You are on page 1of 11

Cross-hole Sonic Logging: A Non-Destructive Testing Method for Determining the Integrity of Drilled Shafts

-Progress report-

Mark Grady Zachary Spera Le Truong

14.511 Table of Contents 1Introduction 2Methodology

(10/08/09)

Grady, Spera, Truong

3Summary of Results R-1References E-1List of Equations A-1Typical Cross-Hole Sonic Logging Setup A-2 Typical Cross-Hole Sonic Logging Results

Table of Contents

14.511

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

Introduction Aside from visual inspection, acoustic methods are the oldest form of non destructive testing. Striking the object with a hammer and listening to the ring was a common way to detect internal cracks or voids. Generally, this method is subjective and depends on an experienced operator to fully understand and interpret the results. It is also limited to near surface testing. In 1929 Solokov suggested using ultrasonic waves to detect flaws in metal, but it was not until World War II when this type of testing became a reality. Ultrasonic pulse echo flaw detectors were introduced in 1942 by Firestone at the University of Michigan. Since that time ultrasonic testing has significantly grown. In the case being studied cross-hole sonic logging (CSL) is being used to detect flaws in drilled shafts. The CSL method is generally used to test the integrity of drilled shafts and other concrete piles using ultrasonic waves. Slurry and diaphragm walls can also be evaluated using cross-hole sonic logging. The case study in question is related to the integrity of drilled shafts C-1 and C-5 of the Lyman Street Bridge Replacement in Holyoke, Massachusetts. The new casings were excavated and a steel reinforcing shaft was placed within the permanent steel casing. Cross-hole sonic logging is made possible by attaching pvc or steel tubes to the rebar structure in the drilled shaft prior to pouring the concrete. The tubes are filled with water which acts as a coupling agent between a transducer and the drilled shaft. A transducer is used to generate an ultrasonic signal that propagates through the concrete. A receiver is used to measure the signal energy and time from the source transducer. Both the transducer and receiver are lowered to the bottom of two separate tubes before the test is started. Then they are pulled up at the same rate in order to keep an equivalent horizontal plane. The time of signal transmission and reception will be measure in order to determine anomalies in the concrete. These measurements are plotted as depth vs. relative energy and depth vs. first arrival time. These two graphs are then super imposed on one another. A graphical example of a typical test result can be found in Appendix A-1. Multiple tests are conducted using different combinations of tubes, each combination represents a different crosssection of the drilled shaft, and can be complied in order to create a three dimensional model. Increasing the shaft diameter will call for more tubes to be installed prior to pour. A diagram illustrating both profile and plan views of a typical CSL testing layout is shown in Appendix A-2. The objective of this project is to obtain an understanding of a Nondestructive testing method, specifically the cross-hole sonic logging method, used to find defects in drilled shafts. The project scope is the methodology of
1

14.511

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

CSL as applied to the previously stated case study, starting with how the defects were detected, how the data is interpreted, the suggested method of remediation, and concluding with the post remediation results. Methodology The Wave Equation is a simple mathematical relationship between the speed of a wave, generally denoted by C, its wavelength (), and frequency (f). In its most simple form, speed is equal to wavelength multiplied by frequency. From this one equation comes many different wave forms. When a pulse is applied to an elastic solid it will travel through the solid as stress waves. This is much like the way sound waves travel through air. There are three primary waves which travel through solid media: dilatational, distortional, and Rayleigh waves. Dilatational and distortional are more commonly known as compression (P-waves) and shear (S-waves) waves respectively. These are characterized by the way they move in respect to propagation. The wave front in a P-wave moves parallel to the propagation direction while the S-wave moves perpendicular to that direction. P-waves are associated with normal stresses, and propagate through more types of media. Swaves are associated with shear stresses, and can only propagate solids with shear stiffness. Rayleigh waves, or R-waves, propagate along the surface of the solid media. The P-wave is the utilized for the CSL method due to its high energy and speed, compared to the S-wave and the Rayleigh wave. A basic understanding between the physical properties of the material and wave speed is shown in equation 1. In elastic solids the P-wave speed (C), is a function of Youngs modulus of elasticity (E), the density (), and Poissons ratio (v). Poissons ratio is expressed as, v = trans axial = x y , where is

transverse strain(x direction) and is axial strain(y direction).Due to the dimensions of the drilled shafts, becomes tiny in comparison to which causes poissons ratio to become very small. Resultantly, all occurrences of poissons ration in equation 1 can be assumed to go to zero. Equation 2 is the product of the previously stated assumption. Since the distance (L) is know and the time of arrival (t) of the signal between the tubes is recorded, the velocity of the wave can be determined according to equation 3. Obtaining the velocity of wave through the concrete at
2

14.511

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

every location in the drilled shaft will bring to light any anomalous zones, which may be potential defects in the structural integrity.

Summary of Progress To this point the method of the CSL testing, general equations, and theory which make understanding the results possible, have been described. The application and data of this test method pertaining to our particular case study has yet to be detailed. The remaining tasks will be to describe the results of the testing done on the drilled shafts in Holyoke MA. A more in-depth look at the software used to display and interpret the results. The tests done prior to remediation and post remediation with be compared and analyzed, possible explanations for anomalies in the data will be addressed.

14.511 References

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

Graff,KarlF.Wavemotioninelasticsolids.[Columbus]:OhioStateUP,1975.Print. Malhotra,V.M.Handbookonnondestructivetestingofconcrete.BocaRaton,Fla:CRC,2004.Print. Paikowsky,S.G.,Chernauskas,L.R.,Hart,L.J.,Ealy,C.D.,andDiMillio,A.F.,(2000),ExaminationofaNew CrossHoleSonicLoggingSystemforIntegrityTestingofDrilledShafts. Chernauskas,L.R.,andHajduk,E.L.,(2009),TheUseofCrossholeTomographytoEvaluateDrilledShaft Repairs.

ReferencesR1

Equations

14.511 Equations

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

C2 =

E (1 ) (1 + )(1 2 )

Equation(1)

C=

Equation(2)

C=

L Equation(3) T

EquationE1

AppendixA

14.511

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

AppendixA1

14.511

(10/08/09)

Grady,Spera,Truong

AppendixA2