1

MLA Iormut

TIe Modern ¡unguuge AssocIuLIon (M¡A) sLyIe Is wIdeIy uccepLed In mosL dIscIpIInes In LIe HumunILIes.
TIIs IundouL provIdes u quIck reIerence Lo LIe busIcs oI usIng M¡A sLyIe Lo IormuL LIe body oI un
ucudemIc puper, LIe In-LexL or purenLIeLIcuI cILuLIons, und LIe IIsL oI Works CILed. ¡or compIeLe und
deIInILIve guIdeIInes, pIeuse consuIL JosepI GIbuIdI`s M¡A Hundbook Ior WrILers oI ReseurcI Pupers, 6
LI

ed. , RE¡ ¡Bz¸6q.G¸¸ zoo¸. AII puge numbers provIded beIow reIer Lo LIe 6
LI
und mosL recenL edILIon oI
GIbuIdI`s M¡A Hundbook.
Iormutting Busics
(pp. 1¸z-1q1 In M¡A Hundbook Ior WrILers oI ReseurcI Pupers, 6
LI
ed.)

• CIoose u sLundurd IonL sucI us TImes New Romun, In 1z-poInL sIze.
• DoubIe spuce LIrougIouL puper, IncIudIng Works CILed puge.
• Do noL rIgIL jusLIIy.
• SeL murgIns Lo 1-IncI uL Lop, boLLom, und boLI sIdes.
• ¡ndenL LIe IIrsL word oI u purugrupI by ½ IncI or ¸ spuces.
• Do noL use u LILIe puge Ior LIe reseurcI puper: InsLeud sImpIy Lype your nume, InsLrucLor`s nume,
course number, und duLe. TIIs sIouId be IIusI wILI LIe IeIL murgIn.
• AILer LIuL InIormuLIon, cenLer LIe LILIe oI LIe reseurcI puper. TIe LILIe sIouId noL be underIIned,
puL In ¨quoLuLIon murks,¨ or seL In A¡¡ CAP¡TA¡S. TIe body oI LIe puper sIouId begIn beIow
LIe LILIe, on LIe sume puge.
• Number uII puges consecuLIveIy. PuL numbers In LIe upper rIgIL-Iund corner, ½ IncI Irom LIe
Lop und IIusI wILI rIgIL murgIn. Type your IusL nume beIore LIe puge number, und do noL use
¨p.¨ beIore LIe number.





SAMP¡E ¡¡RST PAGE:




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Works Cited
(pp. 1qz-z¸; In M¡A Hundbook Ior WrILers oI ReseurcI Pupers, 6
LI
ed.)

TIe IIsL oI Works CILed wIII uppeur on u new puge uL LIe end oI your puper, buL IL muy be IeIpIuI Lo
consLrucL IL beIore you begIn workIng on LIe resL oI your puper. ¡ormuLLIng ruIes Ior LIe Works CILed
puge IncIude:
• ConLInue puge numberIng Irom LIe body oI your puper.
• CenLer LIe LILIe ¨Works CILed.¨
• AIpIubeLIze enLrIes by LIe uuLIor`s IusL nume.
• ¡I no uuLIor, uIpIubeLIze by LIe LILIe (Ignore A, An, TIe).
• Use u IungIng IndenL.

TIe IoIIowIng InIormuLIon Is requIred Lo creuLe compIeLe cILuLIons In your IIsL oI Works CILed.

Ior books (pp. 1q;-1;q):
• ¡I onIy cILIng one cIupLer wILIIn u book, LIe uuLIor und LILIe (In ¨quoLuLIon murks¨) oI LIe
cIupLer, essuy, or sLory.
• Nume(s) oI book`s uuLIors or edILors.
• CompIeLe LILIe oI book (IncIudIng subLILIe) underIIned.
• CILy oI book`s pubIIcuLIon.
• PubIIsIer`s nume.
• Yeur oI book`s pubIIcuLIon.
• EdILIon (onIy II znd ed. or IuLer).
• VoIume number (II LIere Is one).
• ¡I cILIng one cIupLer wILIIn u book, LIe puge numbers oI LIe cIupLer, essuy, or sLory.
Ior print joornul und muguzine urticles (pp. 18o-1q¸):
• Numes oI urLIcIe`s uuLIors.
• TILIe oI urLIcIe In ¨quoLuLIon murks.¨
• TILIe oI journuI underIIned.
• VoIume number und Issue number.
• DuLe oI urLIcIe`s pubIIcuLIon (Ior scIoIurIy journuI urLIcIe, noLe yeur onIy).
• Puge numbers oI LIe urLIcIe.
Ior joornul und muguzine urticles ucqoired osing un online dutubuse (pp. zzq-z¸o):
• Numes oI urLIcIe`s uuLIors.
• TILIe oI urLIcIe In ¨quoLuLIon murks.¨
• JournuI LILIe underIIned.
• VoIume number und Issue number.
• DuLe oI urLIcIe`s pubIIcuLIon (Ior scIoIurIy journuI urLIcIe, noLe yeur onIy).
• Puge numbers oI LIe urLIcIe us orIgInuIIy pubIIsIed In prInL journuI.

3
• DuLubuse nume underIIned.
• Nume oI IocuLIon LIrougI wIIcI duLubuse wus uccessed, e.g. CuIIIornIu SLuLe UnIversILy,
¡os AngeIes, Kennedy ¡Ibrury.
• DuLe uccessed, e.g. 1 Nov. zoo8.
• AbbrevIuLed UR¡ (web uddress), e.g. <ILLp:JJseurcI.ebscoIosL.com>.
Ior websites (pp. zo;-zzq):
• Nume oI uuLIor or edILor (II gIven).
• TILIe oI web urLIcIe or web conLenL In ¨quoLuLIon murks.¨
• TILIe oI IosL websILe underIIned.
• DuLe oI IuLesL upduLe Lo web conLenL.
• Nume oI sponsorIng InsLILuLIon.
• DuLe uccessed, e.g. z1 Mur. zooq.
• ¡uII UR¡ (web uddress).


Ixumples oI Citutions
(NoLe: AII cILuLIons ure doubIe-spuced, us requIred In M¡A IormuL!)

Book with one uothor:
Conroy, MIke. ¸oo ComIc Book VIIIuIns. Huuppuge: Burron`s, zooq.
Book with two or three uothors:
TrIce, AsILon D., und SumueI A. HoIIund. Heroes, AnLIIeroes, und DoILs: PorLruyuIs oI
MuscuIInILy In AmerIcun PopuIur ¡IIms. JeIIerson: Mc¡urIund, zoo1.
Book with Ioor or more uothors:
JImenez, PIII, eL uI. TIe DC ComIcs EncycIopedIu : TIe DeIInILIve GuIde Lo LIe CIurucLers oI LIe DC
UnIverse. New York : DK, zooq.
Chupter in u book:
O`Rourke, Dun, und PruvIn A. RodrIgues. ¨TIe 'TrunscreuLIon` oI u MedIuLed MyLI: SpIder-
Mun In ¡ndIu.¨ TIe AmuzIng TrunsIormIng SuperIero: Essuys on LIe RevIsIon oI CIurucLers
In ComIc Books, ¡IIm und TeIevIsIonEd. Terrence R. WundLke. JeIIerson: Mc¡urIund, zoo;.
11z-1z8
Print joornul urticle with sepurutely puged volomes {inclode issoe nomber):
WIILIock, GIIIIun. ¨AuLogrupIIcs: TIe SeeIng '¡` oI LIe ComIcs.¨ Modern ¡IcLIon SLudIes ¸q.z (zoo6):
q6¸-q;q.

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Joornul urticle ucqoired osing un online dutubuse:
TIomus, CuIvIn. ¨¡usL ¡uugIs: BuLmun, MuscuIInILy, und LIe TecInoIogy oI AbjecLIon.¨ Men und
MuscuIInILIes z.1 (1qqq): z6-q6. SocIoIogy: A SAGE ¡uII-TexL CoIIecLIon. CuIII. SLuLe UnIv., ¡os
AngeIes, Kennedy ¡Ibrury. ¸ Nov. zoo8 <www.sugeIuIILexL.comJsocIoIogyJ>.
Website:
ComIc Book DuLubuse. ComIc Book DuLubuse, ¡Ld. zoo;. 1¸ Nov. zoo; <ILLp:JJwww.cbdb.comJ>.
Newspuper urticle :
Jeromuck, PuuI. ¨TIIs Once, u DuvId oI LIe ArL WorId Does GoIIuLI u ¡uvor.¨ New York TImes 1¸ JuIy
zooz, IuLe ed.: B;+.
Purentheticul Citutions
(pp. z¸8-z61 In M¡A Hundbook Ior WrILers oI ReseurcI Pupers, 6
LI
ed.)

• ReIerences In your puper musL cIeurIy poInL Lo specIIIc sources In your IIsL oI Works CILed.
• WILIIn purenLIeses, IIsL LIe uuLIor`s nume und LIe puge number oI specIIIcuIIy cILed conLenL
(unIess reIerrIng Lo enLIre bookJurLIcIe).
• ¡I you Iuve Lwo uuLIors wILI LIe sume IusL nume, uIso IncIude LIe uuLIor`s IIrsL InILIuI.
• ¡I you Iuve severuI works by LIe sume uuLIor, uIso IncIude LIe LILIe (ubbrevIuLed II Iong).
• ¡I no uuLIor Is IIsLed, use LIe LILIe (ubbrevIuLed II Iong).
• ¡I usIng LIe LILIe, remember Lo use correcL puncLuuLIon: underIIne book LILIes, use quoLuLIon
murks Ior journuI urLIcIes, sIorL sLorIes, book cIupLers, eLc.
• TIe uuLIor`s nume cun be reIerred Lo wILIIn LIe senLence, us beIow.
O'Roorke und Rodrigoes huve urgoed this point {±q-±g).
.or LIe uuLIor`s nume cun be reIerred Lo wILIIn LIe purenLIeLIcuI reIerence, us beIow.
Some scholurs huve urgoed this point {O'Roorke und Rodrigoes ±q-±g).

Ior udditionul help:
• ConsuIL JosepI GIbuIdI`s M¡A Hundbook Ior WrILers oI ReseurcI Pupers, 6
LI
ed.
(cuII number ¡Bz¸6q G¸¸ zoo¸), uvuIIubIe uL LIe ReIerence Desk und on Reserve.
• ReIer Lo LIe OnIIne WrILIng ¡ub (OW¡) uL Purdue UnIversILy,
ILLp:JJowI.engIIsI.purdue.eduJowIJresourceJ¸¸;Jo1J
• ULIIIze bIbIIogrupIIc munugemenL LooIs sucI us.
- ZoLero (¡IreIox onIy) - ILLp:JJwww.zoLero.orgJ
- KnIgIL CILe - ILLp:JJwww.cuIvIn.eduJIIbruryJknIgILcILeJ
• Ask u ¡IbrurIun uL uny pubIIc or coIIege IIbrury, or use LIe AskNow zqJ; InLerneL cIuL
servIce: ILLp:JJwww.cuIsLuLeIu.eduJIIbruryJusknow.ILm

AM 6Jo8; CS 11Jo8; CS ¸Joq

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