having a decoration of blue sous couverte. in consequence. and because they show of themselves a general cachet of Europeanism that precludes all possibility of error. lacking in metallic reflections or iridescence but also in applying this same colour to grounds originally blue. that a glaze coloured with oxide of copper run over cobalt-blue decoration applied to the biscuit would emerge from the kiln almost black. generally associating very badly. has led to a species of secondary decoration. however. a green tint appearing over a perfectly developed blue could only be obtained by secondary decoration made with an extremely fusible colour. which.PORCELAIN DECORATED in a colours has not been produced. In respect of others. monochromatic or spotted with black) having enamelled decoration. He knows. that the experienced amateur cannot be deceived by it. in fact. in their case. however. The special esteem in which are held uniform or variegated grounds (as green. Some pieces need not occupy our attention because. will surely furnish proofs vainly sought for in the ensemble of the piece. the maker has designedly prepared his pate and suitably tinted his glaze. and that. being obtained from oxide of chromium. or souffle. with paintings in enamels of the " Famille Verte '* type the enamels. Oriental art has simply played the part of inspiring. These proofs are to be found in the nature of the gold and of the colours employed by European painters in redecorating old pieces or copying them faithfully. such as is not included in the Chinese keramist's palette. it will be necessary to undertake a more minute and perhaps more difficult study. If the general examination spoken of above should not suffice to clear away all sources of doubt.

question of very fine egg-shell. and which are happily found often in decorations of the Extreme Orient. nor the transparency. made in Europe. nor the iridescence. 240 . have a point of servilely copying their model. trunks of trees. thick and uniformly coloured coats of which. almost claret-like. some of them sparkling in the light like mica unless. The second of these enamels is that which. where. not excepting the last coup de main given by the dextrous age-simula- made tors of It whom we have spoken. On Chinese porcelains this is I On always brilliant and of remarkably pure tone. nor the metallic reflections of Chinese enamels. there is . it is always dull. obtained from chloride of gold. or semi-egg-shell porcelain. entirely transparent. Then the connoisseur should ascertain how the bottom of the base is made. besides. It should be resorted to at the outset. violaceous. and sometimes flowers or drapery. gives tints of rose colour or deep carmine. on the contrary. As for enamelled grounds over the glaze. here that washing with acid will effect marvels. nifying glass this place should present the greyish and nonvitreous aspect of little grains in close juxtaposition. even when the imitator has been able to obtain a luminous appearance by washing in acids cleverly compounded. the fracture of which should bear a sensible resemblance to that of matter almost completely vitrified. or carmine suggesting the presence of dirty blue. indeed. altogether brown. the pate is entirely exposed. remembering the Chinese potter's manner of finishing this He should then seek for some place part of a specimen. On imitation pieces this colour is dull. from the potter to the painter.CHINA in the manufacture. having often great intensity of tone. two enamels which the forgers never succeeded in obtaining. used by the Chinese to paint branches. Passing now to the colours. the Chinese potter applies to the surface. our painters replace them by easily recognised grounds of badger enamel is porcelains brown. There are. it will be recognised that those of imitation pieces have neither the softness. non-transparent. The first is violacious brown. in consequence of an imperfection or absence of Examined with a magglaze.

HaaMU

aa>i

htiw aatAirnoSta ,mAJa3>ioq .axAJo aHT
(.0X1 assq 99S)

"ovAwcj-q^w^H

CH
urc,
.,.^.r'A..]y
i

I

NA

from the potter to the painter, have copying their model, not exceptgiven by the dextrous age-simulawe have spolcen. ^'^it washing with acid will effect marvels. It

Then the connoisseur ed to at the outset. how the bottom of the base is made, re.,.^ Chinese potter's manner of finishing this ..^ He should then seek for some place of a specimen. in consequence of an imperfection or absence of tK^- A v<? is entirely exposed. Examined with a magi:his place should present the greyish and nonet of little grains in close juxtaposition, some of ..,;ng in the light like mica ; unless, indeed, there n of very fine egg-shell, or semi-egg-shell porceiain, the fracture of which should bear a sensible resemblance to that of matter almost completely vitrified. Passing now to the colours, it will be recognised that those o^ imitation pieces have neither the softness, nor the trans. .,

??art

,

(_

r^inese
.

enamels, evv

the glaze.

'^''^^^^*^*'

^^^

oeen aDie to

luminous appe^^ifei^ge it;^.) washing in acids cleverly, .V. .,^>ounded. There are, besides, two enamels which ^^^ forgers never succeeded in obtaining, and which are h found often in decorations of the F^xtreme Orient, i he first 13 violacious brown, entirely transparent, used by the Chinese to paint branches, trunks of trees, and sometimes
a
s

On imitation pieces this colour is dull, or drapery. ^parent, altogether brown, or carmine suggesting
ice

The second of these enamels is of dirty blue. from chloride of gold, gives tints of rose colour or deep carmine. On Chinese porcelains this t^namel is always, brilliant and of remarkably pure tone. On ains made in Europe, on the contrary, it is always ^^,, violaceous, almost claret-like. As for enamelled ground's over the glaze, thick and uniformly coloured co^ts of which, having often great intensity of tone, the Chinese potter applies to the surface, onr painters replace them by easily recognised grounds or badger brown.
tiiat

wiiich, obtained

.

240

PORCELAIN DECORATED
we have said about want of solidity on lains in China and Japan, it will be understood that most of the old specimens thus ornamented ought to be now entirely This peculiarity offered deprived of their gold decoration. they have not failed field which large painters a to modern They had only to recover and follow the halfto exploit. effaced marks in order to renew the original decoration. Herein it is the faults of the original gold that enable us to pronounce apocryphal pieces presenting too fair an apIn fact, if the painter, learning that a piece may pearance. safely be exposed to the low temperature of the gilding furnace, has recourse to the preparations employed in our studios, his gold decoration will be solidly fixed, brilliant, and capable of being burnished with an agate. If, on the contrary, he is content to use gold dust mixed with varnish and applied without caloric, he obtains a metallic tone resembling more closely the Chinese gold, but having thick, heavy outlines, which, moreover, may be entirely removed by scratching with a knife or by washing in an acid solution.
Finally,
if careful

note

is

taken of what

the part of gold applied to porce-

this obliteration of not invariably observed in the Much depended, of course, case of old specimens. on the degree of care with which they were kept. Occasionally pieces are found to which their owners attached sufficient value to handle them so tenderly and preserve them so scrupulously that much of the gold decoration remains as fresh as it was when it emerged from the kiln. M. du Sartel concludes his analysis thus
It

need scarcely be noted that
is

the gold decoration

:

In fine there remains to be noticed one more variety of secondary decoration which is of some interest. All amateurs are acquainted with a certain type of blue-and-white Those that we desire vases, generally cylindrical in form. to note here have their necks decorated originally with a slight, narrow border of pattern, their bodies being occupied
VOL.
IX.

— 16

241

CHINA
. with large figures that stand nearly as high as the vase. These figures, boldly designed, nearly always evince veritaIn order not to ble talent on the part of the decorator. distract the eye from the principal subject painted by him with the finest blues of his palette, cleverly graded, he has refrained from ornamenting the shoulder or the lower part of the vase, and has left the space about the figures open. The only fault of this particular type is that it is not suffiCollectors are therefore content to possess one ciently rare. or two specimens of it, leaving the others in the stores of bric-a-brac dealers where they accumulate, vainly awaiting purchasers. These are the vases, or at least some of them, that we are surprised to see reappear clothed with new decoThe neck is now adorned with a triple border in ration. The shoulder is occupied by a brightly coloured enamels. large zone of iron red or green with reserved designs, and above the figures runs a border of scallops or false gadroons in yellow, blue, or green enamel, such as we see on fine specimens of the Famille Verte, Finally, the long robes and accessories of the figures are no longer simply blue, but show a more or less happy addition of gold. The question has been raised whether these vases should be regarded as a really ancient variety, rare specimens of which, jealously preserved up to the present by Chinese amateurs, had suddenly made a triumphant and unexpected Ought we not rather to recognise appearance among us. the cylindrical vases spoken of above, the low price of which added to the possibility of exposing them to the temperature of the enameller's furnace, indicated them as fit subjects for the crafty skill of our secondary decorators. The latter doubtless transformed some of them, but there can be little question that others were transformed in China, in obedience to orders and directions sent from Europe. So far as we are concerned, we believe that we have seen both kinds, though we are sure that we have never met with any
.

.

really ancient.

glaze,

knowing well that no decoration over the however fine, ranks with decoration de grand feu in the eyes of amateurs, have not failed to turn their attention In respect of to paintings on the biscuit (under the glaze). 242
Imitators,

PORCELAIN DECORATED
these, the results hitherto obtained with cobalt blue or copper red, applied sous couverte^ are so imperfect that there is no danger of confounding them even with the commonest

porcelains of China and Japan.

The reader will observe that no detailed note has been taken of enamelled porcelains manufactured durThe fact is that, with the ing the ninteenth century. exception of pieces dating from the early part of the century, the collector will find few specimens possessing decorative or artistic merit. The products of the Chia-tsing era (1796— 182 1) are often scarcely distinguishable in technique and style from those of the Chien-lung workshops. But from the close of this era and the commencement of the Taou-kwang period (1821 — 1851), a steady deterioration set in, marked, as might be expected, by the profuse use of pigments and easily applied enamels. Thenceforth a prevailing trick of the decorator was to cover large portions of frequently the whole interior of a piece the surface with a thick coat of lustreless was thus treated green or pink, generally roughened, more or less irregularly, like the skin of an orange. Much gilding and unsparing application of ill-assorted half-toned pigments became the fashion, and it apparently ceased to be possible to produce a pure white, lustrous porceThe greenish or bluish tinge pervading the lain. glaze of these modern wares, the chalky appearance of their pate, the irregularity of their surface and the generally clumsy nature of their manufacture, are tests which the amateur should have no difficulty in In proportion, too, as the merits of former applying. potters ceased to be imitable, the transparent device of employing false year-marks came into vogue, so that these periods of decadence may be ascribed a

243

CHINA
great

majority of the specimens distinguished by The only Hsuan-tdy Chen-hwa, and Chia-ching dates.

porcelains of
at
all

modern

(i,e,

1830-1860) manufacture

are likely to deceive are those with coloured

crackle and comparatively sparse enamelled decoration, and the so-called " medallion bowls," that is to
say,
less

bowls whose outer surface
scrolls or arabesques

is

covered with lustre-

green, yellow, pink, or red pigments, laid over

interrupted by medallions

engraved in the paste, and containing enamelled or designs. These bowls probably represent the painted best achievement of the Taou-kwang and subsequent
floral

potters,

and in their

own

inferior fashion

doubtless

merit admiration. It must be noted, however, that during the past ten years Chinese potters have succeeded in producing porcelains elaborately decorated with enamels, partaking of the character of both the " Famille Verte " and the " Famille Rose '' types. Loaded with ornament, in which formal and pictorial styles are hopelessly confounded, these pieces nevertheless have enamels so brilliant and so cleverly applied that the amateur may possibly be deceived if he estimates them by their surface decoration alone. Examination of the pate where it is exposed at the base of the specimen, should at once remove all doubt. It will generally be found artificially discoloured, and its rough, granulated character can be detected by the least experienced collector. Naturally, if inferiority oi pate were the only fault to be laid to the charge of these modern reproductions, they might still possess some claim to admiration. But they are bad in every way, above all in their lack of either artistic feeling or decorative instinct. The surface of the vase has been
244

PORCELAIN DECORATED
taken simply as a field for displaying bright enamels, and even if these occasionally approach the transparency and purity of their Kang-hsi and Chien-lung prototypes, the general effect is confused and unsatisfactory. It is probable, however, that some of these imitations have found their way into American collections, for they have been exported from the East by dealers of repute. A rare and very highly prized variety of "jewelled porcelain *' is decorated with enamels showing all the properties of glass. From the Ming era the Chinese acquired great skill in the manufacture of cameo glass, using it chiefly to make snuff-bottles, writers' vases, bowls, and other small objects. Towards the the Kang-hsi era their close of keramists conceived the idea of employing glass, or a slightly modified form of it, in the same way as they had hitherto employed vitrifiable enamels for over-glaze decoration. Opinions may differ about the artistic success of this new departure, but as a tour de force it was certainly very remarkable, and from Chinese connoisseurs it elicited applause. Few specimens are procurable, and Occaa very high value attaches to them in China. sionally a porcelain vase is found having body-glaze and decoration such that its resemblance to a speci-

of cameo glass is striking. Before dismissing the subject of porcelain decorated with enamels over the glaze, notice must be taken This, of the "Three-coloured Ware'' [San-tsai-ki), as its name indicates, is distinguished by paucity of coloured enamels, green, yellow, and red only being employed, with occasional addition of blue sous couGreen is the dominant colour, the others verte. usually occupying a more or less subordinate place.
245

men

CHINA
The porcelain dates from the Cheng-hwa Ming dynasty, and its manufacture was
until the

era of the

continued It came from end of the Kang-hsi period. No special interthe workshops at Ching-te-chen. There is, however, another ware est attaches to it. classed by some connoisseurs as San-tsai-kiy but not really belonging to that family, from which it differs not hard porceprimarily in the nature of its pate and essentially in lain, but pottery or stone-ware

— —

the manner of applying the decoration, which covers the whole surface, leaving no portion of the biscuit In jars and vases of this faience large porexposed. tions of the surface are often pierced in reticulated patterns with peonies, dragons, or lions suspended among the reticulation, the intervening spaces having
diapers or scrolls in relief.
as

The

raised parts as well

the designs suspended in the reticulation are enamin

elled

green, turquoise-blue, white, maroon, yel-

low, or purple, some one of which colours, generally turquoise-blue or green, is employed to cover the rest The enamels are opaque and of the surface also. comparatively dull, and the technique is usually of second-rate quality. The choicest specimens of this ware are without reticulation, their decorative effect depending entirely on contrast of rich colours. A frequent and highly artistic type has a bold scroll of peonies in relief, in white or yellow enamel on a purple or turquoise-blue ground. Still more elaborate examples have figures of mythical personages among conventional clouds, with bands of diaper and scroll pattern above and below green, yellow, white, and purple enamels are employed for this raised decoration, while the body colour is strong turquoise-blue Such pieces are decorative and or peacock green.
;

246

years of the Mingy dynasty is there anything upon which a verdict may be founded. recognise the distinctions of Wu-tsai and San-tsai (five colours and three colours). - : 247 . redifferent in appearance. it has no existence explained. richAny muddiness ness of glaze. the two are essentially The porcelain. from typical examples of which it is only distinguished by paucity of The term Famille Ferte. and the same may be said of clumsy technique. not look for a very high degree of finish in any ware of this class. in the province of Shansi. but nothing is accurately known about the products of so remote a Not until the close of the Yuan. came from kilns in the neighbourhood According to of Peking. is of European origin the Middle Kingdom The amateurs of in China. ally belongs to the Famille Ferte. Porcelain of the San-tsai variety was manufactured at Ching-te-cheng. though the collector must attractive. It will thus be seen that though both porcelain and faience are included by some connoisseurs in the " Three-coloured " ware. the records. and even then the specimens are of comparatively insignificant character. roughness or of surface is enamels in the tone of the a distinct mark of inferiority. its manufacture in the latter district commenced in the seventh century.PORCELAIN DECORATED In appraising their merit the amateur has to consider before everything purity of colour. as already coloured enamels. or opening date. in fact. A limited number of these are preserved in Japan where they have always been higly valued. but both types of ware may not improperly be included in the " Green Fam'' ily by those who prefer the latter nomenclature. but the faience or stone-ware mentioned above. and careful technique.

not seen in any other enamel. from the colour of ripe grapes to that of light muddy The green and yelclaret dusted with dark speckles. purple. the technical finish of which is usually more or less rude. or a blossom. In a manuscript work. rudely moulded into the shape of an ox or a stag sometimes they are made in the semblance of a bird. while to the inner is applied a partial coat of thin paint-like grey glaze. and in another a claret-coloured carp plunges among yellow waves. In nine cases out of every ten these specimens take the form of small boxes used in Japan to hold inSometimes they are round. Their hard white stone-ware. purple face and breast. low are rich and lustrous. the Japanese are mistaken though erroneously attributed is . The enamels are green. indicating high technical ability. entitled Kogo-zuye (illustrations of incense boxes).CHINA pate to Cochin China. In another the artist has modelled a purple stag lying on green scrolls and diapers. and green body. They are referred by Japanese connoisseurs to the thirteenth. yela badger. One is in the shape of an archaic badger with yellow limbs. The majority of them are grotesque in conception. fourteenth. and The purple varies low. and the mahogany red has a peculiar wax-like appearance. compiled by a well-known Japanese virtuoso forty years ago. . and fifteenth centuries. 248 . Scroll patterns or other designs in relief enter almost invariably into the decoration. as has been said. and there is no reason to doubt the correctness of the estimate for though. mahogany red. ten celebrated specimens of this faience are depicted. with the top cense. its outer surface always covered with enamels of rich colour. The redeeming features of such pieces is the richness and lustre of their coloured enamels.

and equally hard.PORCELAIN DECORATED about the place of the ware's origin. though somewhat crudely finished pieces date chiefly from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It need scarcely be said that the specimens of this highly decorative ware familiar to Western collectors belong to later periods than the curious little kogo so These large brilliant. and the enamels lose their glossiness and depth. treasured in Japan. the advantage is with In proportion as later periods are reached. 249 . however. and brilliant. the biscuit becomes soft and friable. The glazes of both are equally t\itiv pate pure. the Kang-hsi ware. from the factories is of these eras and those from the Kang-hsi kilns scarcely appreciable. In general technique. though several are much undoubtedly as old as the The or even the Chia-tsing (1522) era difference between specimens Wan4i (1573) of the Ming dynasty. lustrous. collateral evidence shows that they have kept tolerably accurate records of the dates when it came to their country.

This. for even bowls of fine Ting-yao so fragile as to seem capable of being crushed between it the fingers. its soft yet solid appear- ance and warm tone may not inaptly be compared. translucid ware of the type commonly called porcelain in the West had soft pate and though very thin. refuse altogether to transmit light. but enough has already been written about this beautiful though not duly appreciated representative of Chinese keramic skill. The earliest white porcelain showing any fine technical qualities was the Ting-yao of the Sung dynasty. Whether owing to original excellence or to skilled manipulation. the porcelain earth of the Ting-yao shows qualities that fully explain the esteem in which the ware was held by old-time connoisseurs. indeed. as already seen. was not transparent. to which. CHINA Chapter IX MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES WHITE AMONG the most important the wares belonging to this section is celadon. though perceptibly thicker than the covering applied to porcelaine degourdee by the European process of absorption. The glaze. Something of its opaqueness was due to the nature of the glaze. has not more body than a coat of thin cream. It has 250 .. was not hard.

the porcelain was called Shu-fu-yao. and when the Tuan Mongols became masters of the whole empire. district progressed without much reference to changes of dynasty. libation-cups." to mark the fact that its chief destination was the Court. but in the Tu-Ting-yao. ancient that vases. The glaze was not crackled in Ting-yao proper. or two or in relief.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES a pate as fine as pipe-clay. however. Thenceforth. an inferior and comparitively clumsy production. The keramic industry in this. The materials employed in the manufacture of this Tuan Shu-fu-yao being identical with 251 . manufactured at Nan-chang in Kiang-si. or " imperial ware. and they accurately copied not only the shapes of these but also their decorative designs. steadily its metropolitan. When with there was question of bowls or plates the potter chose ordinary shapes and ornamented fishes. or Nan-ting. and withal so elastic that good specimens appear to spring The Catalogue of H'siang shows under pressure. incised or in Such models were naturally best adapted to relief. censers. and that the ware was thenceforth represented by the Southern Ting-yao. It has been shown that the production of northern Ting-yao^ or Pai-ting. It need scarcely be said that genuine specimens of Ting-yao dating from the Sung dynasty are virtually unprocurable. or Ting-yao pottery. the production of Ting-yao at Chingte-chen went on as before. ceased in the year 1126. as tender as vellum. leaving the exterior plain. incised them internally sprays of leaves and blossoms. and so forth. floral scrolls. crackle of medium size always appeared. that the potters of the Sung dynasty generally took bronzes as models for white Ting-yao. Nan-chang and Ching-techen were virtually synonymous.

if their genuineness be admitted. H'siang says that the white Tung-lo porcelain was made after the Tuan Shu-fuyao. in his " Illustrated Catadiffered at all. they at the of the choice products of Ching-te-chen. but also it reached a stage of expert manufacture incompatible with any hypothesis of sudden development or newly acquired knowledge.*' referring to the specimen of Shu-fu-yao depicted there. Tung-lo era (1403— 1424) of the Ming dynasty. have A few speci- mens rudely decorated with blue under the glaze are to the Sung and Tuan keramists but though. comparatively speaking. logue. Though from the Tung-lo era 252 . little From the care was bestowed on its manufacture. that the Tung-lo ware also belongs to the soft-paste variety." must be that the Nan-ting of the Sung dynasty and the Shu-fu-yao of the Tuan (1279-1360) represented no points of appreciable difference.CHINA ters those employed for the Sung Nan-ting. It might be concluded. they demattributed . says that " in its paste and form. not only did hard-paste porcelain become one in those early days. onstrate that the ability to make hard-paste porce- lain was not wanting same time prove that. itself an indistinguishable reproduction of the Sung Ting-yao. Entering the Ming dynasty an important distinction Researches show that until the close has to be noted. if they H'siang. of the fourteenth century hard-paste porcelain was scarcely manufactured at all in China. in the colour of its glaze. it is Hence the conclusion altogether like a Ting piece. and in the engraved design. But here precisely the connoisseur has to make a distinction. therefore. however. it is evident that the wares could differed only in decorative features. and the potbeing the same.

the potter lavthe variety alone ished all the resources of his art held in really high esteem by Chinese virtuosi had soft and nearly opaque pate. sous couvertCy — — : was accordingly termed To-tai-ki. this remarkable effort of technical skill. that it became and has since remained the keramic feature of its era. There is another variety. the facture of soft-paste porcelain loses nothing of In the case of ware decorated with blue it has been shown that though the variety upon which. This is the white egg-shell porcelain familiar to American and European virtuosi. pieces of which the pate has been only half [puan) removed. thin as bamboopaper.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES downwards hard-paste porcelain takes its place among manuits the choicest keramist productions of China. which is distinguished from the last by the the . yet large quantities of beautiful and attractive hard-paste porcelain were also produced. that is to say. the Shu-fu-yao. So it is with the white Yung-lo ware referred to by H^siang soft-paste facsimiles of the celebrated Ting-yao and its later representative. At that time people prized vases which were comparatively thick and which are to-day commonly known as Puan-to-tai. the Tao-lu " The thin contains the following information It : — vases called To-tai-ki originated during the reign of Emperor Yung-lo. were successfully manufactured. from the Hsuan-te (1424) era to the close of the eighteenth century. but there also made its appearance a hard-paste porcelain so excellent and so far in advance of anything previously seen in the same line. vogue. or ware of which Concerning the body [tat) had been removed [to). Its great thinness and transparency suggest the idea that the porcelain clay has been entirely removed and the glazing material alone left.

Now H'siang in his white Catalogue illustrates a cup of Tung-lo porcelain. held that the true To-tai-ki dates from the Tung-lo era. They have 254 a peculiar shape. These did not at all resemble the porcelains of later times of which the majority had decoration in blue eras. in the Imperial produced Facspecies was originally during the Cheng-hwa era (1465-1487). He adds that several similar cups were extant in his time (second half of sixteenth century).CHINA This appellation of Chin-to-tai. or true [chin) To-tai." that the manufacture of very thin hard-paste porcelain dates from a period fifty years later than the Tung-lo era. which were of uniform tint. But there is evidence to show that the author of the Tao-lu erred in this matter. and that they were highly appreciated by collectors of taste. otherwise a more trustworthy authority. compiled his illustrated catalogue nearly two hundred and fifty years earlier. ' The cups of pure tone and brilliant white of the Lung-ching and Wan-li eras were infinitely superior in thinness and beauty to those decoIt would appear from this extract rated with blue. it will be remembered. H'siang in fact lived less than a century after the Cheng-hwa era. the . a pure white. in 1815. and subsequently in private workshops throughout the Lung-ching (i 567-1 572) and Wan-li (1573-16 19) tory During the two last reigns the porcelains most esteemed were those of the Tan-pi^ or egg-shell/ variety. whereas H'siang. while Ching was separated from that era by three centuries and a half. Bowls of the ware are preserved by them with the greatest care. By Chinese connoisseurs of the present day also it is unanimously sous couverte. appending to the picture a description that the ware was as thin as paper and that it was called To-tai. He wrote.

This point is worthy of note.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES not being curved. warn amateurs against confounding the Kuan-yao of the Ming and Tsing dynasties with the similarly called and similarly written Kuan-yao of the Sung dynasty. as shown in a previous . and the pure white of the sides base. in the case of incised decoration it is often necessary to look through the piece by sunlight in order to see On the bottom of genuine specimens. the design. or floral sprays. It is necessary. for it constitutes a distinguishing feature between the Tung-lo white porcelain and that of the Kang-hsi and Chien-lung eras of the present dynasty. though smooth and shining. to ware" was given. which. and to the Tung-lo hard-paste porcelain the appellation Kuan- yaOy or "official therefore. he finds now another source of confusion in the name applied to the new To-tai-ki. between which careless or ignorant writers fail altogether to distinguish. but sloping rapidly to the is very small in proportion to the circumThe porcelain is exceedference of the upper rim. the usual designs being dragons or phoenixes (or both together) among So fine is the technique that clouds. These specimens have glaze offers decoration either incised or in relief. The Tiian potters' imitation of the Sung Ting-yao was called "imperial ware" [Shu-fu-yao). which an immediate contrast to the opaque mellow tone of the Ting-yao. The glaze. In addition to the fact that the student is henceforth confronted by soft-paste and hard-paste porcelains. does not present the solid glossy or oily ap- pearance so often seen in choice Chinese porcelain. inside the bowl. the year-mark ( Ta-Ming Tung-lo nien chi) is always found. ingly thin and delicate. in seal character. either engraved or in relief.

Towards the close of the Wan4i era (1574— 1620) the manufacture came to an end. was celadon and celadon only. Nor indeed is it of the least importance that such distinctions should be drawn. There are no recognised features by which. there is quoted a portion of the " Memoirs from the Pavilion for Sunning Books. to the copiousness of production during the last named era that the author of the Tao-lu fell into his misconception as to the ware's history. since all the surviving specimens of To-tai-ki dating from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries are of first-rate quality. on the occasion of the new moon and full moon fairs at one of the great Buddhist temples in Peking. In a book called the Tao-shuo. It was owing. and those with the marks of Hsuan-te or Cheng-hwa twice as much and — — 256 ." which were written at the end of the Ming dynasty (about 1640). the connoisseur can determine the period of any specimen of To-tai-ki manufactured between 1493 ^^^ 1620. the rich men used to throng to look at the old porcelain bowls " Plain white cups of Wan-li porcelain exhibited. Hsuan-t^ (1426— 1435) potters were not less successful doubtless the Imperial factory remained in the same hands during both the Yung-lo and the Hsuan-te and the great porcelain period of Cheng-hwa reigns (1465— 1488) contributed many fine specimens. the term Kuan-yao has been applied in China to all choice wares which had the honour of being specially manufactured for use in the Palace. It says that. ginning of the fifteenth century until the present day.CHINA From the bechapter. in all probability. in the absence of year-marks. were several taels of silver each. The manufacture of thin white porcelain of the Totai'ki class continued from the Tung-lo era onwards.

The potter made no secret of the fact that his was only a modern imitation. famed for his exquisitely delicate white porcelain. Admitted to Tang's presence. The Tao-lu tells a curious story illustrative of his remarkable ability. and then repaired a second time to Tang's Tamen. and he was also able to imitate the white Ting-yao of the Sung dynasty so perfectly that the connoisseurs of his time failed to distinguish the reproduction from the original. Here is a similar one of mine. He could make wine-cups weighing less than the forty-eighth part of an ounce. and begged permission to examine an ancient tripod of Ting-yao which the latter possessed. Returning immediately to Ching-te-chen. Then he copied the form of the design on a paper which he concealed in his sleeve. One day he called at the residence of an important official called Tang. Among the Wan-li experts was one Hao Shih-chiu. Bushell). he passed six months there.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES Already theremore'' (translated by Dr. The tripod was produced. Pieces of his surviving now might evidently pass for Sung ware among any virtuosi. and ended by selling it for sixty pieces of silver to Tang. Hao took its measure accurately with his hand. IX. Even the stand and cover of his own tripod fitted that of Hao exactly. He compared the new tripod with his own precious piece and could detect no difference. 17 257 . Hao took from his sleeve a tripod " Your Excellency is the possessor of a and said tripod censer of white Ting-yao. A few years : — VOL. who placed it in his collection as a companion to the Sung tripod. fore an interval of less than half a century had sufficed to deprive the Ching-te-chen potters of the skill exercised by their Wan-li predecessors." Tang was astonished.

as was the practice at the Ting-chou factory. The true Ting-yao. strongly marked crackle constitutes a prin- cipal feature in another variety of soft-paste porcelain dating probably from about the Cheng-hwa era. after that he dreamed of nothing else. a brother virtuoso. as already stated. for the most part. 258 . the student may conclude with confidence that there was produced at tolerable Ching-te-chen throughout the greater part of the Ming dynasty a soft-paste porcelain resembling Sung The one of absolute identity. This anecdote is interesting. but probably produced. he persuaded Tang to part with Hao's tripod for a sum of fifteen hundred pieces of silver. who was paying a visit to Tang. dence to that effect. In thinness and quality of biscuit this ware closely resembles the Ting-yao. a which defect is usually hidden by a In Japanese collections may be seen not metal ring. Others have floral designs cut in distinctly darker in colour. But fine. Thus in the older specimens the upper rims are unglazed. although there is no direct evicentury. is not crackled. during the Ming dynasty. as showing not only the enormous value attaching to specimens of fine and rare porcelain three hundred years ago in China. that the Ming keramists did not stove their bowls and cups in an indiscernible difference is Ting-yao almost to the point verted position. saw the tripods and was so enamoured of them Ultimately. much entreaty. but its glaze is more lustrous and Small bowls of it often have their outer surface fluted so as to resemble th© calyx of a flower. but also the fact that the soft-paste white Ting-yao was successfully copied at the close of the sixteenth Indeed. few choice pieces resembling in all respects the Ting-yao and Shu-fu-yao.CHINA later.

MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES the biscuit so that the edges of the pattern are deThis pressed and the centre appears to be in relief. at Sz'chou. it never has any marks of date or ware is a great favourite factory. that at ter III. also began to work under the Sung. It had its origin during the Sung was at Su-chou. six factories existing at The Tao-lu states that of the an early period in the province of Kiang-nan. according to the Tao-lu^ resembled the cel- when genuine scarce.) The fourth factory which the potter Peng (vide Ting-yao. Its soft-paste porcelain. producing soft-paste white porcelain of considerable merit. relegating it to a lower rank than The third facthat assigned to the ware of Su-chou. from which time its products ceased to deserve a place among art objects. The second factory. Tuan and Ming is dynasties. but the author of the Tao-lu pronounces them to have been decidedly inferior. Its out- have supported comparison with true Indeed. except that the glaze lacked lustre. with Japanese collectors who call it Nyo-fuy according to their pronunciation of Kiang-nan. and was in large demand. however. especially Ting-yao of Pechili began to grow Su-chou pieces then passed for true Ting-yao. Chapworked during the Tuan dynasty. its quality. Ting-yao. the province where it was manufactured. good specimens of Peng-yao are described as bearing is come said to 259 . ebrated Ting-yao. It worked throughout the tory was at Hsuan-chou. Like the Ting-yao. dynasty and continued active until the end of the seventeenth century. It is necessary now to turn for a moment to the Kiang-nan workshops. five were devoted to the manufacture Of these the most important of white porcelain. and produced soft-paste porcelain of the Ting-yao type.

developed Their pieces commanded high prices special skill. of Kiang-si a factory in the Ki-chou district followed Brief allusion has already been made the same line. the term " Tingyao '' came to be applied in a sense wider than the — — 260 . Representative pieces had thin white pate and brilliant glaze. also manufactured at Yang-chiang in Kwang-tung. There to this factory in the chapter on Sung wares. Kiang-nan was not the only province where softpaste porcelain of the Ting-yao type constituted a In the southern province staple of keramic industry. at Swatow in the same province. Chiao. and ranked almost on a par with true Ting-yao. obtained a large share of public favour. perts Shu-Hung and his daughter. had about thirty furnaces. all engaged in kilns. Finally there is the factory at Pai-tu-chin (vil- lage of white clay) where a ware called Siao-yao manufactured originally turning the Sung dynasty. and subsequently. gave employment to several hundred potters. The factory ceased to work in the second half of the Ware of the same character was thirteenth century. in the days of its prosperity. producing white and five were Among the expurple porcelains of the Ting kind. There is no doubt that as the lapse of time rendered connoisseurs less familiar with the distinctive of the porcelains emfeatures often insignificant inating from these various factories. though they are said to have been thicker and coarser.CHINA such a close resemblance to the Ting-yao of Pechili that only skilled connoisseurs could detect the difference. and was under the orders of a director-general. According to a work quoted in the Tao-lu. this factory. They were of similar colour to Ting-yao and did not much yield to it in excellence of technique.

exists in the great majority of cases and is usually large and irreg. The biscuit is close.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES limits of strict accuracy permitted. though not an essential feature. large pieces are practically non-existent. The characteristic type is a large vase or ewer. the old soft-paste porcelains of Kiang-nan stand on a high plane of ular. and having paint-like creamy glaze of varying lustre and uneven thickness. and heavy spoken of above that known in Japan as Nyo-ju with its oily. at rare intervals. question of the The Kwan-tung tively pieces. now extant. grey stone-ware. Crackle. Another technical skill. is very charming. When there is they may be unhesitatingly referred either to the later Ching-te-chen potters. its buff colour often showing tinges of blue. for the collector to confine the appella- tion to specimens having soft pdte^ thin biscuit. rich but not brilliant glaze of creamy white or slightly buff tinge. and ornamentation incised or in relief. fine crackle. thin pate. On the other hand. and warm greyish buff colour. are all comparaheavy and coarse Chinese virtuosi place them in the Tu-ting (Ting pottery) rank. It will be well. decorated with a scroll of lotus or peony in high relief. designs in bas-relief. Among the early specimens of Kwang-yao there were doubtless many that deserve to be spoken of in higher terms. especially in well manipulated examples. lustrous glaze. or Kwan-tung. He may examples early further take — round it for granted that though small bowls plates or pyramidal — of Ting-yao may be found latter. Kiang-si. or to the factories of Kiang-nan. too thick to be properly classed with pate tendre^ but not infrequently approaching that type. But if they survive they are no longer taken account of by connoisseurs. therefore. The variety — — 261 .

and careful technique. Judging by the care evidently bestowed on the manufacture of these pieces. it is impossible to class them in an inferior grade of keramic objects. The majority of the best specigoes without saying. mens now extant are probably from the hands oi Ming paste The best test of age is that they should fulfil the general rules applicable to good porcelain as to fineness and thinness of biscuit uniformity and lustre of glaze. but occasionally the glaze is covered with net-work When this is the case the pate of very fine veining. either incised or in relief. Indications pointing with any distinctness to the age of the soft: Kiang-nan porcelains are difficult to fix. There is no ornamentation. — 262 .CHINA characteristic variety deserves special mention. According to the author of the Tao-lu. The most characteristic of these vases are without crackle. It would be more proper to say that they confined their manufacture to this or early Tsing experts. and the ware depends entirely on the softness and delicacy of its general appearance. the Nan-ting type of the ware. has usually greater weight and thickness. It has thin and strikingly light biscuit covered w^ith lustreless glaze that shows a distinct tinge of buff and so closely resembles the shell of an at egg as to proclaim once its maker's intention. That examples of the work of the Sung or even of the Yuan potters survive only in the smallest numbers. esteemed for the sake of their perfect adaptability as their quiet mellow surface consorts adflower vases mirably with brilliant as with sober blossoms. the potters of Ching-te-chen imitated only the Fang-ting-yao^ or rice-flour variety of Ting-yao that is to say. though they may not rank as high as the In Japan they have always been Ting-yao proper.

fect. thicker. is considerably relief. or The pate is reddish brown. as may easily be conjectured. beautiful varieties of this later Ting-yao it is difficult to In one the biscuit is so thin assign the preference. In another variety the biscuit. in generally parallel running lines crackle and its colour varies from cream grey to light buff. It is mens. but even in the most highly finished examples of the latter. usually dragons grasping jewels among flames. waxiness rather than gloss or oiliness is to be Further. and so accurately cut as to resemble The glaze is crackled. flying phoenixes. though of the same quality and fineness. in as pipe-clay. is on the side of the specimens having thicker biscuit. crackle differs from that of the last mentioned variety In lustre the advantage in being round or angular. a shining glaze would be incongruous recognise that . and the technique is in all respects perimpossible to be deceived in these speciThey commend themselves at once to the most ignorant amateur. for. copied for the most part from ancient bronzes. but the impressions in wax. in order to carry decoration in The designs employed in this case are always purely conventional. the connoisseur will readily looked for. Incised — — the biscuit are delicate designs." dynasty and during the eras of Kang-hsi.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES class. Tung-ching^ and Chien-lung they manufactured numerous pieces some of which were facsimilies of Sung Ting-yaOy while others resembled it only in the nature of their Among three pate and the colour of their glaze. twelve or fourteen inches high only weighs that a vase It has boldly crackled glaze the a few ounces. the developments and improvements introduced by them scarcely Throughout the Ming justify the term " imitators. as fine scrolls of peonies.

the glaze is of the Fan-ting type say. and it is impossible to speak too highly of the technical skill shown in its manufacture. yellowish grey or light buff. easily crumbles away. for inasmuch as only the best experts in each epoch set themselves to produce such ware. third kind is connoisseur's difficulty is to determine the date of a specimen. is granulated like the skin of a lime. The not the least remarkable and is certainly It resembles the second in the rarest of the three. It should be observed. too. if once chipped. the soft. which. age and excellence do not necessarily go together. In the list of porcelains The — — 264 . like the surface decoration. waxy appearance specimens also occur having a pure These are remarkable for white and glossy surface. but its surface. instead of being crackled. Passing now.CHINA on vellum-like egg-shell ware with incised such as designs. thin Ting-yao of the first class. from soft-paste to hardpaste porcelain. that as a rule only ware of the second variety described here has year-marks. they are in relief. the solidity of its biscuit and in its sharply cut decoration in relief. Examples having the mark of the Yung-ching era (1723— 1736) are in every respect comparable with those referred to in a much earlier period. though Chinese connoisseurs attach much importance to this point. once more. with a soft. and that. Unfortunately Chinese writers seldom make any distinction based on the nature of the pate. it appears from the Kang-hsi era downwards many beautiful and valuable specimens were produced. Very graceful shapes were chosen by the modellers of this choice porcelain. the brittleness of their glaze. Although in the three choice varieties here dethat is to scribed.

they were nevertheless without the unctuous gloss so highly In esteemed in wares of a more solid character. of pure white. The lines of the waves were engraved as fine as silk. belonged to this category. Tea Cups with dragons engraved under the glaze. Dishes of pure white. and highly finished. Wine Vessels of oval form with crested sea-waves faintly engraved under the white glaze. and the eff^ect of curling These Ming manucrests was obtained very happily. polished. and the same looseness of phraseology disfigures the Tao-lus classifications. Hao devoted much of his skill to reproductions of Sung Ting-yao also. The wave-pattern spoken of in the Imperial Requisition quoted above was a favourite design for incised decoration on hard-paste ware. such as rice-bowls. The delicate Totai-ki and the feather-like cups of the great Wan-li expert Hao Shi-chiu. and so forth. however. Wine Cups of pure white enamel. that from the Lung-lo era downwards pure white porcelain vessels. Smooth. as has been seen. Tea Cups of oval section with foliated rim. JVine Pots of vase form with spouts. 265 . wine-cups. were chiefly of the hard-paste variety. It is pretty certain. although. Wine Cups and Libation Cups with engraved phoenixes and cranes.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES requisitioned for Imperial use in the year 1529 the following occur under the head of " White Porcelain " : — Rice Bowls with crested sea-waves faintly engraved under the glaze. There is nothing in the text to show whether these pieces had hard or soft paste. factures did not show a strikingly lustrous surface. tea-cups.

CHINA fact connoisseurs their favourite exacted some resemblance to still and venerable type. It is on coming to the Kang-hsi era (1661) that the connoisseur begins to find a wealth of beautiful For at least fifty years white hard-paste porcelain. This temporary failure of supply may account for a break in the manufacture of choice hard-paste porcelain. from the " Memoirs from the Pavilion for Sunning Books. the Ting-yao. not less Were there any certain indication of the scarce. and such specimens as remained from epochs prior to 1600 had become precious as gems and. its peculiarly soft deli- And if in colour also the hard-/>^/^ porcelain be likened to a hen's egg. the appearance of the Fan-ting-yao may not inaptly be compared to that of an ostrich egg. As for the soft-paste type. But the reason usually assigned cient. . on the whole. excellently describes cate texture. In the Tao-lu it is stated that the best porcelain clay used by the Ching-te-chen potters came from a locality to the east of the factories that the supply was exhausted towards the close of the Ming dynasty. The epithet Tan-pi (egg-shell) applied to the surface of the most esteemed white porcelain of the sixteenth century. but that subsequently new beds were discovered in the same neighbourhood. causes responsible for the cessation of the manufacture." shows that a keen demand for the ware existed among the public. the composition of its biscuit is matter of con- — political troubles — The . there would also be a clew to the technical secrets of these choice wares. and that its production would have been a lucrative business independently of official patronage. the manufacture had virtually ceased. is evidently insuffiquotation given above.

A special kind of clay found at Ta-u-ling. but unfortunately this point remains obscure. The paste is fine as pipe-clay. lustre. — incised so as to decoration. or floral sprays — — usually dragons. the designs are sunk in the biscuit be almost imperceptible except by transThe glaze is of dazzling purity and mitted light. It is at all events certain that the potters of the Kang-hsi. same remark applies to Ting-yao porcelain. M. d'Entrecolles' account of biscuit made. This would indicate that the old-time ware referred to was of the celadon type. one reason for its selection being that it gave a peculiarly strong. : 267 . from steatite. and employed chiefly for glazing material. wholly or partially. which is wholly different from the Ting-yao. libation cups. conveying the impression of snow-white oil. is said to have been often used for making biscuit by imitators of old-time ware. and plates the nature of the decoration is not well suited phoenixes. durable pate. Their hard-paste white porcelain may be conveniently classified according the nature of its decoration In the choicest type of incised or in relief. of pitting. or of dulled This class of lustre is a fatal mark of inferiority. Tungching. As already seen. indicates a product closely resembling the The soft paste of blue-and-white Kai-pien ware.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES jecture. Nothing distinguishes this beautiful porcelain so much as the peculiar richness and unctuousThe slightest symptom of an ness of its surface. air-bubble. ware occurs chiefly in bowls. and Chien-lung eras yielded nothing to their Ming predecessors in their knowledge of materials and their skilful methods of combining them so as to produce both hard and soft pates of perfect quality. and the timbre is sharp and clear. of discontinuity.

polish. in a whiter substance When either of the latter materials is used. floral scrolls being a favourite subject.CHINA effect of transmitted light would and not so choice type of insecond be lost. Not the least pleasing type of hard-paste porcelain thus decorated has the designs formed either with the same clay of which the biscuit is made. gntp in the pdte^ and thick biscuit represent inferior workmanship and a degenerate era. like chiselled metal. unctuous glazes are especially more translucid and less adapted to these large pieces. the decoration shows through the glaze like a tracery of white lace. the decoration it generally covers the whole suris more elaborate Large face. whereas in the latter everything is round and soft. that. and purity of surface are essential marks of excellence. but. that in the former the designs often have clean-cut edges and angles. namely. in all such wares smoothness. or traced steatite or fibrous gypsum. while the glaze itself. The thinner and lighter the It is evident that biscuit. mens of this class does not show such velvet-like smoothness and lustre as distinguish the glaze of the fomer variety. As to decoration in relief a distinction should be noted between soft-paste and hard-paste porcelain. A watery glaze tinned with blue or green. graceful vases and capacious ewers. Decoration in relief where the porcelain pate itself is used to trace the design usually covers the whole surface to vases in which the In a : — 268 . cised decoration the design is engraved as though The surface of speciwith the point of a fine style. specimens are to be found in this class. unevenness of surface. in choice specimens. on the other hand. but the amateur may take it as a rule. is of velvet-like smoothness and lustre. the choicer the piece.

of course. white of steatite is called ' ivory-white. d'Entrecolles. be placed in the first rank of their kind." M. which is then left to dry and subsequently covered with glaze. speaking of steatite as a substance for decorating porcelain in bas-relief. After what has been written above. d'Entrecolles adds. and traces various designs upon the surface of the pate. of the beauty of such ware depends on deliPieces satisfycacy of technique and lustre of glaze. the reader need scarcely Hard-paste porcebe told that this is a misnomer. ing a high standard in both these respects fully They are deserve the admiration lavished on them. in the Much . Not infrequently the glaze of a specimen otherwise excellent lacks lustre and brilliancy without acquiring compensatory softness. made then dissolves one of these in water. relief are known as Tui-hwa-ki. has come to be applied distinctively Vases with decoration in to the hard-paste variety.' " With a subtile 269 . lain with incised decoration is known as Chu-hwa-ki a name which. says it is employed that after the mineral has been purified into little bricks. though The The effect produced is as vapour had crept over the surface. not uncommon in China. but really fine examples have always commanded high figures. " these designs appear of a different white from '* The workman When the body of the piece. M. though so far as its meanin China ing goes it might reasonably be used of any ware thus decorated. Into this he dips his brush. Foreign collectors often apply the term Ting-yao to hard-paste porcelain with incised decoration. the porcelain is stoved.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES form of floral scrolls and bands of leaves. forming a liquid of some consistency. Such pieces cannot.

that before use it must first be fibrous as gypsum After this it is pounded and thrown into a vessel of water. Sometimes gilding is applied to these figures. which is used in the same fashion as steatite. however. mass. which is stirred. one peculiarity about the gypsum. namely. CHINA regard to the use of fibrous gypsum. the same writer ** says Designs are traced upon porcelain with : — well as with steatite. This troublesome tour de force is seldom found upon large Occasionally it occurs in combination with pieces. A rare and beautiful method of treating the surface of hard-paste white porcelain is to channel portions of the biscuit in diapered designs and leave the sunken parts of the pattern unglazed. a white different from that of the body of the piece being thus obtained. and the scum that rises to the surface is Ultimately there remains a pure gradually removed. or it is employed to fill the spaces between medallions having decoration in blue sous subjected to the action of fire. blue decoration sous couverte. In yet another highly esteemed and uncommon variety the surface is cut into lattice-work of marvellous delicacy. Sometimes they stand out prominently from the surface sometimes they appear as a snow-white satiny tracing.. Either this reticulation alone suffices for ornamentation. couverte or white figures modelled in high relief.'' It will of course be understood that the designs traced with these substances vary in degree of relief. 270 . There is. which could never have served for drinking purposes they were intended to contain ashes for setting up sticks of in: cense. Curiously enough specimens of porcelain thus reticulated generally take the form of little cups.

The pate is greyish white. and dexterous finish — — any one. the Te-hwa-yao owed its beauty to texture and tone of glaze rather than to thinness of biscuit or to surface decoration. the tests of excellence for hard-paste white porcelain are easily thinness. Tao-lu. Marked distinction is to be drawn between the white porcelains hitherto discussed and the wellknown " Ivory White. 271 . Confusion has hitherto existed with respect to this latter variety even among the most painstaking and well-informed European connoisseurs. and accuracy of technique. In good specimens it glaze is of wonderful merit." or " Blanc de Chine. applied. On the whole. purity of colour. in the province of Fuh-kien. The Chien-lung pate." of Western collectors. combined with a pinkish tint. and was According to the consequently called Te-hwa-yao. very hard.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES In addition to lustre of glaze. The features of good specimens pure white surface. the quality of the biscuit is a useful criterion of period in hard-paste white porcelain. The white is of a peculiar delicate creaminess. lightness. lustrous. The Ivory White was originally produced at Te-hwa. conveys such an impression of ivory that the porcelain may be Many of identified at once by its European name. and is at once satiny. though fine and close. is softer and more chalky than the pates of the Kang-h'si and Tung-ching eras. indescribably soft. celebrated wares of the Sung and Tuan potters. so that it dates no farther back than the Like the second half of the fourteenth century. the factory was opened during the Ming dynasty. velvet-like gloss of can be appreciated by colour. grain. which. close in The and carefully manipulated.

Libation-cups. the charms of their glaze. but is very thick. never intended to be viewed by transwere indistinct. and similar mythical monsters. cylindrical vases. " the Tao-lu it is said of the factory Most of the cups and bowls manufactured there have their edges slightly turned back. It will be remembered that the same term. . Some specimens. though often tone of rose. It is at Te-hwa that we find at present the ware called Chien-yaOy but it bears no resemblance to the ancient ware of the same name. are thin. relying entirely on Others have incised designs. generally very sketchy in character and others. such as branches of plum. but they enjoyed high reputation as modellers of figures of the goddess Kwan-yin and other Buddhist divinities. The last variety is the commonest and least valuable. however. the characteristic variety of which had lustrous black No two keramic productions glaze with silver lines. though some pieces of it possess merit. The ware is called Pai-tzUy or white porcelain. in fact.CHINA the specimens are perfectly plain. : — 272 . Perhaps the most beautiful and rarest kind is that in which the usually faint pink of the glaze deepens into a distinct The engraved designs. as well as of seals with handles shaped into the Dog In of Fo. The statuettes of Buddha are extremely beautiful. the Kylin. phoenixes. have decoration in high relief. Chien-yaOy was originally applied to one of the most remarkable wares of the Sung Dynasty. mitted light. It has great lustre and polish. as was frequently the case with the hard-paste egg-shell porcelains of Ching-te-chen.'* Chien-yao is. and so forth. again. the name by which Ivory-white porcelain is known today in China. and tripod censers were favourite forms with the Te-hwa potters. dragons.

asHoni V .snBia'H ^o eygoUtsO) m ..trfsisH imaj ^awoaa-auTOJ (.k^^y^-^^a^w^ ao (.MiAja3>io^ aajjaMAT^ra .091 82Bq 693) .

-Mies. as was frequently the case with the jste egg-shell porcelains of Ching-te-chen. phoenixes. though some pieces of it possess merit. most beautiful and rarest kind is that i Perhaps the in vi^hich the lially faint pink of the glaze deepens into a distinct The engraved designs. were never intended to be viewed by translight. again. but they enjoyed high reputation as modellers of figures of the goddess Kwan-yin and other Buddhist divinities. decoration in high relief.)« : :actory — " Most _. designs. in fact. The statuettes of Fiuddha are extremely beautiful. and have others. It will be remembered that the same term. It has great lUvStre and polish.the specimens are perfectly plain. "(Seepage 190. Is call< Th* white porcelain. dragons. Chien-yao^ was originally applied to one of the most remarkable wares of the Sung Dynasty." Chien-yao is. very sketchy in character. and tripod censers were favourite forms with the Te-hwa potters. are thin. cylindrical vases. It is at Te-hwa that we find at present the ware called Chien-yaoy but it bears no resemblance to the ancient ware of the same name. though often tone of rose. Some specimens. - - oi the cups and bowls manufactured there have their ed^^es slightly turned back. but is very thick. the name by which Ivory-white porcelain is known today in China. ''-^•-»^inct. No two keramic productions . the characteristic variety of which had lustrous black i^laze with silver lines. Libacion-cups. generally The last variety is the commonest and least valuable. such as branches of plum. handles shaped into the Doe '. however. and so forth. li as of seals wit I. relying entirely on Others have incised the charms of their glaze.

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however.ware period which is white. however. commencing under the early Ming 1400). though carefully finished. it doubtless seemed natural that the later ware should be called Chien-yao^ irrespective of the com- — — — plete dissimilarity sake. and on the revival of the keramic industry at that place under the Ming Emperors. in recent years. a property which. but if any doubt remains an examination of the base of the specimen will probably dispel it. IX. White as Ming Chien-yao. appears to have been then virtually discontinued. The general quality of the glaze and the technique of a piece should be sufficient guides. yao of the Ming and Tsing Dynasties Both. 18 273 . [circ. was continued with success It Emperors until the latter half of the eighteenth century. is left uncovered. Ivory-white porcelain has at all times been more highly esteemed outside China than by the Chinese VOL. But the amateur can easily avoid such deceptions if he remembers that in genuine pieces of Ivory White the ware is always translucid when held up to the light. and palmed off upon unwary collectors. derived their translucid porcelain. is only possessed in a comparatively slight degree by the modern product. between it By way of distinction and its earlier nameChinese connoisseurs often speak of the Ivory Its production. number of specimens are now produced.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES could be more unlike than the Chien-yao of the Sung and the Chienwhich is opaque stone. to A considerable be revived. whereas the modern potter is fond of hiding his inferior pate by roughly overspreading it with a coat of glaze. if not entirely absent. name from the district of their manufacture in the province of Fuh-kien. In the old ware the bottom of a vase or bowl.

in blue under the glaze. let into the paste in gold filigree. rubies. anity began to take root in Japan. where it forms part of an assemblage of Christian relics. The piece is marked below with the seal character fuh. There are two difficulties about this 274 . the Ivory-white Chien-yao naturally went abroad in considerable quantities. blackened by fumes of incense. at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century. set no light value on good specimens. Tokyo. In the Dresden Collection there is preserved a little plate. Thus associated with chil- dren she is known as Kwan-yin^ the Maternal. In some cases the goddess carries a baby in her arms in others. A remarkable collection of these statuettes. when Christierror still survives. It is said to have been brought by a crusader from Palestine in the twelfth century. beautiful. is preserved in the Imperial Museum of Antiquities in the Ueno Park. and manufactured in the very province where stood Ch'iian-chou-fu. said to be of this ware. and from the association bold inferences have been deduced by tracers of Buddhistic and Christian affinities. too. with uncut jewels. an accident that led the Japanese to attribute it to Korean factories and to call it '' Haku-gorai'' or "Korean White. It need scarcely be observed that a demand in Japan for this form of Kwan-yin would soon have created a supply. two or three children. In Japan it was from the first a It seems to have come to that country originally from Korea.CHINA themselves. Solid. . though they. the principal mart of China's foreign commerce. statuettes of Kwan-yin (Japanese. and emeralds. Kuan-non) in Ivorywhite porcelain were used as substitutes for images of the Virgin Mary.*' The Curiously enough. she is accompanied by strong favourite.

white porcelain as a rule has no marks of either date or factory. MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES Ivory-white porcelain was not manufactured in China so early as the twelfth century secondly. is or Tung-lo Nien-chiy in seal The hard-paste white porceall lain of the present dynasty. that the plate really in the came into the manner described or that it Nothing is so misleading as tradiIn the tion where objects of art are in question. on the bottom of the inner surface. Choice examples of soft-paste white porcelain often have the year-mark of their period in relief. been used by the celebrated warrior Yoshitsune. . theory. Of Ivory-white porcelain. in the twelfth century. the priests show among other precious relics a flute said to have Dresden collection is a genuine speci- men of Chien-yao.. however. First. it is in all respects a beautiful example of keramic skill. Before dismissing this part of the subject. in Japan. ware always carry. the ideographs Tung-lo character in bas-relief. a ware must be noticed one variety of which belongs to the 275 . Japanese antiquarians. if exceptional — has the marked at mark painted — which in blue sous couverte. are correct as to its age they say that no specimens of it reached their country before the close of the fourteenth century. A notable exception. That the flute never belonged to Yoshitsune and could not have been manufactured until two centuries after his death. temple of Benten at Hakone. though mistaken as to the orign of Ivory-white porcelain. is the Genuine bowls of this beautiful Tung-lo To-tai-ki. though Hard-paste they are not necessarily so distinguished. are facts scarcely admitting of dispute. the Te-hwo-yao or Chien-yao is never marked It is most improbable with blue under the glaze.

the Tsu-chou-yao deteriorated in quality of pate and became more finally or less coarse stone-ware. This point need not be elaborated. There is no record of the exact date of its origin. according to the Tao-lu. It is the Tsu-chou-yaOy so called from a place of the same name originally included in the province of Honan but now within the Southern boundaries of Pechili. The best known variety of the ware has decoration over the glaze in pigment ranging from black to light brown. They further said to have closely resembled the latter ware.CHINA white monochromatic class. at which time." some confusion has resulted. If any such they have ceased. being identical in sound and shape with the ideograph signifying "porcelain. degenerating into faience of a common and unattractive fine type. or mythical animals. but the factory was certainly active during the Sung dynasty. however. phoenixes. ventional character — rudely traced floral scrolls. The Tsu-chou-yao is undoubtedly one of the old-time wares of China. Collectors are very unlikely to meet with examples of pure white Tsu-chou-yao. too. while another should be included with ware decorated over the glaze. uct. is known of their pate it was heavier and slightly coarser than that of the Ting chou prodThe glaze. but for the rest the two wares may have been easily confounded in the palmy days of the Tsu chou potFrom the Ming dynasty downwards. its reputation stood so high that choice specimens comare manded higher but from what prices than even Ting-yao. The designs are always of archaic or conexist. The ideograph tsu. apparently. used in writing the name of this place. dragons. to be identifiable. was thinner and less lustrous. ters. interest attaches to the A special ware owing 276 to the esteem in .

" A few specimens. In very rare instances vitrifiable enamels were sparsely employed for surface decoration. who. but on the whole the Tsu-chou-yao has little interest for Western collectors.MONOCHROMATIC GLAZES which it has always been held by Japanese virtuosi. the colours being confined to green and red. intended for use as censers. imagining it to be of Korean origin. give it the name of E-gorai. or " Painted Korean. or Dogs of Fo. 277 . Large quantities of the ware are now produced in the shape of coarse utensils for household use. in the forms of geese. ducks. show clever modelling.

celadon and soft-paste all white porce- the choicest of indeed." The author. There is much uncertainty w^ith regard to the time when red glazes were first produced. this red. but the red Ting [Hung-ting) and the white were alone esteemed at the time [Sung dynasty)." To this quotation the remark "It is thus seen that among Ting porcelains some were red. Brown and black Tings were also made. Jade of Jo-chou/ They could hold : — * their own : against the true Ting vases in red porcelain. that is to say.CHINA Chapter X [Continued) MONOCHROMATIC WARES RED AFTER lain. and grudge no price to acquire a fine specimen. since among the choice reds of China are to be found the grandest and most decorative colours ever produced in the pottery furnace. The Tao-lu^ quoting from a memoir called the Chiang-ki^ says " Porcelain vases of Ching-tc-chen were named Jo-yu. monochromes are In European and American estimaorder is reversed . red it is glazes are placed in the very highest rank. tion. and not to be denied that there are excellent grounds for the verdict. it will be observed. Many Chinese collectors also hold reds in superlative esteem. had no other evidence 278 — author of the Tao-lu adds the .

glaze was undoubtedly well understood. During the Tuan dynasty (i 260-1 367) red in the glaze seems to have been used only as an auxiliary. it appears that whether pure red monochromes were produced or not. could properly have been described by such a name. and living. be strictly classed among monochromes. collector. moreover. makes no mention of red Ting-yaOy though he carefully enumerates the varieties of that beautiful ware which were most highly esteemed in the sixteeenth century. the use of red in the H'siang. imitations made at Ching-te-chen.MONOCHROMATIC WARES than a solitary quotation from an ancient memoir to support his dictum that red glazes were manufactured On the other hand. apparently a keener connoisseur than the writer of the Tao-lu. It is found associated. therefore. there is a glaze called Hai-tung'hungy in consequence of its resemblance to the colour of the Pyrus Japonic a blossom. to the Chun-yao of the Sung dynasty. so far as is known. made at Ching-te-chen during the present dynasty. though not inferior. In a variety of the same ware. and supposed to have had its prototype in the Sung Chiin-yao. says that in the decoration none excelled the vermilion red and the aubergine purple. himself a so far back. None of the original Sung pieces. however. finely flecked with clair-de-lune y and cannot. The student must be content. Turning. H'siang. to leave this point unelucidated so far as the Ting-yao is concerned. therefore. had a glaze of exceedingly delicate red." The typical Chiin-yaOy familiar to modern collectors from genuine Sung specimens or later. in the form of splashes or 279 . " of the colours used speaking of this ware. three centuries nearer the times of which he wrote.

for the reds of their fine porcelains were in truth a poem. speaks of the same red as " the colour of liquid tive The dawn its '' i^Liu-/i ia-hung").CHINA clouds. To produce this red the potters mixed with the glaze the powder of a precious red stone which came from the Occident." The expression Chi-kung signifies the clear red of the sky after rain. In point of fact. On emerging from the kiln the fish blazed out from the body. It will be observed quoted by the Tao-lu is somewhat confusing. being applicable equally to white porcelain decorated with red fishes. : glaze was lustrous and thick. a term finely descrip- pure brilliancy. Such poetic epithets were not unnaturally employed by the Chinese.'' further reference need not be made to it here. and durable. era (1426.'' and that they were The same book quotes this glossy. dazzling reds that subsequently became so priceless in the eyes of ChiAmong the porcelains of the Hsuan-te nese virtuosi. but as the former has already been included in the section of "porcelain having decoration under the glaze. "In the Hsuan-te period passage from another work there were manufactured at the Imperial workshop cups of the red called Chi-hung. having handles shaped like fishes.143 5) the Tao-lu says that vases of rouge vif were classed as ** precious. that the description 280 . in his Illustrated Catalogue. The two varieties of Hsuan-te ware that belong to the present part of clear. with the beautiful clair-de-lune glaze for which the epoch was famous. H'siang. Not until the Ming dynasty is the student unques- tionably confronted with the grand. both kinds were manufactured with marked success by the Hsuan-te experts. solid. or to red porcelain having fish-shaped handles.

that the Hsuan-te experts were veritable masters in the production of red monochromes." In tint. gives two examples. and the owner of the wine-pot had paid some three thousand dollars (gold) for it. a wine-pot and a " palace saucershaped dish. first." The glaze of the former he calls " deep red " and that of the latter " bright red. that having a portion of the and second. Catalogue. says that there were two kinds. referring to the Chi-hung porcelains of the Hsuan-t^ era. At the time when H'siang wrote. and it is almost equally evident that specimens of their best work need not be looked for by How then foreign collectors of the present time. the " precious stone red " being fuller and deeper than the " bright : and "precious stone red" [Pao-shithis distinction was not radical it re- of copper. but the manufacturing processes remain to this day red. a favourite addition to choice pieces. hungry but ferred only to a difference of tone. " bright red [Hsien-hung) . surface red and the remainder white Examples of that having its whole surface red. three hundred years ago. both varieties are depicted by H'siang in his Illus. was this wonderful red obtained ? The Tao-lu.'' glaze of " rosy dawn both cases the surface of the specimens is covered with engraved designs. The upper part is covered with deep red trated and the lower with snowwhite glaze. therefore." silicate Both were obtained from 281 . It is quite evident." MONOCHROMATIC WARES of the subject are. The surface is described as having milletOf the second variety he like marks in faint relief. three and a half inches in high and inches three diameter. the two colours showing a dazzling contrast. this tiny censer was valued at a thousand taels. Of the first he shows a censer.

Undoubtedly the production of a fine red was always regarded as a keramic tour de force in China. referring to the Tao-lu s statement. and a that their manufacture was only attempted by artists who that imitated the choice old Kuan-yao (celadon) is — to say. A Chinese doctor tells me that the stone is a species of alum which is used for medicinal purposes. and that infinitesimal variations in the condition of the kiln made themselves apparent When M. The eminent chemist confirmed by what we know of the difficulties experienced in maintaining oxide of copper (in the form of silicate of protoxide) at a high temperature in the presence of an abundance of atmoIndeed. but in its place there . says — no is applied to the paste before stoving other glazing matter is employed." Chinese experts could never cope absolutely with these difficulties.: CHINA mystery. I am assured that when this colour is to be given to porcelain no petuntse is used in forming the pate. those who The have the secret being careful not to divulge it. Salvetat. it is probable that the best spheric air. I have not been able to discover the quantity of these ingredients. compound 282 . by specialists. making at investigated the subject of porcelain Ching-te-chen. the urine of a youth and petrosilex being added to them at the same time. In the Tao-lu it is stated that few potters were capable of producing the Chi-hung vases. These are ground in a mortar. is : — " This M. he took pains to acquaint himself with the methods pursued by the manufacturers of How far he succeeded will Chi-hung monochromes. " Red be apparent from his account of the matter oxide of copper and the powder of a certain reddish stone were mixed. d'Entrecolles in the tone of the glaze.

mand. It would be exceedingly interesting to know how the Chinese by this account." shows at least that the preparation whether Hsien-hung [rouge vif) or of the red glaze PaO'shi'hung (ruby-red) was a work demanding the greatest skill and experience.MONOCHROMATIC WARES is mixed with the kaolin a yellow earth prepared in It is conceivable that the same way as petun-tse. but it is pretty certain that with the exception of trifling modifications thus caused. ought to have bequeathed to posterity some fine examples of this highly prized monochrome. are now known only by written descriptions and by H'siang's illustrations. however useful. Cheng-hwa (1465— 1487) potters suggests that they too. But in their time attention was especially directed to decoration with vitrifiable enamels. none of the fine Chinese reds can by any possibility be reproduced on paper they lose the brilliancy and lustre to which so much of their beauty is due. and they seemed to have used red chiefly as an auxiliary. The enormous values quoted by H'siang for the : Chi-hung pieces illustrated in his catalogue prove that the successful production of such ware had virtually ceased before the era of which he wrote (second half The great renown of the of sixteenth century). he owed nothing Of course these early Ming specimens to accident. 283 . it — — potter originally achieved this admirable mono- Complete success he could never comchrome. At all events. Indeed. owing to the extreme sensitiveness of his materials to atmospheric influences during stoving. which latter. are evidently incapable of conveying any accurate impression of the colour. such a clay is better suited to receive this species of Incomplete as is the information afforded glaze.

the colour called Fan-hung^'' that is to say. and the result obtained with it was correspondingly inferior. But the question of colouring material is Peroxide of iron was incomparably easier to plain. as described by M. add to each ounce of this five ounces of carbonate of lead. it must evidently borrow a sufficiency of silica from the porcelain itself. is no means of determining. and the mode of stoving them ceased to be the same With difficulty could they make vases of as before. The potters of this time succeeded admirably in the two tones of red. manipulate than silicate of copper. and mix the two with glue. and confirmed by the Tao-lu and Dr. d'Entrecolles. Bushell. rouge vif and ruby. Salvetat. One sees that such a colour — : — 284 . red obThis is an important tained from peroxide of iron. though there is no reason to suppose that they were much. the earth used for craquele ware was employed in part. What special kind of clay is referred to there fact. less skilled in this direction than their Hsuan-te predecessors. The manner of its preparation. and there is nothing recorded as to a failure in the supply of this petrosilex.CHINA no connoisseur who has written of to their era ascribes them any particular proficiency in the manufacture of red monochromes. says "In order that this colour should vitrify. inasmuch as it is only known that in preparing the porcelain mass for red monochromes of Chi-hung type. era (i 522-1 566) it is recorded: "In this epoch the clay used for rouge vif porcelains was exhausted. if at all. however. was to roast sulphate of iron to a red heat. the production of fine reds was certainly carried on. M. speaking of this process. and left behind them But of the Chia-ching a reputation for such work. During the Cheng-te period (1506-1522).

it is on record that a Censor the Lung-ching era memorialised the Throne to permit the substitution of Fan-hung for Hsien-hung (rouge vif) in the wares But in truth — — for imperial use.MONOCHROMATIC WARES could possess brilliancy only thin layer/' when this applied in a very Fan-hung red was altogether a different matter from the Chi-hungy being in fact an enamel laid over the glaze. but not for an instant comparable to the Chi-hung red. fixed at the low temperature of the enamelling oven. it might be concluded that red monochromes of the clear. though they are said to have fallen far short of their Hsuan-te and Ching-te the fifth of Thus.*' special artists like the renowned Hao Shi-chu (1573— are said to have been brilliant as 1 61 9). During the eras of Lung-ching and Wan-li (1573 — 161 9) Chi-hung (1567.1 572) glazes were still manufactured. with the exception of bright copper red. brilliant type were not produced from that time. coral colour. was all that the best potter could obtain with the peroxide of iron. so as to avoid distressing the facturers manu- who were required to supply porcelains for Probably owing in part to this remonitself have had its origin in a marked deterioration of expert ability. the list of the palace. If. whose cups : — 285 . and not possessing any brilliancy in the sense conveyed by the term An opaque as applied to a monochromatic glaze. then. which must porcelains requisitioned for imperial use in that year " Rice-bowls and saucers of the contained the item vermilion red prepared from iron oxide instead of the Indeed. the keramist of the Ming dynasty ceased to be able to work with any other red colouring matter after the year 1522. strance. in the year 1571 predecessors. Such a conclusion would be exaggerated. fine enough in its way.

are virtually no Ming Chi-hung monochrones in existence. at any rate. and the crimson glow of the sky after rain and storm. (1736— 1785) and even later epochs.CHINA vermilion. ruby red. Chien-lung ( 1 662-1 722). or that. It was then that the much esteemed porcelain known in the West as " Sang de bceuf may be said to have come into existence. and to accept as true indications of their beauty the expressive names deservedly given them by their Chinese admirers. 286 . the potters of Ching-te-chen did not fail to turn their attention to ware so celebrated and highly valued as the Chi-hung monochromes. no specimens of that epoch left China. the illustrations from H'siang's Manuscript and his accompanying descriptions furnish the best and practically the only avail- able guides. the rosy blush of liquid dawn. The red monochromes familiar to American and European virtuosi are from the kilns of Kang-hsi Tung-ching (i 723-1 725). erous myths which bric-a-brac dealers carefully foster Outside China there and collectors readily credit. if any pieces did go Westward their number was quite insignificant. for although it was produced also during the Ming dynasty. It has long been the habit with Western amateurs to ascribe to the Ming factories whatever choice pieces of the Chi-hung class happily come into The delusion belongs to the numtheir possession. and in China they are few and far between. it may be concluded to be that the Chi-hung after monochromes ceased produced the year Concerning these Ming reds. In the great keramic renaissance that took place at the accession of Kang-hsi. The connoisseur must be content to know them vicariously.

the Chihung monochromes were the work of specialists only. F. The Lang family were a family of famous potters who possessed the secret of this peculiar glaze and paste.. it is certain that the fine Langyao known to Western collectors dates. almost without exception. The ware. A. and is thus described in the catalogue "A bottle Langyao-tsu. however. They became extinct about the year i6io. as quoted above. and it would appear that the revival of their manufacture at the commencement of the Kang-hsi era was due to a potter called Lang.MONOCHROMATIC WARES According to the Tao-lu. the following note is appended to the description of " a bottle covered with a deep but brilliant red glaze *' : — : This specimen is from Mr. All efforts have failed." This statement appears to be based on some confusion between the approximate time when Chi-hung glazes ceased to be produced by the Ming potters and the epoch when the last members of the Lang family worked. At any rate.R. porcelain from the Lang furnace. and their pottery is highly esteemed and : — fetches great prices at Peking. In the catalogue of a collection presented to the British Museum by Mr. Mitford's collection. from the middle of the seventeenth to nearly the middle of the eighteenth century. the great majority of choice specimens being from the 287 . W. at all events. is known in China as Lang-yao. A. B.S. and Chinese virtuosi explain this term as having reference to a family of potters celebrated for their skill in achieving red glazes. to discover anything about the exact time when the family flourished. whatever may be the true history of the family. been able successfully to imitate The Chinese have never this ware. or the date when its members ceased to devote themselves to such work. Franks.

could never control the conditions in the kiln sufficiently to count with absolute cer- on the tone and tint of the glaze after firing. But the Lang-yao is the Sang de boeuf of the West. Of course the want of absolute regularity within the limits of 288 . if once seen. softness. and in Chinese eyes good examples of it rank very high among fine porcelains. Perhaps there is no ware about which inexperienced amateurs are more constantly and egregiously deceived. brilliancy. except at the upper rim where a fringe of white is seen sometimes it merges into a tainty In the . The potter. more accurately reproduced in another and still is choicer porcelain. Sometimes it covers the surface completely and uniformly. Its brilliancy. lustre and solidity of glaze. — Speaking broadly. In truth the Langyao is not the real Tsing representative of the Ming It will be shown presently that the latter Chi-hung. as has been lector.CHINA In everything that makes for excellence depth. closeness and fineness of pdte^ the Kang-hsi Lang-yao and general technical skill yields nothing to the Chi-hung monochromes of the Ming dynasty. but the col- must remember that it is scarcely possible to find two specimens of Lang-yao exactly alike. and purity of colour. Kang-hsi — kilns. first and choicest variety the glaze is comparatively thin. latter broad cloud of much lighter colour. in accepting this classification. the Lang-yao is invariably without this feature. their absence can scarcely fail to be detected. already remarked. there are five varieties. Yet the marks of excellence are so plain that. An important difference is that. and sheen are indescribable. whereas the Hsien-hung (rouge vif) and Pao-shi-hung (ruby red) wares of the Ming potters generally had incised decoration under the glaze.

esnoid tnsionB ne moil balqoO ^ .(.-t^dS 92Bq sdS) .bilat ni noitBioosQ .eizBQ tloS .

zb*. In the . in nr iSt e col- remember that it is scarce. the Sang de c)X me West. skill — the Kang-hsi Lang-yao yields nothing to the Chi-hung monochromes of difference is the An vv» important that. Perhaps there is no ware about which inexperienced VASE (HEIGHT. of the Ming potters generally had is incised decoration under the glaze.y remarked.CH Kang-r lence I NA everything that makes for exceliincy. But x}ci^ Lang-yao \s. their absence can sen* -* '^ '^ ^ '^ • tected.7 SoftC^sfepTSee pagfe \ et the marks ol excellence are so plain that.. as has been tw^o . In truth the Lang- not the real Tsing representative of the Ming be shown presently that the latter and still i»rcelain. there lector. Copied from an ancient bronze. Co. 11 ^^"^^^^^ It will r. and sheen are iiuiescribable. <ccurately reproduced in another .v.. ver control the conditions in the kiln sufficiently on the tone and tint first and choicest variety the glaze is comriratively thin..icn-hung {rouge vif) and Pao-shi-hung res (ru. Decoration «f in-l-elief. the Lang-yao invariably without this feature. Sometimes it covers the surface completely and uniformly. i. . f^«|gf&^^<jeived.. Its brilliancy. i] and su and gc closeness and fineness of pate. if once seen. sojftness. Speaking broadlv. Of course the )r^ft-r wnnt of absolute regularity within the limiN of 288 . and purity of colour. and in Chinese eyes good examples ol It rank very high among fine porcelains. except at the upper rim where a fringe of white is seen sometimes it merges into a tainty count with absolute cerof the glaze after firing. hnd ao exactly The to specimens of potter.. broad cloud of much lighter colour. oie to . lustre e. .:.

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.

There is crackle. This. IX. In the third variety the glaze is distinctly more vitreous than in either of the preceding cases and is further distinguished by the presence of minute flashes or flecks of lighter colour. in the glazes of genuine specimens its presence may not be unwelcome to the amateur. Such a feature. The white flashes. In the second variety the glaze is appreciably thicker. Not infrequently a portion of the surface in this class oi Lang-yao presents. and since it can only occur in glazes coloured with silicate of copper that is to say. due to excess of oxygen in the furnace. though in truth a technical fault. eclat^ and delicacy of the ruddy fruit. There is crackle in this variety also. does not detract from the beauty of the ware. — 19 289 . but it often increases rather than diminishes the charm of the ware. merely serving to give play of light and shade. the colour deeper and less transparent. — — . though still a fine and valuable porcelain. VOL. From brilliant ruby the red passes through innumerable gradations of tone to ox-blood. must be ranked after the types of Lang-yao described above. strongly mottled by dark spots of varying size. but owing to the thickness of the glaze and its greater opacity. . It has all the transparency. The finest colour can be compared to nothing more aptly than to a perfectly ripe cherry. but all alike are distinguished by clearOccasionally there is found a faint frosting of ness. the surface or of parts of it the glaze of such specimens bears a close resemblance to the skin of a freshly plucked persimmon. the meshes are less perceptible.MONOCHROMATIC WARES the same piece must be regarded as a technical defect. Many tones of red are to be found in this class. a distinctly green hue. but it forms an almost imperceptible network.

it may be described as The tone of a good specimen is persalmon-colour. but it ought to be admitted for the sake of its other points of similarity. deprive the surface of solidity and softness. it is of three kinds First. but Chinese : connoisseurs unhesitatingly place it in the family. and the red has a shallower and less pure tone. The fourth variety is a lighter red than any of the preceding sometimes. perhaps. indeed. With regard to the auxiliary glaze used on under and inner surfaces. sec- 290 . : — coloured. the rich red glazes required a solid body. and close. and the lower surface. The pate of all true Lang-yao is of fine texture. pure porcelain pate. being both larger. The amateur cannot pay too much attention to this He must not expect to find very thin biscuit point. This type would scarcely be reckoned as Lang-yao by many Western collectors. hard.: CHINA though a tour de force. as well as the inside glazed. white. to be separately classed. more regular and more strongly marked than in any of the other varieties. absolutely free from grit. Generally. white or buff the first four varieties. since it differs chiefly in having spots of darker colour from the fourth and some- times mottling of greenish white. The fifth variety scarcely deserves. The crackle shows with greater distinctness owing to the vitreous character of the glaze. But it is absolutely essential that every genuine specimen should have perfectly manipulated. the rim at the base neatly finished. fectly uniform throughout. and the crackle becomes an important feature. as is always the case with This mark of inferior technique causes some Chinese connoisseurs to exclude it from the Lang-yao species. its under surface is not glazed. too. usually but not necessarily crackled .

of course. variety of Lang-yao. constantly has green craquele glaze on its interior and under surface. but Chinese connoisseurs also indorse the above view. and the white with the third.MONOCHROMATIC WARES ondly. or perhaps of the Tung-ching era (1736). green craquele. and unquestionably most esteemed. 291 ''^^^ . On the contrary. or salmon-coloured. and thirdly. it is convenient to speak of inferior reds which are constantly mistaken by amateurs for genuine Lang-yao. however. asserting that the green is associated with the best types of Lang-yao^ the sesamumsoy with the second quality. One of the specimens depicted in H'siang's Catalogue has the mark of the Hsuan-te era engraved in the pate. the fourth. known in China as Some connoisseurs " sesamum-soy/' or Chihtake these glazes as evidence of grade. It is not possible. Here.hung pieces of the Ming dynasty. The Lang-yao is not by any means the only red monochrome that does credit to the potters of the It will reigning dynasty. This does not appear to have been always the case with the Chi. and even choicer be seen presently that other varieties were produced. True Lang-yao has no marks of factory or period. the indications furnished by their ware itself go to show that it was not manufactured after the close of the Kang-hsi. to speak with certainty on this point. light brown (the colour ma-chiang^. Although no record is yet forthcoming as to the time when the Lang potters ceased to work. as classed above. usually has white or bluff glaze in these places. No such distinction really exists. while the variety placed first. These are the Tsing representatives It has been shown above that of the Ming Chi-hung.

and the inner and under surfaces are coated with white glaze. is a certain duskiness or muddiness of tone the colour. to be In fact presently mentioned. but the whole surface microscopically dappled. though often very beautiful and aesthetic. exclusive of varieties distinguished by special names. and their reproduction seems to be as far beyond the strength of modern potters as is the imitation of the Lang-yao. and that. and they are undoubtedly right For the Chi-hung glaze of the Tsing in doing so. as the Lang-yao. that Sang de bceuf. in the Chi-hung also there are many grades. curiously enough. 2indi ruby-red. But. Many Chi-hung pieces of the Tsing dynasty are highly attractive and charming. The typical Chi-hung of the Chienlung era for it does not appear to have been much manufactured by the Kang-hsi experts is dark red of subdued shade. no two specimens are absolutely identical in tone. however. factories cannot vie either with the Lang-yao in richness or brilliancy. The pate is close and fine. Porcelain of this quality was evidently : — — 292 . the distinguishing feature of the Chi-hung^ as compared with the Lang-yao. or with other monochromes.CHINA the Chi'hung rouge vif monochromes of the Ming dynasty in- cluded two equally beautiful and admirable glazes. and a yearmark in seal character is often found in blue under the glaze. the edges are well finished. like the Lang-yao. But Chinese connoisseurs place this later Chi-hung in a distinctly lower rank. showing that the colour was applied by insufflation. the tone quite uniform throughout. lacks the depth and gleam of It should be premised. in delicacy and purity. There is no crackle anywhere. from the commencement of the Kang-hsi era the term Chihung came to be applied to reds in general.

proaching brick-red is seen the lower rim of the piece is clumsily finished. Unfortunately. Their manufacture continued as late as the Taoukwang era (1821 — 1851). from which alone it may be inferred that the colouring material differed from that employed by the Lang potters. the Chien-lung Chi-hung passes through innumerable shades of colour. while others approach The miscrosopic the colour of light peach-bloom. to absence Chi-hung manufactured. colour. When such features are present the amateur can be at once certain that he has to do with a worthless specimen. . dappling disappears in the glazes of light tone. many pieces being of the liver-red class. vitreous tling and poor tone of its colour appearance of its glaze. teenth century It is distinguished by three points. guides so distinct are not Some examples are tolerably rich always present. and the pate. the coarse motthe thin. '^9Z . an inferior stone-ware. in and not a few pieces dating and strong least The commonest and valuable — — . so often seen in Lang-yao specimens. with rare exceptions during the ninemay be placed in a separate class. presence of white glaze on inner and under surfaces. however. careful technique and fine pate. and the presence of scratchIn the worst examples a colour aplike crackle. is dark and coarse.MONOCHROMATIC WARES Preserving the of crackle. but they vary greatly in beauty according to Their glaze never assumes the green tinge colour. All satisfactory from a technical point these porcelains are of view. instead of being white and close. but in general it may be said that the younger the specimen the more clumsy its finish and the less pure its tone. to take a as manufactured same features high place. often indeed rough or jagged.

but by Chinese connoisseurs the three wares are never confounded. the whole. or buff. lack of depth. vitreous aspect. Rich and beautiful as is the Lang-yao. At the head of all red glazes stands the Pin-kwoThis term signifies the '* green of sproutts'ing. This colour is indescribable except by recourse to some such comparison. however. the greater the esteem accorded to a specimen. Even later specimens may mislead the unwary. It does not appear that a clear distinction has hitherto been observed by Western collecters between Lang-yao. by a porcelain of which the colour is called Chiang-touhungy owing to its resemblance to the blossom of a species of bean. ing plants. The ChiangIt may be tou-hung is from the Kang-hsi factories. closer the resemblance to the natural colour of the bean blossom. but the well describes it. The tender bloom of the bean blossom The tone varies greatly." or the *' green of the water-shield. Chi-hung and Chiang-tou-hung. the garish. and in Chinese estimation sometimes excelled. As compared with the Lang-yaOy the distinctive feature of the Chiang-tou red is delicacy. though the latter appears to have been a darker red. for though their biscuit is comparatively coarse. their technique is fair. and their interior and under surfaces are covered with On white. and weakness of tone of the great majority of Chi-hung porcelains ought to obviate the numerous mistakes made about them. glaze crackled or not crackled. regarded as the Tsing representative of the Hsienhung of the Ming dynasty.CHINA from the Chien-lung era are in every respect fine examples of monochromes. it is rivalled." 294 . their only fault being want of brilliancy and purity.

appear.MONOCHROMATIC WARES and its use implies feature that in the eyes of Chinese connoisseurs the presence of green constitutes a dis- tinguishing of the it collectors generally class though Western with red monochromes. from the full. a pure red monochrome secondly. on colour would be a blemish. and in descriptive catalogues choice specimens are extolled entirely for the tone and uniformity of their monochromatic red as though the intrusion of any other The Chinese expert. that in choosing the term " peach bloom" American connoisseurs gave any thought to They were the presence of green in the glaze. The second type is the so-called " crushed strawberry. No distinct varieties of the ware are recognised in China. The first type is the celebrated " Peach bloom '* of American collectors. red mottled with white and thirdly.'' Its white dappling or cloud: . however. There are various tones of this red. warm blush of a ripe All are beautiful apple to a very light flesh colour. red in combination with green. . the contrary. for the most prized specimens may be best compared to the colour of a peach's rind before the contrast of velvet green and glowing but delicate red has been It does not impaired by the yellow of ripeness. but for purposes of descriptive convenience three principal types may be noted first. glaze. inspired solely by the resemblance between the surface red and the rich bloom of a peach. and places first among all coloured glazes of Ching-te-chen specimens of Pin-kwo-ts' ing on which the delicate glowing red is broken by broad fields of tender velvety green. In America this beautiful porcelain has received the name of " Peach bloom/' a happy appellation. . and highly valued. regards the presence of green as essential.

Fine specimens are exceedingly rare. is said to be due in great part to some sudden accidents of temperature in the kiln But it is difficult oxidation of the reducing flame. . is a green comparable only to the soft. in fact. the there can be very little doubt. certain specimens the green in this. They generally take the form of utensils connected with caligraphy. phoenixes with curved wings. the prince of Chinese coloured glazes. from red to green was originally due to chance. and it passes into red resembling just such a warm flush as Nature Possibly the variegation associates with this green.CHINA ing is often accompanied by speckles of transparent The third green which greatly enhance the charm. As was the case in the rouge vif of the Ming dynasty. for to credit It occupies a place at least as important as the red. ovoid in section with wide circular bases and narrow necks round flattened bowls for holding water to mix with Indian ink. type. and small boxes for vermilion. but that it afterwards became a special technical triumph At all events. 1^6 . result of the combination in its happiest form is that there is reproduced in a porcelain glaze the skin of a ripe peach. the most revered of all accomplishments in the Middle Kingdom as little the desk low bottles flower vases for placing on for washing the pen. with all its exquisite shading of tones. . being generally confined to medallions of coiled dragons. engraved decoration is often found under the Pin-kwo-ts' ing glaze. The Pin-kwo-ts'ing is. The pate is pure white and perfectly fine the inner and under surfaces are — — . restful colour seen in the rind of an apple or a peach. but it seldom covers the whole surface. or floral scrolls. of which the presence of green is the distin- guishing feature.

In specimens of Fan-hung regarded by Chinese connoisseurs as the most delicate in tone and admirable in technique. hung than upon Pin-kwo-ts'ing pieces. made its appearance again in the Kang-hsi era. but it has no crackle. and sometimes the bottoms of the former are left entirely without glaze. for which. A crackle. and there is no . and the glaze on the inner and under 297 . Its employment in the case of a red glaze indicates that the red is permeated by a soft whitish tone. the glaze at the lower part of the vase passes into an exceedingly soft clairde-lune tint. The Pao-shi-hung. A rare variety of Fan-hung is decorated with designs in blue sous couverte amid the red ground. as or precious ruby glaze. as though the glaze had been partially frozen.MONOCHROMATIC WARES there is no crackle. The pastes of all these grand reds alike are white. described above. third special variety of choice red glaze is called Fan-hung by the Chinese. It is scarcely to be distinguished from some specimens of Lang-yao in colour. Fine specimens of Fan-hung are not inferior to either the Lang or the Pin-kwo-ts'ing porcelains. fine and carefully manipulated. as though the latter were the base of the general colour. It has been shown that the ideograph Fan (rice flour). and covered with white glaze the mark of the Kang-hsi era is generally written in blue under the white glaze. a rime. Sometimes they have patches or spots of transparent green similar to that seen in the finest type of Pin-kwo-ts'ing. when used with reference to the Ting-yao. implies the presence of a greyish buff shade. the Hsuan-te potters of the Ming dynasty were so famous. The effect of this transition is very Marks of date are less frequent upon Fanbeautiful.

scarcely. Tang is credited with having revived the manufacture of brilliant red monochromes. the grand phases of colour that distinguish true Sang-de-bceuf. who with Nien presided over the imperial factories at Ching-te-chen from 1727. The inference suggested by this is that such porcelains had ceased to be produced for some years when Tang assumed charge of the factories. monochromes produced in the open furnace at the same temperature as that required to bake the porcelain mass on which they are superposed. It is scarcely credible that the clear. however. speaking The of the renowned expert Tang. or " cotton-floss red. remains uncertain. Colouring matter said to be employed in the preparation of this very choice porcelain. brilliant ruby red of the Pao- shi-hung have been obtained with a material reputed so inferior.CHINA surfaces is clear white. is Another variety of special ing classification. The ware may easily be mistaken for Lang-yaOy of which. It lacks. and found to conthat sist simply of oxide of iron with a porcelain can flux. however. belong to another class that of couleurs de mouffle. indeed it seems to have been intended as a reproduction. was analyzed at Sevres." Whether this term is derived from the name of a maker or was suggested by a peculiar mottling of the glaze. The above represent all the red monochromes de grandfeu that is to say. red. says that in a memoir written by a certain savant. Tao-lu. But Chinese connoisseurs of the present day are unanimous in ascribing to Kang-hsi experts the finest specimens of the choice glazes enumerated above. Reds painted on the biscuit and vitrified at a comparatively low temperature. deservHung-mien. called — — 298 .

they cannot be classed be said. lies In this it quality one of its greatest merits. perfectly opaque even latter applied in the thinnest layers. sometimes sur- little need Beautiful as they are. smooththe points of a perfect enamel and at the same time ness. when all employed for decorating over the glaze. and Pin-kwa-ts' ing glazes. that the difficulty of verbally distinguishing these various shades or tones of red is insuperable. The their appreciation showed of the Chinese fact by The " Jujube going to Nature for comparisons. and the Fan-hung. sometimes covering the whole surface of a monochrome. Red when '* is a full. Thus — — shows used it plays an important role in the manufacture of the finest Chinese porcelains. depth. with such glazes as the Lang-yao. Among reds developed at the comparatively low temperature of the enameller's furnace the first place *' (red of is given to the Tsao-hung or " Jujube Red It need scarcely be observed the Zizyphus vulgaris^. But of the Tsao-hung. since. equal success in the Tung'ching and Chien-lung potteries. and rounding reserved designs in white. in combination with other monochromes — Of the generally small pieces — Tsao-hung 299 . brilliancy. which are developed in the open furnace at a high temperature. sometimes com- bined with coloured enamels. except in respect of the Lang-yao. brilliant colour. and uniformity clings to the surface in a layer of such imperceptible thinness as to seem a part of the glaze itself. all of which belong par excellence to the Kang-hsi period.MONOCHROMATIC WARES The fact seems to be that they were produced with almost. though not altogether. the Pin-kwa-ts'ing. Chiang-tou-hung. Whatever difference existed has no great importance for collectors. the Chiang-tou-hung.

and white. the lower part enamelled white. a method that would have added largely to its depth and brilliancy. engraved in the pate is covered with wave-pattern with such delicacy that the superincumbent glaze is as smooth as velvet the crests of the waves curling up into the brilliant red above. in a curved line dazzling the eyes. the two colours mingling Similar pieces. were manufactured by the Kang-hsi. yellow. or " Rouge Red. purple. blue. It is probable that in H'siang*s censer the red was painted directly on the pate.*' though apparently few and far between. it is scarcely possible to speak too highly. concerning which the author says that " the upper two-thirds of the body and the handles are covered with a deep red glaze of rosy-dawn tint. is the Ten-chi-hung. The second red among those applied to porcelain already stoved. or Kuan-yao) of the best periods of the present dynasty. instead of being separated from the red simply by a curved line. where it completely covers whatever portions of the surface are not occupied by floral designs in brilliant colours green. pure as driven snow. In keramic there range of chefs-d'oeuvre are the whole not to be found any finer examples of decoration in vitrifiable enamels. for the white surface." — — 300 . improvements upon H'siang's specimen.CHINA decorative agents. But the Tsing reproductions of this fine type gain in artistic effect what they lose in grandeur of tone. This is the beautiful enamel found on many of the " Imperial Porcelains" [Tu-chi. But the choicest and most charming conception worked out by the aid of the Tsaohung red is of the type shown in a Hsuan-te censer of H'siang's Illustrated Catalogue. indeed. Tung-ching. They are. black. and Chien-lung — experts.

but the chief type is well described by comparison to the bright vermilion patches on the cheeks of a Chinese belle. There are many tones. As a monchrome the " Rouge Red '' is chiefly found on rice cups with covers. of course. usually — — " Jujube Red '* is perfectly smooth. These made their first appearance on the palette of the Famtlle Rose decorators. " Coral Red." MONOCHROMATIC WARES It differs from the "Jujube Red lustreless '' in having a com- granulated though in many of the choicest specimens the granulations are only microscopically visible w^hereas the paratively surface. It does not rank with the choicest monochromes. shallow bowls. much thicker coat than either of the above reds typical specimens look exactly as though they were made of highly polished coral." and " pink. In conjunction with enamelled decoration it plays a part not less important than the " Jujube Red." so well known effect. they received the distinctive appellation of "Western " [Si-yang)^ as is seen in the ideographs for " crimson. harmonious to Western collectors. In addition to the above there are. but when combined with blue under the glaze a very rare combination the effect is rich and beautiful. at the close of the Kanghsi era. where it covers the spaces between the medallions. Being in great part the outcome of foreign intercourse. It is applied in a . special tones of red to which special names are given.*' especially in the " Imperial Porcelains.'' where it is preferred by some connoisseurs on account of its peculiar softness and It is this red that is found on " some of the best Medallion Bowls." the " Rose du Barry — — 301 ." called in China Shan-hu-hungy also belongs to the family of couleurs de mouffJe. and small plates.

therefore. that the colour of the backing varies. coloured backing is distinctly seen through it. to which reference The term "ruby-backed" is employed by Western has already been made porcelains denote which. though they connoisseurs to do not constitute a separate family. Their — — distinguishing feature. being simply a variety of the Famille Rose. an effect of great softness and delicacy being thus proThe enamel generally used is that called duced. is that completely covered with red The porcelain being as thin as paper. and small cups are practically the only Evidently the potter. choice and beautiful examples of keramic art. guided examples of this ware. Plates. generally refrained from making vases. as the name denotes. as well as crimson and " European type. Sometimes the " ruby '' backing is the only decoration employed. bowls. this enamel. though " Rouge Red '' and " Jujube Red '' are also employed for the same purpose. Ten-chi-hung (rouge red). by the consideration that the effect of the enamel backing would be lost unless the whole inner surface of the piece were visible.'' It will be seen. but Tsao-hung (jujube red) pink of the is also found. but usually the other the outer surface is 302 . have seemed worthy of They are certainly very independent designation. ** ruby-backed " egg-shell are found on the so-called bowls and plates. and doubtless deterred by the difficulties of the task. As monochromes they glaze and for monochromes. In decoration over the glaze they are seen on the beautiful porcelains of the Rose Family. and that the term " ruby red " is too limited to be truly descriptive.CHINA These are used both for painting over the of Sdvres. so highly esteemed by American and European collector.

that it belonged to a low grade. in coloured enamels of the Famille Rose type. manufactured at a village of the same name in the neighbourhood of Ching-te-chen. Tuan dynasty (1260— 1368). The choicest pieces of all have designs incised in the pdtCy with or without addition of coloured enamels. to the among monochromes — — 303 ' . Yellow glazes were manufactured in times as remote as the Tang dynasty (618—907). These porcelains belong to the " Imperial class. Sheu-yao was produced in the were employed Subsequently.MONOCHROMATIC WARES specimen has designs. the Lang-yao. which are said to have shown the grace and elegance of fine Sung manufactures. yellow is the more uncommon." side of the Their extreme thinness and delicacy. YELLOW. a stone-ware called Hutien-yao. the honour lay between yellow Of and purple at the end of the sixteenth century. but they did The ware in which they not attain any reputation. be ranked second. Judging from the Illustrated Catalogue of H'siang. and the But concerning the porcelain to Fan-hung glazes. had impure yellow glaze run over archaic designs deeply incised Surviving pieces of this ware indicate in the pate. There tal is unanimity among Oriental and Occidenalike in connoisseurs assigning the first place grand reds of the Chiangtou-hung. the two. more or less elaborate. must have precluded their use except by persons of large means. differences of opinion will of course be found. the Pin-kwo-ts' ing. as well as their great cost. not suffering comparison with many other porcelains by contemporary potters. under the province of Kiang-nan.

CHINA
It was not till the Ming dynasty that the beautiful yellow monochromes so highly prized by all conor, to speak more noisseurs made their appearance accurately, it was not till then that they elicited the As usual it seems that admiration of connoisseurs. the era with which the first successful manufacture of the ware is associated by the Chinese must in reality be regarded as the time when it reached a very high, As to yelif not the highest, stage of development. low monochromes this time was the Hung-chih era (1488— 1505) of the Ming dynasty. H'siang, in his Illustrated Catalogue, shows several specimens of Hung-chih yellow, and appends to his description of one of them the statement that light yellow was the From his account colour most valued in this reign. it appears that the choicest shade was the yellow of a newly husked chestnut, and that bright yellow occupied the second place. As in the case of celadons and white Ting-yao, the shapes and decorative designs of old bronzes were chosen by the potters for choice pieces, the decoration being generally incised in the The point of pate but sometimes also in bas-relief. note about this ware was that the glaze itself contained the colouring material, which did not consist of a mere layer of enamel as was the case with inThe difference is ferior porcelains of later date. essential. For whereas the beautiful canary-yellow ware of first quality is thin, almost transparent, of waxy softness and possessing a peculiar shell-like delicacy, the commoner class of yellow porcelain has thick pate, a comparatively lustreless surface, and an opaque colour. It is with this latter variety that Western collectors are chiefly familiar, the former being not only scarce but also confined to insignificant
;

304

I
HTIW VAAd'AD^OI a3.dJ3.UAWd
(.S9I eaeqssB)
-

f
I

NA
that the beautiful

Muig dynasty
ics
ir

so highly prized

by

all

con-

appearance; or, to speak more till then that they elicited the As usual it seems that admiratioii of coiui successful manufacture of the era with v ^he Chinese must in reality the ware is ^ hen it reached a very high, be regarded as the of development. As to yelif not thv VI. s aiis time was the Hung-chih era low mon H'siang, in his (1488-1 5 -.>; ^jx the Ming dynasty. Illustrated Catalogue, shows several specimens of Hung-chih yellow, and appends to his description of one of them the statement that light yellow was the From his account colour most valued in this reign. it appears that the choicest shade was the yellow of a
accun.
^t
'-

i

-

ilM{W^iiKisbedc6ii08t»M^^mdAttejL]bDigbfe(^^ pied the second pitP.^ ^^^\j^(ih^v^^^ of celadons and ^. (Catalogue of JH'siangJ Height, 5 invest (SeeDagel92.) J C white Itng-yao, the shapes and aecoraTive designs oi
1

old bronzes were chosen by the potters for choice
pieces, the decoration bein^ generally incised in the

pAte but sometimes also

ii

point of
^lazc itself coni.j,
1

note about ?' tained the co.v u of a mere layer of ferior porcelains of
I.

v^iiich did

not consist
inis

as

was the case with

later

date.

The

difference

essential.

For whereas the
first

beautiful canary-yellow
transparent, of
a peculiar shell-like deli-

ware of

quality

is

thin, almost

waxy

softness

and possessing

commoner class of yellow porcelain has thick pdte^ a comparatively lustreless surface, and an
cacy, the

opaque colour. It is with this latter variety that Western collectors are chiefly familiar, the P^^-^ be«

*

ing not only scarce but also confined to iu

ant

304

MONOCHROMATIC WARES
It may be confidently asserted that all specimens. the highly valued yellows of the Hung-chth and later Ming epochs were of the transparent type. There

do indeed survive pieces undoubtedly from the kilns of that dynasty which, though of fine, delicate porcelain, have their colour in the form of a thin wash applied after the biscuit had been baked. But these are to be placed in an entirely inferior grade. The specimens depicted in H'siang's Catalogue belonged beyond question to the former class, though of course their distinguishing characteristic of shell-like transnot appear in the illustrations. The manufacture of this fine yellow continued throughout the industrially active eras of the Ming dynasty. Even as late as the Wan4i period (1578-16 19) excellent specimens were produced, having the year-mark written in deep, full-bodied blue under the glaze. But the manufacture of yellow monochromes seems to In the imperial porcelain have been very limited. requisitions for the years 1529 [Chia-ching era) and 1573 {Wan4i era), among a multitude of other wares such monochromes are mentioned only twice in the former year " boxes with dragons and phoenixes enlucidity does
:

graved under a yellow glaze,'' and in the latter *^ teacups yellow inside and out, with clouds, dragons, and fairy flowers faintly engraved under the paste.'' Yellow, when specified elsewhere, appears as an enamel, being used to paint dragons, phoenixes, and floral scrolls surrounded by blue or brown grounds, or itself forming a ground surrounding designs in blue, or a field for coloured enamels. It need scarcely be said that genuine examples of yellow monochromes dating from the Ming dynasty are almost unprocurable. But from the Kang-hsi era
VOL. IX.

— 20

3^5

CHINA
(1662) down to the closing years of the eighteenth century this delicate glaze was manufactured successfully and in larger quantities. There were various tones, from pale lemon to deep straw-colour, though only two were specially distinguished, light yellow I^Hiao-hwang) and golden yellow [Chin-hwang\, Small pieces, as bowls, cups, censers, miniature vases, and so forth, were chiefly produced. Occasionally crackle was added, but in the great majority of cases the potter confined his decoration to incised designs of a comparatively simple character, the perpetual dragon figuring prominently. It is unfortunate that this beautiful glaze was not employed in the manufacture of more important pieces, for its delicacy and softness can scarcely be over-estimated. The experts of the Tsing dynasty, however, preferred to produce the thicker variety, in which the colour, applied to the surface of the biscuit after stoving, presents an opaque, dull appearance. Not a few fine specimens of this class survive. They are usually modelled after the fashion of bronzes, having fluted or diapered surfaces and handles shaped into grotesque Yellow is the sovereign colour of the monsters. Tsing dynasty, and it may be for that reason that yellow monochromes are comparatively uncommon. Porcelains having designs in green in a yellow field of the opaque type are more numerous. Western connoisseurs often distinguish them by the title of " Imperial Ware,'' though they have no special claim to be thus honoured. The yellow craquele mentioned above must be distinguished from the so-called " mustard yellow " of Occidental collectors. The latter is of the inferior type its colour being an opaque enamel applied to
;

306

MONOCHROMATIC WARES
the stoved biscuit.

The

surface

network of

fine

crackle,

and

covered with a there is an absence
is

usually of lustre and always of transparency.

Many

technically faulty

examples of " mustard

yellow,''

Taou-Kwang (1821-1851), and especially the Hien-fung, era (1851— 1862), have found their way into European and American collections,
dating from the

and are valued far above their true merits. In the Kang-hsi era, under the direction of the celebrated potter Tang, a peculiar yellow glaze was manufactured. It ranked among the Imperial Wares [Kuan-yao) of the time and has always been highly esteemed. The pate is not porcelain proper, but very fine stone-ware, always thick and solid, and the glaze is distinguished as " eel-yellow," Shan-yu-hwang, from its supposed resemblance to the colour of an eel's belly. It is an opaque glaze, having comparatively little lustre and owing its colour to a dust of minute yellow speckles, so close and fine as to be imperceptible without very careful examination. Beautiful as this monochrome undoubtedly is, it does not immediately command appreciation, being less remarkable for brilliancy of surface or richness of colour than for combined softness, solidity, and peculiarity. It is never associated with other colours or enamels. It was manufactured successfully by the Tung-ching and Chien-lung experts, but potters of a later era seem to have been quite unable to produce it. Good specimens generally have the mark of their period incised
in seal character

A
is is

on the base. colour which, though not

strictly

monochro-

matic,

conveniently included in this section, This the Hwang-tien-pariy or ** spotted yellow." also of the Kuan-yao^ or imperial class indeed the
:

may be

307

CHINA
author of the Tao-lu ranks it first among the four choicest varieties of the Kang-hsi era. Like the " eelyellow/' it has solid pate of fine stone-ware, over which is run a dark oUve green glaze, covered, more Sometimes the or less thickly, with yellow speckles. sometimes the yellow, and somegreen predominates, times the latter appears in the form of flecks rather In this last case a close resemblance to than spots. patinated bronze is discernible and was doubtless intended, since the glaze is often associated with designs, incised or in relief, copied from old bronzes and In the choicest occasionally picked out with gold. examples the yellow spots appear like a dappling of Specimens of this latter gold floating in the glaze. There nature are immensely prized by the Chinese. '' is no record to show when either the " eel-yellow
spotted-yellow '' was invented. They first appear among the " Imperial Wares'' of the Kang-hsi era, and, so far as is known, the composition of these
or the
*'

curious and difficult colours must be attributed to the

genius of Tang.
that

It seems reasonable to conclude had glazes so remarkable been manufactured

during the
traditional,

Ming

dynasty, some account, written or would have been preserved of them.

After the Chien-lung era they ceased to be produced with success. They have always been highly esteemed in Japan, where they are known as Soha-yaki (buck-

wheat ware), probably
cakes
cereal.

in allusion

to the colour of
assert, to

made of

that grain, or, as

some

the

green and yellow aspect of a ripening crop of the
In a catalogue of Ching-te-chen keramic producquoted by the Tao-lu, mention is made of " yellow vases of the European type." The reference is
308

tions

MONOCHROMATIC WARES
lemon yellow of the Famille Rose porcelains, the colours of which were first employed towards the end of the reign of Kang-hsi, either as monochromes
to the

or for painting over the glaze.

PURPLE.
Purple was a favourite colour with Chinese potters from the tenth century downwards. In two of the celebrated wares of the Sung dynasty the Ting-yao purplish glazes occurred. and the Chun-yao The purple Ting-yao (Tsu-Ting-yao^ is compared sometimes to ripe grapes, sometimes to the skin of the aubergine [kia-pi^y while the purple Chun-yao is likened to the aubergine flower [kia-hwa), which is dusky indigo rather than purple. Indeed many of '' " purple so-called monochromes the of China might be more properly described as dark blue or indigo. The illustrations in H'siang's Catalogue show that a true purple did appear in the Ting-yao, as may also be inferred from the fact that the glaze is compared But the same is not true of the Chunto ripe grapes. yao, In truth the ideograph tsu, used by the Chinese

to designate purple, has

no

distinct signification

:

it

employed of nankeen brown.
is

a

colour

varying

from purple

to

With some

defining

addition, as

" aubergine purple," or " ripe-grape purple,'' a clear idea is conveyed, but when a Chinese writer merely says tsu or hiao-tsu (tsu of light tint), it is impossible to be quite sure of his meaning. The principal Chiln-yao glaze was red it is sometimes spoken of as Mei-kwei-tsu, or precious-garnet colour. In certain varieties, however, especially those manufactured by the Kang-hsi and Tung-ching potters, their appears a curious dusky indigo more or less permeated with
:

309

— BLUE. to cover in most bizarre fashions the manes and tales. or turquoise blue. green. Occasionally. Examples of kind are highly and deservedly prized in China. and many connoisseurs hesitate to give it high rank among singlecoloured porcelains owing to its glassiness and want Nevertheless. to the period included between 1796 and 1862. lustre and uniformity of surface. It was employed by the Chinese keramists as for example.CHINA The Chiin-yao glaze was an indescribable tint. fine examples are undoubtof solidity. Their essential features are purity of colour. or the faces and breasts of mythological personIn these cases it is usually associated with ages. edly of great beauty and value. They often perplex the tyro who discerns nothing to distinguish them from glass except their want of 310 . or Hien-fung kilns i. white pate. a glaze irreproachable as to texture and colour is run over dark. exposed to the full temperature of the porcelain kiln. .e. As a pure monochrome it is rare. but the purple of seventeenth and eighteenth century wares is an enamel applied to the biscuit after baking. coarsish pate. Just as the Chinese potter sought to imitate jade in his choicest green porcelain. and close-grained. so he took glass as a model is for some of his finest purple chromes. Many of them have designs incised in the biscuit or in low relief. however. red . especially in large pieces. able this He succeeded so and blue monoperfectly that a specimen occasionally seen having glaze scarcely distinguish- from glass in texture and lustre. such specimens belong usually to the Chia-tsing. Taoukwang. and even the bodies of Dogs of Fo.

and it remains only to note here that finest blue monochromes were thus The blue of choice pieces is remarkmanufactured. Mazarin blue. The method has already been described in connection with bleu sous couverte. stitute the bulk of obtainable monochromatic exam- some of the 311 . clair-de-lune or lilac ^ lapis blue. it is plain that this process was resorted to. souffie blue. sometimes so minute as to be scarcely perceptible. able for depth and brilliancy. sometimes bold and strong. watered blue and by " blue of the sky after rain. Technical skill in the manu- facture of glazes could scarcely be carried beyond the point reached by the makers of these beautiful porcelains. plates. In certain specimens of Sung dynasty Chiln-yao. Blue monochromes were largely manufactured in the second half of the Ming dynasty as well as in the Imperial workshops of the Kang-hsi and succeeding Some varieties of celadon may be placed in this eras.'' The practice of applying colour to porcelain insufflation undoubtedly dates from a very early period.MONOCHROMATIC WARES complete translucidity. cups. since the tint of their glaze approximates to But the subject of celadon blue rather than to green. and the mottling of the surface. made here to blues essentially recognised as such by Western connoisseurs. for decoration in gold. varieties. lends charming In monochromes of this class softness to the glaze. category. the souffle blue in pieces of size generally serving as a field for coloured enamels. There are seven principal namely. Allusion is has already been sufficiently discussed. or for medallions enclosing designs in blue on a white Bowls. large imposing specimens are quite exceptional. and such objects conground. azure blue.

described in a preceding chapter under the name of Tuan-tsu. is and more delicate tone than record exists as to a colour of much lighter that last spoken of. They vary in depth of colour. but they were never produced in large quantity. and a peculiar transparency of glaze which enables them to be easily distinThey are beautiful porcelains. however. and Chien-lung in the case of these porcelains. its No manufacture. nor does the amateur run much risk of being deceived. Sometimes a glaze of this type is associated with clouds or splashes of blood red. pure blue. Kang-hsi. The oldest examples in collections outside China belong to the Kang-hsi era. Azure blue. and sometimes. occurs first on the inner surfaces of specimens of Sung Chunyao. is There little if the three eras. is As a full-bodied. The palest and most delicate have large crackle. deservedly esteemed in China. indeed.CHINA pies. The clair-de-lune glaze. — nique. or Tien-Ian. their colour anything to choose between Tung-ching. The general tests of good ware are easily applied closegrained pdtCy lustrous uniform glaze. covers the whole piece. much and guished. and careful techunsurpassed. and the ability to produce them at all with success seems to have been lost after the close of the eighteenth century. It will therefore be more correct to ascribe the conception of this beautiful monochrome to the Sung potters. which is the choicest variety of the family. and it may be assumed with confidence that finer specimens were never produced. Lilac monochromes are generally supposed to have had their origin in the typical ware of the Tuan dynasty. In the Tuan-tsu it occurs either as a monoearliest the date of 312 . deep.

and the con- noisseur must be guided by lustre of glaze. Belonging to the same family though easily distinguishable from the thick oily glazes of the Kwang-yao^ lilac monochromes manufactured at Ching-techen during the Kang-hsi. Lang-yao. and Chiang-tou-hung a glaze During the Ming dynasty excellent examples of it were produced at the Yang-chiang factory in Kwang-tung province. velvety aspect of the its glaze. Their special beauty lay not alone in the delicate. and Chien-lung are 2>^Z . and its thickest portions. The glaze is very thick. Tung-ching. as a rule. fineness of pdte^ and generally careful technique. but cups and bowls may be uniformity. pate The of this Kwang-tung ware. semi-transparent blue characteristic of the Vases or other large specimens of clair-de-lune type. is not porcelain. no marks. like its predecessors of the Sung and Tuan dynasties. Kwang-yao are very rare. or Kwang-yao. much difficulty. show the profound. may be ascribed to the latter There are. of wonderful richness and softness. There is no doubt like the Tuan-tsu and Sung Chun-yao. the Kwang-yao was successfully copied by the Ching-techen potters of the present dynasty but inasmuch as its manufacture at Yang-chiang continued until the end of the eighteenth century. the great majority . richness and delicacy of colour. steely blue. of surviving examples kiln. reddish stone-ware. but a tolerably fine. some connoisseurs place porcelains. but also in flashes of deeper colour breaking impression conveyed is that a film ground of deep. The of lighter tint overlies a found without that.MONOCHROMATIC WARES chrome or It is associated with blood-red spots or clouds. and it next in rank to the fine reds of Pin-kwo-ts'ing. especially at the bottom of cups and bowls.

apply to lence it are the commonest monochrome of regard to period the same remarks The points of excelas to Lapis blue. brown. The surface of the best — fine dappling so microscopic be scarcely perceptible apparently produced by the process of insufflation. colour justifies the esteem in which they were held.CHINA eras. velvet-like lustre of surface. The biscuit is thick and solid. depth and is With 3H . Not infrequently Tung-ching. The potters of the Taou-kwang and later eras were fond of using this impure lilac glaze as a field for designs generally lions playing with balls in maroon. Mazarin blue this family. as though the potter had set — — himself expressly to imitate lapis lazuli. vary slightly in ples as to tint. /^/ These exam- and known as Tueh-pai. and their glaze is often disfigured by pitting or blisters. The best specimens have close-grained. phoenixes. Lapis blue monochromes are among the rarest and Their intense. or blanc-de-lune . They were undoubtedly manufactured with success by the later Ming keramists. but white and close-grained. dragons. but the best examples shows exceedingly — — . white porcelain pate^ but even in pieces dating as far back as the close of the eighteenth century comparatively coarse brown biscuit is occasionally found. and Chien-lung kilns. they have decorative designs finely engraved under the paste. Later specimens are marked by impurity of colour and more or their lilac assumes a dusky less faulty technique pate is comparatively shade. and black. brilliant choicest of the blue family. — familiar to Western collectors are from the Kang-hsi. their coarse. and and so forth sometimes the monochrome is interrupted by yellowish white spots or veins.

sometimes having beautifully executed designs incised and in relief. and in pieces of comparatively modern manufacture the surface is and full-bodied is Incised decoration Large quantities of porcelain having Mazarin blue glaze were manufactured in the Taou-Kwang era. pieces of that period do not seem to have survived in appreciable numbers.MONOCHROMATIC WARES purity of colour. that the colouring material has been applied showing by in- Many porcelains of this class have colour so intense as to verge upon purple. and microscopic dappling. is unevenly smeared with a thin coat of dark brown pigment-like substance. frequently added. erally date from one of the three great eras Kanghsiy Tung-ching. The colour known in China as " blue of the sky . don glaze inside and deep dusky blue outside belong A frequent though not of modern and faulty specimens is that the bottom of the piece. essential characteristic — — dynasty. and Chien-lung of the present to this inferior category. According to the proportion of cobalt variChoice examples genous hues of colour resulted. for though the Chiao-ching was certainly produced in the Ming factories also. The method of manufacturing this monochrome was to add native silicate of cobalt to the ordinary white glaze. sufflation. technique. instead of being covered with white glaze. the interior of which is covered with pure white glaze. called by the Chinese Chiao-ching^ is found on the outer surface of finely manipulated specimens of porcelain. defects which become more marked the Bowls having celalater the period of manufacture. They are generally disfigured by impurity of tone and clumsy often covered with designs in relief. Watered blue.

But the potter of the three great eras of the present dynasty produced a porcelain bearing no resemblance to celadon which has come to be known as " blue of the sky after rain ** {u-kwo-tien-ts' ing) has already after rain/' It is a hard-paste porcelain. was subjected only to the temperature of the enameller's This is the colour called "Turquoise Blue'' furnace. All the above varieties of blue monochromes were manufactured at the full heat of the porcelain kiln.CHINA been spoken There can be Httle of in connection with celadon. In one of the imperial requisithe Ming dynasty. from an oxide prepared by mixing old copper and The manufacture dates from saltpetre with water. doubt that the colour originally conceived under this name showed a strong tinge of green. 316 . another blue of very great beauty. bowls and plates But the covered with Tsui-se glaze are included. but in China known as Tsui-se. blue sous couverte. the colour being developed and the biscuit fired at There remains to be noticed the same temperature. exceptionally appreciated being applied to the surface of ware already baked. and covered with a monochromatic glaze of the utmost delicacy. colour is not mentioned in any record of choice wares manufactured earlier than the sixteenth cenIt is certainly one of the most delicate yet tury. fine-grained. tions for porcelains to be used at the palace during the Lung-ching era (1567— 1572). by Western which. lustre excellent in every technical detail. The colour is light cerulean. by Europeans. connoisseurs. The is generally found on the bottom of fine pieces in seal character. and This ware commands year-mark the admiration of Chinese virtuosi. or the It was obtained blue of the king-fisher's feathers.

and having decorative designs dragons and phoenixes engraved in the pate. Sometimes the uniformity of the surface is broken by metallic spots. though their production was continued with success until the end of the Chia-tsing era (1796— 182 1). thin but comparatively coarse. The variety having fine porcelain with pate covered uniform " king-fisher '' glaze of delicate tint with designs carefully engraved in the biscuit. hard porcelain. with soft lustrous glaze of perfectly uniform turquoise blue. ranks among Imperial Wares [Kuan-yad) in An inferior though scarcely less beauChinese eyes." MONOCHROMATIC WARES of Chinese monochromes. In this kind engraved designs are exceptional. Genuinely fine specimens have become exceedingly scarce. It should be explained that in insisting upon the absence of crackle the intention is merely to note a feature of the one and only variety of " king-fisher brilliant — — — — 317 . Such specimens are either to be classed as third-rate examples of Chien-lung and Chia-tsing manufactures. They are close-grained. Crackle is absent and the technique is unimpeachable. large or small. tiful description has a net-work of fine crackle and comparatively soft biscuit with a timbre resembling that of faience rather than of porcelain proper. Turquoise glazes are also found upon reddish brown stone-ware. Many of them possess great decorative attractions. It is important to notice these two points the nature of the pate and the absence of crackle if the amateur desires to distinguish between the very choicest specimens and those of second-rate quality. but decoration in high relief occurs not infrequently. producing a highly pleasing effect. or to be attributed to the workshops of Taou-Kwang (1821-1851) and subsequent eras.

modelled after ancient bronzes. materials and skilled technique to tution of beautiful barbaric conceptions should have found so much favour with Western collectors. a vase decorated with a of carp in violet swimming among aquatic plants in turquoise blue fetched as much as 3. As a rule only the choicest variety of the " kinggroup fisher '' monochrome is marked . not only the shapes of the latter but also their designs. circular " fish-roe crackle commonly seen on good pieces of turquoise It is at all events cerblue is an additional charm. Jacquemart mentions that ware of this description was much prized He inin France at the end of the last century. were also fond of using turquoise blue as a body colour in statuettes of sacred personages and mythical In such cases they often combine it with animals. sacrificing every principle of congruity to their love glaze to among It is curious that this prostiof rich. The Chinese potters being accurately reproduced. tain that among the latter are to be found numerous Many of them are specimens of great merit. striking tints. stances small pieces prices ranging that. and adds own time (1875).000 francs. Purchasers of such pieces cannot be said to have attached much value to artistic congruity. the mark generally being a year period engraved in seal character.CHINA which Chinese connoisseurs give a place Imperial Wares. 318 . Many Western collectors " will doubtless hold that the close. purple and occasionally with yellow and white glazes. incised and in relief. in his which were sold at auction for from 340 to 1.800 francs.

The Kyoto specimens serve only to show that the potters of the Sung dynasty understood the production of couleurs de demi-grand feu. To this variety. crackle. but in Japan examples are found that may be regarded as fairly typical. Even the most carefully manufactured pieces of this ware cannot have possessed value in the eyes of Chinese connoisseurs. according to the records. though the glaze occa- 319 . of course. It is not classed among the choice productions of the Ming era. properly so-called. It is plain. for the green glaze was evidently applied to the biscuit after baking and developed at a comparatively low temperature. was manufactured in considerable quantities during the twelfth Specimens of this early period Ta-lii do not appear to have been preserved in China. At the head of green monochromes at stands celadon. which. however. its reconstruction after a conflagration in the twelfth century. it is unnecessary to refer again in detail. that the Chinese keramist would not have put his best work into tiles. The is tiles are of pottery. The Ta-luy whether ancient or modern. but that they misconceived its origin there can be no doubt. having red pate run green glaze of considerable lustre By the Japanese such ware was ascribed to Cochin China and known as Kochi-yaki. had no over which and brilliancy. or deep green. and its representative of the present dynasty is a porcelain of little merit. They are chiefly in the form of tiles used for roofing the palace at Kyoto at the time of century.MONOCHROMATIC WARES GREEN. Distinct from it is the Ta-lu. once the oldest and most prized ware in the Orient. having a glaze that often lacks uniformity and purity.

variety differs essentially from apple green in being a colour developed at the low temperature of the decorator's furnace. which also is craquele. beauty to purity and delicacy rather than to richness. but many passable pieces were manufactured during the first half of the nineteenth century. namely. The tint of the peacock green is well described by its name it is the full. " Apple green " has the merit of being a couleur de grand feu that is to say. No mention is made of this ware among the noted productions of the Ming potters.. charm. peacock green (Kang-tsiao-ts' ing)^ and cucumber-rind green ( Kwa-pi-lu ) It has already been explained that the term Pinkwo-ts'ing (green of the water-shield) is applied by the Chinese to a ware of which the dominant colour But the same term has come to be is generally red. It ranks. its : — — 320 . as showed accidental fissures. creamy white glaze. dark. it remains to notice three principal kinds of choice green. apple green [Pin-kwo-ts' ing). with turquoise or king-fisher blue blue for a dark kind of type. glowing colour seen on This the neck and back feathers of the peacock. Young-ching and Chien-lung. therefore. '' It invariably has large crackle. used of a green monochrome arbitrarily called " apple This ware owes its green " by foreign collectors. the colour is incorporated with the glaze and developed at the full temperature of the porcelain kiln. Kang-hsi. . The fine specimens by which it is now known date from one of the three great periods of the present dynasty. CHINA sionally variety. Dismissing this unworthy of further attention. of the " starred-ice and without such crackle would lose much of The inside of good specimens has thick. in fact.

IX..'' produced during the Kang-hsi of era under the direction of the celebrated Chang. and lustrous. Two of these eel-skin yellow and olive-green spotted with yellow have already been described. The glaze is finely crackled. the turquoise blue appearing as clouds or broad streaks among the pea- There is crackle of varying fineness. dark. 21 321 . It is a dark. The cucumber-rind green is perhaps best known to Western collectors and most highly esteemed by them. cock green. The third is called "snake-skin green'* (She-pi-lii)^ a term said to have been applied at that time to the glaze subsequently known as '* cucumber-rind. white porcelain. opaque colour. That peacock green was among the monochromes produced during the Ming dynasty is proved by the lists of wares requisitioned for imperial use at that epoch. that the choicest specimens have fine porcelain biscuit. though the glaze and colour were of a high order of merit. and the pate of the choicest specimens is close-grained. In the Tao-lu there is mention of three kinds " imperial ware. rice-bowls and saucers of peacock-green colour being among the articles mentioned in the requisitions of the Lang-ching era (1567-1572). pottery pate was often used. What has been said with regard to the pate of turquoise blue and peacock green applies to this variety also namely. rich." Cucumber-rind green of really fine quality is one of — — VOL. full-bodied. MONOCHROMATIC WARES which it is sometimes mistaken. Not infrequently the two colours occur in combination. From the second half of the Chienlung era until the middle of the nineteenth century (Taou-kwang era) an inferior. pottery of varying coarseness being a inferior tech- mark of comparatively modern and nique.

The rarest of all the green monochromes is the " crab-shell green. but the rare example seen in China seem to belong to the Kang-hsi or Tung-ching era. tion.'' or Hiai-chia-ts'ing. Incised decoration is usually added. tint. but is fuller and more opaque. being lustreless 322 . that it seems almost misleading to place them in a separate category. itself monochrome. The glaze of this variety is thick and the majority of the specimens date from the latter half of the Chienlung era. The ware deserves no special men- simply porcelain covered with thick. fine-grained pate and all the technical qualities indicate most careful manipulation. showing with remarkable accuracy the partial translucidity of a crab's shell. It is difficult to add anything to the description embodied in the name of this curious ware. Nothing is on record as to the history of the ware. and uninteresting grass-green glaze. The colour is a somewhat impure mottled green. or even later periods. lustre. So few are the genuine specimens still surviving. The last and appreciable kind of green resembles the Chiao-lii in tint. Another variety of green green. a grass lic is the Chiao-lu. Hard. and from the Chia-tsing^ Taou-kwang. the colour not lending plain happily to the purposes of a perfectly The Chiao-lu does not rank with choice wares. partially transparent. except when it occurs in combination with other colours or with enamel decoration. The glaze on this ware is thin and the pate fine porcelain. often tricked out with ill-fired gilding.CHINA the rarest colours to be found in the Chinese bric-abrac market. or light having metaland generally showing iridesence.

lustrous black. The first was ** metallic black.'' called U-chin . For in the ** metallic black " two tolerably distinct kinds are . not showing any of the depth or brilliancy usually supposed to be characteristic of a fine black monochrome. mention has been made already attention of the Chinese potter. The Mo-Ting-yao. tints Its deep. however. From early times black glazes occupied the best — They are found on both the Ting-yao and the Chien-yao of the Sung dynasty. the U-ni-yao.wing green and marked lines and delicate dappling. On the whole. — possessed greater attractions. Their manufacture was resumed. The manufacture of the original Chien-yao came to an end in the Tuan dynasty. render it one of the most interesting productions of the Chinese keramist. The former of these names is not accurately descriptive. with its inferior variety. therefore. in the Kang-hsi era when two principal varieties were produced. In this respect the Chien-yao of which.MONOCHROMATIC WARES BLACK. the second " mirror black. showing its of raven's. and when the factory renewed its activity under the Ming emperors. The one specimen illustrated in H'siang's Catalogue goes to show that the ware was rather brown than black. its outcome assumed a wholly different character." called U-ching. nor is there any record that black glazes were in vogue during the Ming dynasty. is little known to Western connoisseurs. silvery the thirteenth to the sixteenth century monochromes of this class did not receive marked attention. or black Ting. No attempt to reproduce either this ware or the black Ting seems to have been made. it seems justifiable to conclude that from iridescence.

speaking of mirror " This black is produced by dipping black. and in point of fact many beautiful specimens of perfectly uniform. Examples of this charming ware are very rare. but close-grained. trecolles* description tells nothing of a feature that distinguishes the choicest variety of mirror black. No other glaze is applied. Strictly namely. their pate^ is seldom pure white porceThis lain. says the porcelain in a liquid mixture of prepared azure. its showing and a more solid glaze of noir-mat type. it must be placed in the middle of the kiln and not where the temperaThis process would evidently have ture is highest. soft colour. In stoving this species of ware. d'Entrecolles. 3H . being a deep. and it must be mixed with glazing material obtained from powdered petrosilex. Like the blue-andwhite Kai-pien-yao and several of the most prized monochromes. M." given a pure black monochrome. polished. to which is added " dead-leaf" glaze with some lime and fern ashes. reddish stone-ware. such ware should not be classed with monochromes. and reflecting images like a mirror. glossy black porcelain were thus produced during the But M. It is not essential that the best blue should be employed. and it for the connoisseur is an interesting point that generally in the saying supplemented by may be choicest pieces of mirror black neither the bottom surface often blue. speaking.CHINA found or : a thin glaze having the sheen of metal. The "mirror black" is happily named. d'Enseventeenth and eighteenth centuries. glossy. iridescent hues of dark green : — . the addition of golden speckles. but the dust of gold speckles floating in the glaze is so fine that it conveys an impression of sheen and softness rather than of colour. but it should be a little thick.

delicately manufactured specimens chiefly bowls and plates of fine porcelain dating from the Tung-ching. same black glaze as that seen. which last term is also applied to vases having gold decoration on a black ground. In the " Catalogue of Ching-te-chen Manufactures " contained in the " Annals of Fu-liang. on the rest of the specimen.'' and quoted in — — Julien's *^ Porcelain Chinoise. but for the absence of golden speckles. is either pure black. for the most iridescence. and subsequent eras. the duller variety of it is typically seen in the the " Black Hawthorns " and black grounds with enamelled decoration so highly prized by Western collectors. There appears to have been comparatively little difficulty in manufacturing black glaze of a certain M. Close inspection of these various specimens of U-chin will generally disclose a greenish tinge. as well as in numerous but decidedly inferior productions of the Kang-hsi. . As for the U-c/im. and Chien-lung eras. The more bril- on the other hand. or metallic black. is not to be regarded as condemning a piece. however. or they have a warm brown glaze. more or less marked and are either covered with the plainly due to defective technique.MONOCHROMATIC WARES These parts nor the inner surface has white glaze. The presence of white glaze.'' it is distinguished " email noir mat de 1' Europe " and is characterised as as a new production. owes them to This latter glaze is found. would rank high among monoThese are further distinguished by their chromes. or if it has any tints of green and blue. part. pate of true porcelain. where the black surface is ornamented with an imperfectly fired tracery of gold. on very thin. liant variety. It is found on the bottoms and interiors of manyspecimens of mirror black which.

where it is used either as a monochrome on the outer surface of cups and bowls. Its manufacture was revived under the Ming dynasty. A a monochrome of This It great merit is t\iQ is the Tzil-chln. This question of date deserves a false idea of gloss special notice. 326 . black. are often purchased by collectors mirror of choice old of common. or golden brown. Many specimens made during the nineteenth as century. though sombre and heavy. because M. with dragons faintly engraved under the glaze. where the Tea Clubs always valued them highly and preserved them carefully. ill manipulated biscuit. and light golden brown. inelegant shapes. They are much commoner in Japan. noisseurs. fairly describes its its term which and brilliancy. Examples of black monochromes older than the present dynasty are scarcely ever to be found in the hands of Chinese bric-a-brac dealers. The fact is mentioned in the '' History of Ching-techen Wares. his note on the subject is (171 5). or in crude. fond laque of French concolour but conveys has also been called " dead-leaf* glaze. or as a ground for bluish white spotting and dappling. d'Entrecolles erroneously speaks of the Tzil-chin as a new invention of his time For the rest." and among the articles requisitioned for imperial use in the Lung-chin era (1567— i6i 2) there are included rice-bowls of deep brown. genuine examples They are invariably BROWN. and indications of faulty technique may be detected either in air-bubbles and pitting in the glaze. It is of considerable antiquity. being found on the Chien-yao of the Sung dynasty.CHINA merit.

round or square.e. To the combined liquids there is further added a compound of lime and fern ashes. and when a vase was to receive the Tzii-chin-yu. common yellow clay is taken and treated Of this only after the manner of porcelain earth. and the marks of the liquids on the bricks in each case are compared.. papers were removed. Some artists filled the reserved medallions with an uniform ground of azure or black.MONOCHROMATIC WARES interesting another glaze/' he writes. which has been brought to a similar state of consistency.. and instructive. water. and formed into a sort of paste as liquid as the from petro- The two — i. " There is the finest parts are employed." 327 . — The proportions in which the three are mixed depend upon the nature of the colour which it is desired to produce. that is to say. At one time it was customary to manufacture cups with this golden brown glaze outand a pure white glaze on the inner surface. When the porcelain was dry it received the usual colourless. with the intention of applying designs in gold after the first stoving. To make it. the material obtained from the have to be yellow clay and that from petrosilex subsequently mixed. bricks of porcelain are dipped into them. side. " called Tzii-chin-yu. Subsequently the method was varied. translucid glaze. of the colour of coffee. and in order to determine whether they have been brought to the same degree of consistency. were covered beforehand with moistened After applying the glazing material. these paper. and the unglazed spaces thus reserved were decorated with red or blue. golden I should be disposed to call it rather glaze brown. either by immersion or insufflation. or bronze or dead leaves. small spaces. . They are thrown into purest white glazing material prepared silex.

is who said flourished at the end of the sixteenth century. from chocolate to light brown. designs engraved under the glaze. and small vases Good pieces generally have are the usual examples. mens of brown monochromes are seldom of large dimensions. its production has never been enced no but in China and Japan deemed easy. paratively modern and valueless pieces the Tzu-chi?i often covers outside surfaces while the interiors have Specia glaze of impure mazarine blue or green. bowls. Rice-cups. plates. The celebrated Hao Shih-chu. to have been remarkable for his skill in manufacturThe colour varies ing monochromes of this kind. Decoration in white In comslip was often added with excellent effect. 328 .CHINA M. Salvetat says that difficulty in French keramists have experiimitating the Tzu-chin glaze.

for dark spots in the red field king-fisher blue and peacock green with metallic dappling Chung-yao with red hawthorn and clair-de-lune glazes metallic black with green and blue iridescence mirror black with gold dusting olive green with yellow spots the red Pinkwo-ts'ing glaze with plum-green clouding. .POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES Chapter XI POLTCHROMATIC GLAZES TRANSMUTATION OR FLAMBE GLAZES are many varieties of Chinese porceand stone-ware the glaze of which shows more than one colour. and so forth. For this section. some of the porcelains included above in the monochromatic family would.'' called by French connoisseurs " Flamber M. however. inasmuch as the marked predominance of their principal colour has always led collectors to regard them as . therefore. if more strictly lain classified. . d'EntrecoUes refers to Z^9 . . Indeed. It has not been deemed advisable. example. are reserved only those glazes in which two or more colours are distinctly visible. Lang-yao with bright . or ware " transmuted in the furnace. . Of these the most remarkable. to enter these in the polychromatic category. find a THERE place in the present chapter flashes or — as. is the Tao-pien. and perhaps the most beautiful. monochromes.

not a success according to the potter's notion. He certainly saw a piece of accidentally " transmuted " ware. and in subsequent times many pieces must often have been produced under unfore330 ." suffice to dispose of the idea that the ware was invented at the beginning of the eighteenth century. The original discovery was probably due to accident.CHINA this curious product thus in the kiln. but it by no means follows that all Tao-pien-yao was accidentally transmuted. d'Entrecolles was in China. while M. If the risk and expense of trials could be borne. In the " there is included among the "Annals of Fu-liang the furnace impelled succeeded. or ware transThe transmutation was caused by deficiency or excess of temperature. The caprice of them to make the essay.'' " glazes manufactured at Ching-te-chen an " oil green [Tu-lu). That of which I speak emerged from the kiln with an appearance like agate. a piece muted pieces make vases with red souffle glazes. and which is the result of chance. : — "I have been shown of porcelain called Tao-pien. the art would doubtless be discovered of accomplishing with certainty that which chance now achieves once in a while. which is agencies difficult to fathom. A hundred were entirely spoiled.'' and which is spoken of This alone would an " antique and fine glaze. and it There is little room for doubt that M. d'Entrecolles was partially deceived in this matter. the origin of as which is ascribed to the "an- cient vases called Tao-pien. It was thus that the potters proceeded was to in the case of mirror-black glaze. or by other This piece. There are in fact many fine specimens dating unquestionably from the Ming period. is none the less beautiThe intention of the potter ful or less esteemed.

in the kiln by bold tours de main. the question under consideration. there be passed into the oven thick smoke whose carbonaceous mass. the oxides may be destroyed and the metal Subjected at a given moment completely restored. condition and appearance according to their combiThus. to confine ourselves to nation with oxygen.POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES seen conditions of temperature. on the other hand. Veined colours. Now these various combinations can be accomplished suddenly When a clear fire. passing by violet to pale blue and green protoxide. Jacquemart. oxydised copper gives a beautiful red vitrifiable enamel. absorbs everywhere this gas essential to combustion. and produces a beautiful green. thrown en masse on the surface of a vase. says its : of Tao-pieUy it or Jtambe. But that they were scarcely admits for of the M. so well modern effects science knows can be obtained Metals change their with certainty in the laboratory. capricious the oxyas the flames of alcohol. which. comes protoxide. . changing. diaper the surface dised red. draught. capable of being changed into celestial blue when the oxygenation is pushed a little farther. even disappears completely on salient points which have become white. If. all the oxygen is not consumed. also manufactured intentionally question. it beharicot. forms the tint called With another equivalent of oxygen. the haricot glaze assumes at last a most picturesque aspect. thirsting for oxygen. — "As cause of the transmutation. to these different conditions by the rapid and simultaneous introduction of currents of air and sooty vapours. and thus fur. and a portion that each of can enter into combination with the fusing metals. writing on the subject ware. draws in a large volume placed in a quick of air.

it leads him to class with YaO'pien ware specimens. spotted appearance of this beautiful stone. that the Chinese nomenclature It includes in is sys- tematic. is The Lan-yao-pien evidently a ware of which the manufacture was . and clouds or flecks of colour float in its depths. fact namely. This description conveys a good idea of the choicest Tao-pien : the glaze seems to be transparent. In China the Tao-pien is compared to the variety of jade called Pih^ some kinds of which are bluish and others have a greenish tinge like the deep sea. This glaze illustrates an interesting . in the manufacture of which different glazes were applied to different parts. as in the case of craquele^ are so sure of their technique that they can manufacture one pair of vases in which red predominates. note may first be taken of the Lan-yao-pien. having a blue base. and another of which the almost blue ground is strewn with red and hlac flames. Otherwise. The author of the " Annals of Fu-liang " compares the Tu-lu or Tao-pien glaze to precious green jade the brilliant heart of which is flecked with white. and a bright red top/' M. Jacquemart's enthusiasm carries him a little too far . Passing from this general description to special varieties. shape of a peach.CHINA nishes happy accidents. a violet body. The potter's object was to imitate the cloudy. and he often succeeded admirably. And since the Chinese. all the Tao-pien class practically glazes the colours of which are in any respect due to accidental conditions of firing. or blue Tao-pien. his description of the varied effects shown by this remarable ware is vivid and excellent. they also make statuettes with the flesh colour disappearing under blue or green garments or tea-pots in the .

Its body colour is transparent green. The choicest kind 3ZZ . but as a general rule the Yao-pien porcelains of the Chien-lung potters yield to none of their predmanaged with virtual ecessors in technical excellence. the pate as is also the case with the Lanyao-pien being fine porcelain." As is the case with every class of transmutation ware. however. applied in a moderately liquid condition. All the tones of colour. or green transmutation ware. and over these fields floats a dappling or net-work of brown ochre." but which in China has the name Chiunor " imperial spotted ware. The technique is excellent." probably indicates a similar glaze. The best specimens of this variety appear to date from the Yung-ching era (1723— 1736). passing into azure or pur- ple. Differing from both of the above sufficiently to be easily distinguished. is a variety of Yao-pien to which American tien. but is in reality. though the statement quoted above from the " Annals of Fuliang '' with reference to " oil green. and the outcome was a bluish grey or slate ground marbled with dark brown and showing a rosy tinge.POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES The uniformity of results. The best examples of both varieties usually have a year-mark impressed There is no positive evidence to in seal character. no two specimens of this variety are exactly alike. The choicer Lu-yao-pien. colouring material was applied by insufflation. — — show that either the Lan-yao-pien or the Lu-yao-pien was produced during the Ming dynasty. collectors have applied the term " Robin's- egg glaze. is a and rarer variety than the last. and hence the name ^^Taopien *' is appropriate. The glaze conveys an impression of thickness and depth. varied slightly according to the conditions of the kiln.

and which ranks decidedly below the glazes with fleecy and marbled variegation. ware was first produced. in flakes and flecks. and since. and on the whole it seems reasonable to conclude that the manufacture reached its highest point of excellence in the Tung-ching period (1723— 1736). Their biscuit is close-grained. over which . but the rim at the base is usually covered with black or reddish brown Nothing is recorded about the date when the glaze. finds an exquisite purplish blush peeping out from among green and brown (or chocolate) marbling. yet in rare cases one variety the collector fails conspicuously. No specimens older than the Kang-hsi era appear to be in existence. the which float spots — involves incompleteness. white porcelain. The general effect is very charming. There is great difficulty in determining the limits Every attempt to classify of the name " Tao-pien'' or this order reversed. delicate is bluish green liquid green in ground being of russet-red or dusky claret. ground colour is light claret or brownish red. it is established that the Tung-ching potters directed their attention specially to polychromatic glazes. Take the Lu-yao-pien (green it Tao-pien) for example. as though the Tung-ching potter had taken the tints of 334 For . uniform a comparatively tame and uninteresting mottling style which was doubtless easily achieved by the process of insufflation. speaking generally. is run. since the finest pieces bear the year-mark of that period. is The in description given above general and fairly applicable. Frequently the bluish green colour appears as fine. Choice examples of this ware generally have a yearmark impressed in seal character.CHINA is tolerably well described by the Its American appella- tion.

Every conceivable nuance of colour had a charm for His inspiration. however. at another they appear to represent the geranium blossom. M. was the Chinese potter. flowers. dead leaves. grass. could possibly be trusted to obtain the marvellous and never-ending variety and beauty which nature herself. rice. peaches. however delicate and elaborate. the rind of fruits. plums. But it was inevitable that in this superposition or combination of various colouring materials. self But that is precisely The conceptions of the keramist himmay have been tolerably definite. dehcacy and richness of this variety would justify special classification if the collector could be sure of finding more than one or two specimens to which the applicable. jasper. If at one time his glazes recall fleecy green jade or the surface of a ripe peach. an element of chance entered into their realisation. marble. with its blending of velvety red and white. To such an enthusiast it sounds almost sacrilegious to suggest that chance had anything to do with the success of the foremost technical keramists in the world. is disposed to resent the idea. lapis lazuli. accidents of temperature and oxidisation should become a recognised factor. coral. as already seen. generally taken from natural objects. May not the Chinamen have understood that no artificial processes. Agate. Jacquemart. represented by the capricious action of her forces in the furnace. was always ready to the fact that their range . but in addition was bewilderly wide. jade.POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES the Chiin-yao as a basis and supplemented them by the The resources of his own more expert technique. same description was the difficulty. and innumerable other models suggested tints which he successfully reproduced. But there is another way of viewing the question.

Some pieces. its richness. are plainly an imitation of the latter. and sometimes again the clair-de-lune occupies a very secondary place. Generally the clair-de-lune appears as a which no two ground colour. and since the keramic skill of the . clair-de-Iune and red. has two colours only. There are a number of polychromatic glazes belong to the Tao-pien species inasmuch as of them are exactly alike. He may always hope to find novelties as charming as any of his most treasured familiars. the red cropping out in rich fields and flashes but sometimes this order is reversed. its colours blending with and merging into one another. to ? produce He may eral control over these forces. Of these the commonest though not the least beautiful. until in recent years some of its efl^ects were happily reproduced in the beautiful wares of Linthorpe and Haviland. . where clouds of carmine appear among a clair-de-lune environment. brilliancy. softness. with its graded tones. depth.CHINA have sought to exercise a genhe knew that the less he limited their influence. described in a previous chapter. indeed. to which doubtless is due the exquisite Tao-pien ware. This conception. perhaps unappreciated by Western potters. The collector of Chinese porcelain and pottery owes to the Tao-pien the pleasure of knowing that his field is never exhausted. but POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES OF THE RED FAMILY. but which fall naturally into one class owing to the predominance of red in their colours. barely over-lapping the upper rim of a vase and thence running downwards in thin streaks. and glow. remained utilised. the wider was the range of his creative resources. The ware is evidently a modification of the Tuan-tsu.

'^-^Wv^N: -lo a8AV 01 .ssrioni ^t^VvW.3S£q S92) .IrigiaH (.noiJDsllo" i^csfiwl noiBa) ..MIAJ3lD^04 VlIyia-iiaOIT (J-K.

produce? He may i POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES OF THE RED FAMILY ThafflreoBr^su^itflafa^. i which doubtless is due the exquisite Tao-pien with its graded tones. Some pieces. softness. but he knew that the less he limited their influence. wher clouds of carmine appear among a clair-de4une en^ lent. its colours blending with an merging into one another. Generally the clair-de'lune zp^G2iVs as a ground colour. (See page 34 h) aS of them are cxucuy into one class alike. ar^c' sometimes again the clair-de-lune occupies a verv to the owing secondary place. and since the keramic skill c 336 .. The of Chinese porcelain and pottery owes to the Tao-pien the pleasure of knowing that Tiis field never exhausted.6it^giSi8f?es belon^'t'" '^saki collection. the wider was th'* range of his creative resources. its richness. but sometimes this order is reversed. have sought to exercise a gen eral control over these forces. The ware is evidently a modification oi Yuan-tsuy described in a previous chapter. This conception. bril Ijancy. until ii 'cars som. perhap unappreciated by Western potters. indeed. has two colours only.) H^ghSpeunches. and glow. clair-de-lune and red.vnicii luil which nO tWO r-^. are plainly an i ^f the latter. itiful wares of Linthorpe and Haviland.'- predominance o: their colours.. Of these the commonest though not the least beautiful.. <^(fM^. the red cropping out in rich field-? and flashes.e of its effects were happily reproduced in . He may always hope to find novel ties as charming as any of his most treasured familiars to • . but ^. remained utilised. depth.^iifOf. barely over-lapping the upper of a vase and thence running downwards in streaks.

.

.

POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES
been lavished among choice prorank them, they deservedly upon Many fine specimens ductions of Ching-te-chen. of polychromes in which red predominates have pate which is rather stone-ware than porcelain, and in some the biscuit, where exposed to the fire, shows a reddish brown colour. In fact high quality of pate not au essential criterion of excellence in such is
best periods of the present dynasty has

ware. In another variety of this same genus the coloured glazes are run so regularly as to present a tesselated In such polychromes there is usually an appearance. addition of a third colour, a rich brown, which is

seems to form a border of varying tone to the fields of red and clairThe processes of these remarkable tours de de-lune. There was, in force are still matter of conjecture. truth, scarcely any limit to the ability developed by the Chinese potter in manipulating his glazing material. A favourite device of his in the manufacture of red and white polychromes was to contrive that the flow of the red glaze should suffer the underlying white to crop out in more or less regular patterns, as for example a lotus blossom or a bunch of leaves. This particular class of conceit seems to have belonged to a comparatively late period, as it appears chiefly in wares dating from the closing years of the Chien-lung and to the Chia-tsing and Taou-Kwang eras. For the rest, the Tung-ching era (1723— 1736) appears to have been the most successful time for polychromes of the red genus and indeed for all polychromatic glazes. Many grand specimens bear the year-mark of that era, impressed in seal character.
often so skilfully
that
it

managed

VOL.

IX.

— 22

337

CHINA
PEACOCK GREEN VARIEGATED WITH BLUE, AND TURQUOISE WITH METALLIC SPOTS.
glaze of great decorative beauty was obtained byrunning deep rich blue, or indigo, over peacock green
so that the surface of the latter
tesselated

A

seemed streaked or

cognate type v^ere blue variegated In both these kinds lustre, finewith metallic spots. ness of crackle, and richness and variety of colour are As a rule, however, the easy tests of excellence. paste is inferior, for though light and thin, it belongs to the stone-ware class and shows a marked tinge of
glazes of turquoise

by the former.

Of

or king-fisher

reddish brown.

Such polychromes were manufactured with success up to so late a time as the TaouKwang era (1821-1851).

FANG-CHUN-YAO.

The term
is

Fang-chun-yao^ or

**

imitation Chiin-yaOy*

chiefly applied in

China

to

ware of remarkable
glaze

beauty, having

soft, delicate clair-de-lune
;

among

which

float

clouds of peach-bloom red

the latter not

speckles, pervaded

and by a more or less distinct tinge of buff or light brown. It will at once be seen that this glaze might have been classed as a variety of the red polychromes described above, but owing to its peculiar merits and to the fact that Chinese connoisseurs
a solid colour but an agglomeration of tiny flecks
specially distinguish
it, it

is

here placed in a separate

category.

It

is

certainly one of the choicest

among

polychromatic glazes, considered either from the point of view of assthetic delicacy or from that of That a certain element of accident decorative effect.
338

POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES
entered into the manufacture is proved by the fact Not only that no two specimens are exactly alike. does the manner vary in which the clouds of red are
disposed, but the colour also passes
claret,

from

rose to light

and

agate-like

sometimes marked with metallic or flecks. Sometimes, again, the red, or
is

brownish red, clouding is distributed more or less uniformly over the whole surface of the piece. This last type generally occurs in large specimens, and though very restful and charming, cannot be regarded as the choicest kind of Fang-Chun-yao, Another variety, very rarely seen, has its entire surface dappled with clair-de-lune and claret red. This Fang-chun-yao seems to have been a production of the Yung-ching potters. Its pate is of fine texture, but opaque and showing a tinge of brownish red.

GRAINED GLAZES.
wares offering such infinite varieties as the polychromatic glazes of China, necesIn the above headsarily involve some perplexity. ing, however, care has been taken to follow the nomenclature of the Chinese themselves, who use the ideograph stUy or " grain," to distinguish three glazes of much merit and curiosity, namely, the Chin-siu-hway or "gold grained " glaze the Tung-siu-hwa, or "copper grained '* glaze, and the Tieh-siu-hwa, or " iron
classify
;

Attempts to

grained " glaze.
is

In all three kinds the ground colour and in the glaze there appear to float scales or grains of gold, copper, or iron. The " gold '' grain is rarest of the three and most highly esteemed. Its gold specks are plainly seen, held suspended in the glaze, seemingly in the form of pure metal, though it

brownish

red,

339

CHINA
not easy to conceive how their state of separation can have been maintained under the high temperature The "copper grain'' variety ranks of the kiln. second. It does not show metallic graining as plainly as does the Chin-siu-hwa, but the justice of its appellation is at once recognised by the copper-like aspect The " iron grain '' stands in the of its dappling. lowest grade, but is nevertheless a very interesting Sometimes the graining shows and attractive glaze. like the glistening of fractured iron pyrites sometimes it appears as though fused iron were actually present in the glaze, and sometimes it takes the form All these glazes are thick of fine uniform dusting. and have little lustre. The idea of them was probably suggested by metallic ores. The great charm of vases of this type is appreciated only when they are actually used as receptacles for flowers. The rich glow of a peony or a chrysanthemum contrasts inimitably with glazes so subdued and unobtrusive. They are always applied to solid but fine stone-ware pate^ and year-marks, when present, are stamped in seal character. The best examples belong to the Yung-ching and Chien-lung eras.
is
;

CHECKERED GLAZE.
In this
class

are

included

all

glazes

where the

colours are applied in regularly checkered patterns with straight edges. Such productions belong to a comparatively low grade of keramic art, and do not call for detailed mention. Green and white, or green and yellow are the commonest combinations of
colour.

340

POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES
TORTOISE-SHELL GLAZE.
Both in China and in Japan the idea of manufacturing a glaze that should resemble tortoise-shell was successfully carried out. Specimens of this type are,
however,
very rare
in

Chinese productions, being

confined to small pieces, as snufF-bottles or miniature vases. canary-yellow or straw-coloured craquele glaze with patches of rich brown, manipulated so

A

carefully as to suggest the transparency of tortoiseshell,
is

applied to porcelain pdte^ fine and white but

Difference of biscuit alone distinguishes Chinese ware of this class from the well known bekkode of Japanese Satsuma faience. There is no difficuly in estimating the merits of a piece, for the technical contrast between the good and the inferior t,e. between ware prior to 1820 and subsequent to it can be detected in an instant.
solid.

— —
skin

TIGER-SKIN GLAZE.
Allusion has already been
glaze, as
It

made

to Hu-pi, or Tigerin
vitrifiable

a

ground

for

designs

remains only to note that this beautiful glaze, the appearance of which is accurately described by its name, is used on choice wares without any decorative addition. It is not crackled, and the points of excellence are lustre and softness of surface, general faultlessness of technique, and dexterity of marbling and streaking. Vitreous crudeness of glaze and muddiness of colour may be at once taken as evidences of inferior and modern work.
enamels.

341

CHINA
LACQUERED PORCELAIN.
Brief allusion may be made here to a ware that does not fall into any of the classes hitherto discussed. In France, It is porcelain decorated with lacquer. where this curious keramic freak used to be admired, it goes by the name of" Porcelaine laquee burgautee,'* the term being derived from the shell called " burgau,"

under the dark surface of which
coat of mother-of-pearl
fact, consists

a prettily variegated

is found. The decoration, in of mother-of-pearl mosaics in lacquer, with which the surface of the porcelain is covered. There is no record that tells when this variety of ware first came into vogue in China, and since its decoration concerns the lacquerer not the keramist, it may be dismissed without further comment.

MODERN FLAMB£

GLAZES.
it is

Before concluding the subject of polychromes

necessary to remind the amateur that during the past

twenty or thirty years large quantities of Jiambe and " splashed " glazes have been manufactured in China, and that, being decorative, brilliant, and attractive, many of them are mistaken for choice specimens of
In general they are grey, lilac, or dusky blue, with clouds or streaks of red and patches Whatever may be said of the indepenof brown. dent merits of these polychromes, without reference to their incomparably finer prototypes, they can always

good period.

be identified by their muddy tone, fissure-like crackle, crude technique, and coarse, dark stone- ware pate.
342

POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES
CRACKLE.

One of
tion

the most remarkable methods of decora-

of
to

employed in China was that of crackle. Ware Its invention is ascribed type was called Sui-ki. the potters of the province of Shen-si and to the early
this

years of the twelfth century.
that the so-called invention
is

The strong probability is

easy to conceive that
differed

which
to the

was in reality accidental. It where glazing material and pate sensibly in composition were exposed

same degree of temperature in the kiln, the unequal expansion of the two broke the continuity of Unable to conquer this tendency, the the glaze. shrewd Chinaman conceived the idea of utilising it, and ultimately elaborated the conception to a high degree. Two methods of producing crackle are described in the Tao-lu. The first was to alter the composition of the glazing material by adding a certain

the second, to sun-dry the glaze piece and then plunge it into cold water before brown, red, or blue colour was imparted stoving.
quantity of steatite to
it
;

A

the crackle by rubbing the surface of the vase, that is to say, before the contraction while still hot the edges of the crackle to had caused of cooling
to

Anclose with Indian ink, red ochre, or cobalt. other practice, pursued in later times, was to re-heat the vase slightly and then dip it in a solution of colouring matter. By either method, but especially by the latter, not alone the crackle but also a portion of the adjoining surface of the glaze received a carmine tint. It is recorded of the brothers Chang, celebrated manufacturers of Lung-chuan celadon during the Sung dydistinguished as nasty, that the ware of the elder Ko-yao was crackled, whereas that of the younger

343

CHINA

was without crackle, the typical Lung-chuan-yao and from the remarks of some writers the inference may be drawn that the presence of crackle was regarded as a mark of inferiority. But such a verdict must not be accepted too literally. In the finest type

of celadoUy the delicate greenish azure monochrome so highly esteemed in China and Japan, crackle did not appear. But the illustrations in H'siang's Catalogue show that not alone all specimans of the Ko-yao, but many of the Kuan-yao, and even some of the Ju-yaOy had crackle, and that in the case of the Ko-yao and the Kuan-yao the crackle was coloured with vermilion. Judging by the illustrations, it is plain that in the case of these wares the crackle, so far from being a defect, was distinctly an embellishment. Indeed, surviving specimens of Ko-yao, attributed by Chinese connoisseurs to the Sung factories, owe much of their beauty to the coloured net-work that covers their surface, spreading a multitude of tinted veins with fleecy edges over the brilliantly lustrous glaze. The Ko-yao became, in fact, the type of crackled porcelain to subsequent generations, and nowadays every fine specimen of buff, grey, or celadon monochrone having a strong crackled surface whether the crackle be is coloured or plain spoken of as Fang-ko-yao, Choice pieces of old craquele have always and justly enjoyed a high reputation. The author of the Tao-lu mentions incidentally that, in his time (1815), a firstclass specimen of old craquele commanded from a It was thousand to fifteen hundred dollars in Japan. natural that a good number of pieces found their way into Japanese collections, where they are still carefully preserved. So expert did the Chinese keramist become in the management of crackle that he even

344

POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES
applied bands of crackle alternately with bands of unbroken glaze. Fine specimens of this nature were manufactured during the Chien-lung era. A frequent type had grey, or light green, body glaze, distinctly crackled, while round the vase ran belts of chocolate glaze uncrackled but having incised diapers and leafSkilled technique and carefully prepared fringes. materials being essential to the successful manufacture of such vases, it is easy to distinguish the comparatively clumsy, crude outcome of the Taou-kwang and later kilns. Another and much rarer tour de force W2i^ to vary the nature of the crackle in one and the same glaze, preserving, however, sufficient uniformity to avoid any suggestion of accident. Thus the crackle round the upper part of a vase assumes a circular form, while below it is angular, the distinction being emphasised by a marked difference in the size of the two kinds of mesh. A technical curiosity of this kind is of course highly valued, but that it could be produced at will seems most improbable. It will of course be understood that in almost every case crackle The one exception is merely a decorative accessory. is white porcelain, the crackle of which constitutes its only ornament. In choice specimens of this variety the thick, lustrous glaze shows a faint tinge of buff, and the crackle is bold and strongly marked. Such porcelain, being admirably suited for flower vases, used to be esteemed in the East, but it is without delicacy, and can scarcely be classed among choice
wares.

apply only to crackle having " But a large meshes, the starred ice '* variety. reader who has followed the descriptions given in previous pages of various kinds of porcelain, knows

The above remarks

345

CHINA
many beautiful monochromes have their surface covered with a net-work of exceedingly fine crackle. Among wares thus distinguished special mention may be made of " cucumber-rind green " " king-fisher
that
;

green'* (the turquoise blue of Occidental collectors)
; ;

;

" peacock green '' " mustard yellow '' and certain The crackle on the best exspecimens of Ting-yao, amples of these wares takes the form known to French connoisseurs as " truitee/' the " fish-roe " of

Chinese nomenclature. It is the same crackle as that seen in the Satsuma and Kyomizu faiences of Japan. The meshes are close, and the crackle polygonal or It is unnecessary to dwell upon this nearly circular. part of the subject further than to translate a few useful words from M. du Sartel's *' Porcelaine de " On ancient specimens the crackle, genChine " erally very distinct and tinted black, traverses the whole thickness of the glaze the mass which is uniformly coloured. However numerous the cracks may be, they do not detract in any way from the smoothness of the surface. The solutions of continuity are so little appreciable to the touch that even when the finest pointed needle is passed over them they are virtually insensible. These little fissures, infinite in number, combine to form a net-work of apparent regularity, the meshes of which, almost uniform in size, are always polygonal, none of them
:

ever taking a triangular
ducts of a similar

shape.

On modern

prothe

character

manufactured in

and in Europe, the crackle presents itself It is, in the majority of instances, little marked, colourless, and scintillating. It appears to be superficial and to penetrate only into the vitreous colourless coat overlying the coloured glazes of recent
Orient
differently.

346

POLYCHROMATIC GLAZES
be compared to the fissures produced on a glass by the flame of a candle brought too close to it. The net-work in which it The meshes envelops the vase is very irregular. are different in size and in appearance, and follow one another now in one fashion, now in another. Their contour often takes a quadrilateral or even a triangular form. Finally, each of the little fissures may be felt with the point of a needle which, if similarly applied to an antique vase, would pass over
manufacture.
It

may

also

its

surface uninterruptedly/*

347

CHINA

Chapter XII CHINESE POTTERT

FROM
marked

what has been written
it

in

preceding
dis-

chapters,

will

be gathered that the

tinction

between pottery and porcelain in

Chinese wares is not always so clearly as the amateur might anticipate. Between the extremes of hard-paste translucid porcelain and genuine pottery there are many varieties of soft-paste In fact the keramist varied the and stone-ware. composition of his pate to suit the glaze he desired to Even at an epoch when the processes of apply to it. manufacturing hard-paste porcelain were thoroughly familiar to him, he preferred soft pate, and sometimes
stone-ware, as a ground
for
his choicest

glazes or

But though translucency most delicate decoration. and timbre were not points of special excellence in his estimation, he regarded pottery proper as a de-

— " Tsu
fine,

cidedly inferior product.
is

defined

in

Dr. Bushell writes thus the older dictionaries as a
:

compact

tao, pottery.

It

is

distinguished
it

from
gives

earthenware (wa^ by

the clear musical tone

when
ware,

struck sharply with the finger nail.

The term

pottery, as with us, includes porcelain and earthen-

Prince both glazed [liu-li-wa) and plain. glazed Buddha from the day, admired a one Kung,
348

CHINESE POTTERY
ruins of the

Summer

Palace, taking

it

for old flambe

he walked up and tapped it and exclaimed contemptuously Wa-te !' (it is pottery). The Chinese have no word for stone-ware, and, in truth, there is no scientific distinction between these three substances, which pass into each other by
porcelain,
till
^

imperceptible gradations/' And yet it is evident from this very narrative that to the Chinese connoisseur there is nothing imperceptible in the difference which struck Prince Kung so forcibly. The truth is that while a stone-ware pate and a translucid porcelain pate are often difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish, especially when each is overlaid by thick glaze, no such confusion exists in China between either of these pates and pottery or faience in the Western sense of the terms. The latter was not

manufactured in the Middle Kingdom, its principal uses being for glazed tiles and architectural ornaments. Numerous specimens of architectural ornaments in faience, as statues, mythical monsters, and so forth, existed in the Summer Palace at Peking, and a good example of glazed tiles is furnished by the celebrated " Porcelain Tower '' of Nanking, the greater part of which consisted of glazed earthenware. The glazes most commonly found in decorative specimens of faience are green, yellow, turquoise blue, and Ware of purple, the two last being often combined. connection this type has already been spoken of in Its place of prowith " Three-colour Porcelain.'' specimens are and duction is the province of Shan-si, Their decostill procurable without great difficulty. rative and brilliant character have won them favour with amateurs, and many pieces are to be seen in European collections as for example, vases with
largely
;

349

although for the in their decoration. thick and lustrous. well known to Western collectors but often wrongly classed as " Transmutation Ware. ture. birds. all remarkable for the profusion of bright turquoise. Ting-yao of the Sung dynasty. varying in fineness but never above the level of stone-ware. most part faience. rising : . Two other types of faience have been mentioned in preceding chapters under the headings to which They are the Tsu-chou-yao they belong respectively. howgreen ever. the blue looking out from beneath it in streaks or spots. to which also is to be attributed another variety of faience or stone-ware. the former easily recognised by its yellowish glaze and sparse decoration in black or brown . an imitation of the celebrated The heavier examples of the Tu-ting-yao came from the Kwang-tung factories. others with scroll-pattern in relief on monochromatic ground of censers or ornaments in the form a different colour of mythical animals. occasionally has genuine porcelain patCy in which case it must be regarded as a Chingte-chen reproduction of the original Shan-si manufacreticulated panels . The red and opaque. rabbits. the latter. fabulous personages. is generally deep blue speckled.'' This type of Kwang-yao owes pate is its attractions entirely to the glaze. flecked or clouded with white or green. and so forth. and in the choicest examples of all iron red with metallic sheen presents itself at the lips and shoulders of vases. the order of these colours is reversed becomes the prevailing tint. In rare cases there is addition of yellow speckles. purple. and green enamels used Such ware.CHINA and designs in relief. Sometimes. The glaze. and the Tu-Ting-yao .

The history of the factory is not accurately to known. there is little determining the age of a specimen. for their glazes often show blisters or lacks of continuity. occurrence shows that Koh Min-tsiang and Koh Yuan-tsiang must have played an important part in the manufacture of this species of Kwang-yao^ but repeated investigations have failed to elicit any inforIn Japan. and as year-marks do not seem employed at any time.CHINESE POTTERY There is also a beautiful surface of blue or green marbled with white or speckled with red. that occur tsiang to have been guide in rarely The only marks are Koh Min-tsiang-chi. The two Koh are said to have flourished at the close of the Ming dynasty. many excellent specimens have been preserved by collectors. though its rich lustrous surface and play of fine colours ought to . and that the great majority of those coming into the market are from kilns of the Kanghsi or Chien-lung era. and the appearance of pieces thus marked tallies with this theory as to their age. signifying " or made by Koh MinThese marks are stamped in the red or reddish brown paste on the The frequency of their unglazed bottom of a piece. The Kwang-tung potters seem to have experienced difficulty in the management of their baking processes.'' to the appearance of the sea-snail). where mation about either of the men. under the name of Namako {beche-de-mery owing to Yuan-tsiang. It is at all events pretty certain that no example oi jlambe Kwang-yao dates from an earlier period than the sixteenth century. Koh the resemblance the variegated glaze bears Neither in China nor in the West has this variety of ware been much valued at any time. or more Koh Tuan-tsiang-chi.

{Tuan with Tuan-tsu dynasty ware). It is. however. lustrous For pieces glaze. for its beauty is unquestionable and its successful production has become completely a thing of the past. it worthy of imitation. or reddish brown pCitey and both the same curiously mottled and often very beautiful glazes. by its peculiar viscous clair-de-lune glaze. and succeeded so well that no attempt is made by Chinese connoisseurs to distinguish between the originals Kwang-tung and the Ching-te-chen reproductions. Reference is made to it again merely It is distinguished for convenience of classification. satisfying these conditions they have always been ready to pay high prices. The third principal variety oi Kwang-yao has already been spoken of. with their rich velvety glaze and soft bloom of bluish creamy white. but is usually finer. finely and uniformly speckled with white. resembles that This ware is often conabove.CHINA have brought it into notice. At all events the Chlng- te-chen experts though. Fine specimens of this kind of Kwang-yao. and general accuracy of technique. rank high among keramic productions. probable that many of the best speci- The pate jiambe the Kwang-yao of described . passing into light and deep tints of lilac or azure. Both have the same red. keramics. the characteristics which they consider essential being rich but soft blue. unlike anything else in the range of Chinese Japanese connoisseurs attach great value to good specimens of Kwang-yao. the two founded having very similar pates and general likeness of colour. and the natural consequence specimens of Kwang-yao are more is that choice numerous in Japan than in China. It seems strange that this ware has not commanded larger appreciation in the West.

\Z\\-^VvKA iO (2aH3MI .aT8A*i Tao8 (.THOiaH) 38AV .CfiS 9Sfiq 39?-) i-I .OkX-^V^W JJ3I]800a .

for its %%^^f^\i unquestionable and its that this successful production has become completely a thing of the past. Japanese connoisseurs attach great value to good specimens of Kwang-yaOy the characteristics which they consider ess^ential being rich but soft blue. originals and thr C'hing~te-chen reproductions. with their rich velvety glaze and soft bloom of bluish creamy white. passing into light and deep tints of lilac or azure. and general accuracy of technique.have brou! ^ r hen cxpwrt:^ acceeded so w^^-i ' :ce. lustrous For pieces glaze. It is distinguished by its peculiar viscous clair-de-lune glaze. however. probable that many of the best specie . unlike anything else in the range of Chinese keramics. or reddish brown pate. satisfying these conditions they have always been ready to pay high prices. : At all events the Ching- worthy of imitation. The third principal variety oi Kwang-yao has already been spoken of. . but is usually finer.«(trattg? ware has ncflP^SiiBM2[fided larger appreciation in the West. and attempt is made by Chinese aguish between the Kwang-tung connoisseurs (. the two having very similar pates and general likeness of colour.iO vA§#^^M§H%M Ji^gffis^ Wiiw£^aEGGltiBe€Jiiy.^ and the natural consequence specimens of Kwang-yao are more is that choice it . Reference is made to it again merely for convenience of classification. Fine specimens of this kind of Kwang-yao. and both the same ciiiiously mottled and often very beautiful glazes. It is. Both have the same red. The pate resembles that of the jiambe Kwang-yao described This ware is often conabove. rank high among kefamic productions. finely and uniformly speckled with white. founded with Tuan-tsu [Yuan dynasty ware).

.

.

which are The modern proused by the Chinese for tea-pots. especially in Japan. are coarse and clumsy as compared terra cotta pottery. immense quantities of with those that commanded the admiration of teadrinkers. however. during the past three The pate of the latter is as fine as pipecenturies. Bushell. Of form with hexagonal section. the Ti-hsing-yao. in Kwang-tung but at The faiences spoken of above are the only notable class in But when the student comes to consider pottery. by an unskilful use of pigments. but the painter. he is confronted by an important ware. a native of the district. it was not glazed. ductions. a few miles from Shanghai. IX. has suggested the false idea that the pieces H'siang. fashioned vessels of earthenware to plain VOL. describes them thus : — Tea-pot of Ti-hsing pottery of the Ming dynasty. Yi-hsing lies near the Western shore of the Tai-wu Lake.CHINESE POTTERY mens were not manufactured Ching-te-chen. Illustrated Catalogue of H'siang two specimens are depicted. depending for decorative effect upon quaint conceits of shape and delicately moulded ornaments incised or in relief. — 23 2 S3 . during which a celebrated potter named Kung-chun. The pottery of Ti-hsing dates from the Ching-te era (i 506-1 521) of our own dynasty. known to Western collectors as boccaro. as translated by Dr. tially for the colour and quality of the biscuit. are glazed. up the Yang-tsze-kiang. It is still celebrated for its wares of their China. It would be nearly as difficult to detail all the colours of the Yi-hsing pate as to catalogue the innumerable forms of tiny tea-pots to the manufacture of which In the the factories devoted their chief attention. the keramist. Prized essenclay and almost as hard as porcelain.

line by line. Its original colour is a light brown like felt. This is only a curious accidental peculiarity. A wonderful transformation which I could not have believed had I not seen It is it with my own eyes. There the ware has always been known as Shu-dei (vermilion pottery) or Haku-dei (white pottery). Tea-pot of Ming dynasty Ti-hsing pottery. changing to bright green when tea is poured in. This and the following tea-pot I saw at the capital in the collection of a prince. and for the rest there is no doubt w^hatever that glaze was not employed in the manufacture of this ware. as the tea is poured out. inches high the value placed on choice specimens of Yi-hsing-yao by Chinese connoisseurs at the close of the Ming dynasty. 45^ inches. there has been preserved in Japan an exceptionally accurate Chinese record of the origin and manufacture of the Ti-hsingyao. and yet modern virtuosi prize it most highly. 5 inches. of course obvious that pottery covered with not change colour under the circumstances mentioned. Owing to this high appreciation on the part of the Japanese tea-clubs.CHINA hold tea which were often changed in the furnace like this one. Of vermilion red pate. graduallyreverting to its former colour. The price mentioned by H'siang more than seven hundred dollars for two little attests pots. being merely transcribed from Chinese annals a fact which suggests that if the story of the Ti-ksing-yaOy a ware certainly not standing at the head of Chinese glaze could — — . In Japan the fancy was still more marked. as described above. The account owes nothing to Japanese research. 354 . for 500 taels. and a tea-pot of it forms an essential feature in every chajirCs equipage. the one 4J. who had bought the two from Chang. Height. Height. the other 5. which changes to a bright green when the tea is put in. a high officer of Nanking. made by Kung-chun.

the authority of an ancient writer is quoted to show that the mountain called I-shan joins eastward to the range of Tung-ting and is connected with Shu-shang Light yellow clay comes from the mountain Chao-chwangIt is used to mix with nearly all varieties of clay. and was conducted by the latter to a mountain where a hole had been partially dug. observing its resemblance to the scenery of Shu-chung. stone yellow. how can you said hope to become rich ? '' Finally. the Yi-hsiang Hien-chi^ written by worshipped. or pottery. runs thus : — The clay is tradition with regard to the discovery of pottery that. beshan. so that its interior presented the appearance of brocade. found that it shone brightly with all the five colours. an old villager accompanied the priest. calling out. Wangchw* an of the Ming dynasty. factured from light scarlet clay. further research may yet be rewarded by the discovery of equally elaborate records in other branches of The document translated the Chinese potter's art. examining the hole. and a variety of light yellow made his ! ! : — : 3SS .CHINESE POTTERY keramic productions. ing very tough. called Shi-hwang. a strange-looking priest daily appearance in the village. But he "If you do not care to buy treasure. Under the influence of heat it assumes the colour of cinnabar. and an indispensable ingredient of good Another kind of yellow. and the people. found pottery made from it has the colour of a fresh pear Pottery of the colour of pine spikelets is manu(Tung-li). but Tung-po Sien-shang. In a work. gave it the name of On the summit is a shrine where Sien-shang is Shu-shan. has been investigated with so much care by an author of the Middle Kingdom. The name of the mountain was Tao-jung Shu-shan. is obtained from the same place. at a remote time. After this the priest disappeared. " Treasure to sell Treasure to sell The villagers crowded round and laughed at him. It was originally called Tu-shan. and walked about the '* streets. Azureblue clay is found at Li-shu : it changes to dark brown in In the same district the " pear-skin " clay is the furnace.

in Chiang-yin. for washing tea. from time to time. excess or deficiency of temperature being alike fatal to the appearance of the finished piece. Some specimens had silvery spots others had wrinkles. not flat. and that from their roofs hang stalactites of various colours. Pots for storing tea. A clay called Mi-keu (literally. pot for tea should be small.CHINA gives green ware. or faintly projecting dots. and ultimately ^Yt or six are placed in a carefully closed vessel within the kiln. good clay would be found everywhere. — — ing and preparing. shallow. In mixclay A . workmen employ A . not deep . An ancient writer says that in these hills there are caves capable of holding thirty or forty persons. 35^ . all have special characteristics with which the potter must be intimately acquainted. and a mixture of " pear-skin " clay with white sand gives pottery the colour of a light shade of Indian ink. is pounded. the which are kept various processes After the pots have been shaped. having been carefully selected. Not one potter among ten thousand is capable of the achievement. The position of the caves changes. The spirit of the mountain is said to create several other varieties of colour when its clays are baked. From the time of Kung-chun down to that of Shi Ta-pin t\iQ paU of good pottery was always distinguished by its fine texture. its cover should be concave inside. for holding hot water. sifted. In these caves clays of fine quality are found. The longer one of strictly secret. according to the will of the spirit of the mountain. they too are seasoned for a long time. The clay. and then stored in covered holes to season. and so forth. " closed mouth " or " secret opening ") produces light red pottery. Doubtless if excavation sufficiently deep two or three hundred feet were made. clay found at the hill Twan-shan produces pottery with white spots like pearls and the same clay mixed with azure-blue and stone-yellow clays give a rust colour of dark or light shade. however. To make a really choice vase for holding water or tea demands an almost superhuman endowment of taste and dexterity. not large . White clay is obtained principally from a hill called Pai-shishan (white-stone hill). Great pains and skill are necessary in stoving.

is said to have been the first to manufacture choice utensils of pottery for tea-drinking purposes. To put tea into such a vessel is like enshrining a god in a mud-heap. Generally their of them thumb-marks are faintly visible. His favourite style of during the Wan-li era (i 573-1620). specialties are as follow : — Tung-Han^ surnamed Heu-chi. but the celebrated potter Shi Ta-pin^ whose authority is indisputable. Even as an ornament it possessed most pleasing properties. A characteristic decoration on his pieces was He appears to have been the flower of the water caltrops. many people employ that ideograph in writing his name. however. The great artist being of the Kung family. 357 . They forget that even the celebrated beauty Si-tsu would lose her charms were she covered with dirt. the first potter who ornamented the surface of the Ti-hsing ware with elaborate designs in relief.CHINESE POTTERY these pots was used. and the more easily was its excellence recognised. and in most the old priest. Their names and A . Sometimes the lustre of a pot is due to greasy particles which shine with increased plainness in the sunlight. the more attractive did its lustre become. cer of educational affairs. he attended his master when the latter was receiving a course of instruction at the Chin-sha temple. Cheng-te era (i 506-1 521) of the Ming dynasty. colour is that of a chestnut. we have a series of renowned potters. and there succeeded in secretly learning the art of His pots were hand-made. are inimitable worthy to be ascribed to divine revelations. He flourished during the Wan-li era (i 573-1629). and is celebrated for his skill in modelling. was the Servant to one JVu I-shan. who flourished in the Ti-hsing. but his name has not been preserved. who lived during the Ming dynasty. He also flourished Chao^ whose artist name was Liang. priest of the Chin-sha temple. Vulgar people preserve this unctuous brightness and rub the pot with their sleeves to intensify the effect. an offifirst really great expert. The temple of Chin-sha is situated about thirteen miles (English) to the south east of Kung-chun. used From the time of Kung-chun downwards other ideographs. and they have a subdued lustre Their simpHcity and accuracy of shape like oxidised gold.

surnamed Shao-shan. flourished during the He was closing years of the Ming dynasty (1620— 1640). and which was of excep" Does this pot tionally fine quality. wares.'' Sit Tiu-chiien. Tuan Chang.CHINA decoration was that indicated by his name. and the other era. most of the manufactured by his pupil. knowing this. who was a great admirer of Ta-pin^ trade. milthe stalks. verse of poetry associates his name with those of Li Ta-chun-fang and Shi Ta-yin-chiien as the three potters of greatest eminence at Yi-hsing. to Ta-pin. which occurs so frequently in these names. He was a dexterous modeller. was not a potter by His father.. Liang . Among neither his predecessors nor his successors was there any one who could equal him. but the pate of his early wares was not of the very highest quality.e. or " pots of Ultimately Li became so skilful the honoured Signior. ^ The ary addition. Chao. together with Tung. ** great." is an honor- 358 . another great potter of the Wan-li era. brought a vase which he had made. and said meet with your approval. three were renowned for the excellence of their pottery. Shi Ming. Li Chun-fang was a pupil of Shi Ta-pin. of Shi Ta-pin. and he has always been regarded as a potter endowed with more than human ability. visited the latter^s house one day. A : — attributed to Ta-pin were really made by Li Connoisseurs. and leaves of which he moulded with great skill. and Tuan. let. are wont to refer ^ to such ware as ^^ Li-ta work. known as the four celebrities of the Wan-li commonly are Tung s forte was beauty of decoration. celebrated for his dexterity in combining coloured clays. Shi-ta-cachet. ears. honoured Signior?" It is with reference to this incident that dilettanti acquired the habit of calling Li s best productions Lao-hiung-hu. signifying ideograph ta.'* that Ta-pin was content to put his own name on pieces In point of fact. i. in company with specimens now Chun-fang. Shi Ta-pin. He took Kung-chuns works as a model and ultimately developed remarkable skill. a contemporary of the above and the father He. surnamed Shi-hang. and it is said that on this acOne day he count his master often found fault with him.

and ultimately falling into trouble Hence the common with the authorities. he used often to say with regret that his best work did not equal the inferior work of Shi Tapin. Shi Ta-pin had four other pupils. his execution being fine and delicate Shao Wan-kin. The last was a man of noble birth. went out of the house. the first thing he : — . willed. as well as delicacy of execution. though the exact name of the latter is not known. 3S9 . with evident surprise "A man of your genius would soon surpass me in my own art. lawless person. people were wont to speak of him as " Chan the fool." His His forte dexterity as a potter was. and Sil. conceived the idea of reproducing its attitude in Returning to the potter's house. and Tsiang Poh-Kwa. and to this day the names of Ta-Sii (the elder Sii) and Siao-Sii (the younger Sii) are preserved. His productions showed great force. he showed the piece to Ta-pin. and being averse to associate his family name with the occupation of potting. was imprisoned. he used to write his signature with the ideograph Kwa instead oi fu. and manufactured many varieties of colour. ancient keramists. He struck out a style of his own. The lad Sii. watching it attentively. who excelled in copying flowers and fruits. which was his proper signature. and laid aside the clay which had been offered to him. so as to produce all sorts of charmHe made special study of the choice works of ing colours. the father asked Ta-pin to mould an ox.CHINESE POTTERY the lad Sic. who followed his teacher's methods exactly Shao Wan-yin. He had a son who also developed great skill as a potter. lay in the direction of minute work. and the accurate shapes In inscribing of his hand-made pieces excited admiration. In the course of conversation. namely Ngeu Ching-chun. the clay which he carried. however. but was younger and less skilled. But despite the celebrity which he attained. proud. One of the animaFs legs was still bent. and varied the composition of his pates at will. He was a Shi Ting. who said. Chan Tun-hiang was contemporary with another potter. remarkable. taking this clay. and as chance saw was an ox in the act of rising from the place where he had been sleeping under a tree. took all sorts of objects for models. but Ta-pin hesitated to comply." Thenceforth Sii applied himself to pottery.

and though he followed his models with great fidelity. surnamed Se-liang. Min Lu-shang nality to reverence. but they all show talent of no common order. and so forth. celebrated masterpieces. as perfume-boxes. her features at once majestic and benevolent these are indeed wonderful productions. a native of Wu-yuen. The consequence was that his later works lacked carefulness. evidences of an imitator's hand are discernible. and fruits and were decorated with insects. — Chan Chiun-yung. instinct with life. paper-weights. His ingenuity was remarkable. Finding it hopeless to look for distinction in a branch of the keramic art already numbering so many devotees. and courted the society of men above his station. His vases were shaped in the form of flowers. In style his pieces resemble those of Ngeu Ching-chun. . leaves. and this calamity is more or less evidenced by a want of fineness in his productions. Chan Chung. Unfortunately he lost the sight of one eye. His dragons sporting among storm-clouds. His productions are remarkable for strength and boldness rather than for delicacy. whom he almost matched in skill and elegance. drank deeply. derived his inspirafrom the works of Chung-mei. but his writing is bad though his carving is deHcate. was renowned for his reproductions of He seems to have sacrificed origi- Chan Kwang-fu confined himself to studying the works of Kung-chun and Shi Ta-pin. and originally a manufacturer of porcelain at Ching-te-chen. The success which he achieved proved his ruin. Chan Sin-hiang copied the works of his predecessors Shi and Li. Occasionally he selected pieces manufactured by his pupils and put his own cachet on them. show singularly fine moulding and chiselling. with out-stretched claws and straining eyes his statuettes of the goddess Kuan-yin. His genius almost equalled that oi Lmig Mien tao-tsz. for he became over-bearing. but unfortunately he overworked himself and died young. Many of the pieces he designed. he abandoned porcelain and turned his attention to pottery. He used no measuring instrument when 360 tion . flower-vases.CHINA his cachet he seems to have imitated the caligraphy of Chun Ta-ch'wan.

the Li-shan. was a poet as well as a keramist. Li Chung-fang. well-known writer says that his fame as a potter was widespread. and that wherever he went. and who was such a master of penmanship that his inscriptions have been carefully transcribed. His skill in compounding various clays. a potter called Tsx-cKo flourished. who has been mentioned above as a renowned pupil of Shi Ta-pin. and called also Hii-yin. and enjoyed a reputation of the highest character. that is to say. following Chen 1644). CK ung-chang era (i 628-1 644). i. Shao-kaiy Chen Heu-chi^ Shao Erh-sun^ and Chan Tsun-hiangy the last a pupil of Shi Ta-pin. Chan H'6-chiy Chan Tiang-shang. who was emtated by modern artists. whose style of writing has been much imiAnother was Ta-sin. from the JVan-li era (1573Other celebrities of the same age were 1620) down to 1644. nobles and literati invited him to their houses. resembling People stone or metal. made him famous from the first. Some of the potters of Ti-hsing owed their reputation Such a man was Chan-chen. surnamed Hao-fang.CHINESE POTTERY shaping his vessels. During the two last periods of the Ming dynasty. and the hardness of his ware. He died early. his wonderfully ingenious shapes. He was so proud of his talents that people called him insane. Chang Tun-tsung^ Tien-chi era (i : — and Chan chiefly to Chiiin-shang. He was a man of great skill both In fact he deserves to as a modeller and as a caUgraphist. to this Ta-sin in caligraphic ability.. viz. the 624-1 627) and the CKung-chang era (1628potters attained celebrity. another potter of about the same period. but he scarcely deserved such an epithet. and are used by connoisseurs as a standard of excellence. be classed among the celebrities of the Ming dynasty. not caring for mathematical regularity. was not far inferior their skill in carving inscriptions. Hiang Pu-sun. ployed by Shi Ta-pin to write inscriptions. All the above flourished during the latter years of the Ming dynasty.e. He flourished during the Wan-li era (i 573-1 620). 361 During the CK an A A . christened him Chan To-shu of Ti-hsing. He was incarcerated and died in prison. still more renowned potter of this dynasty was CK an Ming-yuen.

but unfortunately I have not seen it. One drinks tea for pleasure. that Mang-cK an was an expert of skill. gant than his tea-pots exists among tea utensils. noted connoisseur and author says and Ching Ning-heu. The market price of the good clays has gradually risen. and Chan The productions of these masters are Tung'hiang third. speaks with great enthusiasm of a pot by Mang-cK an which he (the writer) obtained There can be little doubt at the fair of Ts'i-fang Su-shan. Chia HUens specialty was the manufacture of seals. and one may justly feel irritated straight if the beverage declines to come out of the pot. so that the bouquet and flavour of the tea Each guest should have a pot for himwill not disperse. Shi Ta-pin second. Formerly tea-pots by Kung-chun were fashionable. The Yi-hsing potters build their ovens in tiers. Wine has no dregs. but subtea-pot sequently those of Shi Ta-pin came into vogue. Another writer of note. and that it ranks high as a keramic effort. and that the workmanship and caligraphy are almost worthy to rank with the productions of Kung-chun and Shi Ta-pin. seurs place Kung-chun first. The true form of teaNothing more refined and elepot began with Kung-chun. and now the places where these clays are found have been dug down even to the water-level. the flow is impeded. that on a tea-pot in his possession the name o^ Sii Ts'z-ching Ts'z-ching. become enlarged. But with tea such is not struct its issue from the vessel. The leaves. nor anything to oba vessel for wine. He adds that in his youth he obtained a pot bearing the cachet of Mang-cK an^ but that the style of the caligraphy could not compare with that of Shi Ta-pin. however. and if one of them sticks in the spout. Hwui A is inscribed. soaked in water. Nothing is more imvalued like gold and precious gems. vessel for holding tea is different from curvature is fatal. on the face of the hill. the case. must be small. Among manufacturers of Ti-hsing pottery connoisself. are potters. Shi Ta-pin* A A A 261 . The slightest portant in a tea-pot than a straight spout. about Sii whose period there is some Mang-ch'an.CHINA Four other uncertainty. spout obviates such an annoyance. I have heard that among the treasures of a well known dilettante there is a vase by Ching Ning-heu. like rabbit holes. Chia Hiien.

delicacy of modelling. It is evident. but those of Chan Hu and Hu must be placed at a long interval. . for example. Perhaps some of his masterpieces may be brooding over their misfortunes among the excreta of rats and barnyard his fowls. and caligraphic beauty in Probably no potters in their inscriptions and marks. But Sii works are so rare that it is difficult to judge its merits. that some of the beauties which the latter possessed in Chinese eyes can scarcely be This is notably the case appreciated by Westerners. of almost more than A sixteen convexities correspond perfectly with any one of the sixteen concavities in the neck of the pot. lid moulded in the form of a sixteenpetalled chrysanthemum. with caligraphic skill. hsing pottery furnished models for Bottcher's Saxon ware. Some class even above Ta-pin the artist Saio Tuen^ surnamed Tang Sin. however. and that it was also copied by the Elers at their The pottery of the Elers. will be found to fit so accurately that not only does every one of its a chronological record. quaint colouring of pate.CHINESE POTTERY productions are scarcely inferior. The delicately incised diapers . It is with pots as with men ! The all above treatise is marred by the : fault Eastern works on art subjects it is little What the reader learns from it is that nearly all the renowned potters of Yi-hsing flourished during the last century and a half of the Ming dynasty that the chief points aimed at by them were elegance and unity of form. was uniformly any of the curious tints found in Chinese boccaro. any other part of the world ever attained such mathematical accuracy in shaping the various parts of their pieces. They never produced red. factory in Staffordshire. however. but even the pot itself may be raised by the knob on the lid It is said that the Yiwithout the latter coming off.

but certain examples of the former. Many pieces of the latter resemble the former so closely as to be quite capable of deceiving inexperienced amateurs. in bas-relief. but it is impossible that foreigners should sympathise with the ecstasy of the Chinese dilettante when he discovers that the inscription on a pot is written in the style of the Tang dynasty. These are easily confounded with the Kwang-yao described above. &c. and attractions of pate and surface. The Kyoto potters also took Chinese hoccaro as a model for their shudei. In another variety the unglazed surface is brightened by enamelled decoration scrolls. in the Chinese market. especially the modern manufacture. delicacy and fidelity of modelling. made expressly to imitate the latter.CHINA occasionally found upon Ti-hsing specimens appeal to any one's taste. prices prohibitive to Western collectors who look only for beauties of form. floral designs. The Ti-hsing pottery is the protype of the celebrated Banko-yaki of Japan. the colours employed being chiefly lilac. or that it resembles the penmanship of Wan-yen. is appreciably lighter and generally has coarser pate than the Chinese. and suc- — 364 . are not easy to distinguish. It is said in China that skill in a certain style of engraving seal-characters cannot be acquired without unremitting practise for a period of from twenty to thirty years. Naturally the works of men who possessed this skill command. are essentially different from the Ti-hsing-yao. and green. The Japanese product. Not infrequently Ti-hsing clay was used to form the body of pieces covered with monochromatic or jiambe glazes. however. quatrefoils. yellow. Of course the great majority of specimens of Banko-yaki.

curious natural colouring. Considered as examples of manipulation of clays. As will be gathered Ti-hsing-yao The from what use. 365 . and admirable delicacy of modelling. it was manufactured for not for ornament. But the pottery possesses few decorative qualities and belongs chiefly to the class of fictile curiosities. some specimens deserve a high place in the most select collection. is not important from the point of view of a Western collector.CHINESE POTTERY ceeded in manufacturing all tea utensils that differ scarcely at from their originals. skilful is written above.

table utensils. it began to be used also for the purpose of designating glazed pottery imported from China. throughout the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the name " porcelain '' was applied in France exclusively to vases. which showed the same pearly whiteness as the shell. until the middle of the Ming dynasty. first made led their to when Oriental keramic productions way to Europe. it would follow that Chinese keramic wares did not come to Europe until the sixteenth century that is to say. as quoted by M. du Sartel. the sixteenth century. Brongnard and de Laborde. du Sartel. If this account be accepted. well shell. M. But at what epoch was this resemblance observed and perpetuated by the dual use of the word ? According to MM. .CHINA Chapter XIII CHINESE PORCELAIN IN THE WEST considering IN sense. and ornaments into the manufacture of which But from the beginning of mother-of-pearl entered. the student natuinquire itself at rally what epoch the term its "porcelain'* began to be employed in present a The term was originally applied to species of shell that did duty for money in various denote keramic Its subsequent use to manufactures was due to the resemblance between the latter and the smooth semi-translucency of the countries. known zee .

the Emir Saladin made a 1 present of forty pieces of porcelain to Nurredin. in an Arabian manufacts. writing und-er is not made in China 1 except at Tsuan-chow and Canton. and the whole becomes powder. by the its latter. an Arabian. referring to the inhabitants of Carajan and other subjects of the Great Khan. burn the compound for three days. pottery with us. from the thirteenth century Sung Dynasty and beginning of ware reached the Mediterranean In support of this opinion he Thus. the close of the Chinese the Tuan shores of Africa. notes that they used strings of white "porcelain'* as money. and thence exported to all parts. or a clay which they ferment. in 1298. days gives porcelain of inferior quality. in ment is that shells are referred to . quotes various — — script contained in the National 1 Library. the celebrated traveller Marco Polo. The potters add to it a stone found in the neighborhood. fine porcelain was manufactured. it is re- 7 1 . even as far as the Maghreb " — 367 .CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST however. says —" Porcelain This clay is inflammable like charcoal. Batoutah. that so long ago as the days of Marco Polo.e. That which has been fermented during an entire month gives the best porcelain that which has been fermented for only ten ity. Again. It is exported to India and other countries. and subsequently goes on to describe how. Porcelain in China sells for the same price as. or even a lower price than. at the chief town of the Chinese province of Fokien. the term porcelain had date 3 become : applicable in modern sense. Ibn o. . then throw water on it. holds that i. The conclusion obviously suggested by the former state- corded that. It is manufactured with clay found in the mountains of the local1 Further.

the manufacture of a fine. the district comprising the whole north of Africa All this supports the correct- ness of time view with reference to the '' began to be applied to the keramic productions of China. that during the Sung and Tuan in preparing their choice — epochs the preparation of glazes occupied the attention of the Chinese potter almost exclusively. At all events. du when the term "porcelain tah illustrates another interesting point also. what is known of the methods pursued by Chinese potters glazing material. If Chinese so-called " porcelain '' was exported to India. and the time when the latter began to find its way to the shores of the Mediterranean. It is quite evident that his description of manufacturing processes can have reference only to glazing material. carried on a brisk commerce with Asia and Africa.e. has with the object of throwing extracted a great deal of interesting information from catalogues of ancient collections in Europe. he finds it stated that her husband. shows plainly that these methods alone attracted the notice a fact strongly corroborating of the Arabian tourist the conclusions arrived at independently in a former chapter. though not more so. light on this question. his account is inaccurate. perhaps. who.CHINA t. the north of Africa. du Sartel. M. Lorenzo de Medicis. translucid pate not having been yet included among his tours de force. from the close of the thirteenth century. and elsewhere. it seems more than probable that specimens would have been brought to Europe also by the Venetians. In an inventory of the possessions of Clarisse de Medicis. than the account of any ordinary traveller would be. Even on this hypothesis. 368 . to the west of Egypt. namely. But the story of Ibn BatouSartel's M. in 1 3 1 o.

the difficulty or trafficking in such a fragile material has to be remembered the Cape of Good Hope route had not yet been discov: and Oriental porcelain coming to Europe must have been transported on the backs of camels across the desert. a commercial agent of Jacques 1440. de Village. At a still earlier date. dating from the same epoch. On the other hand. and so forth of silver or gilt bronze. constituted an important item in the collections of signs European virtuosi from the middecorative de- dle of the fourteenth century. plates." made of vases. was employed by the Sultan of Babylon to carry three bowls and a plate of Chinese porcelain to Charles VII. du Sartel are essentially European. indeed. Neverered. it is scarcely possible to imagine that the material of which these pieces were manufactured could have had anything to do with shell. The information that one might expect to derive from catalogues of early collections is greatly obscured by the double signification attaching When. theless. also objects imported show that porcelain was among the from Egypt. IX. and goblets of '* porcelain *' with handles. but some appear to be catalogues quoted VOL.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST received certain porcelain vases from the ruler of Persia in 1487. covers. The on several of the specimens described in the by M. Great interest is said to have been excited in France by these objects. Some of these designs are on the metal mountings of the specimens. Jean Cceur. and it can scarcely be doubted that little time was suffered to elapse before a fresh supply of similar pieces was procured. mention is to the term ** porcelain. 24 369 . there are obstacles to full belief in M.'' or keramic pro- ductions of the Orient. The maritime laws of Barcelona. du SarteFs conclusion that " porcelain. dishes.

Un tableau quarre de pourcelaine ou d*un cote est Tymage de Nostre-Dame en un esmail d'azur et plusieurs autres 370 . Among of the Virgin Mary. (1380). It might. and of the Duke of Berry (141 6). John. potters of the Yuan era had not carried the art of painting in blue sous couverte to a point such as would be indicated by the representation of saintly personages. of Charles V. . Inventaire de Charles V (1380). owed its decorative designs to the inspiration of Roman Catholic priests residing in But it is almost certain that the Chinese China. garny d'argent. therefore. du Sartel were of mother-of-pearl. These occur on specimens in the collections of the Duke of Normandy (1363). the latter are figures Paul. et au milieu I'yniage de Nostre-Dame. and so forth. dore a ouvrage d^oultremer. de plusieurs pieces. Un tableau de pourcellaine quarre. of — Inventaire du Due de Normandie (1363). not to be replaced until the rise of the Portuguese settlement at Macao.CHINA on the ware itself. of St. be supposed that porcelain such as that described in the three collections mentioned above. not of keramic ware. in 1 5 1 7. The student is therefore constrained to think that the examples adduced by M. Now it is known that from the sixth century Nestorian missionaries carried on the work of propagandism in China that from the beginning of the fourteenth century the field which they had hitherto monopolised was shared by the Minorites and that both fell with the fall of the Yuan dynasty of Mongols (1368). The reader can judge for himself: . the Twelve Apostles. of St.

Inventaire du Due de Berry (1416). Thus is in the Duke found ^^ une es cue lie d'une pierre appelee pourcellaine^'' and in that of Queen Jeanne d'Evreux (1372). sans nulle garnison. Nostre-Dame et Saint Jean. Un Not one of these descriptions seems applicable to a keramic specimen. a Tenviron et de I'autre cote a une ymage de Saint faillent et est environne de perles tout autour et y quatre Un tableau de pourcelaine quarre ou d'un Nostre-Dame sieurs ymages et et xij apostres et a cote est Tymage en tour Tenviron xij de Tautre cote a plugrosses perples. ou est entaillie crucifiement. dore. " «« pot a eau de pierre de pourcelaine T Bowls and pots of " a stone called porcelain " can only be interpreted in one It may therefore be confidently concluded sense. grand tableau de bois ou il y a au milieu un ymage de Nostre-Dame de pourcelaine et plusieurs autres ymages de pourcelaine autour de la vie Nostre Seigneur et de NostreDame. whereas every one of them may easily be associated with the idea of work in motherof-pearl. garny d'un des cotes a Ten tour d*argent. y esmeraudes et y rubis d* Alexandre. Uns or. they can scarcely be traversed in respect of the fact that glazed pottery or stone-ware was certainly represented in these early collections.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST ymages Pol pierres. If. M. enchassiez eu au dos un demi ymage de Nostre-Dame. petits tableaux quarres de pourcelaine. however. that as early as the Tuan dynasty (1260— 1367) Chinese keramic ware found its way to Europe and was of Anjou's inventory (1360— 1368) 371 . a Teuvre de Damas. petits tableaux quarres ou est Uns un de pourcelaine. du SartePs conclusions appear to have been carried too far in one direction.

Thenceforth the supply of Chinese porcelain was doubtless more abundant. in the case of every specimen reasonably identifiable as keramic. the 372 . though the ware continued to be highly esteemed and to com- — — mand large prices.CHINA highly prized there. They are white porcelain decorated with blue under the glaze. To about the same time. previously alluded to. and in 1508 it is recorded that the Portuguese. it may also be concluded and the conclusion is in strict accord with the researches set forth in previous chapters that the art of decorating keramic pieces. or a little later. driven by stress of weather to Weymouth. there is no talk of any decoration other than that applied to the metal mountings. as the nature of which nothing is left In 1505. was still in its infancy at the middle of the fourteenth century. renewed their voyage. either under or over the glaze. These bowls are still preserved by the Trenchard family. reaching Canton in 1 5 17. so that King Philip's keramic specimens are precisely what they might have been expected to be. and in return for this hospitality presented to Sir Thomas some bowls of porcelain. belongs the celadon bowl of Archbishop Warham. The manufacture of blue-and-white ware in China had reached a point of high excellence fully eighty years before this date. Sir Thomas Trenchard. Philip of Austria. became the guest of the sheriff. But inasmuch as. with colours. being to conjecture. having brought a number of keramic specimens from China and sold them at a handsome profit. It is not till the beginning of the sixteenth century that there is found in Europe a specimen of Chinese ware. At the beginning of the seventeenth century.

From Deshima. Any specimens that had previously come westward are attributable to special and infrequent opportunities. The chief station of the East India Company was at Cambron in the Persian Gulf. So little was then known about the resources of the Middle Kingdom and the great industry at Ching-te-chen that the Chinese wares sent westward in the Company's ships were generally described as " Cambron until 1840 that an English facCanton." Exportation by the Portuguese from Macao is said to have gone on about the same period. Another source of supply was the Dutch Compagnie des Indes. Thither were brought keramic productions of Persia and China. began to send porcelain direct to Europe. but to the mixture of the two porcelains and their simultaneous despatch to Europe may probably be attributed the origin of the remarkable confusion that has always existed among Western amateurs in respect of the keramic wares of China and Japan confusion which reaches its acme in the writings of M. calling it " China ware. The agents of the Compagnie des Indes seem to have been the first to conceive the idea of pro- ware." It was not tory. established at — 373 . and was despatched westward together with the Japanese product. between 1698 and 1722. At the same time Chinese porcelain came to Deshima in Chinese junks. Jacquemart. agency of this association the trade in Chinese porcelain may be said to have been inaugurated.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST By the English East India Company was formed. at Nagasaki. considerable quantities of Japanese porcelain were exported by the agents of this company. and thence they were exported together to Europe. This source of Chinese supply must have been small and fitful. in Japan.

They had found this device successful in the case of Japanese Imari porcelain. and would certainly not have been appreciated in Europe. as is known from Chinese writers. of course. or of the coarse enamto suit — — 374 . Nothing is more unlikely than that they made any attempt to search for choice old specimens. which. and was accordingly called Tang-kiy i. At the time of the export of the Cambron ware the factories at Ching-te-chen were in a Their productions state of temporary decadence. or ware for exportation. There can be little question the that majority of the so-called Cambron ware was comparatively inferior heavy porcelain decorated with blue under the glaze and with red.CHINA curing pieces of Chinese ware specially manufactured European taste. were comparatively coarse. gold. and it is probable that many valued examples preserved in European collections are of this hybrid nature. and green enamels over it. Western traders. and they gave orders to the Chinese potters whose industry was then at the zenith of the revival inaugurated in the reign of Kang-hsi (1662— 1722) for specimens decorated with the arms of France and noble families. depending rather upon profusion of decoration and bright colours than upon technical excellence. ware of the outer seas. concerned themselves only to procure marketable pieces in ample quantity.e. Chinese writers also state that much of the porcelain sold to foreign merchants was expressly made with a view to its market. commanded a deterrent price in the Middle Kingdom itself. Shapes and models were also furnished. One may indeed go so far as to say that practically all the Chinese porcelain brought to Europe up to the third quarter of the seventeenth century was blue-and-white.

there * enamelled porcelain. and however. says : — has a white ground with blue flowers. the Porcelains of this effect of which is more marked. is has appeared a new kind. Of late years. landscapes. constituted the staple of European collections: " Porcelain is made of all colours in China. being There is also white too sombre to be decorative. It is tint of celadon. mens are consequently very costly. Large lines are also met with. which figures or animals. red. and green porcelains are also to be procured." The same writer gives the following interesting account of the porcelains which. I have seen very rare.' Its colours are bright. and enamelled ware of fine quality would then have been included in the exports. but strong corroborative testimony is Thus Gersaint. which called — . The history of the keramic industry in China is alone sufficient to estabelled description lish these facts. the outcome of the great Kang-hsi workshops began to come into the market. Yellow grey that approaches the destined for Imperial use The latter is seldom seen. 375 . but they lack harmony. and. for the black porcelain also it is rest. After 1670.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST manufactured so profusely in the Wan-li era. . is only valuable on account of its scarcity. porcelain painted with blue under the glaze. but it to obtain a uniform surface v/ith these is difficult They rarely succeed and perfect specicolours. * ' * ' . " The most usual kind of porcelain in 1 747. kind are called truitees or craquelees according to Blue. generally covered with a number of irregular little lines crossing each other as though the vase had been broken all over. loguing the collection of the Viscount de Fonspertuis. at that time. catafurnished by Western writers. the smallness or largeness of the lines.

the latest writer on Chinese 1722). in turquoise ware splashed with violet." That M. and there is the new sort with coloured enamels which has only been seen within the past few years. two large Dogs of Fo.CHINA is the commonest variety. appears to have shared the delusion of many brother connoisseurs in this respect. but even this supposition admits of reasonable dispute. and a celadon bottle with flames and dragons in relief." 1.800 livres. du Sartel.996 livres. Fine pieces manufactured during the celebrated epochs of the Ming Emperors commanded enormous prices in China prices quite out of proportion to their decorative merits from a Western point of view. sold for 4. keramics. for 1. when the collection of M. whereas Raphael Sanzio's painting of the "Holy Family" fetched only 399 livres^ and Guido Reni's " Infant Jesus. it may be concluded that the oldest specimens in Western collections of the last century dated from the Kang-hsi era (1662— M. was brought to Julienne (1767) the hammer. From what has been here recorded the reader will no such estimate of age is justifiable. the fashion with Western amateurs to attribute a large proportion of the older specimens in their It is collections to the Ming Dynasty (1368— 166 1). readily see that — The inferior but more brilliant productions of the Lung-ching and Wan-li reigns (1567— 16 19) did probably form a small part of the porcelain exported from Canton and Macao. despite the generally painstaking and appreciative character of his 376 . Thus. With exceptions so rare as to be almost unworthy of notice. Gersaint's estimate of the costliness of choice specimens was not exaggerated may be ascertained by examining the accounts of sales made at that time.100.

viously ignored. It might have been predicted that the proverbial ingenuity of the Chinese would not fail them when the monetary expediency of reproducing celebrated porcelains of bygone eras became really urgent. the great arrives. owing partly to the actual paucity of choice specimens. at an indisputable "It must not be he writes the end of the last century. the porcelains of China are appreciated. America's requirements proved yearly more pressing. above all other places. The supply is not yet exhausted. enriched us with pure specimens of the true antique art. its treasures to enrich the cabinets of collectors in the United States. and revealed to us new forms of the ornamental genius that our fathers loved without It is indeed knowing. He conclusion when believed that at however. its full extent.'' of late years that the keramic riches of China have been exploited for the benefit and delight of the West. who have re-developed something of their old-time mania. but it grows daily scarcer. as we know.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST criticisms. Until some seven or eight years ago. even Europe is parting with collectors. : — European collections offered the brilliant aspect to- day presented by the cabinets of a modern collector. and thither the choicest examples steadily gravitate. for there. and partly to the competition of Chinese virtuosi. and as the means of meeting them grevi^ necessarily less A 377 . and will now give for certain varieties prices prohibitive to any but very wealthy Meanwhile. new current has recently set in from these counIt has unveiled enamels that we pretries to ours. there flowed into the market a sufficient supply of genuine old specimens to satisfy the collectors of that time and But to furnish the stores of dealers in bric-a-brac.

But things have changed in that respect. Whether employed. indeed. and many more are destined to be deceived. No one expected. and bodiless colour. Using the smalt of these cheap times. so concerned. No one deserves to be much blamed that misa different cobalt is takes these modern is imitations for their originals. there are always points of manifest far as the blue 378 .CHINA tempsupplement with modern imitations the fitful and constantly dwindling supply of early chefsd'ceuvrCy could not be resisted. but every one was extensive. showing much of the brilliancy and depth that distinguish genuine specimens of the great eras. insipid. As to technique. But no such confidence can be felt any longer. or whether some improved process has been elaborated. the absence of which constitutes one of the chief charms of the old. the potter could not produce anything better than a weak. prices rose to such a height that the tation to tolerably confident that collectors possessing ordi- nary knowledge would be guaranteed against deception owing to the incapacity of the Chinese of the present era to produce anything really comparable with justly famous examples dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The imitators show a degree of skill that brings their work within measurable distance of the fine old standards. But a well educated eye easily detects in the new colour elements of garishness and hardness. too. that it would be resisted. a fine strong blue is now obtained. The great difficulty used to lie in the quality and tone of the blue. Even the hypothetically incomparable blue-and-white porcelains of the Kang-hsi kilns now have modern rivals so good that many an amateur has been deceived by them.

being vitreous rather than velvety. and many others have doubtless crossed the water to America. nature of such things that their owners remain vicFriends are not frank enough. even supposing them sufficiently skilled. he will do well Already many brand new to use a magnifying glass. tinctive marks of good old w^are. ** Hawthorns " have passed into the blue-and-white possession of foreign residents in China. however. faltering convictions by looking carefully for such marks." 379 . the marks of the grinding may always be found by close examination in the glaze on the bottom or even on the body near The amateur may therefore fortify his the rim. and the surface disfigured by blistering or pitting more turns or less prominent. tending to create a vitiated standard of quality Besides. and one may expect to see " blue-and-white.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST inferiority in modern is porcelains of this class. to ungild a man's treasures to his face. tims of delusion. Thus the Chinese find their account in carrying on the fraud. it is in the and a deceptive scale of value. The glaze lacks lustre. and though his sight be keen. for even though the colouring matter that he employs to impart a spurious appearance of age to the freshly ground rim be not apparent to uninstructed eyes. Every one of these imitations is a factor of false education. and collectors are so infatuated that they gladly accept as genuine praise the perfunctory approval of conventionalism. at Of course the connoisseur once to the pdte^ but for that the crafty Chinaman makes full preparation by grinding and polishing the lower rim of the specimen until the exposed pate acquires artificially much of the natural smoothness and closeness of grain that constitute disIn this process. he betrays himself.

and the resulting demand has not only drawn a number of fine specimens from Chinese variety of private collections. Too essentially selfish — — every enthusiastic collector is incapable of altruism to be glad that the general public is gaining access however spurious. furniture. and scratchy. The 380 so-called *' apple green '' . and it is certain that a number of new specimens have gone to America. there has especially on the part of Ameriawakening. that the pate is rough. seeing that even the celebrated " soft-paste '* porceto a species. of the porcelains he he trembles before the terrible contingency that all the ancient skill may be recovered one of these days. however. that the decoration is weak reproduction. but has also induced ters to apply all their care and skill to the modern potwork of They have not succeeded quite so well as in the case of the ordinary hard-paste. Probably the fear is chimerical. lain also is represented in modern imitations. As for other varieties of porcelain. the process of reproduction is equally active.CHINA after its kind. Still the imitations are quite good enough to deceive ordinary eyes. ware was almost completely neglected by Of late years. It is a singular fact that until quite recently this beautiful foreign collectors. yet to say so with absolute confidence is difficult. for in the modern Kai-pien-yao it will be found almost invariably that the crackle has an accidental appearance. been an can connoisseurs. and that the glaze is discoloured rather than mellow. loves. and that his much valued gems may be vulgarised by a crowd of cheap and universally accessible rivals. doubtless to find ready purchasers. become daily a commoner Even the genuine connoisseur article is of startled by these new specimens.

pate of the modern porcelain. though carefully ground and polished. that the slightest muddiness of colour is fatal. first. Corresponding craquele attempts to simulate are seen in the so-called " black hawthorns '* of the time.CHINESE PORCELAIN IN WEST ware is turned out in quite considerable quantities. for in shops in Shanghai and even Tien-tsin specimens frankly stamped with 381 . and that specimens of ambitious " liquid-drawn '' glazes by Makuzu. and above all in the absence of the '* mossy " edge peculiar to the crackle of the genuine ware. that a fine velvety lustre invariably appears on the glaze of Chien-lung and earlier specimens. Here. another favourite field for imitation. it must be observed that Japan also is in the field as an imitator. sang-de-boeuf^ " peach" blow. in the weak tone of the colour. As to the fine reds. and secondly." bean-blossom '' &c. the amateur ought to find sufficient guidance in the comparatively coarse. their reproduction is still more difficult. nor does it follow that the Chinese themselves attempt any witting deception. The fine close-grained pate of the old kilns is not producible. too. but here the amateur should never fall a victim if he remembers. The Japanese potters are not necessarily parties to this fraud. Further. though it must be confessed that some recently manufactured specimens of Lang-yao are declared deceptive by Chinese connoisseurs themselves. and the black glaze forming the ground colour is so vitreous and garish that cess it has to be subjected to an all-over pro- of grinding. the marks of which can be detected " Mustard crackle " offers without much trouble. and of celadons^ ^^famille verte " and other varieties by Seifu have been acquired by Chinese dealers and are confidently offered for sale as Chinese porcelains.

nor is it easily conceivable that if the Chinese identified the marks.CHINA ideographic names or marks of their Japanese makers are confidently paraded as genuine Chinese porcelains. the 382 . They are bound to be victimised more than ever. But these considerations do not smooth the path for unfortunate amateurs. Such pieces must plainly have an honest origin. they would have courage to attempt so patent a deception. Perhaps this warning may save them some disappointment.

as translated by M. for certainly in many directions the achievements of the Ming potters were at least equal to those of their successors in the Tsing dynasty.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Chapter XIV MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THE questions of the preparation of pdfe and glazing material by Chinese potters. therefore. But it may reasonably be assumed that the differences were not considerable. those eral knowledge has been acquired followed at the Ching-te-chen factories in the times of their great prosperity that is to say. during the reigns of Kang-hsi. there are unfortunately no means of determining. Salvetat. Tung-chingy and Chieng-lungy the period comprised between 1661 and 1795. from the letters of Pere d'EntrecoIles. may be namely. It would be useless. to attempt to enter Brief reference into the minutiae of these matters. Whether these processes differed from those in vogue during the Ming dynasty. . Julien. from the annotations of M. processes of which a genhowever. to made. in what the difference consisted. and if so. are still more or less obscure. . though investigated from time to time by Europeans residing in China. Information with respect to these questions of manufacture is chiefly derivable from the Annals of Fu-liang. and from minor sources. 383 . of the application of the glaze and of the mode of selecting and employing colouring matter.

. whither they are brought by boat.23.3 58. M.0 21.i . First Quality. .. petun- Of these the former is fusible and ware that transparency which characterises true porcelain the other is infusible. At Ching-te-chen the bricks undergo further treatment.. having first undergone preliminary manipulation and been reduced to the form of bricks. which need not be described here. side by side with corresponding figures qualities : for the Sevres pdte^ are as follows — Chinese Porcelains.5 2-3 69. .8 2.5 34-S 4-5 4-5 4-5 3-0 3-4 I.. and its presence and kaolin. 69. of Chinese porcelain.9 1. petuntse for inferior ware. Second Quality. Salvetat's analysis shows that these materials practically correspond in all their constituents with those drawn from the mines at Saint-Yrieix and used at the Sevres factories. . Silica . . Fourth Quality.2 Manganese Oxide.I I. since it presents no novel or noteworthy features.6 2. . The kaolin and the petuntse are then mixed in equal portions for the finest porcelain in the ratio of four parts of kaolin to six oi petuntse for middle-class ware and in the ratio of one part of kaolin to three of to transform the fusible — . . o..I I.0 34. gives to the . Both are found in the mountains of a district distant about sixty miles from Ching-te-chen. trace :... '}^.-1 3-0 384 .2 1-3 Alumina .8 trace . Sevres Porcelain. 0. .6 Iron Oxide 1.0 22.-(^ 73-3 19-3 2.. enables the mass to support the temperature necessary element into glass.'}^ 3-4 1.6 0. Salvetat has analysed the masses of four His results.I Potash Soda . Third Quality.CHINA The tse material is nese porcelain employed in the manufacture of Chicomposed of two ingredients. .6 0.2 Lime 0. .. .3 Magnesia 0.0 70. M. .0 0.

o i.(.j.'jnssinsvaa edJ Vife-t .182 esBa esSJ sojotsq c moi'i x7im.

for m £609. eunuch . side 'by side with corresponding figures qualities of for the Sevres pate^ are as follows': — . gives to the . whither they are brought by boat. Chinese porcelain.Yrieix and used at the Sevres factories. (See tne ratro'^eT^ a&a 2£LlO F"'^ lour . having first undergone preliminary manipulation and been reduced to the form of bricks. M.Siipport the temperature necessary Both arc to transform the fusible element into glass.CHINA The tse material employed in the manufacture of Chiis nese porcelain composed of two ingredients. At Ching-te-chen the bricks undergo portions tor the linest porcelam ^he seventeenth cpntrfry from a palac. M. found in the mountains of a district distant about sixty miles from Ching-te-chen. enables the mass to . Salv6tat's analysis shows that these materials practically correspond in all their constituents with those drawn from the mines at Saint. parts of kaolin to six oi petuntse for middle-class ware oi and in the ratio of one part of kaolin to three petuntse for inferior ware. Salvetat has analysed the masses of four His results. and its presence and kaolin. petun- Of these the former is fusible and ware that transparency which characterises true porcelain the other is infusible.

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and velvety softness constituting features as attractive as they are incomparable.Q temperapate dure ture of 700° less than that supported by of China. one sees others filled with a white liquid substance. defy imitation and remain In fact. much of the beauty due to the texture and tone lustre.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES It is well known that the nature of porcelain bis- on the amount of iron oxide it impure colour of bad ware being chieflydue to the presence of that mineral. Europe knew nothing of kaolin until the eighteenth century. IX. but I was ignorant of its composition which I have now at length learned. Although the rock from which petuntse is obtained is also employed in making the glazing matter. *^ to boats laden with petuntse and kaolin which line the banks at Ching-te-chen. only the parts that are whitest and show the most VOL. and its timbre. This glazing material is obtained from the hardest rock. its transparency. " In addition. writes. But the same cannot be said of Chinese glazes. The notes of M. Western keramists could produce cuit depends largely contains. 25 Z^S . the — only the well known pate tendre^ fusible at a \!ti. Among these there are some that still more or less a mystery. Full acquaintance with the composition of Chinese porcelain pate and ability to reproduce its qualities long ago put an end to the interest excited by its first appearance among European experts. It was to kaolin in its mass that the porcelain of China owed its beauty its whiteness. I had long known that this was the glazing matter which gave the porcelain its whiteness and lustre. of old Chinese wares is of their glaze its peculiar . d'Entrecolles. solidity." he are worth translating in full. with reference to the subject of glaze and its preparation.

are caused by the presence of oxide of manganese. which may be called its soul. These green marks. Perhaps the change of process is responsible for the deterioration in the quality of modern porcelain. in the first place. subsequently roasted. According to the oftener for very choice glazes. Over this is placed another bed of fern and The whole mass is then another of lime and so on. but this practice has been abandoned owing to the scarcity of the tree. and the process of piling and burning is gone though de This is repeated six or seven times. There is added to it another substance used alone. an epoch generally His regarded as particularly prolific in fine wares.CHINA distinctly green marks are chosen. and when it is entirely calcined. or spots. there is added to every hundred parts by weight of the liquid one part of fibrous gypsum. which has been previously brought to a red heat. is never liquid.'* M. the ashes are spread upon another bed of fern. history of Fu-liang. A bed of fern is then made and on this is placed a bed of the slacked lime. The stone has to be well washed. and even novo. the purest portions have been separated. d'Entrecolles. it must be remembered. after which it is subjected to processes similar to those employed with the ordinary petuntse. Salvetat considers that the role played by this gypsum is purely mechanical. 386 . wrote these notes in 1720-25 that is to say. thus prepared. and which is prepared as follows A mass of lime is taken and sprinkled with water to reduce it to powder. When. during the closing years of the reign of Kang-hsi." M. : — . the wood of the Diospyrus Kaki was formerly used instead of ferns. It facilitates the precipitation of minute impurities held in suspension in the " The glazing matter. by these processes.

pieces of petuntse are plunged into it. Then to every hundred parts by weight there is added one part of fibrous gypsum. and I certain localities left to settle. The workmen. repeated several times. ten parts by weight of the latter go to one part of the former. It is essential that the mixture should be of uniform consistency.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES reference to the deterioration of porcelain must be taken in the sense that many of the grand mono- chromes of the Ming dynasty were. "contribute appreciably to the excellence of the glazing mat- have remarked that the lime and ferns of are much more highly esteemed than those of others. though with such an estimate connoisseurs of the present age are not likely to agree. throw them into an urn filled with water. until there floats on the surface a in a second urn. esteemed above anything subsequently produced." This account shows plainly that the quality of the glazing material depended largely on the expertness and care of those that prepared it. is scum This which is removed and placed process purifying urn. having obtained a sufficiency of these ashes of lime and ferns. The mixture is well shaken and ter. " The quality of the lime and the nature of the ferns. The industry species of paste The 3B7 . until a is formed at the bottom of the second water is then carefully drained off and the residue is the matter which is mixed with the glazing liquid obtained from petuntse as described above." he continues. in his day. By examining the surface of these when they are withdrawn. it is possible to estimate the intimacy in which the components of the glaze are mingled. and to determine this. With regard to the quantities in which the lime and fern compound is added to the petuntse liquid.

and it is recorded that frauds were often practised by the manufacturers. Then. finely to the ware while in the condition of ware of pure ground and attached by immersion * — — the biscuit. after having been again thoroughly dried.'' where it is stated that the potters of the Hung-woo era (1368— 1398) used to dry the unbaked vases during a year. it was removed on the wheel by means of a tool. of the Im" The glaze.' In Germany to certain substances are : mixed with the felspar to pro- modify its fusibility often kaolin is added duce greater resistance to the action of heat. Salvetat.CHINA appears to have been a specialty at one time.'' he writes. To what particular methods of manufacture is this excellence of glaze due ? The question has naturally received attention in Europe. if any faults were found in the glaze. and the piece. When they emerged. indeed. M. perial Factory at Sevres. the result of course being an evolution of sulphuric acid in the furnace and consequent imperfections in the surface of the porcelain. "of European fact is porcelain is generally composed certain in the case of Sevres pegmatite. especially at the hands of the well-known chemist. " a glaze lustrous and rich as congealed fat was obtained. having been re-glazed. An idea of the pains lavished on the manufacture may be gathered from the " History of Ching-te-chen Keramics. 388 But at . " By these means. they were put in the oven. was again fired. thinned down and covered with the glazing material.'' writes the author of the history. who increased the bulk of the liquid by adding water and fibrous gypsum. at the end of which time they were replaced on the wheel." It is. the perfection of their glazes which places the porcelains of China at the head of all the keramic wares in the world.

I must lepeat that it is the lime alone which seems. chalk. for a long time back. I do not think ' . having regard to the small quantity of fern ashes that enter the mixture. If the addition of lime or of other matters to modify the fusibility of the vitreous substances employed in glazing porcelain. the glaze was composed of a mixture of twenty parts of sand from Fontainebleau. these ashes contain only silica and insignificant quantities of phosphoric acid. For the rest. the pegmatite of Saint Yrieix is employed alone. and six parts of This composition. it was because the potters were ignorant of the advantages to be derived by employing the volcanic rocks of Haute. At any rate. an artificial glaze was used. to play an active role in the calcined mixture of fern-leaves and lime. had disadvantages that led to its abandonment. If. marked * lime by him. on the contrary. and I believe myself perfectly secure in the conclusions I record here. the use of pure petrosilex without any admixture is confined to special cases. and by analyses which have been made either of glazes taken from finished porcelains. twenty-four parts of porcelain stone.Vienne. is lime. it is with the processes now actually in use that I compare those of China. The porcelains of China and Japan are generally covered with composite glazes. is exceptional in Europe. This is clearly shown both by the translation of Chinese books. in China. obtained by mixing various materials in proportions determined by the nature of The substance which the Chinese add to the ware. About the year 1780. and specified as part or the glazing material. in the factory's early days. or of specimens sent by Pere Ly. in my opinion. petrosilex to render the latter more fusible.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Sevres. tolerably difficult to melt.

analyses give. from China fails to note that the glazes of Japan could But he never bear comparison with those of China in lustre. it is evident that the presence of the lime. is found in considerable proportions in the glaze sometimes as much as twentyof Chinese porcelain establishes a very salient diffive per cent by weight ference between the two productions. minute quantities only into the glaze of European porcelain. that it is We are apparently given to understand the film of regenerated lime which con- stitutes which sink the useful element. but which. He truly notes that the Japanese also who indeed acquired the art of porcelain manufacture added lime to their glazing material. no other object than the production of a perfectly salts ." The conclusion of this eminent expert as to the role played by lime does not seem to cover the whole which enters in very — — ground. caustic lime and ashes is finely ground and washed before being mixed with the petrosilex. Whatever be the true action of the fern ashes. the carbonised film which the carbonic acid of the atmosphere forms on the surface of the liquid being carefully removed This practice has to be mixed with the petrosilex. whatever be the real consequence of calcining the lime and the ferns. — — . judging only by the rough figures which.CHINA that any influence should be ascribed to the soluble moreover certain passages seem to show that it is mixing chalky earth to the by composed sometimes felspathic quartz which forms the basis of the glazing It is also explained that the mixture of matter. on the contrary. and that the fern ashes to the bottom of the vessel in which the washing is effected. obtained from them that treat of glazing material pure lime. are thrown away as of no value.

and how to vitrify and fix them by . to ware in the ceived a preliminary firing Does it not seem reasonable to asstate of biscuit. the decorator using metallic oxides which. at all events. the manufacture of which was commenced at Nevers by Antoine Conrade. The one point in which the manufacturing processes of China differed emphatically from those of both Europe and Japan was that the Chinese potters applied the glazing material to the unstoved piece. M. and continued with much This was faience success at Rouen and Moustiers. to this salient difference of proAn example which supports this idea may be cess ? It is French majolica. in part at least. whereas the potters of Japan and Europe alike applied it to ware which had rethat is. fully understood the secret of producing couleurs de demi-grand feu : in other words. Kang-hsi era. under the influence of heat. 39^ . Salvetat and other writers have not hesitated to conclude that because the Chinese potters did not avail themselves of the technical facilities offered by porcelaine degourdie as a recipient of glazing material. cribe the marked difference of the results in the two cases. they knew how to apply enamels to porcelain already fired. that the glaze of this French majolica possessed qualities of solidity and softness. decorated au grand feu. The Chinese of the sounds harsh and unwarranted.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES depth. in 1 644. which no other manufacturing process gave. lustre and depth. and solidity. became The makers of the incorporated with the glaze. ware never quite overcame the difficulties of the Their productions are not remarkable for process. But it has never been denied technical perfection. they were Such an inference ignorant of those advantages. found in European keramics.

Her potters. always used the su-yaki-gama. did not depart from fashioned method of applying the glazing material to the unstoved piece and subjecting both pate and glaze to the same degree of temperature. adopted this simpler process. China's pupil and confessedly her inferior in the technicalities of porcelain manufacture. but because the materials immediately available to them for manu- facturing the porcelain mass were too refractory to permit varieties of composition such as those habituIn this branch of his art ally resorted to in China. had stone-ware. the Chinese keramist deliberately chose the incomparably more troublesome and unsafe plan of applying his glazes to the unstoved pate. to content themselves with a lower range of technical excellence. on the other hand. or kiln for stoving porcelain before glazing. offered no adequate compensa• 392 . Yet while his old- possessing this knowledge. in their case. Japan. Some of his most delicate and beautiful monochromatic glazes are found. and they naturally eschewed a process which. Is it conceivable that the great technical inconvenience of the latter would have been wantonly endured by a keramist skilled also in the former. but on fine The Japanese. however. the Ching-te-chen expert was deeply versed. not on true porcelain. because by no other process could he obtain the lustre. and softness so highly prized by his country's connoisseurs. unless some compensatory advantage were obtained ? The more reasonable supposition is. in the great majority of cases. not wholly from choice. that.CHINA a second firing at reduced temperatures. though the absorbent process properties of porcelaine degourdie and the ease of glaz- ing it were well known at Ching-te-chen. depth. the Chinese expert.

yellow oxide of iron. and exposing the finished piece to a high temperature was adopted by the Chinese in the case of their richest monochromatic and polychromatic glazes.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES That they thoroughlytion for its great difficulties. In the case of the former. the colouring matter to the is mixed with the the case of glaze. bluish green. and turquoise blue oxide of cobalt. Binoxide of copper gave green. appreciated and would gladly have emulated the brilliant velvet-like glazes of China. Z9Z . the whole. The colours were obtained from metallic oxides. the heat of the latter. A word of explanation may be added here with reference to the expressions couleurs de grandfeu and couleurs de demi-grand feu. although. . is applied ware already baked. so far as concerns composition their glazes did not differ from those of the Chinese potters sufficiently to account for the signally superior results obtained by the latter. and is subjected subsequently to a reduced temperature under which the base vitrifies and adheres to the glaze at the same time as the colours develop. On and that they owed something to the troublesome and seemingly unscientific method of their application. there can be no But they never succeeded in producing anything of comparable beauty. with exceptions to be presently noted. doubt. applied raw pate. The couleurs de demi-grand feu were employed in the decoration of enamelled porcelain. brown and ver. the colouring matter is added to a fusible base. and exposed to the In full porcelain to the furnace. blue oxide of antimony. . The method of mixing the colouring matter with the glaze. it appears a reasonable conclusion that the exceptional qualities of Chinese glazes were due in part only to the nature of the materials employed.

was a feat requiring much practical skill.CHINA milion cal oxide of manganese. developed at a still lower temperature. on the other hand. . of the base remained unglazed. the temperature to which they were subsequently subjected almost justifies their inclusion in the category of couleurs de grand feu. in order to apply his Chinese process. and oxide of chromium. but. acid or stannic . known potters as couleurs de petit feu. were '' yellow. when to handle glaze. Sometimes the latter defect was partially remedied. 394 . These are . and on the removal of this superfluous clay. The glazes noted above as exceptions to the rule of application to the surface of the crude />^/^. the piece before stoving. These were applied to porcelain in the form of biscuit. peacock green. It is evident that great difficulty attended the manufacture of couleurs de grand feu according to the The potter. or to immerse it in a bath of glaze. but in scarcely any cases was glaze applied to the rims at the bottom of Chinese wares. white chloride of gold. ** king-fisher's wing and " cucumber-rind " green. had the soft clay was sensible to the slightest pressure. or it might be the whole under surface. with such delicacy of manipulation that no distortion of form occurred. and the Chinese do not seem to have employed them until the middle of the eighteenth century. To pour the glazing material over it in this condition. violet. To facilitate the operation a foot of clay was left adhering to the piece until the process of glazing was completed. violet and black arseniacid. . They are of the nature of pigments rather than enamels. the rim. certain shades of carmine A third range of colours was certain tints of green.

having been brought to a liquid is is poured into a mould of dry plaster. Finally. porcelain pate. to which are due some very beautiful effects. there is no certain information. known by collectors as soufley was obtained. tured the much-admired egg-shell porcelain. shows that the practice of some such method must have preceded by a considerable interval the manufacture of egg-shell porcelain. there was produced a shagreened surface varying in roughness from the rind of a lime to a dust of millet seed. The results varied according to the patience with which this process was performed and the degree of consistency of the glaze. by increasing the consistency of the glazing material and the quantity of kaolin it contained. ware of great thinness The state. It is said that the diffi- culty of handling such pieces inspired the invention of the process of insufflation. That portion of the pate which comes into direct contact Z9S . In Europe. intermingled clouds of variegated speckles made their appearance. Again. Evidently the tone of the colour could be changed by repeating the insufflation in this respect the process may be described as stippling. presented additional embarrassment. In applying glaze by insufflation. obtained by a simple and ingenious device. But examination of the curiously mottled glazes of the Chun-yao and other chefsctoeuvre of the Sung Dynasty. by blowing on different colours.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES When egg-shell porcelain or other very delicate ware had to be glazed. As to the means by which the Chinese manufac. through which he blew the glazing material. In this way a dappled appearance. the potter used a tube having its orifice covered with gauze. the methods of aspersion or immersion while the clay was still soft.

have been acquainted with keramist may but evidence points in the other direction. was kept alight for about thirty-six hours. also mentioned that the heating It should be was gradual. but these have already been spoken of in the context of the wares M. the contents of the The latter process kiln were left to cool gradually. describing the they concern. says nace is heated during a day and night.CHINA with the plaster is deprived of its moisture by the absorbent properties of the plaster. were produced by the introduction of currents of air while the porcelain was incandescent. there are few specially interesting points to be noThe temperature to which the kiln was ticed. raised fell short of that employed in Europe by from hundred degrees. it in turn to feed The quantity of wood incessantly to wood consumed by each Z9^ . With respect to the stoving of Chinese porcelain. d'Entrecolles. practice in vogue at the beginning of the eighteenth " The furcentury. versed and the liquid pate run off. At all events. the temperature not being developed until sevVarious effects hours after lighting the furnace. in ordinary cases. when he was in China. according to his own description. it seemed to consist of glazing material only. The furnace. there remains a thickness of porcelain varying with the absorbent properties of the plaster and the time during which these are suffered to act. The Chinese this process. and after its extinction. after which eral : maximum — two men take the fire. occupied four or five days. and adheres to the The mould being then resurface of the mould. and care was taken to two to three exclude the air during the cooling. he suc- ceeded in manufacturing porcelain so thin that.

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES is as much as a hundred and eighty charges. they are taken from the oven the following morning. burning was kept up for seven days and seven nights. Speaking generally. The conclusion cannot be avoided that the porcelain of former times was much thicker than that of the present day (1720). delicacy of or infinitely patient use of the graver's and moulder's tool. it may be said that the genius of the Chinese keramist was mechanical rather than artistic. Formerly the furnace was not opened until ten days had elapsed from the time of extinguishing the fire. and on the eighth day. and five days in the case of small. viscous glazes. An interval of some days still separates the opening of the oven and the extinction of the fire where large porcelains are concerned. which required to be stoved more gradually as well as more intensely. d'EntrecoUes' deduction is doubtless accurate with regard to the greater body of the heavy stone. for example. since otherwise they would crack. if the fire has been furnace put out in the evening. with an The preliminary additional twenty in wet weather. His choicest pieces owed their value colour. Judging by what Chinese books tell us. giving results that well repaid the labour and cost expended in producing them.wares of early epochs. to ex- cellence of glaze. the fire was raised to its strongest heat. Another point of difference is also observable." M. two hundred and forty charges of wood were fed to each. But something must be placed to the account of the thick. But as for small pieces. We are assured that although the furnaces were only half as large then as they are now. this quantity of wood could not have sufficed in former times. in the case of large pieces. When 397 .

But these are notable exceptions. a landscape ality. In a majority of cases the mechanical element is conspicuous. he too often fell into the mistake. arabesques. It is true that upon some specimens of Kaipien blue-and-white and of Famille Rose decoration is found which in grace. however. For these he went direct to the innumerable bronzes which the genius exergenius of Chinese workers in metals had bequeathed to the cised through long centuries nation. without possessing the graphical ability. Even little in depicting resemblance to When he treated floral anything common in nature. it is necessary to admit that in everything relating The to the technique of his art. he has no equal. too. for his designs were faithfully borrowed scrolls he was generally the His rocks and trees bore slave of convention- from the pictorial with which his country abounded. and artistic conception leaves nothing to be desired. the remarkable skill with which he varied their composition according to the nature of their covering the marvellous softness and lustre of his glazes his extraordinary range of fancy in respect of colours. So. and scroll patterns which he employed. detail And could supply the the grotesque per- spective of the Chinese decorator helped to heighten the confused effect of his scenes. seldom rose above the level of a copyist. M. and the brilliancy and purity of his enamels.CHINA he chose figure subjects to adorn his pieces. When the connoisseur comes. But even then he subjects he was certainly happier. . delicacy. remarks upon this subject by the eminent expert. of the early Delft potters. and of the wealth of diapers. Z9^ . to consider the quality of the Chinese potter's pates . of his shapes. who thought that elaboration of place of artistic conception. — — .

have not brought us more complete ideas upon this subject than those acquired by examining or analysing pieces which we have been The want of isolated materials permitted to study. which owe their colour to protoxide of copper. at different epochs. and their absence in either a crude or prepared form. and the reds. in his preface to M. perhaps. ter of real interest to reproduce them for use on our porcelains. The analyses which I have been able to make of these colours. at any rate in the case of those where the synonyms are easily found. It is to be regretted that the detailed instructions given by M. as well as the syntheses which tried. to travellers setting out for China. or the letters which I have myself addressed to persons living in that distant country. I may cite specially the clear. Bronginart.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES Alphonse are Salvetat. bluish green colour known as celadon. sometimes orange. fonds colores de grand feu has made the reputation of Chinese porcelain quite as much. Some of the Chinese colours de grandfeu have not been as yet reproduced on European porcelains. perhaps possible. sometimes bordering upon violet. These tints are It would be a matof great delicacy and brilliancy. as originality of decoration and rich harmony of painting. that those Z99 . as has been often said. justify me in regarding as tolerably I have exact the greater part of the recipes given in Chinese books. so much sought after by amateurs. But this is not the place to give recipes which render their production probable. " of of much interest. so far as concerns decorations in couleurs de moufle induce us to think. Stanislas Julien's Histoire et Fabrication de la Porcetaine Chinoise^ " Variety/' he writes. as they were furnished by the consignment of Pere Ly.

in certain appear accidental. There are Chinese colours. peroxide of cobaltiferous manganese. them . as well as to the influences of the gas The colour. variations of tone. " The mineral cobalt. in France by is known. The same glaze gives different results under varying conditions. sometimes it is like clear sometimes it is deep bronze. like the colours we have Sometimes it is just enumerated. . that is to say. . more or less black. It is evident that colours obtained by such mixing could not always present identical tints that the state of the atmosphere in the furnace could change them that they would be more or less green. can be perfectly imitated adding to ordinary white glazing material a quantity . These differences are due to the proportion of oxide of iron which enters into the components of the mass. It has been well demonstrated by me that empirical essays only could have led to the discovery of most of the colours which we seek to imitate. and which are lost. '^'Th^fond laque (golden brown or dead-leaf colour) of China presents. according to the original composition of the materials employed in their preparation and according to the proportions in which those materials were mixed. .. mixed simply with white glazing material. as which envelops it in the kiln. This remark applies above all to colours obtained by mixing. gives a blue 400 . as it is found in China. shades which celadons and reds. of oxide of iron. . CHINA colours are no longer manufactured in China and that the methods of producing also found. ferruginous manganese and cobaltiferous earth with white glazing material already prepared. as prove that those people owed much to chance in their manufactures. in variable proportions.

Z?X f{0 TOT[AaT ageq ssB) ..s X '.

shad ns and reds. variatio clear..»ronze...^ according to tfe^ piiriis^:)' materials employed in their preparation and accc ^^ to the proportions in which the " The foml laque (golden mixed.:c no longer inaauiacti uiuthods of producing them virc -u c loou ilso found. . iu v ~^ &rruginoii manganese and cob \vith white gl nateria) already prepare evident that colours ob' by such mixing couid ' ' .. * y me that empirical essays only he discovery' of most of the colou to imitate...* t- glaze give^ . more or Ir ^ lEAPOT OE YI-HSING ^OTTERY/ r composition of tt -lack.. can be perfectly iniiLcn^cJ in France b\' m^ding to ordinary white glszin. as. as it is found in CI -roxide of cobaltiferous mangn . t^omctimcs at is i:^ The^e differences are ^ue to the proportion f oxide of iron if which enters into the cornponen v^^hich the mass.obtained by mixing. Ac envelops it in the kiln.. in < c^'Miji iippear accidei \)VO'- CVnuese colours..i.-. " " - just enumerated. The mineral cobalt. liLe the colo . •. an auch . . Js known.. This remark applies ^Aiuio. The colour.. as well as to the influences of the g. sometimes it is atep . It has b^v.. colour) of China presents. not always present identical tmts that the st-r the atmosphere in the furnace could change t.^ material a c.. . ..uanti x'ide of iron...> .. that they would be more or levss j^reen.- .. ..

.

.

to another point porcelain already stoved. again. inasmuch of divergence between European and Oriental manufacturing methods. — 26 4^1 . Looking closely at these and the crackle. is which very fine. According to the quantities added and the cobaltiferous richness of the mineral employed. forms a net-work with very small meshes. and beautiful. VOL. examination of the principal fonds de grand feu which characterise Chinese porcelains.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES colour au grand feu y sometimes pale. This naturally places them in the catalogue of colours used for decorative colours. Sometimes is obtained by superposing brun de laque on a blue ground sometimes. The analysis of these colours. In some cases the black results from the thickness of the coloured glaze in others the superposition of . that among the colours peculiar to China. But these processes are often only modifications of those in more general use. it is produced by the inverse process of superposing blue on brun de the black : laque. they are seen to be cracked. establishes it is to be observed. original. or the simple test of touching them with fluor hydric acid. shows that there is a considerable proportion of oxide of lead in their composition. various colours of different shades produces a tint of such intensity that it appears black. as At the the fact same time. some have evidently been applied to biscuit. IX. sometimes deep. one sees that all are not simularly manufactured. Evidently the manufacture comprises proI " conclude here my cesses which give products very interesting. " When one examines attentively the manner in v^hich black glazes were produced on Chinese porcelain. blues of a character more or less violet are obtained. that is to say.

Besides. and green. however. We are convinced that some synthetical experiments would lead at once to the imitation of these kinds of I may add that I prepared. they differ considerably from the colours prepared by the Chinese. will sufficiently indicate those qualify They . and the violet from oxide of manganese slightly cobaltiferous. " The colours should be able to attach themselves surface of the porcelain. turquoise blue. They are obtained by mixing either an oxide. some time ago. borax enters into their composition. fusible colours which can be easily applied to the biscuit of Sevres porcelain. We find nothing To name which we analogous to them in our thus. them. will say a few words of the principal conditions they must It will I fulfil. that nothing recalling these pro- ductions is made in Europe. While ad- mitting. we hasten to add that . and the the turquoise blue yellow is obtained owe their colours to copper from antimony. and at the firmly to the same time is to acquire by fusion the vitrification which an indispensable feature in the eclat of the decoration. or a compound of different colouring metallic oxides. it would be easy to imitate them iox the green . products. 402 . But as they are stoved at a low temperature. I in Europe. The couleurs de moujle claim our attention now.CHINA purposes. which may be called couleurs de demi-grand feu. are . own colours. I shall briefly recall " the colours which compose the palette of potters especially at Sevres. : violet. be easy to appreciate the differences to which have still to direct attention. yellow. and in order to continue the comparison I have commenced between the porcelain of China and the corresponding European product. .

two of silicious sand.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES with a vitreous flux. as is the case when 403 . 1 6. The various colours produced by peroxide of iron Were the peroxide of iron belong to this category.0 1 00. reds. on the contrary. the colour would be perceptibly altered. .0 Sometimes the mixture of oxide and flux is melted sometimes. . and its ingredients are six parts of red lead. with one part of metallic oxide.7 8. the composition of which varies with the nature of the colour it is desired to obtain. The colours are obtained ordinarily by mixing three parts of the flux. and of liquid borax. it must not be melted before use. But if the colouring matter belongs to the oxide itself. to be produced by a combination of the oxide with . in order that the colours may have the required tone. so that the composition may be generally expressed as follows Silica : — . That which is most generally employed is known as It is used for greys. and the second fusion undergone during the the flux. and yellows. it is necessary to melt the oxide previously with the flux. blacks.0 25.3 Oxides of lead Borax Colouring oxides 50. . or ground before using the oxides are simply mixed with the flux. by weight. and if the latter has only to be disseminated and not brought into a state of combination with the flux. . fondant aux gris. oxide of cobalt is employed. blues. melted with the flux. The colour obtained is immediately employed without If the colour is any prefatory fusion or calcination.

remarks do not apply to black and iron-red monochromatic glazes. such as iron-reds. but the operation of grinding and mixing different col- upon the palette. Others. recalls that of the stained glass mosaics manufactured with so much art in the thirteenth century. green. This condition is essential. Chinese pictures. when closely examined. Some are brilliant. a method which much resource to our painters. have a character quite different from that of our pictures. are generally almost quite without vitrification. and blacks. of the porcelain. and yellow belong to this category. colours should be able to melt at the same time. too. and applied enough thickly to appear in relief on the surface Rose tints obtained from gold. The paintings obtained with Chinese colours are far from satisfying these conditions as to equality of thickness and vitrification.CHINA stoving of the decoration would produce a further The assortment of colours when made of change. perfectly melted. and in which the whole design and all the modelling of figures and accessories were the result The 1 M. after stoving. does not appear to be prac- by the Chinese. and to present. The tones are not flat shaded. Salvetat is speaking of colours used in enamelled decoration. Neither the figures nor Black outlines define all the the flesh are modelled. colours. His 404 . appearance of their paintings. The colours are applied in tints which the painter afterwards damasks with ours tised different colours or with metals gives so . an uniformly vitrified mass. or show only a little vitriTheir thickfication at places where they are thin.^ ness is always much less than that of vitrified colours. preparations succinctly indicated here suffices to pro- All these duce the chefs ct ceuvres of oil-painting.

mentioned above. the other a black) constitute the only exception. They prove that the colours by means of which the Chinese obtained such remarkable results. The colouring matters are. is always composed of silica. The flux. had much more analogy with the vitrified substances known as enamels than with anything else. of the tone obtained. " This special composition of the colours used in 405 . oxide of copper for greens and bluish greens gold for reds oxide of cobalt for blues oxide of antimony for yellows arsenical acid and stannic acid for whites. state. " Whatever be the origin of the colours used for the decoration of porcelain in China. is many cases. compared with our own. one a red. in respect of brilliancy and harmony of decorative effect. of oxide of lead in proportions somewhat variable. not distinct in the colour. and of a greater or less quantity of alkalies similarity which is (soda and potash). in a liquefied some hundreths only of colouring is exceedingly limited. contained but a small proportion of the principal colouring matters. Oxide of iron and oxides of impure manganese (which give. " Having regard to the thickness of the colours employed and yet to the lack of intensity. . : This flux retains.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES only of red or brown strokes applied to fragments of white coloured glass. . simultaneously with great simplicity. doubtless because it is impossible to obtain these colours by the process of liquefaction from the oxides oxides heir number . one is led to conclude that these colours. they all present. a character of which cannot escape attention. . The conclusion has been fully verified by experiments. as silicates.

I shall limit myself. before being used. Differences no applied . doubtless determined beforehand by experience. They are all thus brought to develop uniformly at a fixed temperature. Some colours are directly. if even that disclosed by the analysis is not due to the beginning of a change in the colour during the operation It would carry me too far were I to of grinding. just as they are procured in the market. and we see that the white lead added was in very small quantities. therefore. to confound the productions of the two countries. The necessary additions must have been already made. to noting in a few words and in a general manner the essential differences that distinguish the two palettes. where it was taken from the table of a Chinese painter.CHINA China leads to special fashions in the pictures they employed to produce. And I have noted that the Chinese colours differ completely as much in respect of the nature of the constituents of the flux as in the proportions of the colouring oxide. An assortment obtained in Canton. require a varying addition. It will thus be possible to appreciate naturally the opposing aspects of European porcelains and of similar wares manufactured in China or Japan aspects so different that it is impossible. 406 . " I have said that in Europe colours for painting hard porcelain are formed by mixing certain oxides with certain fluxes. gives an example of a palette fully prepared for use. whether at Sevres or elsewhere. Others. and it is to this fact that porcelains manufactured by the Chinese and the Japare anese owe their distinctive aspect. even at first sight. compare in succession each of the Chinese colours examined above with its corresponding colour as used in Europe.

gold. . arsenic. by suppressThe ing the oxide of zinc in the same preparations. pure or combined with oxide of cobalt or oxides of cobalt and zinc. two assortments admit of no further comparison when we come to establish a parallel between the substances employed as principal colouring matters in the two cases. yellows. to oxide of iron. 407 . or browns are obtained by combining various proportions of oxide of iron. purple. oxide of zinc. and oxide of impure cobalt. either oxide adding of varied are by shades of yellow zinc or tin to lighten them. where use is made of various oxides cited above. much advantage is derived from substances unknown to the Chinese. Thus the tone of pure oxide of cobalt is modified by combination with oxide of zinc or aluminum sometimes with aluminum and oxide of chromium pure oxide of iron furnishes a dozen different shades from orange red to deep violet pale or deep ochres. red. or carmine. Finally. Metallic gold gives the purple of Cassius. Oxide of chromium. which can be changed at To this list may will into violet. which gives sometimes blue.. antimony. tin. " We have seen that oxides employed in the palette in the of the Chinese were confined to oxide of copper. . and oxide of cobalt or the browns are obtained by increasing the nickel proportions of oxide of cobalt contained in the composition that gives the ochres the blacks. . which produces a species of We have seen that in the colours of Europe. . MANUFACTURING PROCESSES less distinct are observed when we consider the state which the colouring matter presents itself. gives yellowish greens and bluish greens which vary from pure green to almost pure blue. or oxide of iron to render them deeper. sometimes black finally.

408 . tion of the colours employed in China establishes between them and enamels. . Opaque enamels. and coloured by fractions of oxides. owe their colour and their opacity either to antimony. and this circumstance justifies us in comparing them to another species of production. no sooner were the colours developed than they came ' * . mels in Europe. well known in China and frequently met with in European inIn the vitreous compounds called enadustry also. but also a flux analogous and sometimes identical. Itier and Pere Ly. on the contrary. of baryta. The resemblance that examinaisolated or mixed. the discovery and preparation of which require a knowledge of All these chemistry not possessed by the Chinese. as of copper yellow or white. Transparent enamels.. But upon the Sevres porcelain. of cadmium. and in conclusion we may notice the recent employment of metals inoxidisable by heat. the colours developed at a temperature lower than that employed to fix floral decoration at the Sevres factory. the chromates of iron. is fully confirmed by the manner in which the colours behave under the influence of heat. are vitreous compounds of ingredients varying according to the desired degree of fusibility. which give useful colours. the oxides are dissolved. Experiments have been made upon Chinese and European wares with the assortments of Chinese colours obtained by M. different principal colouring matters are found on European porcelains in a state of simple mixture on Chinese porcelains. The blues are furnished by oxide of cobalt the greens by deutoxide the reds by gold. as is well known. CHINA be added oxide of uranium. or to arsenical or stannic acids. we find not only the same colours produced by the same oxides. On Chinese porcelain.

by diminishing the infusibility of the latter. the danger of breakage limits the employment of such furnaces to the stoving of small pieces. if the harmony of their painting seems more varied. If the aspect of Chinese porcelains differs from that of ours. Even in China. this want of adherence on the think that it is to be found in the difference between the natures of the glazes of the two wares. approaches its physical properties to those of enamel. The harmony of their decoration results from the nature and composition of their enamels. modifying its expansion. and it is the introduction of lime into the glazing material which. in the case of European porcelain. the necessary result of the methods employed in China. these things are. I . I am not aware that they are used anywhere in Europe for stoving decorated porcelain except in Germany. perhaps. — open and closed. All the colours employed there have but little colouring matter they have no value unless they are given a thickness which imparts to them a degree of relief impossible to obtain otherwise. The more fusible pate of Chinese porcelain had to be covered with a glaze more fusible than that used in Europe. Whatever be the cause to which. Large speci- 409 . and. The former are similar to the furnaces employed by enamellers. and plates that we have seen separate the furnaces into two divisions is part of the enamels due.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES off in flakes. I believe. that Direct experiments long ago showed enamels cannot be used in the decoration of European porcelains owing to this grave defect. or couleurs de demi-grand feu. " It remains only to say a few words of the processes of stoving the tender colours. Chinese books.

but they were characteristics that owed their development less to inspiration than to circumstance. 410 . he will see the advantages that can be drawn by studying attentively the processes indicated in Chinese books for obtaining certain yiWj. up to the present. as well as the most comprehensive.'* mens are baked in of which is Hke closed furnaces. the arrangement might have added that attempts to reproduce these remarkable works are unsuccessful in China itself. the keramist's masterpieces were destined for Imperial use. is. however. even be more than adequately appreciated. dynasty down to the middle of the seventeenth century. He was able to be sure that whatever excellence he might obtain. In China. were distinguishing characteristics of the old artists. The reproduction of celadon as it is made in China. It seems. of the rich reds and lustrous blues so prized by amateurs. the imitation of crackle large and small.. at whatever cost. that they are much in vogue. would confer advantages the more certain in that these products have a character of quite special originality.de couleurs au grand feu. and painstaking that kept no count of time. and that.. ness. attempts to imitate them in Europe have not been that successful. . Doubtless many causes have combined to bring about this result. but the most important. would Yet. that these furnaces have which would make them resemble porcelain ovens If the reader has well of small dimensions. Patience that knew no wearithe loss of patronage. a circular shape.CHINA of our mouJJes. under successive Emperors from the Tang Salvetat M. perhaps. understood my object in comparing the porcelain industries of China and of Europe.

China has produced little that deserves to be classed with the works No longer are found the depth of her old masters. and lacquer. while in paintings. her keramic efforts prior to 1800. Since the beginning of the present century.MANUFACTURING PROCESSES — after so many long years of prosperous achievement crystallised into fifty sulSicient to have a natural en- dowment the transmitted skill of generations — to a brief withdrawal of Court patronage had paralyse art. the called . the outaccession of tween the fall the best factories scarcely deserve to be mediocre and again. come of same marked inferiority is manifest. the illiberal policy of subsequent Emperors was the signal for an almost immediate loss of everything but tradition. although the reigns of that sovereign and his two successors are memorable as a period of renaissance culminating in hitherto unparalled perfection. power During the years that intervened beof the Ming dynasty (1644) and the the Emperor Kang-hsi (1661). as they are infallible evidences of. rich velvety lustre of glaze and brilliancy of enamels that distinguished. bronzes. and softness of paste. 411 .

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INDEX 413 .

.

origin and manufacture. 323-325 325 . 312. 174. 220. preparation and character of soft-paste or Kai-pien. mirror. 313Blue monochromatic wares. 312. See Kang-hsi estimation. as a work of art. identification of early. 122-125. metalic. I modern. hard-paste. 353. not made during Ming dynasty. 173 . stippled. Polychro- matic wares. 364. pattern. of Lung-ching and Wan-li eras. Occidental 148 other hard-paste. Hawthorn hard-paste era. See also Colours. of Cheng-hwa era.. Nankin ware. Black monochromatic Hsuan-te era. primacy of soft-paste. character. 117. of later Ming dynasty. 170—172. 165. on. 58. Famille Chrysanth'emo-Pceoneenney 205-210 . 113. tea-pots. 135 . Chien. European copies. souffle. 119. 401. 136. 364. 150. modern. crite219. of Hsuan-te era. watered. 122 . 145. INDEX Apple green monochromatic ware. 363. Hung-wu 362. artistic value. 116. ** of the sky turquoise. Mazarin. Blue-and-white ware. technique. 176-178. . Blanc de Chine ware." 315 souffle. 313. 219. . method. of Yung-ching deteriorated the era. 315. 363 . 357-362. 126. with red under 170. 118. esteem. 314. of era. Kai-pien y of Kang-hsi era. beginnings. 381. 364. Azure blue monochromatic porcelain. wares. no. lilac. 137— of 24. 97— loi . fashion oI. 174. 127. colour character of. combination glaze. 1 04 . 363 varieties. white. 323 . Bamboo as an emblem of longevity. imitations. in potters. 149. criteria. decadence. specimen court orders. soft-paste. of Cheng-hwa era. decorative subjects and skill. 29. 323. clair-delune. hardpaste. 155. 314. 126. of Hsuan-te era. 354. 145. 3 1 1 . 328 . caligraphy. iiiU3> J 55-* ^7 J specimens of era. 69—71. 68 of old Chinese ware. 310. of Ivory Kang-hsi era. 109 . temporary decline of manufacture of soft-paste. 312. egg-shell. 323 . 133. 318. Boccaro ware. 51. 147. 117. quality of the painting. 381. 354. Banko-yaki of Japan yao. use of Mohammedan blue. 323 . 378-380. Hawthorn ware. hard-paste. 106—109. old trade with prized specimens China. . . specimen tea-pots. 355— 357. 1 1 1 . 316— after rain. 1 153 . colour in azure. 320 . Japanese copies. Ting. 4 IS . imitation of glass. 353. 365Borneo. 218 . and Ti-hsing- Black rion. of early Tsing dynasty. 129—133. in Blanc-de-lune monochromatic ware. modern imitations. of Yung-lo 105. lapis y Chien-lung era. 1 04 . 51-153.

Cambron ware. of the Tsing dynasty. potter. on Mohammedan blue. Hsuan-te era. caligraphist. imita- its keramic tions. Lung-chuan and Ko. 361. Chan Tiang-shang. Chang. 68. specimens in Japan. potter. two brothers. Chan Sin-hiang. 59 . Bushell. 119. potter. 235. potters. 236. potter. 294. Japanese esteem. potter. Chang-yao. question of paste process. 79. 121. 360. 42. 359. called. derivation of the word. 36. 191 . W. Chia-tsing era. soft-paste blue-andwhite ware. 280. Chao. Chang-nan-chin. 62 . . . 362. 59 . potter. 17-22. tute 281—283. Checkered glaze. potter. Chan Tsiin-hiang. . 214. porcelain reproduction of surface. Chai-yaOy 18. See Identification. enamels on coloured ground. 80 porcelain. of the Tang dynasty. 192. character. Chia yii-kiy 1 4. exporta- 49. 73-76. Chien-lung era. Chang Yun-tsung. 8 1 . J^^igy 41. hard-paste blue-and-white ware. 39. Celadons. Cheng-te era. 33-36. 172. j6. keramic ancient. See Ching-te-chen. 18. 1 1 6— 1 1 8 . 50. 373. 173. potter. 83. spotted. 326328. 76. 361. soof Tsing dynasty. as models for ware. 284. 360. Chiao-ching monochromatic porcelain. Chia-ching era. later 286 . potter. Cheng-hwa era. 77. 251. Chan Chan Chan Chan Chan Chiun-shang. development of enamelled porcelain. enamelled porcelain. enamelled. coarser varieties. Tang's superintendence of Ching-te-chen factories. character. Ch*an Ming-yuen. 102. not imitated. INDEX Bronze. 13-15. Chiang. Chan-chen. foreign 17. 64 . 122—125. Brown monochromatic ware. potter. Lung-chuan ware. potter.. 58 . 78. 361. imitations. Franks' s error on 118. identification of hard- products. Chi-hung monochromatic porcelain. 58. 1 86-1 9 1 . 174. ware of the Tsin dynasty. Canton. decorations copied Chao Jukua. 61 . Kwang-fii.tou-hung porcelain. Chien-yao of Sung dynasty. esteem. 38. early. 174. potter. 57. 361. 340. Ju. 315. 192. Chia Hiien. varieties. See Lung-chuan-yao. 361. production. monochromatic Ho-chi. blue-and-white ware. Chan Yun-hiang. potter. porcelain so-called. 361. 62-69 * of Chia-ching Siamese. monochromatic ware. potter. 322. period of 42-46. 16. potter. 1 5 . inferior substiera. enamelled porcelain. Ivory-white ware 272. 361. Chaiy choice. 374. Ch'an Tsz-ch'o. 13 . 61. scarcity. 79. 39. 361. 308. tion throughout the East. 292-294. 360. 4 1 Chen Heu-chi. from Characteristics. 339. 361.. 60 . blue-and-white ware. 360. blue-and-white ware. work on Chinese trade. early Kuan. Chiun-yung. 285 called. 225. jj.ware. Chung. pupose of Chiao-lii origin. 357. 323. S. 192. Chen Li-shan. 361. Chin-siu-hwa ware. lost art. Kuariy of the Ming dynasty. usually 34. early primacy. enamelled porcelain. 226. stone. U-ni. 119. court orders of blue- and-white ware. blue-and-white ware. potter. Chekiang province.

red. Chinese skill in manipulating. 296. 312. 109. origin. 103. ries. of early blue. 14. for blue-and-white ware. native blue. 172. 149. 103. Clair-de-lune glaze. Poly- 134. on white monochromes. 135. red under the glaze. 128. 321. 3 6. enamels ofthe Chenghwa era. 129155-167. use and quality of native. importation and use of Mohammedan blue. of Chinese cobalt. destroyed. 121. 346. 122. 394. blue. difference between ancient and modern. copies from ancient bronzes. 211. 53. 53-57. 272 . glazes. 38 . in mono- 96 . Chou dynasty. I o I . present condition. 203. 83. I o I . 343 method for large. special Court factory. 138-140. 309. specimen Court orders for blue-and-white ware in Ming dynasty. yellow of Ming and Tsing dynasties. 191. 344. of Chinese and Sevres porcelain. 233. early subordination to glaze. 121. subjects 54. no. in 1625. 140. 267—270. 61 . manufacture of large pieces. 99. 103 . 57. 91. 111-113. 1 39-141. 92 . Composition. 86-88. 384 of European colours for decorative purposes. later Chai ware. marks.INDEX Ching Ning-heu. imitations of old celadons y 83 . 189. 39. Nankin ware of private facto177. 255. 169. I and character 133. forerunner 417 . Nien's superintendence. and for monochromes see the colours by name. situation. character of blue of later Ming dynasty. 313* 352. 16. 89. Ju celadon y 34. 400. 224. Mohammedan Crane 165. 122. 151-153. 317. Tang's superintendence. 18. 344. 82. 107. 3H» 317* 322. enamels of the Kang-hsi era. later Ting ware. 263. Ko ware. quality so-called. 333- 301. 349. demi-grand feUy See also 393 401-410. marks. 343 esteem. Chu-hwa-kiy 269. early keramic importance. 42. Cochin China. Ching-te-chen official potteries. Shu-fu or later Ting ware. 127. . 362. 128. 86. Cucumber-rind green monochromatic ware. ware. 29. Chui-ching-yaoy preparation and styles. 93 . 127. purple. 93. ware Colours. 281. 402 . 346. Kuan celadon. 123-125. variety Enameled ware (coloured ground). 262-264. 399-401. chromes. or couleurs de 89. imita279. incised and relief. Crackle. incised and relief. Chun-yaoy esteem. materials and methods for glaze or couleurs de grand feu y 393. 80 . 58. 25. 263 . 335. Coral red monochromatic porcelain. Crab*s claw markings. se or . materials and methods for decorative. composition of native. fish-roe. See also Colours. TsuiTurquoise ware. softpaste blue-and-white porcelain. 140. fine. 36. 301 . potter. Decoration. 216. 346. 43. 35. chromatic . 122. respecting. iridescent enamels. wide range. 47. Cobalt. 405. under the Yuan dynasty. on coloured monochromes. 251. 175. 51 . Kuan celadon of Ming dynasty. 175. 51. no. 210. loi. of. 306. 171. 129133. character. 322. Chiun-tieny oi Jiambe ware. 123-125. 343 . clair-de-luney 312. as an emblem of longevity. of Chinese enamels. 50. 51-53. errors tions. Crab-sheil green monochromatic ware.

223. 246. F. 204. its varieties. elled ware. immense production for the Court. in early Ming eras. elaboration in Lung-ching and Wan-li eras. 237-243. ware. Kwang. 152. gold on bronze. incised elled. on materials for porcelain. 215. blue-and-white. 202 . early subordination of enamels to general design. 326. 186. 245. 206 . on yellow. Eel-yellow monochromatic ware. 284 324. 1 stoving porcelain. Dragon as a decorative subject. 385-387 . 302 of Ching-lung 214 . 61 oration. 313 . 189. elled. 197. 201 velopment of pate and decorative . arrest in develop- 19—22 34 91 . . 223 . Enamelled ground 408. development in Cheng-hwa era. souffle. reserved style. celadons y porcelain. Coloured ground 109. enamelled. 209. subjects in Kang-hsi era. development in Hsuan-te era. 214. 282. 128. 200. 349 . Black 247. first use of independent designs. era. 155. so-called Yuan early blue-and- white. 307. era. 223. on mottled. 193. 230. char- 204 of decoration in Kang-hsi Famille Chrysanthemo. 185. Hawthorn pattern. . 227. 225. 189. 398. Eggshell porcelain. non-productivedeness of early Tsing eras.: INDEX of the subjects Hawthorn for pattern. 245 . 197 . 225 . 201-205 era. 112. on green. 404. Enamels. 1 1 8 . temporary . 253-257. on Ching-te-chen. and . white slip. character dynasty. European 5^^ tf/j(? and Chinese. on dark green. 193. 1 90. Vertey 204. process. "jewelled. lamp-shades. 204. not largely manufactured.** Three-coloured ware. 206. 177. with decoration in green only. 395. on . Hawthorn. 192 reserved style of dec- 26. 193. ** added to enam- 229 grains-of-rice. 164. 185 . 396. . on transmutation ware. 226 . preference over usual pate for ment. 211. imitation of Sevres. 161. Eight Immortals as decorative subjects. on mirror-black ware. 330. Occidental influence. 218.231-236. of. 183— 185. 243-245 . character. 213. 204. 186-192 . figure subjects. 1 9 1 . : yellow on blue ground. intimate relation of Chinese and Japanese motives. Three-coloured enam348 246—249. medallion style. gradations into porcelain. on brown glaze. 180-182. Colours and Enam- Occidental influence and reputation. 194— 197. 182 . enamels Famille acter era. Entrecolles. 179. porcelain. origin of character and special . on red. 222 . on preparation of glaze. 199 . monochromatic hard-paste. 373. 221. relief. 222. 41 8 . to Sung 99 . . 225 . 216. 226 . other wares with black ground. decorated and imitated in Europe. iridescence. 223. rose on chocolate. Occidental misconception of Ming dynasty ware. 232. 2 1 8—220 . 137. 170.'* 229 . 21 1-2 15. rose on blue. prior Faience. 98. white origin. subjects for enamelled. Rosey Pceoneenjiey Famille 205-210 . 216. Deer as an emblem of longevity. 5 red under the glaze. 195-197. 210. East India Company imports porcelain. d' . 221 . 1 51-153. X. of Kang-hsi 203 . 228 . 141 . development in Cheng-hwa 86—88 . decadence in nineteenth century. 99.

Chiin ware. 284. Fang-ting-yaOy 25. 232. 19 . Fuhkien province. 204. 145. application by insufflation. its I 3 8141. 321. 137. pigment. 206—208 . 118. black. forerunner. pattern ware. 210 . 61. character. 3 79. . distinguishing of probable coloured. on English estimation of Chinese porce- W. 8. chromatic porcelains. 151. origin in Kang-hsi era. of Kang-hsi era. Franks. Hang-chow. Green monochromatic wares. 190 . for 385387. on Chinese symbols. marks. character. Hawthorn 145. 321. reason excellence. early varieties.. See also Crackle. in 137. of surviving specimens. 191. 144. 24. 346. use over-the-glaze decora- 245. granulated. 1 212. 349. usually 271 . as a precious stone in China. Keramics. 5 special the colours varieties. for developing 394. 297. 9 1 . Chien ware of Sung lain. Yuan porcelains. 257. porcelain. 58. . Yung-lo era egg-shell porcelain. 226. 209. on Hao Shih-chiu. 23. ware. estimation. features 387. 326-328. . crab-shell. 395. 166. Gypsum. 2 1 8 modern imitations.. period of production. method of 393. as Flambe ware. 214. 271. on foreign influences on Chinese keramics. ofTsing dynasty. care in manufacture. 229. 96. 344. See also Colours. Grained glaze. see by name. A. cucumber-rind. 361. Glaze. special designs. Fan-hung monochromatic porcelain. preparation. Chinese and Japanese. 164. 27. over decoration. Famille Rose porcelains. deep. 144. 319. 5 7 . 320. application. 1 40 criteria. snake-skin. not ranked high in China. 322. 208 decoration. 320. 270. CeladonSy Pottery. 368. 2 2—2 1 Gold . Three- Golden brown monochromatic ware. Fox as an emblem of longevity. a depot for foreign Chinese celadons 78. 221. Polychrouse for relief designs. porcelain. 158. See Transmutation matic wares. 181. trade. Ivory-white ware. 1 66. Fond laque monochromatic ware. as a monochromes. Ting ware. " 262. Fang-chun-yaOy 338. INDEX 349 . forerunner. 19. 206. Fish-roe crackle. usual glazes. See also Porcelain. Ivory-white 255 . coloured ware. 1 64.Pceoneenne 205 . his mono- 180. 114. Famille Verte porcelains. Fungus as an emblem of longevity. early preference 142. Chien ware. Famille Chrysanfhemo. potter. Glass. 51-55. tion. 388-393. 66. potter. apple. decoration. Occidental character. peacock. Polychromatic ware. 151. 204 ces- sation of production. 206 . 138. Gourd as an emblem of longevity. 218. Hare as an emblem of longevity. origin of decoration. shapes. Chiao-lUy 322. Fang-ko-yaOy Ting-yao. See also Grains-of-rice " decoration. 310. . criteria. 142-144. Hao-fang. 247. of Chia-Ching era. dynasty. Japanese. Figure subjects for decoration. 326-328. and 211. Gosu Aka-ey Japanese* name for early Chinese ware decorated over the glaze. 339. Hei-ti-pai-hwa. condition 141 . 399-401.

90. modelled. 183-185. 280-283. 127. Ibn potter. Hiang Pu-sun. Indian ink decoration. use combination. yellow monochromes. Heu-chi. 299. Batuta on Chmese metal rings. potter. 223. 192. 5 of hard-paste Ming blue-and-white ware. 361. 47—49. Identification. imperial ware. 210. temporary 144. his families" of enamelled ware. potter. 76. 83. Hiai-chia-tsUng monochromatic ware. potter. **Iron base. Chinese ker200. mark. on process in transmutation ware. 109. Jung ware. Jewelled porcelain. INDEX Hei-ti-zvu-tsaiy 218. 117. . and Tsing 80-83 5 year-marks unre. 13. 43. 62. 13. 41. 113. 73-76. 272. • 271-273. 1 1 1 . 33—36. 136. enamelled porcelain. 120. hard-paste porcelain. 15. of potters impossible. 381. porcelains confused with Chinese. appreciation of Chinese wares. 126. paste blue-and-white ware. Jacquemart. 420 . 216. esteem. J J 200. Kuei-lin. European imitations. imita- 68. See Kuan-yao. development of enamelled decoration. of 322. 304. Chrysanthemo-Paeoneenne lains. 43» 44> 47> 49> 81. See Chi-hung. 357. Ho-yaOy 15. 73 . in of Lung-Chuan ware. 174. Hsien-hung. 40. 127. 238-243. Hsin-Ting-yaOy 27. work on keram23. 378-382. jfu-yaoy origin. 205. 104. of Chinese and Japanese Famille ware. quality of the blue used. Hu-kung. 190. use of red under the glaze. specimens of Chinese celadons influence. .mien monochromatic porcelain. porce- 206-208 . 135. red monochromatic porcelain. potter. 307. Ivory-white porcelain. Hung-chih era. 367. . as an amic imitator of old Chinese porcelain. 331. 98 criteria for blue-andearly soft- white ware. Chung-chu. 274.. 53> 57 liable. 4 1 . of year-marks. 303. blue-and-white ware. Albert. blue-and-white ware. 5 1 Kang-hsi egg-shell blue-and-white 147. blue-and-white specimens of blue-and-white ware. 245. porcelain. Hung. i potter-poet. 273-275. 3 6 tions. marks on Chiin ware. 40. soft-paste blue-andwhite porcelain. 4 on ** origin of enamelled ware. . 8. Hwui Mang-ch*an. Hung-wu era. Hia-moh-yaOy 136. 37. cessation Hirth. 37. 373. Imperial ware. Hzvang-tien-pan ware. modern. Jujube red. Hu-tien-yaOy 91. monochromatic porcelain. keramic trade with China. Japan. 106-109. 298. Honan province. potter. Chiin ware. 29. Hing-yao. 361. . preserved in. character. 273. on Chinese keramics. Iridescence in enamels. 299. 58 . 37 . of Ho Ho Ho Chou. celadons y of Sung. Friedrich. potter. Hii-yin." characteristic of Sung dynasty celadons y 34. Hsuan-te era. 104. imitations of Kuan and Ko wares. 362. of Chien-Lung era blue-and-white ware. ics. II. of modern and Hsiang Tuan-pUen. old celadons y researches in Chinese keramics. 119. Ming.

Lime. 410 372 . 321. patey 290. Cheng-hwa era potter. 409. Yuan-tsiang. character. 350-353Kwang-yaoy 313. . Kwa-pi-lu monochromatic ware. Tang keramics. 14—15 Ting ware. 9 . 357. of the Sui 286—288 . 221. potter. golden age of keramics. ']'] \ of the Ming distinguishing dynasty. earliest . King-fisher glaze. . i . dynasty. and the transmutation ware. . 320. Kilns. Kwang-tung province. ware of the dynasty. Ko Chu. ware of the Tang dynasty. early preference for faience and 222. 229. 3 . soft-paste porcelains. 348 383 . lost skill. potter. 188. modern . 389. 396. Kaolin. auxiliary cesglazes. Ko-yaOy origin. 320. 42 . 50. 221 . gradations in the wares. 260. 287. 188. 28. 215. Stanilas. wares imitations. Pottery. chen. 37-41 . 3 1 lains. potter. monochromes. Kung-chun. Kiang-nan province. 258—262. 26. scarcity. factory trans- 39 transmutation ware. 351. Lacquered porcelain. 49. features. 266. 137-145. l . small pieces. dependence on official patronage. blue-and-white ware. researches in Chinese Kiang-su province. 317. 16. identification. yellow monochromes. use in Chinese glaze. 380. crackle. Lang-yaOy origin. faience. 42. 351. transmutation ware. Faience. Kang-tsiao ts* ing monochromatic ware. 76. . 397. origin. stoving of porcelain. i 5 . 61 . enamels on red glaze. enamelled ware. 366— . of Kang-hsi era. 343. 3 1 4. 8 80-103. style. 342. 136. 307. 5. 112. subjects for decomodern imitations. Kuan-yao of Sung dynasty. 145 . Porcelain. 303. revival of white monochromes. varieties. imitations. egg-shell genius. 313. Cheng-hwa era potter. beginnings. imitations. and wares by origin of name and Ki-chou-yao. ferred. hard-paste yao. . soft-paste por- 260. first Occidental researches. 49 . obscurity of processes. Chinese. 288-290. Black Hawthorn ware. Ka i-pien.^ Kang-hsi 44. Jung-yaoy 41. . 255. potter. specimens in Europe.ya o. 384. various wares so-called. 175. 49 . 148. ration. distinguished from Lu?ig-chuan-yao y \2 . Lan-yao-pieUy 332. 82 . 303-^ Kiang-si provmce. Kichouware. 321. See Tsui-se. celains. 1 4 5 137. 391. See also. 350-353. soft-paste porcealso Lapis blue monochromatic ware. 219. See Ching-te- Liang. 291 sation of production. potter. 300. 167 era. 1 1 character. Occidental reputation. 3. 353. potters. Lamp-shades of enamelled porcelain. of the Tsing dynasty. Ko Tan-jin. no marks. impossible to identify potters. 37 character. 358. See also Lung-chuan- Hawthorn pattern ware. character of early decoration.INDEX Julien. 146 . 106-109. 201214. 28. functions in porcelain. Lang family. former Occidental attitude. 147-153. Kai-pien ware.261. 357. 77 . 421 . 381. Koh Koh Min-tsiang. Keramics. 28. 290. 1 . Li Chun-fang. 386. o .

INDEX Lion as a decorative subject. blue-and-white ware. typify- 298. celadon. Medallion bowls. 221 . See Identification. 24. Ming dynasty. 329-334. 96. transmutation or Jiambey 28. emblem of longevity. golden period of ker- Phoenix as a decorative subject. imitations of Ko and dis- char- Kuan wares. . Hsuan-te era potter. modern imitations. 1 01. 376. Lo. . 161. Pong ware. 194-201. 1 66. Peach as an emblem of longevity. potter. 221. 304. 122. A. modern imitation. potters of boccaro ware. Marks. 204.. B. 357—361 . variety 391. 103 . Liu-tsUy 13. white monochromatic ware. 338. 296 . ware of the Tang dynasty. monochromatic ware. 152. 359. fine Pao-shi-hung lain. exhaustion of Mirror black . 140. Peacock green monochromatic ware. 104—136. 342. See Pin-kwo-ts' ing. 281 . 46. 50. 76. 244. ware not exported. yellow monochromes. decoration. 158. Lung-chuan-yao. ']'] Ngeu Ching-chun. factories. 314. 360. Marco. reason glaze. functions in porcelain. 213. 43. Ting ware of the Sung dynasty. 333. methods of develop- chromes. Pin-kwo-ts^ ing monochromatic porcelain. in which red predominates. monochromatic porceof Chi-hung of Hsuan- Mandarin porcelains. mark. enamelled ware. 213. Mustard yellow monochromatic porce- ing the colours. . Celadons and colours by name. monochromatic ware. 29. potter. . 295. See Hawthorn te era. 394. imitations. Pi-seh-yaOy secret-colour ware. 126. 162—166. Pine as an Plum as 323-325 modern 367Polychromatic wares. 381. 393. Ching-te-chen Pa sien for its as decorative subjects. varieties. 27. Medallion style of decoration. enamelled ware. redmonochromes. Nien Hsi-yao. 1 10. Petuntse. date of origin. 252-264. 384. importation and use. 323* 325- Meyer. 297. 17. 329. 115. 320. 320. 90. Longevity. wide range. 182201 . 326. 41 tinguished from Ko-yaOy 42 acter. 338. Lu-yao-pietiy Lung-ching era. 334- lain. on Chinese porcelain. 46. Peng Chiian-pao. 202. 334. identification. Nanwhei province. 259. 171. on Min Lu-shang. 48 . Pai-ting-yaOy 25 See also Ting-yao. tern. character. Polo. Ngeu. 2 8o286. oi Kang ^j/ era. 42—46. possible varieties classed as mono- supply. Mohammedan blue. Fang-chiin^ 42 . Monochromatic wares. 47-49. 176—178. period of manufacture. Peach-bloom. potter's first aim. amics. 165. 156. of 81. 165. an emblem of longevity. polychromatic ware. 154. imitates Ting Metalic black ware. 65. 306 . Mo-Ting-yaOy 323. pat- Mei-hwa-yao. 296. potter. 1 5 . See also 380. origin. scarcity shapes. 133—135. 294 and . 128. 296 pate. Nankin WARE. 297. 336. superintendent factories. potter. blue-and-white ware. decorative devices ing. Mazarin blue monochromatic porcelain. Pechili province. blue and green.. Majolica ware.

ese. Shan-si province. Red under the glaze. 9 . Chinese. potter. Sevres painted ware. on manufacture of glaze. Chiang-tou-hung of Kang-hsi era. 341 . Pottery. exportation of high-grade enamelled. in Wan-li era. 307Shao Erh-sun. Coral. 349. 128. 350-352. character of early exported. on Chinese porceon secret-coloured ware. stoving. Tower extent of Nanking. 299. 24. 297. See also Lang-yao. porcelain. Sang de bceuf monochromatic porcelain. Occidental confusion of. See also Colours. celadonsy 82. 301. Porcelain Pottery. Hungtingy 27 esteem. tortoise-shell. and also monochromes under the names of colours. lain. 167. 166. Repairing porcelain. 366-372. 396. 301 . Ruby-back 212. 3 8 8—3 90 . tiger-skin. Porcelain. rise of present use of name and earliest specimens in Europe. monochromes the ideal. Chi-hungy 280-286. 353-365. 286. Purple monochromatic wares. 361. Robin' s-egg glaze. 292. 423 . subject. 243.. method of 143. as a decorative Red monochromatic wares. Alphonse. present supply and demand 377. potter. on European imi346. Red-under-the-glaze decoration. 309. porcelains. 286—291 . with Japan- of colour. See also Colours. Salvetat. 294. of the term. Sartel. San-tsai-kiy faience. Sceptre. Satow. 399-410. Kwang faience. question of earliest manufacture. 383—385. classification according to method of development Chinese imita216. 377. Tsing dynasty ware. 376. 250. repairing. 300. criteria. 170. See also of Chinese porcelain. on boccaro. tations on antiquity of enamelled porcelain. Fan-hungy 284. use in Hsuan-te era. 278280. 294. 168170. Porcelain. tion. 373 first . 245. 302. potter. 1 54 . ^ Rouge-red monochromatic porcelain. 1 3 i . original meaning of term. Reserved style of decoration. INDEX 338. error 17. faience. Keramics. 238crackle. 366 . Hung-mieTiy 298 . Pin-kwots'ing or Peach-bloom. Polychromatic wares. 302. . 372. 375. Jujube. Occidental influences. 348. checkered. 374 . 339. Western. 99 . 143. of old. Se-liang. 301. 298. Shan-hu-hung monochromatic porcelain. Sang de bceuf or Lang. 300. Chinese method. gradations. 294-297. 90. 6—12. 395 . 127 . investigation into amese celadons y 65. process in egg-shell. 360. in combination with blue. 333. 348. 349. See also Biueand-white ware. on European porcelain. Enamelled ware. Polychromatic wares. rise of European trade in. 341. collections of Chinese Faience. of Kang-hsi era. 168. du. Shan-yu-hzvang monochromatic ware. on colour materials and methods. modern imitations. 193. 278 first. Pong Chun-pao. composition. 185. care in manufacture. O. 99. Rouge-vif. grained. 340. Faience. 51. Si- Buddhist. Rouge. Court orders for. Ernest. See Chi-hung. 297. 26. Pomegranate tree as a decorative subject. 246—249. 374. ruby-backed. 388. 247 377—382.

16. 107. Shun-chih 136. Chun. Ts'z-ching. wares. 303. 250. ware of the Tang dynasty. Tien. 146. Lung-chuan. properties ascribed Siao-nan-yaOy 136. Tu-Tingy 29. Sui dynasty. 257. potter. Su-chou-yaOy 85. 251. Tsu-chou. 172. Subjects for decoration. potter. 358. green 362. boccaro tea-pots. 307. 359. Tiger-skin glaze. in blue-and-white porcelain. question 424 . 23 . Soly man on early Chinese porcelain. Shi Ymg. Shapes. . 81. potter. 21. potter. 319. Ting-yaOy original or Sung. 113. copies from bronzes. specimens of early- Chinese wares.. Egyptian cies. 311. character of the Nan-chang ware. porcelain. Shao-shan. Shu Hung. Spotted-yellow ware. Shin-tin-kiy 90. potter. Shu-yaOy 16. 276. potter. potter. 361. 1 47 . Shu-fu-yaOf 93. 359. 298. 362. Yiu-chuen. Kuany 37-41. chen. tombs. Szechuen province. caligraphist. wares called. Kichou. ceremonial. 64 Siao-yaOy 260. blue-and-white ware. ancient green. 260. of Ching-tetiles. Tiles. 361. Tao-shuy keramic annals. 3. 2 1 Shu Chiao. Shi Ta-pin. 247 . 31. 201. 57-60. Steatite. 90. 307. Tang. Chinese. Sii Sii 1 74. 259. 85. 319. monochromatic ware. 28. date of origin. 252. coarser varieties. 24-28. 260. Ju. Tao Yii. lamp-shades. superintendent of Shi-hang. Shi Ming. Koy 42-45. Tea in to. wares. blue-and-white. 345. 27 . Sui-kiy 343. 187 . 246—249. Stippling in blue-and-white ware. 123-125. potter. 15-17. 228. era. 31. J^ngy 41. 358. as decorative subjects. porcelain. 142 . potter. 260. 308. Shao-kai. Taou-kwang blue-and-white ware. 319Symbols. character. Sh6s6-in collection. 28. INDEX Shao Wan-kin. tion. 175Te-hwa-yaOy 271. 129-134. Ching-te- Ta-sin. era. 157. potter. 27. See Decora- 312. potter. faience. 363. Shao Wan-yin. 251. Tang dynasty. 13-15. potter. Souffle Tieh-siu-hwa ware. Tea-pots. Tiger as a decorative subject. 358. 395. Siam ware. I 58-1 61. SnufF-bottles. imitations 24-27. 57. Three-coloured ware. Japanese art tenden- Chinese. potter. Sung dynasty wares. 215. 250and 83. 85 . his yellow glaze. 321. use in soft-paste porcelain. Chien. Ting. celadon . 358. 267. 28. 339. 28. 7T<4-ZZ7 Sheu-yaOy 15. 50. 50-57. chen potteries. 98. 41-50. Tao-luy keramic history. See Boccaro ware. ^2Xty I 51-153. 98. 89. in Hawthorn pattern ware. factory transferred to Nan-chang. Tea. 29. 245. in enamelled porcelain. 359. made at 93. 14. 137. Ching-te-chen. 269. later scarcity. She-pi-lu monochromatic ware.Ian monochromatic Starred-ice crackle. 358. 3. 341. 32-37. 3 i . 64. i o. Su-chou imitation of Ting. Ming. 262-264. later.

transparent. 312. with Borneo. 68 . 350. Tortoise-shell glaze. enamelled porcelain. Tu-li-hungy Tsing dynasty red- under-the-glaze ware. 83. ware. 317. 164. wide range. 271-275 275. 338. 330-332. 168. 276. 266—271. 94. V-ching monochromatic ware. Tsin dynasty. 309. 136-175. use in combination. its so-called porcelam. 95 . Tsing dynasty. with Japan. blue-and-white ware. 306. Kang-hsi in era. potter. purple. porceTsao-hung monochromatic 332. Tau-chou-yaOy 276. . blue-and-white ware. 304—306 monochromatic 316. 267. U-ni-yaOy 59. 316. 326328. hard-paste egg-shell. . 131 . polychromatic Yuan Chang. process. 326. 85. Ivory-white. Tsui. wide va- 332-334. 230. Tsui-se Yellow monochromatic wares. 300. Wan-li 126. Turquoise blue. 194—201. 303 ware. 250-252. depots for early Eastern export. 66. Yuan Yueh-yaOy 15. 92-94. 90. 380-382. ware. 200. 307 . 299. range. 350. European. potter. potter. and its successors. decorations early Tsing 267—270. 93. eel. 372-377Transmutation ware. first. 359. Yung-ching T era. identity with ware of Kang- 425 . 323.. opaque. 33 330- 2—3 3 4 . mustard. 358. keramic conditions. 230. 264-266. 334. channels for early export. 257. eras. INDEX of red glaze. 317. 325. era. lain. 91. 315. 339. Ting soft-paste. enamelled ware. modern imitations. black. . See Kai-pien. criteria of hard-paste. Tsu-chou. White monochromatic wares. Tsin-yaOy 16. 175. keramic. . 278. modern. Tung-ngeu-taOy 13. 301. 323. Ten-ching-tou-hwa ware. To-tai-ki. >* YAO-PiENy rieties. 271 marks. 253-257. 7 1 . Watered-blue monochromatic porceglaze ware. 73 . 323325. monochromatic ware. 357. See Boccaro. 32. 201-217 white monochromes. Western reds. decline of White slip decoration. spotted. Unicorn. Tung-Han. dynasty. 133-135. 305—309. lain. Tui-hzua-kiy 269. 135. blue-and-white ware. 95 . red monochromes. Tung-siu-hwa ware. 323. 341. Tu-Ting-yaoy 29. in revival of hard- 299. Tueh-pai monochromatic ware. Ti-hsing-yao. 157. 180— 182. 257252— 266. 13. Ten-chi-hung monochromatic porcelain. Tzu-chin monochromatic ware. 342. 164. 72 . Trade. or subject. varieties. Wei-tsu. Tsiang Poh-Kwa. Ki-litiy as a decorative 157. Tortoise as a decorative subject. potter. keramic modern art. 335. varieties. 306. enamelled ware. 313. process. 307. 251. 17. 29. 286-303 yellow monochromes. 68. 24— 264. Wu-tsai-kiy 191. U—CHIN monochromatic ware. red-under-the- 128. wares of Ching-te-chen. varieties. paste.

66 2-2 5 5 426 . blue-and-white ware. . INDEX hsi era. 105. edict on keramic ware. 7. 2 5 Yuriaku. Zaitun. Yung-lo era. 1 7 1 . eggshell porcelain. 182. Japanese emperor.. enamelled ware. for foreign trade. keramic reproduction of bronze surface. depot identity. 226. 66.

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