LEARNING MATERIALS

ELECTRICITY

Table of Contents I. Introduction….………………………………………………………………………… 3 II. Objectives ……………………..……………………………………………………. 3 III. Learning Goals and Targets……………………………………………….……... 8 IV. Common Competencies….………………………………………….……………. A. Know………………………………………………………………………… 9 B. Process………………………………………………………………… 18 & 73 C. Understand………...………………………………………………... 19 & 77 D. Transfer.…………………………...…………………………………….... 79 V. Summary…………………………………………………………...……………... 87

VI. Glossary……………………………………..……………………...……………… 11 VII. References…………………………………………………………...……………... 11

IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo, Joel G….FFHNAS

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I. INTRODUCTION Welcome to the world of Electrical Installation and Maintenance! This Module is an exploratory course which leads you to Electrical Installation and Maintenance National Certificate Level II (NC II). It covers 5 common competencies that a Grade 8 Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) student like you should possess, namely: 1) Prepare electrical supplies, materials, and tools; 2) Perform mensuration and calculations; 3) Interpret technical drawings and plans; 4) Maintain tools and equipment; and 5) Practice occupational health and safety. Imagine yourself living without electricity. Think of the things you won’t be able to do without it. What are the things that will not be useful without electricity? Without electricity, you won’t be able to watch TV, use a computer, communicate using a telephone, listen to the radio or have bright lights in dark places. You wouldn’t be able to do so many things you wa nt to do. Electricity has been so useful and important to us, however, it is dangerous when not handled properly. Changing busted fuses, replacing incandescent lamps, and installing buzzers and other alarm devices are simple tasks. Yet, there were times when you wanted to do these electrical repairs you felt that you lacked the skills needed for the job. If you have the talent in performing electrical repairs and servicing, you can transform that talent into a competency or skill even without formal training, simply by taking this course. Your success in this exploratory course on Electrical Installation and Maintenance is shown in your ability to perform the required activities in this module.

II. OBJECTIVES At the end of this module, you, as learner, are expected to gain the following competencies: 1. exhibit working knowledge of the fundamental principles and theories of electricity; 2. develop skills in the use of various electrical measuring instruments, tools, materials and equipment; 3. apply knowledge in repairing and troubleshooting wiring connections, fixtures and other current – consuming devices; 4. enhance awareness and observe safety precautions in the use of instruments and in performing wiring procedures and practices.

IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo, Joel G….FFHNAS

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A tool used for removing insulation of medium sized wires ranging from gauge #10 to gauge #16. ______________2. It has a cross tip resembling a positive (+) sign. Do you know me? Directions: Read the statement carefully and identify what is being described or defined. It Is a device inserted to a convenience outlet to conduct electric current. Long Nose Electrician’s Knife Philips Screw Driver Male Plug Pliers Utility box Junction Box Stubby Screw Driver Circuit Breaker Portable Electric Drill Wire Stripper Combination Pliers Hammer Fuse Connectors Conduits ______________1. ______________14. It is used for cutting and holding fine wires. It is used in making holes on metal sheets and concrete walls. ______________8.FFHNAS Page 4 . It is an octagonal shaped electrical material where the connections or joints of wires are being done. Joel G…. ______________10.1. It is used for gripping. ______________4. ______________5. It is a tool used in driving or pounding and pulling out nails. These are used to attach metallic or non-metallic conduit to the junction or utility boxes. holding. It comes in either Standard or Philips screw driver with short shank or blade and short handle used to turn screws in tight space where standard screw driver cannot be used. This can reach tight space or small opening where other pliers cannot reach and also used in making terminal loops of copper wires. A flat cord is attached to it on one end and the other end is to a current consuming instrument or appliance. ______________9. ______________11. It is a small drilling machine with a chuck capacity of ¼ inches to 3/8 inches. These are electrical materials used as the passage of wires for protection and insulation. It is also where the flush type lamp holder is attached. It is a protective device used to automatically cut off the current when trouble in the circuit such as short circuit or over load occurs. ______________12. ______________7. cutting electrical wires and cables and even small nails. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. ______________3. Choose your answer from the words inside the box. ______________6. It is used by linemen to remove insulation of wire and cables in low and high voltage transmission lines. It is a rectangular shaped metallic or plastic (PVC) material in which flush type convenience outlet and switch are attached. ______________15. It is a circuit protective device that automatically blows and cut the current when an over load or short circuit happens. Usually used by linemen in doing heavy tasks. It is used to drive screws with cross slot heads. ______________13.

Select the gadgets that are currently used in your own house.2. Write your answers on your notebook. Continuity Tester Lamp Shade Extension Cord Rechargeable Lamp Water Heater Cellular Phone Charger IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Joel G…. Find Me to your Home Directions: The pictures below are common electrical gadgets.FFHNAS Page 5 .

Which of the following element of electric circuit serves as current consuming device? a) Control (switch) c) Path (wire conductor) b) Source (battery) d) Load (lamp) 2. A Water heater is one of the basic electric gadgets in this module. There are four possible conditions in electric circuit. choose the appropriate answer and write the letter of your answer on your notebook. water heater and continuity tester & test light electrical safety measures project plan simple circuit assembly soldering techniques tools. Write the answers in your note book. what particular part of test light and continuity tester indicates the condition of the cord? a) Neon Lamp c) LED’S b) Toggle Switch d) Battery 4. Use the format below.3. Do you have this? Directions: The following items listed below are basic knowledge and skills needed in the production of basic electrical gadgets. Multiple Choices Directions: Each item consists of four choices. 1. which is not an application of this gadget? a) Cooling c) Cooking b) Heating d) Sterilizing 5. which is considered the most dangerous because it might cause fire? a) Short Circuit c) Grounded Circuit b) Closed Circuit d) Open Circuit 3.FFHNAS Page 6 . You encountered difficulties in driving screws in tight location which is the appropriate driving tools for the job? a) Standard/ Flat Screw Driver c) Allen Wrench b) Stubby Screw Driver d) Philip Screw Driver IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. assembling extension cord. Joel G…. Suppose you want to check the continuity of the flat cord. materials and equipment used in electrical works tying underwriter’s knot 4. lamp shade.

A type of electrical circuit used in Christmas light. Reduce the glare of the light source 12. Which of the electrical appliances has the highest power rating? a) Radio c) Electric Fan b) Television d) Flat Iron 15. It is an alloy or mixture of tin and lead used for soldering electrical joints. An electrical tool used to drive screws with hexagonal slot head.600 watts? a) # 12 c) # 16 b) # 14 d) # 18 10. Which of the following items is not the function of a lampshade? a. a) Switch c) Convenience Outlet b) Lamp Holder d) Male plug 8. Direct or focus the light in desired direction b. what is the appropriate knot or tie? a) Lock Knot c) Western Union Long Tie b) Underwriter’s Knot d) Western Union Short Tie 9.FFHNAS Page 7 .6. An electrical tool used for removing wire insulator from gauge #10 to gauge #16. Cover the lamp hardware for better appearance c. An electrical material used to turn ON or turn OFF the circuit conveniently. Cover the surface of the entire room d. a) Long Nose Pliers c) Combination Pliers b) Wire Stripper d) Knife 11. What is the appropriate size of flat cord if the total power rating of the appliances to be connected to extension cord is 1. What part of the project plan includes selling cost of the project? a) Purpose c) Materials Needed b) Sketch/Drawing d) Procedures 7. a) Allen Wrench c) Long Nose Pliers b) Philip Screw Driver d) Side Cutting pliers 13. a) Sponge c) Soldering Iron b) Soldering Lead d) Nipple IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. a) Series Circuit c) Complex Circuit b) Parallel Circuit d) Simple Circuit 14. One of the steps in extension cord assembly is tying process of wire conductor. Joel G….

specify this in terms of the following: Goal: Targets: ____________________________________________ a. set your learning goal in terms of what you want to attain at the end of your lessons in Electrical Installation and Maintenance.III. Joel G…. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. What I want to understand: _____________________ d. What I want to be able to do: ___________________ c.FFHNAS Page 8 . Next. LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS: Now that you have an idea of the coverage of this module. What I want to produce or understand: _____________ start writing your own learning goals/targets on your notebook based on the stated objectives. What I want to know: _________________________ b.

Sample pictures of extension cord that you can produce Picture A Picture B Picture C IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Some of the available extension cords in the market do not have the Product Standard (PS) or Import Commodity Clearance (ICC) markings. PS marks are for locally made products while ICC marks are for imported products. may result in fire. this may cause over loading and in worst case. The number of electrical gadgets available at home and offices may exceed the existing convenience outlet installed in every room. KNOW 1.FFHNAS Page 9 . The best remedy to address the insufficiency of available outlet is to use an extension cord especially if the electrical gadgets need to operate at the same time.IV. They are sub-standard. One of the most important considerations is the power handling capacity to make it safe and functional. Joel G…. PS or ICC marks are markings approved by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) for quality products. Common Competencies A. production of quality assembled extension cord will be a good business opportunity for you. every household should have at least two or more extension cords at home. Quality assembled extension cord will be possible even with the beginner. So. To be practical. Assembly of Extension Cord Electrical gadgets are products of modern technology to make our lives better. to be safe make sure you buy the extension cords with PS or ICC marks. Extension cords come in several varieties to suit the needs of the user. The prices of the quality extension cords available in the market are quite high. provided proper specifications of materials are strictly followed.

The size of the cord depends upon the specifications of the load or electrical gadgets to be used. usually into the socket end. It can withstand the heat of sunlight and also safe to use in damp places.An extension cord is a span of flexible electrical power cable with a plug on one end and multiple sockets on the other end. An extension reel is an extension lead that rolls up.FFHNAS Page 10 . Joel G…. Heavy duty extension cords are well insulated and fitted to outdoor use. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. The thicker the cord used. These are the extension cords available in the market. the higher the power capacity.

They are used to loosen or tighten screws with slotted heads and come in various sizes and shapes.2.The blade tip is wedge shaped and resembles a negative (-) sign.These are made of tool steel hardened and tempered at the tip. Joel G…. They are classified according their uses and functions: Screw Drivers. Standard screw driver and proper usage IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. effort and resources. To do the task. Most of the work cannot be done using our bare hands.FFHNAS Page 11 . electrical tools are needed as aids in performing the task. This lesson will tackle the function/use of each tool and material used in assembling basic electrical gadgets. Electrical Tools and Materials used in Assembling Basic Electrical Gadgets Electrical tasks can be accomplished systematically to save time. The following electrical tools are needed in the assembly of basic electrical gadgets. Pictures of the types of screw drivers and sample screws with different slots of the heads  Standard/Flat Screw Driver. This is used to drive screws with a single slot head.

 Philips Screw Driver. its function is to drive a screw with hexagonal slot head. Allen screw driver and wrench Pliers are made out of metal with insulators in the handle. Stubby screw driver and proper handling  Allen Screw Driver/Wrench. This is used to drive screws with cross slot heads. Joel G….FFHNAS Page 12 . twisting.This has a cross tip resembling a positive (+) sign. bending.This could be in the shape of screw driver or a wrench. Pictures of the set of pliers used in basic electrical gadgets Assembly IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. holding and gripping wires and cables. Used for cutting.

Side cutting pliers and proper use  Long Nose Pliers.FFHNAS Page 13 . IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.Used for cutting and holding fine wires. Combination Pliers (Lineman’s Pliers). This can reach tight spaces or small openings where other pliers cannot reach and also used in making terminal loops of copper wires. Combination pliers and blowup view  Side Cutting Pliers.This is used to grip. Joel G…. medium and big wires and cables. Usually used by linemen in doing heavy tasks. cut electrical wires and cables and even small nails.This type of pliers is used for cutting fine. hold.

appliances and instruments from any destruction and damage. lamp shade. The following are the most commonly used electrical devices and materials: IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. buildings. etc. Wire stripper and proper use The following are electrical devices and materials used in the assembly of basic electrical gadgets such as extension cord.Long nose pliers. Joel G…. These are developed and constructed for a special purpose such as to:     Control the flow of current in an electrical circuit Carry electrical current from the source to the load or current consuming apparatus Hold and secure wires to its fixtures inside and outside houses and buildings Protect the houses. hold.FFHNAS Page 14 . used in making loops and inserting loops to the screw Wire Stripper is a tool used for removing insulation of medium sized wires ranging from gauge #10 to gauge #16. These devices and materials are intended just to carry. secure and protect but not to utilize electric current.

triplex or multiplex and could be surface type or flush type.FFHNAS Page 15 . duplex. It maybe single. A flat cord is attached to it on one end and the other end is connected to a current consuming instrument or appliance. Surface type Weather proof type IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.Convenience Outlet. It is where the male plug of an appliance is inserted and usually fastened on the wall or connected in an extension cord. Sample pictures of duplex. hanging (weather proof/chain) and surface types. These come in many designs and sizes. triplex and quadruplex convenience outlets Male Plug.is a device that acts as a convenient source of electrical energy for current consuming appliances. They are classified as flush. Lamp Holder is a device that holds and protects the lamp and is also called as “Lamp Socket/Receptacle”.is a device inserted to a convenience outlet to conduct electric current. Joel G….

Switch. Junction Box is an octagonal shaped electrical material where the connections or joints of wire are being done. It is also where the flush type lamp holder is attached.is a device that connects and disconnects the flow of electric current in a circuit. This could be made of metal or plastic (PVC) Polyvinylchloride. PVC Junction Box Metal Junction Box • Utility Box is a rectangular shaped metallic or plastic (PVC) material where flush type convenience outlets and switches are attached.FFHNAS Page 16 . IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. designs and types and are classified as hanging. flush and surface types. There are many shapes. Joel G….

It comes in a role of 150 meters and with sizes of gauge # 18 and gauge # 16 awg (American wire gauge).Is a duplex stranded wire used for temporary wiring installation and commonly used in extension cord assembly. Joel G…. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Solid wire is made of a single strand of copper or aluminum wire. Stranded wire is made of multiple strands joined together to make a single wire.This electrical material could be: a. b. Electrical Wire/Conductor.Flat Cord.FFHNAS Page 17 . These are used in wiring installation inside and outside the buildings.

625 watts for #16 flat cords.250 watts for #18 flat cord and 1. Insert fully the plug to the convenience outlet. Use indoors only. Unplug when not in use. Cover unused outlets.B. Do not store in wet or damp place. Extension Cord that you can produce Differences Similarities Extension Cord Available in the Market Differences Directions for proper use of Extension Cord • • • • • • • • • • • • Completely extend the cord before using. Reminder Please make it a habit to always check the watts marked on the appliance found in the instructions manual or on the package. Use within the electrical rating mark on the extension cord set.FFHNAS Page 18 . Unplug by holding and pulling the male plug not the wire. can you cite the differences and similarities between the extension cords that can be produced by you from the sample extension cord available in the market? Use the table as your reference. Add the watts for each of the plug-in IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. PROCESS: Activity 1 Based on the sample pictures of extension cords. Inspect periodically. Joel G…. Keep away from children. Do not plug more than the total of 1. Do not use damaged extension cords. Write your answer on your notebook. Never place extension cord under the rugs.

The demonstration should be done in front of the teacher. C. write the answer on your notebook. determine the name of appliance with the lowest power consumption and the appliance with the highest power consumption. demonstrate the proper way of using it.appliance or load to determine the total watts being used for a particular extension cord. UNDERSTAND Activity 1 Using an actual extension cord. Specify the power rating.FFHNAS Page 19 . ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Joel G…. SAMPLE GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF APPLIANCE POWER CONSUMPTION TABLE NAME OF APPLIANCES Suggested Activity 2: Based on the graph.

________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ___ You are now familiar with the different extension cords. list down some possible combinations of appliances that can be plug-in to a #18 flat cord. Perform them using the appropriate tools and materials. Your performance will be graded using the following criteria: • Accuracy • Workmanship • Proper handling of tools • Speed IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Let us move on to be acquainted with them. Joel G…. Suggested Activity 4: Directions: Given are the set of activities and the corresponding picture. Prior to actual assembly we need to know the electrical tools and materials.FFHNAS Page 20 . commercial and assembled together with the application and limitation of it.Suggested Activity 3: Based on the sample power consumption table.

Cut different sizes of wires using side cutting and long nose pliers. Images of the Activity 2. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Use a wire stripper to remove wire insulators of different sizes of wires (solid/stranded). Practice removing insulators using side cutting and long nose pliers. Tighten and loosen screws of different head slots using different types of screw drivers. 3. Joel G….Activity 1. 4.FFHNAS Page 21 .

Joel G….5.FFHNAS Page 22 . • Use the right tools for a specific task. Reminders • Never tease your classmates while working. • Work with your heart and always focus on your work. • Always think that you’re working with a live wire. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. 6. • Do not use tools with a broken insulator in the handle to avoid accidents. Practice inserting the loop to the screw and tighten it to the convenience outlet. Using long nose pliers practice making terminal loops.

IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. • Which activity do you find difficult? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________. • What particular activity did you enjoy the most? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________.Suggested Activity 5: Directions: Answer the following questions. • What activity can you now confidently do? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________. Tools and materials are needed in actual assembly of extension cord.FFHNAS Page 23 . To make the assembly successful. you need to learn and follow the standard requirements. Another thing to be considered to produce quality and marketable extension cord is to use underwriter’s knot which is the next topic. Joel G…. • How do you find the activities? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________.

FFHNAS Page 24 . bulb sockets and male plugs. The process is detailed and visualized below: Picture of underwriter’s knot 25 IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Tying the underwriter’s Knot Underwriter’s knot is one of the skills needed in the assembly of an extension cord and lamp shade. Joel G…. It is neither a joint nor a splice but a KNOT that is made in extension cords and lamp cords.3. Its purpose is to relieve the strain on small wires of the cord and binding screws of convenience outlets. For you to make a quality and safe output you have to strictly follow the given procedure in making an underwriter’s knot.

Joel G…. Bend the right strand of the cord and place it at the back of the left strand following the arrow as shown in figure 2 .Procedures in Tying the Underwriter’s Knot:  Split the end of the flat cord about 8 centimeters long then bend the left strand of the cord and place it at the back of the main cord following the arrow as shown in figure 1. Pull both strands of the flat cord to tighten the knot as shown in the picture below. Pull the right strand of cord and place it over the main cord following the arrow as shown in figure 3.FFHNAS Page 25 . Insert the right strand cord inside the loop made by left strand cord following the arrow as shown in figure 4. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

Male plug IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 26 . Hanging lamp holder or surface type convenience outlet • 1 pc. Your performance will be rated based on the following criteria: • Accuracy • Correct usage of tools • Safety work habits • Speed Materials: • ½ meter Flat cord gauge # 18 • 1 pc. Suggested Activity 6: Directions: Perform the tying of underwriter’s knot using the materials and tools given below and following the procedure.Pictures below show some uses of Underwriter’s Knot. Joel G….

Proceed to the next lesson which is preparing a project plan. • If you’re using a surface type convenience outlet apply the same procedure in tying an underwriter’s knot and then remove the cover of the convenience outlet and insert the flat cord. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. • Perform the tying of underwriter’s knot following the procedure. Preparing a Project Plan You might be wondering why there are several projects which are not completed. there are several reasons why this happens. Joel G…. Make sure it is anchored against the cover. how much to spend and what procedures to undertake. A plan is essential before undertaking any project because it serves as your guide in accomplishing an activity. It will give you an idea on what is to be done. It might be out of budget constraints or perhaps the project was not properly planned. Well. Now you’re thru with the underwriter’s knot features. To make the project work as expected it should be done with a plan. This format can also be used in preparing a plan for other projects in the future. advantages and application. Below is a sample project plan of an extension cord.FFHNAS Page 27 . 4. • Insert the other end of the flat cord to the hanging lamp holder then perform the same procedure.Tools: • Side cutting pliers • Ruler • Wire stripper/electrician’s knife Procedures: • Insert one end of the flat cord to the plug. A well prepared project plan saves time and cost of materials.

Joel G…. observe safety measures while doing the project.FFHNAS Page 28 .Name of Project: Extension Cord Assembly II.Materials Needed: IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. III.Purpose: • • • to acquire knowledge and develop skills on how to assemble an extension cord. assemble a quality and marketable extension cord.Sample Project Plan Name of Student:____________________________ Year & Section:______________ Date Started: _______________ Date Finished: ______________ I .Sketch/Drawing: IV.

Be careful not to cut any strand. then follow procedure no. Split the cord wires at the other end about 4 centimetres long. split the cord wires about 8 centimetres long. 8. 3. 2. 4. 5.FFHNAS . Prepare the plan.Tools and Equipment Needed: -tester VI.Sample Pictures of Materials needed V. Page 29 IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Scrape bare wire with the back of the knife until shiny. Gather all necessary materials.Procedure in assembling an extension cord: 1. 7. 4. Make a loop on terminal wires and connect the wires to the screw of the male plug. tools and equipment needed. Tie the underwriter’s knot. Joel G…. Twist the wire stands. Remove insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long with a pocket knife as if sharpening a pencil. The loop should go with the thread clockwise direction. 6. Insert cord into the male plug.

11. Noted once incorrect usage of tools. Joel G…. Output is presentable. Method Followed the given step. 1 Point Extension cord was not functional. Check the continuity and test the extension cord. Finished the given task within 21-30 minutes. output is not presentable. Unable to finish the given task. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Insert the wire connectors to the screws. Noticed more than one incidence of injury. No injury happened while doing task. Connect the wires to the connectors. VII. Noted more once incorrect usage of tools. Followed the given step. Terminal wires were properly twisted and secured. tighten it and return the cover. Open the convenience outlet then remove the screw. Followed the given step from start to finish.Criteria for Assessment: Criteria Functionality 5 Points Extension cord was100% functional. 12. Time Management Finished the given task within 20 minutes. 3 Points Extension cord was functional but intermittent. 10. Quality Terminal wires were loose. Output is not presentable.FFHNAS Page 30 . Terminal wires were not properly twisted and secured. Using appropriate tools for each task. Safety Noticed one incidence of injury while doing the task.9.

you will find more enjoyment in lesson 2 because of the attractive features of lamp shade. profitability and marketability of extension cord? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Suggested Activity 8: Directions: Prepare a project plan for a quality and marketable extension cord. is a project plan important in assuring quality.Remarks: ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Suggested Activity 7: Directions: In your own opinion.VIII. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 31 . ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Always bear in mind the importance of a well-prepared project plan. Did you perform well in lesson 1? Well. Joel G….

conical or square. plastic or paper.5. The shape may be cylindrical.FFHNAS Page 32 . • It serves to focus or direct the light from a lamp in a desired direction. It can also improve the appearance of the room. How to measure the shade • • Make a pattern using cartolina or Manila paper. Joel G…. It is usually made of a wire frame covered with fabric. hanging. floor. There are different types of lampshades as to its function and mounting such as: wall. It has three major functions namely: • It softens the light from a light bulb or other light source and reduces the glare. • It covers the lamp hardware for better appearance. Put a mark for the specific desired measurement. sea shell. The most common type of lampshade is the table top. and table top lampshade. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. This can trigger headaches and may affect our concentration. Assembly of Lamp Shade There are times when fixed lightings within a room particularly if the light source is visible can contribute to make our eyes tired. One solution is to use a lamp shade to diffuse the glare or strong intensity of the light source.

Take note of the allowance for over lapping.FFHNAS Page 33 . Joel G….• • • With the use of compass make a half circle following the marking of the exact measurements. Suggested materials needed for the assembly of lamp shade: 1 pc Incandescent Bulb/ Compact Fluorescent lamp (CFL) 5-10 watts 1 pc Bulb Socket 1 pc Single Pole Switch 1 pc PVC pipe or other pipes (1 foot long and ½ diameter) IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Then fold the pattern in a cylindrical form. (2 ¼” and 6”) Cut the pattern.

flower base. (don’t forget do the underwriter’s knot) Page 34 IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS . Mount the bulb socket at one end of the pipe. Install the switch somewhere in the middle of the flat cord. abaca fiber. Analyze the wiring diagram. etc.) 1 pc Shade (out of any available materials in the community such as: fabric. Joel G…. sequence. Insert the other end of the wire to the hole.1 pc Male Plug 2 meters Flat Cord #18awg 1 pc Lamp Shade Base out of recycled materials (plastic container. Install the male plug at the end of the wire. bottle. Insert the flat cord along the pipe and connect it to the bulb socket. sea shell. etc… Procedures for the assembly of lamp shade: • • • • • • • • • Secure all the materials needed. beads. Prepare the tools and instruments needed. plastic or paper ) Any decorating material such as: pebbles.(do the underwriter’s knot) Bore appropriate hole for the base of the lamp shade.

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Suggested Activity 10: Directions: Among the different types of lampshades what do you think is the most practical and convenient to use? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. glitters and other materials available to enhance the physical appearance.FFHNAS Page 35 . Reminder It's very important to choose the right size of lampshade. as this can cause a fire. Place the pebbles inside the container so that the pipe can stand alone Make the frame or skeleton of the lamp shade using the wire considering the dimensions of the shade. cylindrical lampshades should always have enough clearance and venting to allow heat to escape. sequence. A paper or fabric lampshade that is too close to the light bulb can become a fire hazard. Troubleshoot the circuit if necessary. Suggested Activity 9: Directions: Discuss the three major functions of the lampshades. Light bulbs emit a lot of heat.• • • • • • • Position the pipe at the center of the base. Apply voltage to the lamp shade and observe performance. Likewise. Never cover the top of a lampshade with a scarf or other fabric. Joel G…. Insert the shade at the frame after connecting the lamp to the socket. Put decorating materials like beads.

These symbols are very useful in electrical circuit assembly. Common Electrical Symbols Electrical Symbols are small drawings or icons. Analysis and interpretation of electrical diagrams will not be possible if you are not familiar with these symbols. materials and even instruments can be represented by means of standard electrical symbols.FFHNAS Page 36 . installation. The following are common electrical symbols used in a wiring plan and diagram.6. Joel G…. used to signify various electrical devices in a diagram or plan of an electrical circuit. trouble shooting and servicing. Electrical devices. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

FFHNAS Page 37 . Joel G….Suggested Activity 11: Why is it important to study the common electrical symbols? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

FFHNAS Page 38 .Suggested Activity 12: Draw and label the electrical symbols that you know. Symbol Description Symbol Description IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Joel G….

An electrical circuit can be presented in two different ways one is through a pictorial diagram and the other is through a schematic diagram.comes from AC generator and Power Company the current is bidirectional DC Voltage source – comes from dry cell. Joel G…. battery and DC power supply the current is unidirectional ► Paths or lines – source are the conducting path where the current flows ► Load (Current Consuming device).FFHNAS Page 39 . A Pictorial Diagram is a sketch of electrical circuit that shows the external appearance of each component. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. It is much like a photograph of the circuit and uses simple images of parts.7. path. load and control. ► Source (power supply) – the force or energy to provide electric current along the circuit. wet cell. A simple electric circuit consists of four important elements the source. This can be classified as: AC Voltage source . Electrical Circuit An electrical circuit is simply a continuous path for current to flow. ► Control (switch) – this is used to turn ON or turn OFF electrical circuit conveniently.it could be a bulb or any electrical appliance.

FFHNAS Page 40 . This is the circuit used in lampshade assembly. Types of Circuit  Simple Circuit-is a wiring circuit which has a single load. how the wiring is routed but not the actual location.A Schematic Diagram is a sketch showing the components of the circuit using standard electrical symbols. switch and a source that could be either direct current or alternating current. Joel G…. It shows the actual number of components. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

is a type of circuit wherein loads or current consuming devices are arranged like a chain. Series Circuit . there is only one path.FFHNAS Page 41 . If one bulb or load becomes defective. Joel G…. and therefore the current is constant or the same in any part of the circuit. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. all the rest will not operate like in the case of Christmas lights.

 Parallel Circuit. This is the most common electrical circuit used in household and offices. Joel G…. the remaining bulbs will not be affected.is a type of circuit where the loads such as bulbs are connected across the power source. Electrical Circuit Defects IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Each bulb receives the same amount of voltage. If one bulb becomes busted.FFHNAS Page 42 .

FFHNAS Page 43 . In worse cases it can cause fire damage to life properties IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Joel G….Shorted circuit – this condition happens if line 1 gets in contact with line 2 wherein the current did not flow along any load or current consuming device. The result is excessive or high current and high temperature that can cause tripping off circuit breaker and blown fuse.

FFHNAS Page 44 . Joel G…. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Write their advantages and disadvantages under each corresponding column. which is more advantageous to use? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Suggested Activity 15: Draw the schematic diagram of the circuit used in the assembly of a Lamp shade.Suggested Activity 13: Directions: The table below shows two common types of electrical circuit. Suggested Activity 14: Based on your answer in the previous activity between series and parallel circuits.

Joel G…. Suggested Activity 17: Based on the suggested materials and procedures given.FFHNAS Page 45 . The answer should be written on your notebooks. prepare a project plan for making a quality and marketable lampshade.Suggested Activity 16: Directions: As a student. how will you contribute to avoid circuit defects from happening in your own house? Use the graphic organizer below as reference. You can also use other materials that are abundant and available in your community. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

is well filtered and chlorinated. One of the appropriate solutions is to use a water heater. designs and models that would fit the type of water to be boiled or heated. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. • Note: Always refer to the instructions/manual available in the package before using the gadget to determine its appropriate use. It does not contain minerals and impurities. If the weather is cold routine activities like taking a bath in the early morning becomes a problem. Assembly of Water Heater Human activities are directly affected by existing climate. sterilizing and cooking.FFHNAS Page 46 . Hard water. This water is supplied by the local water district like NAWASA. It is readily available in the market today. They come in different forms. For example: • Soft water. Joel G…. This is a basic electrical gadget which is handy and user friendly. This type of water comes from the deep well.is water with light and heavy mineral content. You need to keep water lukewarm to finish your routine on time.8. This is used for boiling. shapes.

Uses of Water Heater 1. Joel G…. • • Boiling water in pitcher for coffee and tea Cooking Siopao or Siomai in a steamer • Heating water in a pail for bathing. Cooking and Heating (Immerse the water heater completely) • Sterilizing feeding bottles. • Cooking eggs and corn IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 47 . For Boiling. kitchen utensils and surgical/medical instruments. • Boiling water in a kettle.

• Steaming for vapor inhaling. Joel G…. • Facial treatment in beauty shop IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. • Outdoor steam bathing • Steaming for hot towel.2. For Steaming (Immerse the water heater at about ½ to ¾ in order to produce more steam) • Steaming for rheumatic treatment.FFHNAS Page 48 .

Joel G…. • First.FFHNAS Page 49 . Assembling a Water Heater Note: Assembly of water heater is optional depending on the availability of materials in your locality. Materials Needed: o 1 piece Male Plug o 1 piece Heating Element (any design/form) o 1 set Plastic/rubber insulator (use as handle) o 1 set Bolt and nut o 1 set Metal strip o 2 meters Flat cord #18 IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. • • • Activity 18. (You might be grounded) After using. insert the plug to 110 or 220 volts AC outlet. Never touch the water while heating is in progress especially if you are barefooted. then dip the water heater gradually into the water.Directions on how to use the water heater Note: To the users. (Do not unplug while the water heater is still dipped on the water to avoid spark). Allow the water heater to dry first before keeping it in a safe place. No need to use a transformer. (Do not dip the water heater before plugging to avoid sparks in the plug and outlet). you should strictly follow the directions to avoid accident. lift the water heater from the water to drain then unplug.

Materials for water heater assembly

Tools Needed:     Soldering iron/gun Long nose pliers Screw driver Pocket knife/any substitute

Procedure:         Prepare the plan Gather the tools and materials needed. Insert cord into the plug. Separate the cord wires about 8 centimeters long. Remove insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long with a pocket knife as if sharpening a pencil. Be careful not to cut any strand. Tie using an underwriter’s knot. Make a loop on terminal wires and connect the wires to the screw of the male plug. The loop should go with the thread of the screw in clockwise direction. Separate the cord at the other end about 4 centimeters long. Remove the insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long. Scrape bare wire. Twist the wire strands and solder it to the terminals of the heating element. Cover the soldered part with the handle and close it with the use of bolt and nut. Check the connections and test the water heater.

Sample Rubrics Criteria Functionality 5 Points Water heater functioned. 3 Points Water heater functioned but intermittent. Terminals were not properly soldered and secured. Output is not presentable. 1 Point Water heater failed to function. Terminals wereloosely soldered. Output is not presentable.

Quality

Terminals were properly soldered and secured. Output is presentable.

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Method

Followed the given procedure from start to finish. Observed correct usage of tools. Finished the work on/before the given time. RATING SCALE:

Followed the given procedure. Noted using incorrect tools once.

Followed the given procedure. Noted using incorrect tools more than once. Unable to finish the work.

Speed

Finished the work after the given time.

Points Earned 1 7 - 20 13 – 16 9 – 12 5–8 1–4

Numerical 91 - 100 86 - 90 81 – 85 76 – 80 71 – 75

Descriptive Outstanding Very Good Good Fair Needs Improvement

Suggested Activity 19 Discuss the importance of water heatesr in our daily activity and how they are properly used. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________

Suggested Activity 20 Based on the given materials and procedures prepare a project plan on the assembly of a quality and marketable water heater.

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9. Soldering Techniques As an electrical technology student, you must remember that the normal operation of an electrical circuit depends on how an electrician performs the proper circuit connections. Loose connections will result to abnormal or intermittent operation. Soldering is one of the effective solutions needed in the assembly and repair of electrical gadgets. You need to learn and practice proper techniques in soldering to attain good soldered joints. In performing this process, you will need a soldering iron or soldering gun and soldering lead. The soldering lead is an alloy or mixture of tin and lead with a ratio of 60 percent tin and 40 percent lead. A hardened melted solder becomes permanent and durable electrical wire connections. The connection can withstand strong vibrations and movements. Soldering tools are readily available in the market. They are classified according to wattages rating, shape and size of the tips.

The following are the tools and materials used in soldering techniques. • Soldering Iron- is a tool used to apply heat to the metal joint and to melt the solder/soldering lead to make a permanent joint. Its wattage ratings vary from 30 watts, 45 watts, 60 watts and 75 watts.

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FFHNAS Page 53 .• Soldering Gun. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.a soldering tool that has a fast heating tip applicable for heavy duty applications. Joel G…. The wattage rating of this tool varies from 60 to 100 watts. The contour shape is similar to that of a hand gun with a trigger that serves as the switch.

Soldering Stand- is used to hold the soldering iron when not in use or at rest. It keeps the hot soldering tip away from any object to avoid burning.

Soldering Lead/Solder- is an alloy that is a mixture of tin and lead. This is usually made in hollow form with center hole filled with rosin flux. The rosin flux makes the solder melt quickly and cleans the joints being soldered.

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Sponge- is a damp cloth used for cleaning the tip of soldering iron or gun and also used for wiping excess lead on the tip of the soldering iron.

Soldering Techniques • Remove the insulator of the wire you want to connect together. • Cross the twisted ends of the wires to be soldered.

Twist the strands of wire to be soldered so that it becomes one and it will be easy to solder.

Starting at the cross section, twist the wires together around themselves.

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Reminders • • • • • • • • • Clean the tip of the soldering iron gun regularly. Tin the tip of soldering iron. Maintain the pointed tip of soldering iron and reshape it, if necessary. Apply the right amount of solder on the preheated metallic surface and not directly to the tip of the soldering iron. Let the melted solder flow freely around the joint surface. Solder the joint as quick as possible to avoid extreme heat on the components. Reheat the cold soldered joint. Use a soldering stand to avoid the tip to get in contact with combustible materials or your skin. Hold the excess terminal lead while cutting to prevent being hit by flying excess terminal wires.

Suggested Activity 21 Directions: Using actual soldering iron and soldering gun compare the features and characteristics of the two soldering tools.

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Page 57 IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Clean the bare wire conductor using sand paper.Based on the results of the previous activity. After two to three minutes tin the tip of soldering with the soldering lead.) Connect the plug of the soldering iron to the power source. Joel G…. Divide the wire into ten (10) equal lengths.FFHNAS . Remove the insulator of the wire. file or knife. which do you prefer to use? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Suggested Activity 22 Directions: Perform the soldering techniques using the following: Materials:  1 meter Solid wire #22 awg  ½ meter Soldering lead  ¼ sheet Pad paper Tools:  Soldering Iron (30 watts)  Long Nose Pliers  Side Cutting Pliers  Soldering Stand Procedure in Soldering:        Clean the tip of the soldering iron or gun using sand paper. Arrange the wire on ¼ sheet of paper.  Heat the intersection of wires for few seconds. (The illustration below will be your reference.

Finish all intersection following the same procedures.• Apply appropriate amount of soldering lead on the free heated surface of the wire and not directly to the tip of the soldering iron.  Allow the melted solder to flow evenly around the joint surface.FFHNAS Page 58 . Joel G….    Check the soldered joints it should be smooth and shiny. You have to solder all wire intersections Note: Your output will be judged using the given Criteria: • Quality • Distance • Speed IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Reheat the joints if necessary to avoid cold soldered joints.  Remove the tip of soldering iron and allow it to cool naturally.

IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Distance All squares were equal. One to three squares were not equal. Unable to finish the task. Joel G….Sample Rubrics Criteria Quality 5 Points All solders were smooth. shiny and have sharp edges.FFHNAS Page 59 . 3 Points One to three solders were not smooth. shiny and with no sharp edges. Finished the task after the given time. Speed Finished the task before the given time. Four or more squares were not equal. 1 Point Four or more solders were not smooth. shiny and have sharp edges.

FFHNAS Page 60 . This can also be used to check the line cord of electrical appliances such as. The Neon lamp which serves as the power indicator glows or produces light if the circuit being tested has power. If the LED lights.  A Test Light is used to check the presence of power within the circuit. electric stove. This is a two in one gadget which has a toggle switch to indicate the particular mode. switch. flat iron.  A Continuity Tester is used to check the continuity of conductor. and many more. electrical fan.10. Electric current in a single line can also be detected using this gadget. Pictures of Continuity Tester and Test Light Interior view of Continuity Tester and Test Light IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. It has light emitting diodes (LED) that serve as an indicator. Joel G…. bread toaster. Assembly of Continuity Tester and Test Light Continuity Tester and Test Light is a simple electrical gadget which is very useful in checking and monitoring electrical circuit conditions. fuse and other electrical devices. the wire or conductor tested has continuity.

The diagrams below show the schematic and pictorial views of the circuit. These will help you become familiar with the circuits of a continuity tester and a test light. Joel G…. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 61 . You may use these in assembling your project.

Materials Needed in the Assembly of Continuity Tester and Test Light           1 piece Neon lamp 220 volts 1 piece Resistor 820 ohms ½ watt 1 piece Dry cell 9 volts DC 1 piece Toggle switch 1 piece Battery holder 3 pieces Light Emitting Diodes (LED) jumbo 1 meter Hook up wire #22 awg stranded 1 set Test Probe (black and red) ½ meter Soldering lead 1 piece Cassette casing or any other casing fitted for the project Tools and Instruments Needed in the Assembly of Continuity Tester and Test Light  Soldering Iron  Long Nose Pliers  Side Cutting Pliers  Mini electric drill  DC Power Supply  Multi-Tester Procedures in Assembling Continuity Tester and Test Light             Secure all the materials needed to save time. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Short the test probe. Connect the battery holder. Perform the wiring installations and solder the wiring connections. the LED’s should light which is a normal response of the continuity tester. Joel G…. Fix all parts and wirings on its casing. Set the toggle switch in opposite position or test light mode (TLM). Bore appropriate holes for light emitting diodes. Check the condition of all components using multi-tester. Set the toggle switch to continuity tester mode (CTM). the neon lamp should light if it has power. Check the power of the convenience outlet. Analyze the wiring connections and orientation of parts to determine the proper position of parts.FFHNAS Page 62 . neon lamp and toggle switch. Clean the electrodes or terminals of components to insure quality solder. To avoid the LED’s light to be busted.

For example you want to check if the particular convenience outlet has power what you should do is to set the toggle switch to test light mode (TLM) to avoid damaging the gadget. This gadget is comparable to a multi.  Another thing is you must be extra careful in using the devices. This means that there are positive and negative terminals that should not be interchanged. Proper care and maintenance is necessary because this is a significant instrument that you will be using for the next quarters.REMINDER In assembling the continuity tester and test light.tester which is too delicate.FFHNAS Page 63 . Joel G…. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________ IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Suggested Activity 23 Directions: Discuss the importance of a continuity tester and test light in providing quality and safe electrical servicing jobs. You have to see to it that the toggle switch is in its correct mode. you must strictly follow the wiring diagrams because the light emitting diodes and battery have polarity.

we will now proceed with its applications. materials and procedures prepare a project plan for a quality continuity tester and test light. Joel G…. After firming up your understanding on the concept and underlying principles of basic electrical device assembly. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.Suggested Activity 24 Directions: Draw the schematic diagram of the continuity tester and test light circuit.FFHNAS Page 64 . Suggested Activity 25 Directions: Based on the given diagram.

A. It is the best instrument that can measure voltage. resistance and current.THE MULTITESTER The Multitester or multimeter is sometimes called the VOM (voltmeter.FFHNAS Page 65 . ohmmeter. milliammeter). PARTS OF A MULTI TESTER IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. It is generally made of two types: the analog and the digital. Joel G….

Joel G….IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 66 .

Joel G….FFHNAS Page 67 .IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

Joel G…. always start with the highest range to avoid reading voltage higher than the tester setting. 2.FFHNAS Page 68 . Read manual of instructions on how to operate the multi-tester. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Be sure that the tester is set to the correct range setting: resistance range when measuring the ohm. 5. voltage range when measuring voltage and ammeter range when measuring the value of electric current. set the selector switch t 1000V or to OFF position.A. Proper care and maintenance of the multi tester 1. Never drop the tester. 6. 4. 3. Worn out batteries will damage the internal setting of the tester. In reading the amount of voltage. Always check the condition of its battery. When the tester is not in used or will be stored.

B. Joel G…. The unit of measurement to be used to determine its resistance is ohm. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 69 . the given table below will be used. How to read the meter scale of the multi tester To read the resistance range of the multi-tester.

FFHNAS Page 70 . Joel G….IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

Joel G….FFHNAS Page 71 .IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

Activity 27: PARTS OF MULTITESTER DIRECTION. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. write the parts indicated by the arrow and give their functions. Given a Multi-\tester below.FFHNAS Page 72 . Joel G….

colors and number of conductor inside the cord depending on desired wattages capacity and its purpose. It could be with the use of dry cell or battery of dry cells-(DC) direct current or (AC) alternating current.is a round flexible conductor which is also used as an extension wire.B. Joel G…. Here are sophisticated tools and materials that could be used in assembling quality and marketable basic electrical gadgets. The third wire is connected to the third terminal that is intended for grounding. DC operated screw drivers AC operated screw driver  Flexible cord.FFHNAS Page 73 . This comes in a variety of sizes. PROCESS 1. three and more wire conductors inside a round flexible cord IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Picture s of two. • Compact Screw Driver is a type of screw driver that can be manually operated or with the use of electrical energy. Electrical Tools and Materials used in Assembling Basic Electrical Gadgets Aside from the screw drivers and flat cords mentioned earlier. It is automatically plug into a 220 volt supply of electrical energy or with a built in battery.

Pictures of extension cords using round flexible cord B. Other manufacturers produce water heaters that are installed indoors only inside the bathrooms. Water Heater Other portable water heaters available in the market are those permanently installed in the bath rooms or hanged in outdoor places. This type of water heaters are commonly installed in residences.FFHNAS Page 74 . hospitals. It has control switches that regulate the temperature of water that comes out from the unit. Joel G…. resorts and others buildings. Like the handy water heater for coffee it has a heating element that serves as the heart of the unit. apartments. hotels. Portable water heater for bathing hanged on the fence outdoor IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.

Then observe.FFHNAS Page 75 . IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. workshops and malls with electrical hardware stores.Suggested Activity 1: Directions: Based on the pictures of water heaters. describe each in terms of features and characteristics. Show pictures and present your observation to the class. Suggested Activity 2: Directions: Visit nearby hardware stores. examine and take pictures of the different variety of extension cords sold there. Joel G….

Suggested Activity 3: Directions: Explore industries within your community to find out when and where these sophisticated tools are used. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 76 . Joel G….

UNDERSTAND: Activity 1 • Discuss the importance of assembling quality basic electrical gadgets as possible entrepreneurial activity. Justify your answer. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. determine which one is innovative.FFHNAS Page 77 . Joel G….C. B and C. ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ • Given extension cords A.

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.FFHNAS Page 78 . Joel G…. what is your level of confidence in assembling basic electrical gadgets? Why? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ • Compare the features of extension cord A and B using the given criteria below.• On a scale of 1 to 5. • How would you feel if the extension cord you prepared was rejected by your teacher? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________  Self.assess your level of confidence in assembling a heavy duty extension cord.

tools and equipment needed. Make a loop on terminal wires and connect the wires to the screw of the male plug. Be careful not to cut any strand. then follow procedure no.FFHNAS Page 79 . Scrape bare wire with the back of the knife until shiny. split the cord wires about 8 centimeters long. Tie the underwriter’s knot. Joel G….D. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. TRANSFER Are you ready to demonstrate to others your gained knowledge and skills? Perform the following activities: Suggested Activity 1: Extension Cord Assembly Directions: Assemble an Innovative and Marketable Extension Cord based on the project plan you have prepared and follow step by step the procedures: • • • • • • • • • • • • Prepare the plan. Twist the wire stands. Check the continuity and test the extension cord. Remove insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long with a pocket knife as if sharpening a pencil. Gather all necessary materials. Split the cord wires at the other end about 4 centimeters long. 4. tighten it and return the cover. Insert the wire connectors to the screws. Connect the wires to the connectors. Open the convenience outlet then remove the screw. Insert cord into the male plug. The loop should go with the thread clockwise direction.

FFHNAS . No inquiry happned while doing Terminal wires were loose. Noted incorrect usage of tools once. 1 Point Extension cord/lamp shade was not functional. Output is presentable. Noted incorrect usage of tools more than once. Terminal wires were not properly twisted and secured. No innovation made. 3 Points Extension cord/lamp shade was functional but intermittent. Followed the given step from start to finish using appropriate tools for each task. innovativeness) Note: Each of you will assemble at least three extension cords. Noticed incidence of injury more Page 80 Safety work habits Noticed incidence of injury while IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Two or more innovations were made. With only one innovation made. Method Followed the given step. Joel G…. See to it that you did an innovation in the second and third extension cords. Criteria Functionality 5 Points Extension cord/lamp shade was 100% functional. Output is not presentable Followed the given step. Output is not presentable.Your performance and product will be judged by the following criteria: y. Design Quality Terminal wires were properly twisted and secured.

Mount the bulb socket at one end of the pipe. Prepare the tools and instruments needed.FFHNAS Page 81 . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Secure all the materials needed. doing task. Install the switch somewhere in the middle of the flat cord. Unable to fiish the given task. Joel G…. Suggested Activity 2: Lamp Shade Assembly Directions: Assemble marketable lamp shade based on the project plan you have prepared and follow step by step procedures.(do the underwriter’s knot) Bore appropriate hole for the base of the lamp shade. Time Management Finished the task on or before the given time. Apply voltage to the lamp shade and observe performance. Troubleshoot the circuit if necessary. sequence. Insert the other end of the wire to the hole. glitters and other materials available to enhance the physical appearance. Your performance and product will be judged by the following criteria: IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Insert the flat cord along the pipe and connect it to the bulb socket. than once. Put decorating materials like beads. Place the pebbles inside the container so that the pipe can stand alone Make the frame or skeleton of the lamp shade using the wire considering the dimensions of the shade. Analyze the wiring diagram. Insert the shade to the frame after connecting the lamp to the socket.the task. (don’t forget do the underwriter’s knot) Position the pipe at the center of the base. Install the male plug at the end of the wire. Finished the task after the given task.

Scrape bare wire.o o o o o o Functionality Product design (creativity. Separate the cord at the other end about 4 centimeters long. workmanship) Use of appropriate tools and materials Observance of safety measure Time management Note: Please refer to the sample rubrics in activity 1. Remove the insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long. Joel G…. Check the connections and test the water heater. Cover the soldered part with the handle and close it with the use of bolt and nut. Tie the under writer’s knot. Remove insulation of both wires 1 centimeter long with a pocket knife as if sharpening a pencil. Insert cord into the plug. innovativeness) Quality (accuracy.FFHNAS Page 82 . Separate the cord wires about 8 centimeters long. Your Performance or product will be judged based on the following criteria: • • • • Functionality Quality Method Speed SAMPLE RUBRICS IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Steps below will serve as your guide. Suggested Activity 3: Water Heater Assembly Directions: Assemble quality and marketable water heater based on the approved project plan. Be careful not to cut any strand. Make a loop on terminal wires and connect the wires to the screw of the male plug. The loop should go with the thread of the screw clockwise direction. Twist the wire strands and solder it to the terminals of the heating element. • • • • • • • • Prepare the plan Gather the tools and materials needed.

Followed the given procedure. Terminals were loosely soldered. 1 Point Water heater was not functional. Noted incorrect usage of tools once. Finished the work after the given time.FFHNAS Page 83 . Output is presentable. Terminals were not properly soldered and secured.Criteria Functionality 5 Points Water heater was functional. RATING SCALE: Points Earned 1 7 . Speed Finished the work on/before the given time. 3 Points Water heater was functional but intermittent. Followed the given procedure. Method Followed the given procedure from start to finish.20 13 – 16 9 – 12 5–8 1–4 Numerical 91 . Output is not presentable. Joel G…. Unable to finish the work.90 81 – 85 76 – 80 71 – 75 Descriptive Outstanding Very Good Good Fair Needs Improvement IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Observed correct usage of tools. Output is not presentable. Quality Terminals were properly soldered and secured. Noted incorrect usage of tools more than once.100 86 .

Check all components using multi-tester. The steps below will serve as your guide. the LED’s should light which is normal response of continuity tester. Fix all parts and wirings on its casing Set the toggle switch to continuity tester mode (CTM). Analyze the wiring connections and orientation of parts to determine the proper position of parts. Connect the battery holder. 3 Points Continuity Tester and Test Light was functional but intermittent. Joel G…. Your Performance or product will be judged based on the following criteria: • • • • Functionality Quality Method Speed Sample Rubrics Criteria Functionality 5 Points Continuity Tester and Test Light was functional. Perform the wiring installations and solder the wiring connections. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. • • • • • • • • • • • • Secure all the materials needed. Short the test probe. neon lamp and toggle switch.FFHNAS Page 84 . Clean the electrodes or terminals of components. Bore appropriate holes for light emitting diodes. 1 Point Continuity Tester an Test Light was not functional. Set the toggle switch in opposite position or test light mode (TLM). Check the power of the convenience outlet. the neon lamp should light if it has power.Suggested Activity 4: Continuity Tester and Test Light Assembly Directions: Assemble quality continuity tester and test light based on the approved project plan.

Quality Terminals were properly soldered and secured. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Speed Finished the work on/before the given time. Joel G….20 13 – 16 9 – 12 5–8 1–4 Numerical 91 . Output is presentable. Method Followed the given procedure from start to finish. Followed the given procedure. Finished the work after the given time. Observed correct usage of tools. Unable to finish the work. RATING SCALE: Points Earned 17 . Output is not presentable. Noted incorrect usage of tools once.FFHNAS Page 85 . Output is not presentable. Noted incorrect usage of tools more than once.90 81 – 85 76 – 80 71 – 75 Descriptive Outstanding Very Good Good Fair Needs Improvement Suggested Activity 5: Put your product on display for sale or establish linkage with the school cooperative to market your product.100 86 . Terminals were not properly soldered and secured. Followed the given procedure. Terminals were loosely soldered.

1. What part of the project plan indicates the selling cost of the project/products? a) Purpose c) Materials Needed b) Sketch/Drawing d) Procedures 7. A Water heater is one of the basic electric gadgets in this module. You encountered difficulties in driving screws in tight location.Suggested Activity 6: Market the assembled extension cord and lamp shade in your nearby community.FFHNAS Page 86 . Suppose you want to check the continuity of the flat cord. There are four possible conditions in electric circuit. Which is the most appropriate driving tool to use for the job? a) Standard/ Flat Screw Driver c) Allen Wrench b) Stubby Screw Driver d) Philip Screw Driver 6. which among them is considered the most dangerous because it might cause fire? a) Short Circuit c) Grounded Circuit b) Closed Circuit d) Open Circuit 3. a) Sponge c) Soldering Iron b) Soldering Lead d) Nipple 8. what particular part of test light and continuity tester indicates the condition of the cord? a) Neon Lamp c) LED’s b) Toggle Switch d) Battery 4. choose the appropriate answer and write the letter of your answer on your notebook. a) Switch c) Convenience Outlet b) Lamp Holder d) Male plug IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Joel G…. It is an alloy or mixture of tin and lead used for soldering electrical joints. An electrical material used to turn ON or turn OFF the circuit conveniently. which of the following is not the function of this gadget? a) Cooling c) Cooking b) Heating d) Sterilizing 5. Which of the following element of an electric circuit is a current consuming device? a) Control (switch) c) Path (wire conductor) b) Load (lamp) d) Source (battery) 2. Post Test: Multiple Choices: Directions: Each item consists of four choices.

Having skills in measuring devices. wattmeter. what is the most effective tie or knot to use? a) Lock Knot c) Western Union Long Tie b) Underwriter’s Knot d) Western Union Short Tie 10. These instruments are specifically useful in determining the actual IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Which of the following items is not the function of a lampshade? a. An electrical tool used to drive screws with hexagonal slot head. and multi-tester is very essential in any electrical work. SUMMARY Electricity is a form of energy that can help us to make our tasks easier and help make our economy a successful one. such as voltmeter. Directs or focus the light in desired direction d.FFHNAS Page 87 . a) Allen Wrench c) Long Nose Pliers b) Philip Screw Driver d) Side Cutting pliers 14. Joel G…. Reduces the glare of the light source c. ohmmeter. a) Series Circuit c) Complex Circuit b) Parallel Circuit d) Simple Circuit 15. What is the appropriate size of flat cord if the total power rating of the appliances to be connected to extension cord is 1.600 watts? a) # 12 c) # 16 b) # 14 d) # 18 11. Covers the lamp hardware for better appearance 13. electricity is dangerous and it can be harmful to everyone. However. ammeter. One of the steps in extension cord assembly is the tying process of wire conductor. frequency meter.9. a) Long Nose Pliers c) Combination Pliers b) Wire Stripper d) Knife 12. Covers the surface of the entire room b. A type of electrical circuit used in Christmas light. Which of the electrical appliances has the highest power rating? a) Radio c) Electric Fan b) Television d) Flat Iron V. An electrical tool is used in removing wire insulator from gauge #10 to gauge #16.

you can practically have an income if you use your abilities and skills whole heartedly for your community.a unit of measurement which describes the amount of electric current passing a certain point at a particular time Ampere (I) . and perform repair work on them when needed.a wire or a cord which provides path for current flow Connectors and Adapters . observe precautionary measures to avoid damaging the meters. With the help of this module you are now really equipped and have gained more bits of information in order to use electricity in your everyday life. will result to a serious injury or even death IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. Every measuring instrument should be used with care and skill and should be properly maintained. Joel G….FFHNAS Page 88 . Sweep. VI. You must therefore learn the basic concepts in the effective utilization of measuring instruments.commonly known as flexible non-metallic conduit or the “moldflex” Danger . Sanitize.Sort.specifies hazardous situation which. Also. Systematize. They are also important in trouble-shooting and servicing all types of electrical products and circuit systems.accessories that are used to connect from boxes to conduits or raceways to the other boxes in the electrical system.a unit of measurement of electrical current flow Ampere . may result to a minor or moderate injury Circuit . and Self-Discipline Amperage (Amps) . if not avoided.the unit of electrical current (coulombs per second) Caution .indicates some precautionary measures against potential hazardous situation which. Glossary 5S .amount of current and voltage electrical circuits have. if not avoided.the path of electric current from the source to the components and goes back to the source Conductor . Corrugated plastic conduit (CPC) .

a unit of power which is equivalent to 1000w Kilowatt hour (Kwhr) . Joel G….instrument activated by air pressure IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo. intermediate metallic conduit or tubing (IMC or IMT). rubber.plastic conduits or raceways designed to be a channel of wire that are classified as. It gives measurement in ohms or meg-ohms Metallic Conduits.000 ft-lb = 1.those that are in good condition and can perform its regular functions Hot wire . the resistance or the current of a circuit. rigid non-metallic conduit or the PVC.an electrical measuring instrument used to measure the voltage.000 joules Kilovolt-ampere (KVA) .metal raceways that was classified into four.the unit of measurement used to express resistance Ohmmeter .a wire through which current flows Inch . or asbestos.an instrument used to measure resistance in ohms Pneumatic tool . electrical metallic conduit or tubing (EMC or EMT) and the flexible metallic conduit (FMC) Millimeter .a metric unit of energy: watt per second. Isometric . and the surface plastic molding Ohm .a measurement of apparent electric power Kilowatt . rigid steel conduit (RSC).an instrument used to measure the insulation resistance of conductors or wire.a portion of a foot. the flexible nonmetallic or CPC.655. 1 Kw hr = 2.one-thousandth of a meter Multi-tester .many of the physical properties of various oils and greases Megger . which is an English unit of linear measurement Insulator – material used to cover electric wires which may be made from plastic.600.FFHNAS Page 89 .Functional tools and equipment . It is connected either through parallel or series with the circuit depending on what to measure Non-metallic conduits.a unit of electrical energy or work performed Lubrication additives.341hp-hr = 3413 Btu = 3.a kind of drawing which shows the object in 3 dimensional views Joule (J) .

The Publishers and Authors appreciate receiving notice of any errors or misprints.are implements used to modify raw materials for human use Volt . the Publisher and Authors can neither guarantee nor be held legally responsible for any mistake in printing or faulty instructions in the LM.com/image Bibliography All brand names. While every effort and precaution have been made to ensure complete and accurate information with reference to the materials presented in this LM. Joel G…. IA – Electrical Installation and Maintenance … Castillo.Resistance . and WebPages used in this Learning Material (LM) are owned by their respective holders.FFHNAS Page 90 .yahoo.the unit of electric pressure or electromotive force which will produce a current of 1 ampere through a resistance of 1 ohm Voltmeter . trade names.a unit of measurement of electrical pressure or voltage Volt (E) . SEDP series. REFERENCES     Open High School Program (OHSP) Career Pathways in Technology and Livelihood Education (CP-TLE) Technology and Home Economics III.to sort everything in a work area Tools .used to measure the diameter of magnetic wire VII.the quality of electric current measured in ohms that resist the flow of current Sorting . trademarks.are units of electric power Wire Gauge . C. 1993 www.an instrument specially designed for measuring voltage Watts (W) and kilowatts (KW) . The Publisher and the Authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.

Asst. Reviewers 1. Saladas John S. MT-I OCNHS Lay-Out Artist/Illustrator Arcos. Henry Allen M. Pili. All pictures and graphic illustrations crafted from the internet are properties of the original owners and were used only as supplemental materials for education purposes.Ms. Management Team 1. Jr. Andrada Director. Owen M. Bulado. BSE 2. Writers ( INDUSTRIAL ARTS) T-I FFHNS HT-VI Guiguinto NVHS T-I PFNHS T-I FFHNAS T-I Taytay NHS EPS-I Div. Supervising EPS 4. Noel C. Francis C.James Julius M. . Jose D.Romeo Vicmudo 7.Arnel Anonical Tanay NHS 5.Antonio Blanco Jr.Robert Palma 5. of Neuva Ecija MT-I OCNHS Language Editor Paraluman R. Pili. Chief. Sta. Arcos EPS II 5.Alexandria Kalalo T-I BANAHIS 7.Joel Castillo 2. Liquigan EPS II 7. Flojo Retired Regional English Supervisor Rizal Lando T. Marinas Chief.Cris Diñoso 6.Cristeta M.Acknowledgement This is to acknowledge the different practitioners. experts. and specialists who made this learning materials and teaching guides for grade 8 possible.Marlon Ocampo 4. Albert Erni EPS II 6. Ana Manila CALABARZON Perla Cuanzon Retired Regional English Supervisor Las Pinas City Ofelia C.Dr.Lamberto Dionisio 3.Antonio Blanco Jr.Leonilo Santelices MT-I Balingasa HS 3. Arlene A.D. Milambiling. Brenn R.SDD-OIC 3.Emmanuel S. Namoro.Fernando Dela Cruz Guiguinto NVHS 4. SED DepEd-NCR Ed. Giron Retired Regional Director. Lolita M. SEPS 8.Robert Daquil HT-VI Manila HS 2. Valdez EPS II 1. Tuguinayo.Marlon Malaluan T-I BANAHIS 6. Guiao. Guzman Ateneo de Manila Consultant Maria Teresa A.Dr. Bella O.