May 2, 1995

INDIA'S SUPPORT TO THE STRUGGLE FOR LIBERATION OF SOUTH AFRICA SELECTED DOCUMENTS

by E.S. Reddy

INTRODUCTION

"I am convinced, your Excellency, that we are poised to build a unique and special partnership - a partnership forged in the crucible of history, common cultural attributes and common struggle."

- President Nelson R. Mandela of South Africa at banquet hosted by President S.D. Sharma of India, New Delhi, 25 January 1995 The emergence of India into independence after a long struggle for freedom against the mightiest imperial Power, and the victory of the South African people in their equally long and difficult struggle against racist domination represent the two main landmarks in the closing of the sad chapter of colonial-racist oppression in human history. India and South Africa now look forward to a new era of friendship, cooperation and joint action not only for mutual benefit but in the cause of peace and human solidarity which have inspired their common struggle. The agreements concluded by the two countries on January 25, 1995, for "multi-faceted and mutually beneficial cooperation" - "in the political, economic, trade and scientific spheres as well as in the field of technology, industry, transport, energy, culture, public health, ecology, education, tourism, sports and exchange of information" - are almost unprecedented in scope in the history of inter-state relations. They reflect the bonds of friendship developed over the centuries, with the shared experience of colonial-racist oppression and, above all, the solidarity displayed by the peoples of the two nations and their liberation movements during the course of their struggles. Neighbours across the sea India and South Africa, neighbours across the sea, have had cultural and trade relations since ancient times. These were interrupted when they came under alien domination and replaced by new bonds. Soon after the European adventurers set up settlements at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, Indians began to be transported there and forced into slavery to work in their homes and farms. When slavery was abolished in the nineteenth century, the British administrations in India and Natal organised the transport of Indian workers as indentured labour to develop the plantations, mines and railways in South Africa under semi-slave conditions. As a result, there are now over a million Indian South Africans and perhaps an even larger number of "Coloured" and "white" South Africans of Indian ancestry.

With the consolidation of the power of British imperialism in both countries came a new stage in the relations between the two peoples. The modern national movement developed in India somewhat earlier than in South Africa. A major episode in the history of that movement was the resistance of the Indian community in South Africa against racist oppression early in this century. Their satyagraha, under the leadership of M.K. Gandhi, led to united national action in India and inspired all other oppressed people in South Africa. It was one of the most significant events of the twentieth century and will remain a bond between the two peoples. As the struggle for freedom developed in the two countries, the links between the national movements of the two countries were fortified. Mahatma Gandhi knew and spoke with respect of African leaders like John Dube, the first President of the African National Congress, Walter Rubusana, the first African member of the Cape Provincial Council, and Dr. Abdulla Abdurahman, the leader of the Coloured people. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru met Mr. Josiah Gumede, President of the African National Congress, and other South Africans at the Congress against Imperialism in Brussels in 1926 and was impressed by their spirit. During the Second World War, fought ostensibly for freedom, British imperialism and the racist government in South Africa made it clear that the Allied declarations of war aims do not apply either to India or to South Africa. The Indian National Congress launched a "Quit India" movement and the young militants of South Africa demanded that imperialism "quit Africa". India attained independence soon after the war, and a multi-racial mass democratic movement emerged in South Africa. The newly-independent India was privileged to make a historic contribution, at considerable sacrifice, to the struggle of the South African people which was unduly prolonged as their oppressors derived sustenance from the cooperation of imperialist Powers. India's sacrifices cannot be compared to those of the frontline States in Africa which suffered grievously from aggression and destabilisation by the apartheid forces in the 1980s. Its financial contributions could not match those of some prosperous nations which joined the anti-apartheid forces. But no country equalled India in consistent diplomatic, political, economic and other support to the cause of liberation in South Africa for well over half a century. As President Mandela said in Delhi on 25 January: "You took up our battle as your own battle. Now that we have been victorious, it cannot be said too often that our victory is also India's victory."

The following is a brief review of India's actions in support of the struggle for liberation in South Africa from 1946 to the establishment of the first non-racial democratic government of South Africa in May 1994, and the subsequent agreements for extensive cooperation between the two countries. It is followed by selected documents on the subject - only a fraction of hundreds of statements, speeches, etc., by the Indian government and organisations in numerous national and international fora.

Partnership with the South African people India had direct experience of South African racism since tens of thousands of Indians were lured into Natal in the nineteenth century with the promise of equal rights under the law, only to become victims of constant attempts to subject them to the inhuman oppression inflicted on the indigenous Africans. In the SmutsGandhi agreement of 1914, and the Cape Town Agreements of 1926 and 1932, the Indian community and the Government of India were assured of a respite from further discriminatory measures but again the promises proved illusory. With the white monopoly of political power, white parties vied with each other to inflame and pander to racial prejudices so that there was a constant whittling away of the meagre rights of the non-white people. The struggle of the Indian people and the intervention of the Indian Government enabled the Indian community to preserve some rights denied to Africans; but the Indians were subjected to several restrictions not applied to Africans. This experience was a source of education for Indian South Africans and for India. They became increasingly convinced that the small Indian community could not gain and preserve its civil rights so long as the system of discrimination and white monopoly of political power remained. That brought them ever closer to the indigenous African people. Mahatma Gandhi had always insisted that the Indians should never press for any rights if they conflicted with the vital interests of the Africans, the sons of the soil. As long ago as 1908, he spoke of his vision of a South Africa where "all the different races commingle and produce a civilisation that perhaps the world has not yet seen." Other Indian leaders like Mrs. Sarojini Naidu, Rabindranath Tagore and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru were outspoken in calling on the Indians in South Africa to identify themselves with the African majority in their legitimate struggle. Public opinion in India welcomed the emergence of a new leadership in the Indian community in the late 1930s, advocating uncompromising resistance against racism and joint action with other oppressed South Africans. Concern over the plight of Indians in South Africa led to an understanding of the oppression to which the African people were subjected and strong sympathy

with their aspirations. Mahatma Gandhi, when asked by Cambridge professors in 1931 about prospects of partnership between India and Britain, said categorically that there could be no partnership unless Britain desisted from exploitation of others. He continued: "I should certainly strive to work for the deliverance of those South African races which, I can say from experience, are ground down under exploitation. Our deliverance must mean their deliverance. But, if that cannot come about, I would have no interest in a partnership with Britain, even if it were of benefit to India." In that context, the determination of the South African regime to enact further legislation to oppress and humiliate Indians - at a time when India was emerging into independence - outraged opinion in India and ushered in the partnership of India with the oppressed people of South Africa in the struggle for a revolutionary transformation of South Africa.

Historic Initiatives in 1946 Early in 1946, the South African Indian Congress decided on passive resistance in protest against the Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act. It sent a delegation to India to consult with Mahatma Gandhi and other Indian leaders, and appeal to the Viceroy, for support to the struggle. It called on the Indian government, in case of intransigence by South Africa, to apply economic sanctions against the latter and withdraw the office of its High Commissioner in South Africa. Public sentiment in India was so strong that the Viceroy's Executive Council recalled the High Commissioner from South Africa and lodged a complaint with the United Nations in June 1946 (Document 1), and instituted an embargo on trade with South Africa in July (Document 2). Such action by a British colony against a British dominion was unthinkable but for the pressure of public opinion in India. It was recognised in India that the decision would involve serious sacrifice, as South Africa then accounted for no less than 5.5 per cent of India's exports and 1.5 per cent of imports. This trade, with a very favourable balance, was particularly difficult to give up in the critical economic situation in 1946. The sanctions were also painful as they curtailed communication between Indian South Africans and their ancestral homeland. But Indian public opinion was united in supporting the measures and never showed any regret. (This was in sharp contrast to the attitude of Western governments which, in later years, professed abhorrence of apartheid, but pleaded that they could not afford sanctions against South Africa though South Africa accounted for less than one percent of their foreign trade.)

By the time the Indian complaint was discussed in the United Nations General Assembly in November-December 1946, an interim national government had been established in India with Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister. The Indian delegation to the Assembly, led by Mrs. Vijayalakshmi Pandit, stressed the wider implications of racism in South Africa. It assisted a multi-racial deputation from South Africa led by Dr. A.B. Xuma, President-General of the African National Congress, which arrived in New York to contact the United Nations and delegations of its member States. The resolution adopted by the General Assembly not only brought international attention to the racial situation in South Africa but recognised that it was a matter of legitimate international concern. At the same session of the General Assembly the Indian delegation was able to frustrate the efforts of the South African government to secure approval for the annexation of South West Africa (Namibia) and was highly praised by African leaders in South Africa and Namibia. India also helped to develop public support in the West for the struggle of the African people in South Africa. Mrs. Pandit and Mr. V.K. Krishna Menon addressed a public meeting in New York with the South African deputation; the India League in London set up a South Africa Committee to publicise the cause of the black people in South Africa; and many friends of Indian independence began actively to espouse the cause of freedom in South Africa. United Nations discussions led to no amelioration of the situation of Indians in South Africa. Instead, the new government which came to power in May 1948, espousing apartheid, proceeded to enact even more obnoxious legislation such as the Group Areas Act of 1950 (Document 6). But India's persistent diplomatic efforts ensured awareness of the inhumanity of apartheid and the United Nations General Assembly deplored that policy by a large majority in 1950. The Western Powers, especially Britain and the United States, reacted with great hostility to India as it confronted their ally and tended to discredit their plans for Africa in partnership with the South African regime. They even succeeded in preventing any resolution on South Africa at the second session of the General Assembly in 1947. The problems encountered by India soon after independence facilitated their desire to protect South Africa from international action. India's hopes of building friendship with all nations were undermined. The Government and people of India, however, were not willing to compromise on the issue of colonialism and racism. Opposition to racism in South Africa remained a major preoccupation of Indian foreign policy.

Promoting world opposition to apartheid

In South Africa, the Indian passive resistance movement of 1946-48 became the precursor of a united mass democratic movement of all the South African people. Several Africans, Coloured people and white democrats joined the passive resistance to show their solidarity. On the other hand, the Indian community rushed to help the African mine workers during their historic strike in August 1946. India encouraged and supported the growing unity of the oppressed people in South Africa. Pandit Nehru, in a message to the Indian community in September 1946, said: "The struggle in South Africa is... not merely an Indian issue... It concerns ultimately the Africans who have suffered so much by racial discrimination and suppression... Therefore, the Indians in South Africa should help in every way and cooperate with the Africans." When Dr. Yusuf M. Dadoo and Dr. G. M. Naicker, the leaders of the Transvaal and Natal Indian Congresses, visited India in March 1947, they received a warm welcome from all parties not only in admiration of the struggle they led but in approval of the agreement they had signed with Dr. A.B. Xuma, on the eve of their departure from South Africa, for cooperation between the African and Indian Congresses. The Indian Congresses suspended passive resistance after the apartheid regime came to power in May 1948. Dr. Dadoo and Dr. Naicker on their release from prison in July, called for a "united democratic front" against racist domination and proceeded to plan joint action with the African National Congress. On June 26, 1952, the African National Congress and the South African Indian Congress jointly launched the Campaign of Defiance of Unjust Laws in which over 8,000 persons of all racial origins went to prison by defying selected racist laws. Opinion in India was greatly enthused. The unity of all the oppressed people in the struggle against racism, and their choice of non-violent defiance as the means, aroused admiration. Pandit Nehru wrote in a letter to the Chief Ministers of states in India that the revolt of all the oppressed people had overtaken the Indian question and "it is right that it should be so." The Indian National Congress collected funds from the public to help the Defiance Campaign. The Indian government joined with twelve other Asian-African governments to request the United Nations General Assembly to consider the grave situation in South Africa (Document 7). The African National Congress sent a message to Prime Minister Nehru welcoming his initiative. The Indian delegation led the debates in the United Nations on this matter until Ghana and other independent African States could take over. The efforts of India

and the Asian-African Group helped publicise the enormity of discrimination and repression in South Africa as well as the struggle of the people for freedom. The South African government, for its part, launched vicious propaganda against India, alleging that it had expansionist designs in Africa. It asked India to close its High Commission in South Africa as it had become a useful channel of communication for the oppressed people of South Africa (Document 9). The Defiance Campaign in South Africa was suspended in 1953 because of stringent laws providing for brutal sentences, including whipping of non-violent protesters. The ANC, however, was greatly strengthened during the campaign, with its membership increasing from some three thousand to a hundred thousand. The Coloured People's Congress, the Congress of Democrats (for whites) and the South African Congress of Trade Unions were soon organised and formed a "Congress Alliance" with the ANC and SAIC to continue united resistance despite the difficulties. In June 1955, the alliance organised the Congress of the People - the most representative gathering of the South African people until then which adopted the Freedom Charter as the banner of the struggle for liberation. During this period, the Asian-African Conference in Bandung in April 1955 helped greatly to promote international contacts and support for the freedom movement in South Africa. India and other sponsors of the Conference excluded the racist South African government from the list of invitees. Pandit Nehru invited the two representatives of the African National Congress - Mr. Moses Kotane and Moulvi I.A. Cachalia - to accompany him to Bandung and helped them to meet the Presidents and Prime Ministers of many nations. Despite repeated appeals, the South African government continued on its disastrous course, enacting further oppressive laws and resorting to everincreasing repression to curb the resistance of the people. The major Western Powers, however, continued amicable relations with that regime, considering it a valuable ally in the "cold war" and resented India's support to the liberation movement. They managed to secure the dissolution of the United Nations Commission on the Racial Situation in South Africa which had been set up on the initiative of India in 1952. They exerted their influence to ensure that the United Nations resolutions were "moderate" and toothless. But not only Asian-African States but growing segments of public opinion in the Western countries began to support the struggle in South Africa. Chief Albert J. Lutuli, President-General of the African National Congress, wrote in his autobiography: "The way in which India at the United Nations has taken up cudgels on behalf of the oppressed South African majority and dragged the whole scandal of apartheid into the open, has heartened us immeasurably."

Sharpeville Massacre and after The Sharpeville massacre of March 21, 1960, outraged world opinion and there were public demands in many Western countries for action. Boycott South Africa movements had been launched in Britain and some other Western countries from 1959. Soon after the massacre, there were boycotts of South Africa by governments, dockworkers and others in Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. Prime Minister Nehru compared the Sharpeville massacre to the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919 which marked a turning point in India's struggle for independence. On his proposal the Indian Parliament adopted a resolution conveying its deep sympathy to the African people of South Africa (Document 11). India joined the African States in calling on the United Nations Security Council to consider the situation in South Africa. It supported their demands for international sanctions against South Africa. It provided passports and assistance to Mr. Oliver Tambo, then Deputy President of the African National Congress, and Dr. Yusuf Dadoo, President of the South African Indian Congress, who had left clandestinely from South Africa at the request of their organisations to seek international support and action. It contacted all Asian-African countries to consult on coordinated action. India took another decision of great political significance. Indian leaders had already recognised that the problem of discrimination against Indians in South Africa was linked to the larger problem of apartheid and the inhuman oppression of the African majority. Prime Minister Nehru said in a speech in the Rajya Sabha (upper house of Parliament) on 15 December 1958: "The question of the people of Indian descent in South Africa has really merged into bigger questions where not only Indians are affected but the whole African population along with... any other people who happen to go to South Africa and who do not belong to European or American countries." After the Sharpeville massacre, he went further in a statement in the Lok Sabha (lower house of Parliament) on 28 March 1960: "The people of Indian descent in South Africa, as we all know, have had to put up with a great deal of discrimination and suffering and we have resented that. But we must remember that the African people have to put up with something infinitely more and that, therefore, our sympathies must go out to them even more than to our kith and kin there."(Document 11.)

Consequently, on India's initiative, the item on the treatment of Indians in South Africa was dropped from the agenda of the United Nations General Assembly in 1962. With the establishment of the Organisation of African Unity in 1963, India welcomed the leadership of African States in pressing for action on South Africa, and actively supported their initiatives. It helped ensure attention to the problem in all specialised agencies of the United Nations and other intergovernmental organisations, as well as international trade union confederations, sports bodies and numerous other non-governmental organisations and conferences. Indian nationals and people of Indian origin played a prominent role in anti-apartheid movements and activities around the world.

Many-sided action While the major Western Powers stubbornly opposed and vetoed mandatory economic sanctions against South Africa, it was now possible, with the increasing number of newly independent States in the United Nations and other international organisations, to secure large majorities for resolutions recommending measures to exert pressure on the South African regime and to assist the oppressed people of South Africa and their national liberation movement. But it was important to ensure that all supporters of liberation fully implement the resolutions and exert their influence to persuade Western and other countries to join in international action. India made an outstanding contribution in this respect. India was scrupulous in implementing all the resolutions of the United Nations and other bodies against apartheid. Though India had already imposed comprehensive sanctions against South Africa, it looked into possible further action after the United Nations General Assembly resolution of November 6, 1962, calling for specific measures against South Africa, and sent a detailed report to the United Nations. (Document 14). In 1964, when the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid appealed for assistance to the political prisoners and their families in South Africa, India was the first country to make a contribution. In 1967, India provided facilities, as well as financial and other assistance to the ANC, to maintain its Asian Mission in New Delhi. (Document 15). India not only signed and ratified the United Nations International Convention for the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid but was one of the few countries to enact legislation to implement the Convention. (Document 20).

At the request of the liberation movement, India used its influence to counter the manoeuvres of the South African regime to divide the oppressed people of South Africa. In 1981, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi urged the Indian community in South Africa to boycott elections to the "South African Indian Council", an apartheid body. In 1984, Mr. P.V. Narasimha Rao, then Minister of External Affairs, appealed to the Indian community to boycott the elections to the "tricameral Parliament" set up under a new racist constitution, and Mrs. Gandhi issued an appeal, on behalf of the Non-aligned Movement, to the Coloured and Indian people. These appeals helped ensure effective boycotts. In May 1986, India, alone of all the countries of the world, declared the Parliament members elected under this constitution prohibited immigrants. (Document 25). India has been strict in implementing the sports and cultural boycott of South Africa. In 1974, for instance, the All India Lawn Tennis Association refused to play South Africa in the Davis Cup tennis finals, thus foregoing the possibility of championship. Action by India was responsible for persuading the British cricket authorities to prohibit test cricketers from playing in South Africa. India provided assistance of various kinds to the South African liberation movement, especially the African National Congress - including financial assistance to the Asian Mission of the ANC in New Delhi, food, medicines and clothing. India made regular contributions to United Nations funds for assistance to South Africans. It also contributed to the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa and the OAU Assistance Fund for the Struggle against Colonialism and Apartheid. In addition, non-governmental organisations in India made public collections for the liberation movement. Special mention must be made of the provision of educational facilities in India. A scholarship program for Africa was initiated by India as early as 1946. When the United Nations and later the Commonwealth began educational and training programmes, India not only made financial contributions but provided places in educational institutions though the avaialble places were inadequate for the needs of Indian nationals. Hundreds of students from South Africa graduated from Indian institutions or received in-service training in India. They include many doctors and other professionals, as well as several activists in the struggle for liberation. Action in the Non-aligned Movement, Commonwealth and other bodies India, as a founding member and twice Chairman of the Non-aligned Movement gave great attention to concerting action in support of the South African liberation movement. Of particular significance was the initiative of

Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986 in proposing the establishment of the AFRICA Fund to assist frontline States and the liberation movements. Under India's Chairmanship, this Fund has been by far the most successful fund of the Movement. The Government of India made an initial contribution of over $ 40 million and substantial amounts were contributed by the public for the liberation movements of South Africa and Namibia. (Documents 30,33,35, 38). India also made a significant contribution through the Commonwealth as the largest of its members. Pandit Nehru played a crucial role in obliging South Africa to withdraw from the Commonwealth in 1961, thus beginning the isolation of the apartheid regime from numerous international bodies. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi used her influence to counter moves in the United Kingdom in the 1970s to resume supplies of arms to South Africa. (Document 16). Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi secured Commonwealth sanctions against South Africa, despite the opposition of the United Kingdom. Prime Minister Narasimha Rao helped ensure an orderly and coordinated withdrawal of sanctions against South Africa, in consultation with the ANC, so as to facilitate negotiations for a nonracial democratic State. India's initiatives were also important in international sports bodies in which the African countries had little representation or influence. Admiration and affection for Nelson Mandela India's identification with the South African struggle was reflected in the admiration for Nelson Mandela. In recognition of his contribution and in support for his cause, India gave him the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding for the Year 1979. (Document 19). The citation read in part: "In every age and on every continent a few men become symbols of mankind's dreams and of the invincible resolve to hold aloft the torch, whatever the hazards... Nelson Mandela of South Africa is such an embodiment of the heroic spirit... "Today he is behind bars but his spirit is free. And he knows that his cause will triumph and the tyranny of apartheid will end soon. "In honouring Nelson Mandela with the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding today, the people of India salute a man of indomitable spirit, who holds firmly that all men are equal in the family of man." This first international award encouraged many other countries and institutions to honour Mr. Mandela, as a symbol of the liberation struggle. Many other honours were bestowed by India on Mandela in prison, such as the naming of a street in New Delhi after him. Such honours became an important part of the campaign for

the release of Mandela and other political prisoners in South Africa and for the liberation of the country. Indira Gandhi told the African Students Association in New Delhi on 11 January 1982: "... we regard Nelson Mandela as one of the foremost proponents of freedom - freedom of man. We regard him also as a friend of India. We admire him. We have honoured him as one of our own heroes and our thoughts are often with him and his family..." The observance of the seventieth birthday of Nelson Mandela in 1988 was more impressive in India than in any other country - except for Britain where the observance was international - with a series of events involving the participation of members of Government and Parliament, musicians, artists, sportsmen, students and others. The final phase of the struggle and the transition By 1985, the apartheid regime was in a crisis. It declared a State of Emergency and greatly accelerated repression. On the other hand, the resistance of the people became more widespread and determined than ever before. The movement for sanctions began to make progress in the international community as public opinion even in Western countries was outraged. With the frontline States devastated by South African aggression and the Organisation of African Unity in difficulties, it became necessary for India to assume a more dynamic and leading role. As noted earlier, Rajiv Gandhi, then Prime Minister. pressed for action in the Commonwealth and secured the establishment of the AFRICA Fund of the Non-aligned Movement. India boycotted the Commonwealth Games in 1986 in protest against continued British collaboration with South Africa. (Document 28). With Rajiv Gandhi's encouragement, an all-party parliamentary committee for action against apartheid was set up to underline India's solidarity and to promote action by Parliaments in other countries. (Documents 29, 31). A World Youth Conference against Apartheid was organised by the Indian Youth Congress in Delhi. The Conference was followed by a number of actions in support of the South African liberation movement. (Document 33). The unbanning of the liberatory organisations and the release of Nelson Mandela in February 1990 were greeted with rejoicing in India. Mr. V.P. Singh, then Prime Minister, sent an envoy to meet Mr. Mandela and convey an invitation to him. (Document 37).

Mr. Mandela's visit to India in October was a memorable event in Indian-South African relations. (Documents 39, 40). The guest was treated as a Head of State, and was bestowed the Bharat Ratna, the highest award of the country meant for national heroes. The Government gave him a check for $5 million and offered 20 million rupees in material assistance to ANC. At the conclusion of the visit, Mr. Mandela said that he had received "love, affection and material support", and that he was returning to South Africa "with a feeling that I was at home." The visit provided an opportunity for discussions on means to secure the establishment of a non-racial democratic State in South Africa. India expressed full support to the ANC position that international sanctions against South Africa should be maintained until irreversible steps were taken for the dismantlement of apartheid. While many countries were rushing to establish links with South Africa, though still under minority rule, India stood firm in its commitment and persuaded other countries to harmonise their actions with the views of the liberation movement. Meanwhile, India greatly increased its educational assistance to South Africans nominated by the ANC, including training in administration and management, diplomacy and defence to facilitate a democratic society. (Document 43). More than Solidarity India has often been commended for its steadfast support to the liberation struggle in South Africa by the liberation movement, as well as by international bodies. Nelson Mandela, in a letter smuggled out of prison in 1980, paid handsome tribute to India for "the encouragement, the inspiration and the practical assistance" it provided to the South African liberation movement.(Document 19). Successive Chairmen of the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid visited India to express appreciation for India's support to the struggle against apartheid and to consult on further international action. The Committee held a special meeting at the United Nations Headquarters in New York on October 3, 1976, to pay tribute to India on the 30th anniversary of India's initiative in bringing South African racism to the attention of the United Nations. In 1978, during the International Anti-Apartheid Year, the United Nations bestowed a posthumous award on Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru for his outstanding contribution in solidarity with the struggle in South Africa. But India regarded its support to the South African liberation struggle as no more than a discharge of its duty. Indian leaders from Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Nehru stressed that it was a continuation of India's own struggle for freedom. The support was, therefore, extended in the darkest days for the South

African people, and despite the pressures from the allies of apartheid, with no thought of recompense except the goodwill and friendship of the South African people. Having gone through a long struggle for liberation from the most powerful imperialist Power, India appreciated the struggle for freedom in South Africa. It showed understanding when the liberation movement felt obliged to abandon its strict adherence to non-violence. It treated the leaders of the liberation movement as honoured guests, and true representatives of the country, rather than petitioners. India's support to South Africa has not been merely an act of solidarity to help the people of South Africa: it was part of an effort to end colonialism and secure a new and just world order. That was why there was no trace of patronising in the relationship between the two countries, but a close identification. If India for historical reasons was able to provide concrete assistance to the South African people in their struggle for freedom, the contribution of South African people to India, though intangible, has been significant. Underlying India's actions was a firm faith that the struggle for freedom would prevail, and a belief that free India and free South Africa would establish mutually beneficial relations. As Mr. V.K. Krishna Menon told the United Nations General Assembly in 1956: "My Government and my people are not without hope that that vast population of ten million people, to all of whom that country belongs - it does not belong merely to those whose complexions are of one kind - will one day, however hard the road, however great the obstacles and however severe the prejudices, break the bonds that now bind them and become citizens of a civilised humanity. We hope that we shall be able to establish with them unbreakable bonds of friendship and fraternity." (Document 10) That faith was vindicated.

India and the new South Africa India welcomed with exhilaration the historic transformation in South Africa with the inauguration of Nelson Mandela as the President on May 10, 1994. Rashtrapathi Bhavan (presidential palace), Parliament and other buildings in New Delhi were illuminated as is only done for India's national day. Both houses of Parliament adopted a resolution in which they noted that 10 May was a specially auspicious day not only for South Africa and the continent of Africa, but also for the people of India and the whole world. The two countries could now consider resumption of relations interrupted by apartheid, and means to develop fullest cooperation between governments and

peoples. India aspired, as its President declared at the banquet in honour of Mr. Mandela on October 15, 1990, to convert the partnership of India and South Africa into "a model of Afro-Asian solidarity and cooperation." (Document 40) Following discussions during the year, the basis for cooperation was laid during the visit of President Mandela to India as the honoured guest on Republic Day when three agreements were signed by the two countries. (Documents ). Of particular significance was the "Treaty on the Principles of Inter-State Relations and Cooperation between the Republic of India and the Republic of South Africa" signed by Prime Minister Narasimha Rao and President Mandela on 25 January 1995. It not only recalls the traditional bonds of friendship and provides for multifaceted cooperation, but lays down common ideals - peace, democracy and secular governance, fight against racism and religious fundamentalism, and a non-violent world free of nuclear weapons. President Mandela foresaw a unique and special partnership between the two countries. He explained in his Rajiv Gandhi Foundation lecture on 26 January: "... in seeking to strengthen Indo-South African relations, we do so also motivated by the need to forge a partnership whose significance should outstrip the narrow confines of our own self-interest. While we should seek to exploit one another's lucrative markets; take maximum advantage of trade and investment opportunities; expand cultural, sporting and tourist relations; cooperate on security matters, including the combating of drug trafficking, we would be less than equal to the tasks at hand if we did not realise the broader canvass with which this has to take place. "The 'natural urge of the facts of history and geography' that Nehru spoke of, should broaden itself to include exploring the concept of an Indian Ocean Rim of socio-economic cooperation and other peaceful endeavours; of a special relationship that should help improve the lot of the developing nations in multilateral institutions such as the United Nations, Commonwealth, and Non-aligned Movement." While addressing the immediate task of assisting in the reconstruction and development of South Africa and developing bilateral cooperation in various fields, the two countries will need to keep in mind the wider goal of service to the sister continents of Asia and Africa, and to the world. Speaking on the occasion of the unveiling of the statue of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in the Indian Parliament on January 26, President Mandela asked: "...it would be proper in this gathering and on this day, to ask ourselves if our shared heritage does not confer upon our two countries a special responsibility, to jointly commit ourselves to contributing to the emergence of a new world order in which democracy, peace and prosperity prevail everywhere."

India and South Africa, with their common heritage and ideals, as well as human and material resources, can make a great contribution to the progress of the sister continents of Asia and Africa and to genuine international cooperation.

Documentary Survey, 1946-1993

CONTENTS
RESOLUTION OF THE WORKING COMMITTEE OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, BOMBAY, MARCH 1946 RESOLUTION OF THE WORKING COMMITTEE OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN PASSIVE RESISTANCE MOVEMENT, DELHI, JUNE 15, 1946 LETTER FROM THE INDIAN DELEGATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS REQUESTING THE INCLUSION OF AN ITEM, "TREATMENT OF INDIANS IN THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA", ON THE AGENDA OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, JUNE 22, 1946 GAZETTE OF INDIA EXTRAORDINARY, DATED JULY 17, 1946, ON TRADE RELATIONS WITH SOUTH AFRICA GANDHIJI`S MESSAGE TO SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 18, 1947 RESOLUTION OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, JAIPUR SESSION, 1948 LETTER BY THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES OF INDIA AND TWELVE OTHER COUNTRIES REQUESTING INCLUSION OF AN ITEM ON APARTHEID IN THE AGENDA OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1952 RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE LOK SABHA ON MARCH 28, 1960 ADDITIONAL SANCTIONS IMPOSED IN JULY 1963 Text of Press Note by the Ministry of External Affairs of India, dated July 13, 1963, announcing additional sanctions in pursuance of United Nations General Assembly resolution 1761 (XVII) of November 6, 1962 LETTER FROM THE REPRESENTATIVE OF INDIA TO THE SECRETARYGENERAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION, JULY 15, 1963

LETTER FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF INDIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON THE POLICIES OF APARTHEID OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, NOVEMBER 12, 1964 SUMMARY OF MEASURES TAKEN BY INDIA IN RESPONSE TO RESOLUTIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL FOR THE ELIMINATION OF APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA, PREPARED BY THE UNITED NATIONS, OCTOBER 1965 MESSAGE BY MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, ON THE INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, MARCH 21, 1968 NOTE BY THE PERMANENT MISSION OF INDIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL, AUGUST 9, 1977 MESSAGE BY THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, MR. P. V. NARASIMHA RAO, TO THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID, ON THE DAY OF SOLIDARITY WITH THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICAL PRISONERS, OCTOBER 11, 1980 NOTE TO THE UNITED NATIONS BY THE PERMANENT MISSION OF INDIA, APRIL 22, 1981 THE ANTI-APARTHEID (UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION) ACT, 1981: No. 48 of 1981 STATEMENT OF MR. BISHEN SINGH BEDI, FORMER INDIAN TEST CRICKET CAPTAIN, IN THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID, 11 MAY 1982 MESSAGE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, TO THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND APARTHEID, BRUSSELS, MAY 17-19, 1982 MESSAGE BY INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER, TO TRANSVAAL INDIAN CONGRESS, JANUARY 14, 1983 SPEECH BY THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, MR. P. V. NARASIMHA RAO, AT A DINNER HOSTED BY HIM IN HONOUR OF MR. OLIVER TAMBO, PRESIDENT OF AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS OF SOUTH AFRICA, JANUARY 21, 1983

STATEMENT BY THE OFFICIAL SPOKESMAN OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ON THE HANGING OF THREE SOUTH AFRICAN FREEDOM FIGHTERS, JUNE 10, 1983 MESSAGE BY MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND CHAIRMAN OF THE MOVEMENT OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES, ON THE INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR THE ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, MARCH 21, 1984 LETTER FROM MR. P.V. NARASIMHA RAO, MINISTER OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS OF INDIA, TO MR. M. MOOLA, CHIEF REPRESENTATIVE OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ASIAN MISSION), NEW DELHI, JULY 1984 STATEMENT BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ON THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN SITUATION, JULY 23, 1984

STATEMENT BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, ON BEHALF OF THE MOVEMENT OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES, REGARDING THE ARRESTS IN SOUTH AFRICA, 22 AUGUST 1984 MESSAGE FROM MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND CHAIRPERSON OF THE MOVEMENT OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES, TO BISHOP DESMOND TUTU, OCTOBER 18, 1984 STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, ON REPORTS OF VIOLENCE INVOLVING AFRICANS AND INDIAN SOUTH AFRICANS, AUGUST 16, 1985 APPEAL BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, FOR THE RELEASE OF MR. NELSON MANDELA, AUGUST 19, 1985 RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE LOK SABHA ON AUGUST 19, 1985, AND RAJYA SABHA ON AUGUST 20, 1985 PRESS RELEASE OF THE PERMANENT MISSION OF INDIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS, AUGUST 20, 1985 INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO MRS. WINNIE MANDELA, 20 SEPTEMBER 1985 MESSAGE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, TO THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID ON THE DAY OF SOLIDARITY WITH SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICAL PRISONERS, OCTOBER 11, 1985

STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, AT THE MEETING OF THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID, OCTOBER 22, 1985 BAN ON ENTRY INTO INDIA OF MEMBERS OF SOUTH AFRICAN PARLIAMENT, MAY 21, 1986 Press release by the Ministry of External Affairs, May 21, 1986 STATEMENT BY THE MINISTER OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS AND COMMERCE, MR. P. SHIV SHANKAR, ANNOUNCING THE WEEK OF SOLIDARITY WITH SOUTHERN AFRICA, JULY 17, 1986 MESSAGE BY PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, TO MRS. WINNIE MANDELA, ON THE 68TH BIRTHDAY OF NELSON MANDELA, JULY 18, 1986 RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE LOK SABHA, AUGUST 7, 1986 RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE RAJYA SABHA ON AUGUST 8,1986 MESSAGE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, TO MRS. WINNIE MANDELA ON HER FIFTIETH BIRTHDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1986 MESSAGE FROM THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, ON THE OCCASION OF THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY OF UMKHONTO WE SIZWE, DECEMBER 16, 1986 TEXT OF STATEMENT BY OFFICIAL SPOKESPERSON OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, MARCH 1988 "INDIA: A TRUSTED ALLY": ARTICLE IN SECHABA, ORGAN OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, JANUARY 1989 STATEMENT BY THE OFFICIAL SPOKESMAN OF THE MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS, 15 FEBRUARY 1990 PRESS RELEASE BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ON THE VISIT OF DR. NELSON MANDELA TO INDIA, 19 OCTOBER 1990 STATEMENT BY MR. P.V. NARASIMHA RAO, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, ON THE OCCASION OF THE INAUGURATION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY IN SOUTH AFRICA ON 10 MAY 1994

RESOLUTION OF THE WORKING COMMITTEE OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, BOMBAY, MARCH 1946 The Working Committee of the Indian National Congress are of the opinion that the disabilities of the Indian settlers in South Africa constitute a blot on humanity and a slur on the civilisation of the West. As the submission to His Excellency the Viceroy of the Indian deputation from South Africa shows, the disabilities are an unbroken tale of progressive prejudice against Asiatics defined as "any Turk and any member of a race or tribe whose national home is in Asia but which does not include any member of the Jewish or the Syrian race or a person belonging to the race or class known as the Cape Malay", and of broken promises and declarations. A civilisation that requires for its protection a series of legal enactments imposing political and economic restrictions on coloured and Asiatic peoples must contain seeds of future wars and of its own destruction. The Committee are of the opinion that the contemplated breach of trade relations between India and the Union of South Africa is the mildest step that the Government of India could have taken. The Committee would ask the Government of India forthwith to withdraw the High Commissioner, if the Union Government would not suspend the proposed legislation, pending the convening of a Round Table Conference between the two Governments to consider the whole policy of the Union Government against non-white peoples of the earth. The Committee are painfully surprised to find Field Marshal Smuts, the Premier of the Union, dismissing, on the untenable plea of regarding the proposed anti-Asiatic bill as a domestic affair, the right of the Indian Government and, by parity of reasoning, of the other Allied Powers, of friendly intervention. The Committee hold that at this time of the day it is not open to any State, however powerful it may be, to refuse to listen to the public opinion of the world as voiced through its different States with reference to any legislation regarded by them as of an inhuman character or as amounting to a slur on the self-respect of the races comprising such a State. The Committee venture to advise the victorious Allies to take notice of the contemplated action of the Government of South Africa inasmuch as the late war would have been fought in vain if now the persistence by the Union Government of South Africa in the bar sinister against Asiatic races and coloured people inhabiting that sub-continent is maintained. To the Indian deputation from South Africa the Committee would say that whilst they (the Committee) and, indeed, the whole of India, irrespective of parties and communities, are with them in their just struggle and would lend them all the moral weight they can, they should realise that the brunt of the unequal

struggle will have to be borne by them, and the Committee feel assured that the Indians in South Africa will worthily carry out the example set by them years ago of vindicating their self-respect and that of the Motherland by the noble rule of suffering. The Committee would, however, fain hope, even at the eleventh hour, that in the place of the indefensible law of the jungle, which the policy as revealed by the contemplated legislation enunciates, the Government of the Union of South Africa and its white settlers would listen to reason and the appeal of the moral law by which mankind lives.

RESOLUTION OF THE WORKING COMMITTEE OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN PASSIVE RESISTANCE MOVEMENT, DELHI, JUNE 15, 1946 The Congress Working Committee note with satisfaction not unmixed with concern that Indians in South Africa have started the campaign of civil disobedience as a protest against the recently passed legislation by the South African Union Parliament imposing disabilities upon them. The Congress Working Committee are of the opinion that the campaign carries in it the seeds of success in so far as the honour of Indians is concerned as distinguished from the loss of material prospects. The Committee expect that having begun the struggle the resisters will carry it to the end without yielding. The Committee assure the resisters of full sympathy in their brave struggle and hope that those who are not themselves resisters will not on any account succumb to the temptations contained in the legislation itself and such small concessions that may be held out by the Union Government. The inferior status assigned to the Indians by the Act can be wiped out only by its complete abrogation. The Committee hope and expect that while the Government of India remains in the British power, His Excellency the Viceroy will use his influence openly on behalf of the brave resisters and thus secure for them the sympathy of the world in this noble struggle for the rights of man.

LETTER FROM THE LEADER OF THE INDIAN DELEGATION TO THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY REQUESTING THE INCLUSION OF AN ITEM, "TREATMENT OF INDIANS IN THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA", ON THE PROVISIONAL AGENDA OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, JUNE 22, 1946 22 June 1946 Mr. Trygve Lie,

Secretary-General, United Nations, New York, NY Dear Mr. Secretary-General, I am directed by my Government to submit forthwith to you, as SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations Organisation, the request of my Government that the question of the treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa be included in the provisional agenda for the second part of the first session of the General Assembly, which is to be held on 3 September 1946. A brief resume of the case is given below: 1. Indians in South Africa, mostly residing in Natal province, number about a quarter of million as against two and a quarter million Europeans. They are mostly descendants of labourers who proceeded to South Africa between 1860 and 1911 under the agreement between the Government of India and the then Government of Natal and of traders who migrated in wake of indentured labourers prior to 1913. Although one of the conditions of the arrangement was that labourers would be allowed to live as free men, enjoying all rights and privileges of citizenship, Indian settlers in South Africa have progressively suffered discrimination and deprivation of elementary rights ever since 1885. Amongst their disabilities are lack of parliamentary and municipal franchise, restriction of rights of ownership and occupation of property, restriction on trading, employment in public services, and travel, and lack of education facilities. Discrimination against Indians reached its climax in recent enactment of Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Act, which is designed to segregate Indians into particular areas, for residence and for ownership and occupation of fixed property. 2. Government of India, being a party to arrangements which resulted in Indian emigration to South Africa, has felt continuing responsibility and has from time to time intervened on behalf of Indians with South African Government. The latter has frequently sought the Indian Government's comment and advice on proposals affecting Indians in South Africa. On two occasions, namely in 1926 and 1932, there were formal round-table conferences between the two Governments. In the former year over the question of segregation of Indians, agreement known as Capetown Agreement was concluded between the two Governments and in 1932 joint statement was issued to the effect that Capetown Agreement was to continue and there should be continued cooperation between the two Governments. Principle of segregation was, however, again embodied in Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Bill, but suggestion of Indian Government for another round-table conference to explore means of amicable settlement of outstanding questions was rejected by the South African

Government. Passage of this bill into law constitutes unilateral repudiation of the Capetown Agreement and of joint statement of 1932. 3. Reactions to these measures have been so serious in India that the Government of India has had to give notice of termination of trade agreement between the two countries and recall their High Commissioner for consultation. 4. A situation has thus arisen which is likely to impair friendly relations between India and South Africa, and under Articles 10 and 14 of the Charter is submitted for consideration of General Assembly. A detailed factual memorandum dealing with this subject is being sent to you by my Government. I remain, etc. (signed) A. Ramaswami Mudaliar Leader of the Indian Delegation to the General Assembly, and Member, Government of India

GAZETTE OF INDIA EXTRAORDINARY, DATED JULY 17, 1946, ON TRADE RELATIONS WITH SOUTH AFRICA GOVERNMENT OF INDIA DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE New Delhi, the 17th July, 1946 No. 2-C(6)/46(2). - In exercise of the powers conferred by section 134 of the Sea Customs Act, 1878 (VIII of 1878), the Central Government is pleased (a) to prohibit the bringing by sea or by land into British India of goods from whatever place arriving which have been consigned from, or grown, produced or manufactured in, the Union of South Africa: Provided that the foregoing prohibition shall not apply (i) to goods which are the personal effects of passengers, or (ii) to goods brought into British India before the 1st August 1946, or (iii) to goods the price of which has been wholly paid on or before the 17th July 1946 and the importation of which has been specially authorised by the Central Government;

(b) to prohibit the taking by sea or by land out of British India of goods from whatever place arriving which are destined for any port or place in the Union of South Africa or in respect of which the Chief Customs Officer is satisfied that the goods although destined for a port or place outside the Union of South Africa are intended to be taken to the Union of South Africa. Explanation. - Goods grown or produced in the Union of South Africa which have been subjected to any process in another country and goods manufactured partly in the Union of South Africa and partly in another country shall be deemed to fall within the scope of the prohibition in clause (a) above unless 25 percent or more of the value of the goods at the time when they left the place from which they were last consigned is attributable to processes undergone since the goods left the Union of South Africa. No. 2-C(6)/46(2) - In exercise of the powers conferred by section 134 of the Sea Customs Act, 1878 (VIII of 1878), the Central Government is pleased (a) to prohibit the transshipment at any port in British India of goods when destined for any port in the Union of South Africa, and (b) to prohibit the transshipment at any port in British India of goods when destined for any port other than a port of the Union of South Africa, save with the permission of the Chief Customs Officer who shall not grant such permission unless he is satisfied that it is not intended that such goods shall be taken to the Union of South Africa. K. K. CHETTUR, Joint Secretary

GANDHIJI`S MESSAGE TO SOUTH AFRICA, MAY 18, 1947

Field Marshal Smuts is a trustee for Western civilisation. I still cling to the hope that he will not sustain it on the suppression of Asiatics and Africans. South Africa should present a blend of the three. To the people of South Africa, to whom I am no stranger, I would say that they should not make the position of their representatives impossible by their unwarranted prejudice against colour. The future is surely not with the so-called white races if they keep themselves in purdah. The attitude of unreason will mean a third war which sane people should avoid. Political cooperation among all the exploited races in South Africa can only result in mutual goodwill, if it is wisely directed and based on truth and non-violence.

I have no doubt that those South African Indians who seek to create a division will do harm to themselves and to the great cause of liberty for which the movement of satyagraha has stood and must stand. To the satyagrahis I would advise strict adherence to the fundamentals of satyagraha which literally means force of truth and this is for ever invincible. It is a good sign that they have a progressive European group solidly behind them. The satyagrahis of South Africa should know that they have India at their back in their struggle for preserving the self-respect of the Indians in South Africa.

RESOLUTION OF THE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, JAIPUR SESSION, 1948 The Congress has noted with deep regret that the Government of the Union of South Africa continues to treat its Indian citizens in disregard of acknowledged human rights and of the principles laid down in the Charter of the United Nations. That Government has ignored the wishes of the General Assembly of the United Nations and even challenged the fundamental principles on which the United Nations Organisation is founded. This repudiation of a vital principle, if persisted in, can only lead to bitter and far-reaching racial conflicts and may even result in the break-up of the United Nations Organisation. The Congress expresses its full sympathy with all those who have suffered by the policy of racial discrimination of the Government of the Union of South Africa.

LETTER BY THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES OF INDIA AND TWELVE OTHER COUNTRIES REQUESTING INCLUSION OF AN ITEM ON APARTHEID IN THE AGENDA OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, SEPTEMBER 12, 1952 New York, 12 September 1952 On instructions from our respective Governments, we have the honour to request that the following item be included in the agenda of the seventh regular session of the United Nations General Assembly: "The question of race conflict in South Africa resulting from the policies of apartheid of the Government of the Union of South Africa." An explanatory memorandum in accordance with rule 20 of the rules of procedure of the General Assembly is enclosed. (signed) Sultan AHMED

for Permanent representative of Afghanistan Fouad EL-PHARAONY Acting permanent representative of Egypt L.N. PALAR Permanent representative of Indonesia A. KHALIDY Permanent representative of Iraq Ahmed S. BOKHARI Permanent representative of Pakistan Asad AL-FAQIII Permanent representative of Saudi Arabia Farid ZEINEDDINE Permanent representative of Syria Ba MAUNG Liaison officer of Burma to the United Nations Rajeshwar DAYAL Permanent representative of India A. G. ARDALAN Permanent representative of Iran Karim AZKOUL Acting permanent representative of Lebanon Carlos P. ROMULO Permanent representative of the Philippines A.ABOUTALEB Permanent representative of Yemen EXPLANATORY MEMORANDUM The race conflict in the Union of South Africa resulting from the policies of apartheid of the South African Government is creating a dangerous and explosive situation, which constitutes both a threat to international peace and a flagrant violation of the basic principles of human rights and fundamental freedoms which are enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations. Although Africa's importance in world affairs is increasing rapidly, many parts of that continent still remain subject to racial discrimination and exploitation. The founding of the United Nations and the acceptance by the Member States of the obligations embodied in the Charter have given to the peoples of these areas new hope and encouragement in their efforts to acquire basic human rights. But, in direct opposition to the trend of world opinion, the policy of the Government of the Union of South Africa is designed to establish and to perpetuate every form of racial discrimination which must inevitably result in intense and bitter racial conflict. Apartheid, which is the declared objective of the Government of the Union of South Africa, implies a permanent white superiority over the nonwhites, who constitute the great majority of the Union's population. To achieve apartheid, the following measures are being taken:

(a) Under the notorious Group Areas Act, non-whites are compelled to abandon their present lands and premises and to move to new and usually inferior reserved areas without compensation or provisional alternative accommodation; (b) Complete segregation is enforced in public services, such as railways, buses and post offices; (c) The Suppression of Communism Act is being used to suppress democratic movements, especially of the non-whites, for example, those which advocate racial equality or urge opposition to apartheid; (d) Non-whites are debarred from combat service in the armed forces; (e) No voting or other political rights whatsoever are enjoyed by non-whites, except in Cape Province, where Africans and the "Coloured" inhabitants have a limited franchise; (f) Africans are confined to reserves, and their movements are restricted to certain places after specified hours under certain restrictive laws. The inter-provincial movements of non-whites are also restricted; (g) Non-whites are excluded under the Mines and Works Amendment Act of 1926 from certain classes of skilled work and a systematic drive is in progress to replace them, even in the lower grades of the public services, by whites; (h) The education of non-whites and their housing and living conditions are deplorable. Such facilities of this type as are available to non-Whites are vastly inferior to those offered to the White population. As a result of these measures, a social system is being evolved under which the non-whites, who constitute 80 per cent of the population of the Union of South Africa, will be kept in a permanently inferior state to the white minority. Such a policy challenges all that the United Nations stands for and clearly violates the basic and fundamental objectives of the Charter of the United Nations. The Preamble and Article 1, paragraph 3, and Article 55 c of the Charter proclaim universal respect for, and the due observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms, without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion. Under Article 56, all members have pledged themselves to take joint and separate action in cooperation with the United Nations for the achievement of these purposes. Under resolution 103 (I), adopted unanimously by the General Assembly in 1946, the United Nations called on governments to put an end to racial persecution and discrimination. Resolution 217 (III) proclaimed the Universal

Declaration of Human Rights, and article 2 of the Declaration affirms the equal application of these rights without distinction as to colour, race or religion. Under resolution 395 (V) the United Nations held that the policy of apartheid was necessarily based on doctrines of racial discrimination and therefore called upon the South African Government not to implement or enforce the provisions of the Group Areas Act. These findings and this recommendation were repeated in resolution 511 (VI) adopted at the sixth session of the General Assembly. It is recognised in all countries, as well as among liberal South African Europeans, that the solution of South Africa's racial problem lies not in any domination of one race by another, but in a partnership of races on a basis of equality and freedom. Thus the apartheid policy of the Government of the Union of South Africa is contrary not only to the basic premises of the United Nations and to its specific and repeated recommendations, but also to the trend of opinion all over the world. Because they have been unable to secure redress by constitutional methods and because the South African Government has turned a deaf ear to the repeated appeals of the United Nations not to embark on a policy of racial discrimination, the non-whites of the Union have been compelled to launch a completely nonviolent resistance movement against the Government's unjust and inhuman racial policies. In their efforts to destroy this movement, the Government has so far arrested over 4,000 persons. Despite the non-violent character of the campaign, physical violence such as flogging is being used to suppress it. The South African Government's reaction to a movement of peaceful resistance against legislation which world opinion and the United Nations have repeatedly and emphatically condemned, is having wide repercussions. We are convinced that the continuance of such repression will only aggravate race conflict throughout Africa and arouse indignation elsewhere. A new tension is thus being created which is no less serious than others affecting world peace. It is therefore imperative that the General Assembly give this question its urgent consideration in order to prevent an already dangerous situation from deteriorating further and to bring about a settlement in accordance with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations Charter.

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE LOK SABHA ON MARCH 28, 1960 The House deplores and records its deep sorrow at the tragic incidents which occurred at Sharpeville and Langa township near Cape Town in South Africa on March 21, 1960, resulting in the death of a large number of Africans from police firing. It sends its deep sympathy to the Africans who have suffered from this

firing and from the policy of racial discrimination and the suppression of the African people in their own homeland.

ADDITIONAL SANCTIONS IMPOSED IN JULY 1963 Text of Press Note by the Ministry of External Affairs of India, dated July 13, 1963, announcing additional sanctions in pursuance of United Nations General Assembly resolution 1761 (XVII) of November 6, 1962

Although India was the first country, as far back as 1946, to declare diplomatic and economic sanctions against South Africa, the Government of India has further reviewed the position and taken the necessary action to comply with resolution 1761 (XVII) of the United Nations. Some of the measures taken on the recommendations of the resolution are as follows: (a) Breaking off diplomatic relations with the Government of the Republic of South Africa or refraining from establishing such relations The High Commissioner for India in the Union of South Africa was recalled in 1946. The Mission itself was withdrawn in 1954. Thus there has been no formal diplomatic connection between India and South Africa since 1954. However, some contact was maintained between the two Governments through their Missions in London, mainly in order to implement the various resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, urging negotiations between them on the question of treatment of persons of Indian origin in South Africa. The Government of South Africa, however, persistently refused to negotiate in terms of these resolutions. This contact has accordingly now been broken off. (b) Closing ports to all vessels flying the South African flag In implementation of resolution 1761 (XVII), the Government of India has instructed the authorities concerned not to allow vessels flying the South African flag to touch Indian seaports. (c) Enacting legislation prohibiting ships from entering South African ports Indian ships do not call at South African ports. However, instructions have been issued to the authorities concerned to prohibit Indian ships from going to South African ports. The Government of India has adequate powers for this purpose under the existing laws and it is not necessary to enact fresh legislation. (d) Boycotting all South African goods and refraining from exporting goods, including all arms and ammunition, to South Africa

There has been a general ban on trade between India and South Africa since 1946. Since 1953, the mandated territory of South West Africa which is being administered by South Africa, has also been brought under this ban. The movement of some items, mainly of cultural and religious interest, was however, being allowed through postal and other channels on humanitarian grounds. The Government of India has examined this matter again and issued instructions that apart from bona fide personal effects of travellers, post cards, letters, aerogrammes and telegrammes, only the following items will be allowed for movement between India and South Africa through postal and other channels: (1) Books and periodicals, publications (magazines) and newspapers; (2) Blind literature (3) Free unsolicited gifts from relations and friends including family and personal photographs if paid for at the letter postage rates, or printed matter rates, if admissible. These cannot be sent by parcel post. The value of such gifts should not exceed Rs 200. (4) Packets containing sweetmeats and blessings for Muslim devotees by the Durgas Committee, Ajmer, provided that no packet exceeds one pound in weight and that packets are accompanied by certificates from the Nizam of the Durgas showing that they are bona fide offerings by devotees. (5) Pictorial representations with religious and social background. (e) Refusing landing and passage facilities to all aircraft belonging to the Government of South Africa and companies registered under the laws of South Africa There is no traffic between India and South Africa by Indian or South African airlines. However, under the relevant international conventions, aircraft registered in South Africa can be permitted to overfly India while operating scheduled international air services, to land at Indian airports for non-traffic purposes and to make non-scheduled flights to, through and over India. In view of the resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations specifically forbidding these facilities, the Government of India has informed the International Civil Aviation Organisation that they will not allow aircraft registered in South Africa to land at Indian airports or to overfly India. The Government of India has, as explained above, implemented all the requirements of this resolution and hopes that all other Member States of the United Nations and indeed all countries of the world will do everything in their power to bring about the abandonment of the cruel and inhuman racial policies of the Government of South Africa.

LETTER FROM THE REPRESENTATIVE OF INDIA TO THE SECRETARYGENERAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANISATION, JULY 15, 1963 Sir, I have been instructed by my Government to inform you of the following: The strong opposition of the Government of India to the policies of apartheid of the Government of the Republic of South Africa is well known. For the last 16 years or so, India has taken the lead in raising the issue of racial discrimination in the Republic of South Africa at the United Nations General Assembly. At the 17th Session of the General Assembly, resolution 1761 (XVII) was passed which inter alia requested Member States to refuse landing and passage facilities to all aircraft belonging to the Government and companies registered under the laws of South Africa. Resolution 1761 (XVII) was co-sponsored among others by India and is in accord with the attitude of the Government of India to the policies of apartheid. The Government of India have, therefore, decided that in implementation of the resolution of the United Nations General Assembly, they will not permit aircraft belonging to the Government of South Africa and companies registered under the laws of South Africa to: i. overfly India while operating scheduled international air services; ii. to land at Indian ports for non-traffic purposes while operating scheduled international air services; iii. to make non-scheduled flights to, through, or over India. Yours faithfully, (signed) S. C. Bose Representative of India, Council of I.C.A.O.

LETTER FROM THE PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVE OF INDIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS, TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON THE POLICIES OF APARTHEID OF THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA, NOVEMBER 12, 1964 I have the honour to refer to your letter of 27 October 1964, enclosing the text of an appeal for relief and assistance to the families of all persons persecuted by

the Government of the Republic of South Africa for their opposition to the policy of apartheid. The Government and people of India have always strenuously opposed the racial policies of the Government of the Republic of South Africa and have taken prompt and concrete measures to bring about an end to these policies and to assist and help its victims. Consistent with this policy, my Government, in response to your appeal, have decided to contribute a sum of Rs. 25,000 ($5,250) for the relief and assistance to all persons persecuted by the Government of the Republic of South Africa for their opposition to the policy of apartheid. I shall be grateful if this letter is circulated as a document of the Special Committee. Accept, Sir, etc., (Signed) B. N. CHAKRAVARTY Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations

SUMMARY OF MEASURES TAKEN BY INDIA IN RESPONSE TO RESOLUTIONS OF THE UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL FOR THE ELIMINATION OF APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA, PREPARED BY THE UNITED NATIONS, OCTOBER 1965 India has taken steps in full and complete implementation of the terms of General Assembly resolution 1761 (XVII). It withdrew its High Commissioner from the Union of South Africa in 1946, and closed the Mission in 1954. Some contact, which was maintained between the two Governments through their Missions in London, mainly to implement various resolutions of the General Assembly, has now been broken off. The Government of India has instructed the authorities concerned not to allow vessels flying the South African flag to touch Indian seaports. Indian ships do not touch South African ports. However, the authorities concerned have been instructed to prohibit Indian ships from going to South African ports. There has been a general ban on trade between India and South Africa since 1946 and the Mandated Territory of South West Africa has been covered under this ban since 1953. The movement of some items mainly of cultural and religious interest was, however, being allowed through postal and other channels

on humanitarian grounds. The Government of India has examined this matter again and issued instructions further restricting such movement. There is no traffic between India and South Africa by Indian or South African airlines. However, under the relevant international conventions, aircraft registered in South Africa could be permitted to overfly India while operating scheduled international air services, to land at Indian airports for non-traffic purposes and to make non-scheduled flights to, through and over India. In view of the provisions of General Assembly resolution 1761 (XVII), India has informed the International Civil Aviation Organisation that it would not allow aircraft registered in South Africa to land at Indian airports for non-traffic purposes and to make non-scheduled flights to, through and over India. India has, for a long time, carried out the measures mentioned in paragraph 3 of the Security Council resolution of 7 August 1963, in paragraph 5 of Security Council resolution S/5471 of 4 December 1963, and in paragraph 7 of resolution 1899 (XVIII) of the General Assembly. It continues to maintain a total boycott of relations with South Africa thus implementing the various resolutions of the United Nations. In response to the appeal of 26 October 1964 by the Special Committee, the Indian Government decided on 12 November 1964 to contribute a sum of 25,O00 rupees ($5,250) for the relief and assistance to all persons persecuted by the Government of the Republic of South Africa for their opposition to the policies of apartheid.

MESSAGE BY MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, ON THE INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, MARCH 21, 1968

March 21, 1968, is being commemorated throughout the world as International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. On this occasion, let us pay homage to all those who have struggled and sacrificed even their lives, to uphold the banner of the brotherhood of man. Let us reaffirm our determination not to rest until the last vestiges of this form of inhumanity are finally banished. Long before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Mahatma Gandhi waged one of the most significant struggles in South Africa to affirm man's faith in fundamental human rights, and in the dignity and worth of the human being, without distinction of race, religion, language or sex. For us, this has been a proud and continuing tradition. India has consistently, forcefully and

unequivocally supported all measures designed to put an end to apartheid and racial discrimination. March 21 marks the eighth anniversary of the massacre of peaceful demonstrators in Sharpeville in South Africa. Those eight years have seen renewed efforts by the international community to prevent the recurrence of such tragic and terrible crimes. But, these efforts have made hardly any difference to the policies of racial discrimination and apartheid pursued by the Government of South Africa. This year International Day is being observed in the dark shadow of the murder of African nationalists in Rhodesia. Many more lives are threatened by an alien tyranny. The Salisbury hangings are a grim reminder of the tasks ahead. The road to racial peace is long and arduous. But there can be no doubt as to the final outcome. If mankind is to survive and flourish, fundamental human values and the imperatives of social justice must triumph.

NOTE BY THE PERMANENT MISSION OF INDIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS SECRETARY-GENERAL, AUGUST 9, 1977 NY(PM)352/5/68 August 9, 1977

The Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations presents his compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and with reference to his memorandum No. PO 230 SOAF(2-1-4) of February 1, 1977, wishing the Government of India to implement the General Assembly resolution 2671(XXV) and also the Security Council resolution 282(1970), has the honour to send the following information: I. General Assembly resolution 2671(XXV) In regard to operative paragraph 2 of part B of this resolution the Government of India have been extending assistance to the African National Congress, which maintains an office in New Delhi. As regards operative paragraphs 2 and 6 of part C, the Government of India have been undertaking appropriate information activities through publicity media in India. In implementation of operative paragraph 5 of part D of the resolution, action has been taken to observe the International Year for Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination in suitable manner. The Indian Council for Africa is organising pictorial exhibitions in various Indian universities with a view to depicting "Life under Apartheid". The Indian National Commission for Cooperation with UNESCO is arranging an All-India Teachers' Seminar to

discuss ways and means of combating racism and racial discrimination. The theme will also act as a focal point for the information activities of the Commission. The Prime Minister of India, Shrimati Indira Gandhi, issued a statement on March 21, 1971, on the occasion of the observance of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. With regard to the operative paragraphs 1 and 4 of Part E of the resolution the Government of India would wish to inform that they have so far contributed Rs.32,500 (US$4,333.33) to the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa. As regards paragraphs 7 and 8 of part F of the resolution, the Government of India would invite attention to the facts given below: (a) Following the ban on trade with South Africa in 1946, the Government of India closed their office in that country in 1954. The Government broke off all diplomatic relations with South Africa in July 1963. (b) Action was taken in 1963 to close Indian ports to South African ships and to prohibit Indian ships from calling at South African ports. (c) In the same year the International Civil Aviation Organisation was informed that the Government of India would not permit aircraft belonging to the Government of South Africa and to companies registered under South African laws to over-fly India while operating scheduled international air services, to land on Indian airports for non-traffic purposes while operating scheduled international air services, and to make non-scheduled flights to, through or over India. II. Security Council Resolution 282(1970) The Government of India have observed a complete ban on trade with South Africa since 1946. This has been strictly enforced and, in addition, steps have been taken to withold all cooperation with that country. In fact, India has been observing the arms embargo much before the adoption of this resolution and the relevant resolutions adopted earlier by the Security Council. The Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations avails himself of this opportunity to renew to the Secretary-General of the United Nations the assurance of his highest consideration.

III. Material aid given to the various liberation movements/Governments in Africa (as of 7 May 1977)

[The table on material aid given to each of the liberation movements in Africa is omitted here. For South Africa, assistance was given to ANC only and it totaled Rs. 1,284,370 by 1977-1978. From 1967 to 1974, India provided Rs. 740,000 in assistance to ANC. This included financing of the Asian Mission of ANC opened in New Delhi in 1967, as well as medicines and cloth. The assistance in subsequent years was as follows: 1974-1975 1975-1976 1975-1976 1976-1977 1977-1978 1977-1978 Grant to ANC Mission Grant to ANC Mission Ambassador car to ANC Grant to ANC Mission, medicines and cloth Grant to ANC Mission Relief Supplies Rs. 100,000 Rs. 100,000 Rs. 35,000 Rs. 125,000 Rs. 125,000 Rs. 59,370]

In addition, India contributed 25,000 rupees to the OAU Assistance Fund for Struggle against Colonialism and Apartheid; 17,500 rupees to the International Defence and Aid Fund for Southern Africa in 1976-77; and 470,152 rupees to various United Nations funds. A major part of these were for assistance to South Africans. India also gave scholarships to a number of South African students.]

IV. Action taken by India on the implementation of the United Nations Resolutions on the Problem of Apartheid Consistent with our policy, India's boycott of South Africa is total. The Government of India has condemned the policy of apartheid and racial discrimination pursued by South African Government in the United Nations and other International fora. In fact India was the first country to raise the question of racial discrimination in South Africa at the United Nations General Assembly meeting in 1946, even before India became independent. Again India was the first country to break off diplomatic relations with South Africa and the first to impose sanctions against South Africa much in advance of the United Nations resolutions. All this is being done in spite of the real and substantial costs to us and at the risk of diluting the legitimate cultural needs of the people of Indian origin in South Africa. In the final phase of the struggle for apartheid in South Africa, India will continue to give its support, materially and politically, until the establishment of a society based on justice and equity is achieved in that part of the world.

MESSAGE BY THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, MR. P. V. NARASIMHA RAO, TO THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID, ON THE DAY OF SOLIDARITY WITH THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICAL PRISONERS, OCTOBER 11, 1980

On the occasion of the special meeting of the Special Committee against Apartheid being held in observance of the International Day of Solidarity with the South African Political Prisoners, I would like to reiterate, on behalf of the Government and the people of India, our wholehearted support for and solidarity with the brave and courageous people of South Africa in their struggle against the racist regime of that country. I would also like to take this opportunity to send our greetings and good wishes to those valiant leaders of the people of South Africa who have been languishing in the dreaded prison houses, year after year. Our sympathies go to the kith and kin of martyrs of South Africa who have been brutally liquidated by the illegal white minority regime. Since the International Day of Solidarity with the South African Political Prisoners was observed by the Special Committee against Apartheid last year, the world has witnessed the triumph of the people of Zimbabwe after a long and heroic struggle. This momentous event has further isolated the apartheid regime in South Africa and dramatically altered the balance of forces in Southern Africa. The writing on the wall is, therefore, clear for anyone to see, especially for those affluent and industrial countries which, in the face of opposition from the world community, continue their collaboration with the illicit regime of South Africa in the economic, diplomatic and even nuclear fields. The Government and the people of India firmly believe that the untold sufferings and sacrifice of the people of South Africa will not go in vain and that right will eventually prevail over might bringing to them their ultimate victory sooner than many people expect.

NOTE TO THE UNITED NATIONS BY THE PERMANENT MISSION OF INDIA, APRIL 22, 1981 The Government and people of India have consistently supported the oppressed majority of South Africa in its struggle against the oppressive apartheid regime. India has all along opposed firmly all forms of racism, racial discrimination and apartheid. The issue of racism in South Africa, it will be recalled, was first inscribed on the agenda of the United Nations in 1946 at the initiative of India.

In view of the abhorrent policy of racial discrimination and apartheid followed by the South African regime, the Government of India imposed comprehensive sanctions against South Africa as far back as 1946 through their Gazette Notification No. 2-C(6)/46 (I and II) dated 17 July 1946, issued by their Department of Commerce. This Gazette Notification prohibited bringing by sea or by land into India of all goods which had been consigned from or grown, produced or manufactured in the Union of South Africa with certain minor exceptions such as personal effects of passengers, newspapers, magazines, etc., Similarly, the Notification prohibited taking by sea or by land out of India of goods which were destined for any port or place outside the Union of South Africa or in respect of which the Chief Customs Officer was satisfied that the goods although destined for a port or place outside the Union of South Africa, were intended to be taken to the Union of South Africa. India, therefore, effected a comprehensive trade boycott of South Africa, including an arms embargo, long before the relevant United Nations General Assembly resolution 1761 (XVII) and Security Council resolutions 181 (1963) and 418 (1977). With a view to further strengthening the existing legislation, the Ministry of Finance, Department of Revenue and Company Law, Government of India, issued Gazette Notification No. 135-Customs/F.No.2/3/63-Cus VIII dated 3 October 1963 in supersession of the 1946 Gazette Notification. The new Notification prohibited the exports to and imports from the Republic of South Africa of all goods with the exception of certain minor items such as post cards, letters, books and periodicals. The Government of India has not only scrupulously complied with the provisions of Security Council resolution 418 (1977) imposing an arms embargo on South Africa, but has repeatedly called for the imposition of comprehensive mandatory economic sanctions against the South African regime. India acceded to the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid in October 1977. Suitable implementing legislation was introduced in the Lok Sabha (the Lower House of the Indian Parliament) in November 1978. The Bill known as the Anti-Apartheid (United Nations Convention) Bill was admitted for consideration in the Lok Sabha. The Bill, however, could not be passed during the year owing to the dissolution of Parliament pending general elections. The Bill has now been reintroduced in the Indian Parliament and is expected to be passed during 1981. The Government of India is convinced that peaceful change in South Africa can only come about with the imposition of comprehensive sanctions against the Pretoria regime by the United Nations Security Council. Similarly, India fully supports the demand for economic sanctions against the Pretoria regime as a means to compel South Africa to terminate its illegal occupation of Namibia.

THE ANTI-APARTHEID (UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION) ACT, 1981 No. 48 of 1981 (December 18, 1981) An Act to give effect to the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid WHEREAS an International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on the Thirtieth day of November, 1973; AND WHEREAS India, acceded to the said Convention, should make provisions for giving effect to it; Be it enacted by Parliament in the Thirty-second Year of the Republic of India as follows:Short title and extent 1.(1)This Act may be called the Anti-Apartheid (United Nations Convention) Act, 1981. (2) It extends to the whole of India. Application of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid 2.(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained in any other law, such of the provisions of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid as are set out in the Schedule shall have the force of law in India. (2) The Central Government may,from time to time, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the Schedule in conformity with any amendments, duly made and adopted, of the provisions of the said Convention set out therein. (3) Every notification issued under sub-section (2) shall be laid, as soon as may be after it is issued, before each House of Parliament.

Punishment for international criminal responsibility 3. Every person to whom international criminal responsibility applies under article III of the said Convention, as set out in the Schedule, shall be punished with death, or imprisonment for life, or imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, the reference in clause (a) of article III of the said Convention to "article II" shall be construed as a reference to the provisions of article II of that Convention as set out in the Schedule. Offences by Companies, organisations or institutions 4. Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company or an organisation or an institution, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company, organisation or institution, as the case may be, for the conduct of its business or affairs, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly: Provided that nothing contained in this section shall render any such person liable to any punishment provided in this Act if he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge or that he exercised all due diligence to prevent the commission of such offence. Explanation.- For the purposes of this section, "company" means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals. Place of trial 5. Any person committing an offence under section 3 may be tried for the offence in any place in which he may be found or in such other place as the Central Government may, by general or special order, published in the Official Gazette, direct in this behalf. Previous sanction of the Central Government for arrest or prosecution 6. No person shall be arrested or prosecuted in respect of any offence under section 3 except with the previous sanction of the Central Government or such officer or authority as may be authorised by that Government by order in writing in this behalf. Provision as to Extradition Act

7. For the purposes of the Extradiction Act, 1962, the offence under 34 of 1962, section 3 shall not be considered to be an offence of a political character. THE SCHEDULE (See sections 2 and 3) PROVISIONS OF INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON THE SUPRESSION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE CRIME OF APARTHEID WHICH SHALL HAVE FORCE OF LAW Article II For the purpose of the present Convention, the term "the crime of apartheid", which shall include similar policies and practices of racial segregation and discrimination as practised in southern Africa, shall apply to the following inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them: (a) Denial to a member or members of a racial group or groups of the right to life and liberty of person: (i) by murder of members of a racial group or groups; (ii) By the infliction upon the members of a racial group or groups of serious bodily or mental harm, by the infringement of the freedom or dignity, or by subjecting them to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; (iii) By arbitrary arrest and illegal imprisonment of the members of a racial group or groups; (b) Deliberate imposition on a racial group or groups of living conditions calculated to cause its or their physical destruction in whole or in part; (e) Exploitation of the labour of the members of a racial group or groups, in particular by submitting them to forced labour; (f) Persecution of organisations and persons, by depriving them of fundamental rights and freedoms, because they oppose apartheid. Article III

International criminal responsibility shall apply, irrespective of the motive involved, to individuals, members of organizations and institutions and representatives of the State, whether residing in the territory of the State in which the acts are perpetrated or in some other State, whenever they; (a) Commit, participate in, directly incite or conspire in the commission of the acts mentioned in article II of the present Convention; (b) Directly abet, encourage or cooperate in the commission of the crime or apartheid.

STATEMENT OF MR. BISHEN SINGH BEDI, FORMER INDIAN TEST CRICKET CAPTAIN, IN THE SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID, 11 MAY 1982 Mr. Chairman, At the outset, I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to you and to the distinguished members of the Special Committee against Apartheid for the honour they have done me in inviting me to participate in the meeting of the Special Committee this morning. I do realise that this honour has been done to me as a representative of Indian sports and, above all, as a citizen of a country which has been in the vanguard of the international movement against the evil system of apartheid in South Africa for several decades. Mr. Chairman, I bring to you and to the distinguished members of the Special Committee, greetings and good wishes from the sportsmen and sportswomen of India. We have been following with keen interest the commendable work which is being done by the Special Committee under your able and dynamic leadership. Mr. Chairman, India's total commitment to the struggle against apartheid is too well-known to need any elaboration on my part. I take this opportunity to assure you, sir, and the distinguished members of the Special Committee, of the unstinted cooperation of the sportsmen and sportswomen of India in the accomplishment of our ultimate objective, namely, the total eradication of the scourge of apartheid from our civilised world. India firmly believes that sport is an important vehicle for bringing peoples together and for developing and fostering understanding among them, especially by the impact it can make on the younger generation of the world. It is, therefore, natural that we would wish that sport would be rid of all discrimination. We consider apartheid in sports, as in other fields, a negation of the principles of human dignity and individual freedom.

In this context, India attaches great importance to the Gleneagles Agreement of 12 June 1977 to which member countries of the Commonwealth are a party and which considers apartheid in sports as an abomination". India has been following the Gleneagles Agreement in its letter and spirit and will continue to do so in keeping with her traditional support for and solidarity with the cause of the black majority of South Africa. Mr. Chairman, it is hardly necessary for me to recall India's involvement in the struggle against racial discrimination in South Africa. In fact, as is wellknown, the Father of our Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, was the initiator of the antiapartheid resistance in South Africa before he returned to India to lead the people of India in their struggle to overthrow the yoke of foreign domination. To Mahatma Gandhi, any kind of discrimination based on race, religion, caste or creed was an affront to humankind. In fact, his ultimate ambition was to have a world without any barriers. He once said and I quote: "I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all lands to be blown about my house as freely as possible". I am proud to belong to the country of Mahatma Gandhi and, if I may say so, to have represented India with some distinction at many international sports gatherings. Mr. Chairman, I would like to take this opportunity to thank the Special Committee against Apartheid, on behalf of the sportsmen and sportswomen of India and on my own behalf, for their commendation of the action taken by the Government of India in general and the Indian Board of Control for Cricket in particular, in regard to the inclusion during the English Cricket tour, last year, of two players who have had association with South Africa. As the Special Committee against Apartheid has rightly stated in its Register of Sports Contacts with South Africa for the period April-December 1981, the Government of India were able to get a public assurance from the English cricket authorities that they do not permit representative tours of South Africa to take place, that they are quite specific in their opposition to apartheid and their aim is to promote multiracial cricket throughout the world. In fact, it is the first instance in the history of the English Cricket that such an assurance was given by the English Cricket authorities. We, therefore, believe that this action by India has further strengthened the international campaign against apartheid in sports. The Indian Cricket team is at the moment in England playing against that country's teams after having demanded and having succeeded in obtaining assurances that the unscrupulous cricketers who surreptitiously played in South Africa recently would be excluded from the fixtures against India.

Mr. Chairman, the question of eradication of apartheid in sports is closely linked with the elimination of the inhuman system itself from our earth. As long as this system is allowed to continue in South Africa, the playgrounds in that country are bound to be polluted by racial hatred and prejudice: sport in that country will increase tension and strife rather than contribute to harmony and togetherness. The South African Government claims that official apartheid prohibition on integrated sport has been lifted. This is not true: black and white teams tend to play against each other rather than as players in mixed teams. Some teams have made token efforts towards integration by including one or two members of another race group. But the basic apartheid laws still apply to all individuals and clubs, and in such circumstances no truly integrated sport can exist. These apartheid restrictions affect black children very directly, as the laws exclude them from sharing the superior white facilities. White and black school teams must apply for permits if they wish to play each other at football, cricket, etc. Some outstanding black children have been given good training and coaching, just as some black sportsmen have represented South Africa abroad. But this is only a subterfuge because the Government wants the outside world to accept its sports teams without changing its own basic policy of apartheid. Mr. Chairman, the time has come when the international community has to act and act quickly to rectify the miserable plight of a large number of black children of South Africa, which affects their very growth. The only effective weapon in this direction is for the countries of the world to sever sporting contacts between their nationals and the nationals of South Africa. I consider it the bounden duty of the sportsmen and sportswomen of the world who cherish freedom and human dignity to cooperate with their Governments in making such a weapon effective, thereby bringing about an early end to the oppression and indignity perpetrated by the racist regime of South Africa on the black majority. In this context, it would be pertinent to stress the need for the early completion of an International Convention against Apartheid in Sports, as requested by the United Nations General Assembly. I would like to conclude by wishing the Ad Hoe Committee on the Drafting of an International Convention against Apartheid in Sports good luck and godspeed. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

MESSAGE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, TO THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WOMEN AND APARTHEID, BRUSSELS, MAY 17-19, 1982

Women played a significant part in India's fight for freedom. Before independence the highest position we could offer anybody was the presidentship of our political party - the Indian National Congress. Three women adorned this high position. They also became office-bearers of provincial, town and other committees of the Party and were active at all levels. They courageously shared the hardhsip and suffering. The world was witness to the strength which women's participation gave to our freedom movement. India has consistently supported the just struggle of the South African and Namibian peoples at every international forum. We were the first country to draw the attention of the United Nations towards the repressive policies of racism and apartheid as practised by South Africa, and to sever relations with South Africa in every field. We believe that such racist policies are an affront to humankind. In South Africa they amount to an officially-sponsored civil war against the majority population there. The South African regime harasses its own people and, in open defiance of the world community, through its illegal occupation of Namibia, it is also oppressing the people of Namibia. In such violent situations, women are often the worst sufferers and must be mobilised to fight oppression. I send my good wishes to the International Conference on Women and Apartheid, which is being held in Brussels by the Special Committee against Apartheid in cooperation with International Committee of Solidarity with the Struggle of Women of South Africa and Namibia.

MESSAGE BY INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER, TO TRANSVAAL INDIAN CONGRESS, JANUARY 14, 1983 The movement against apartheid gathers momentum within and outside South Africa. This provokes the racist regime there to resort to attempts to divide the majority of the population so that it can perpetuate its rule. The people of South Africa, irrespective of their racial origins, must remain united in their struggle against apartheid and racialism. They should not be misled by makebelieve constitutional changes which are meant only to sap the people's will and determination and lull them into a sense of false security. All efforts by the regime to further divide the people must be firmly opposed. My good wishes to the organisers of the Transvaal Anti-South African Indian Council Committee, its members and the people of South Africa.

Indira Gandhi

New Delhi January 14, 1983

SPEECH BY THE MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS, MR. P. V. NARASIMHA RAO, AT A DINNER HOSTED BY HIM IN HONOUR OF MR. OLIVER TAMBO, PRESIDENT OF AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS OF SOUTH AFRICA, JANUARY 21, 1983

I have great pleasure in extending a warm welcome to you, Mr. President, and your distinguished delegation this evening. We recall vividly your last visit to receive the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Peace and Understanding on behalf of Mr. Nelson Mandela, the shining symbol of the new dawn of South Africa's horizon. We have watched with admiration the heroic and valiant fight which the ANC is waging, guided by Mr. Mandela's ideals and your able leadership. Every age has its heroes. Some are sawdust Caesars, born to a moment of power that proves as mortal as they themselves. The steel of history is fashioned by men whose minds, will and conviction have moulded the consciousness of their time. It is such a man we see in Nelson Mandela. As you know, Mr. President, we in India have always opposed racism and apartheid in all its forms. Given our own history, and the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, it was only natural that we were much ahead of the United Nations in giving a call for comprehensive mandatory sanctions against South Africa. We know that the racist regime is today actively engaged in all kinds of fraudulent manoeuvres to perpetuate and further institutionalise its oppressive and inhuman system. At this moment liberation movements like the ANC need the full support of the whole world. Unfortunately, however, certain countries, who are unable to see the future beyond their immediate interests are encouraging a regime which has a reprehensible record of brutal repression on its own people and wanton aggression against independent neighbouring States. But there are clear signs of fear and desperation, among the racists and those who collaborate with them. They are swimming against the tide of history. We are sure that the sacrifices made by the freedom fighters in South Africa will win them the liberty so long denied in their country. We in India will continue to identify ourselves fully with you in your hopes and aspirations. We can understand you because we too have known what it is not to be free. Yet even as the night grows dark and chill, there is the promise of dawn. May I now invite you, ladies and gentlemen, to join me in proposing a toast for the health of Mr. Oliver Tambo, President, African National Congress, and the

members of his delegation and to the speedy achievement of the cherished aspirations of the people of South Africa.

STATEMENT BY THE OFFICIAL SPOKESMAN OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ON THE HANGING OF THREE SOUTH AFRICAN FREEDOM FIGHTERS, JUNE 10, 1983

The Government and people of India are deeply shocked to learn that the Pretoria regime yesterday executed three valiant freedom fighters of South Africa in total disregard of the fervent appeals for clemency universally voiced by the international community and the United Nations Security Council. The Government emphatically condemns this brutal act of violence against the legitimate struggle for freedom and independence in South Africa. Our deepest sympathies go out to the oppressed and heroic people of South Africa and the bereaved families of these martyrs. No amount of brutality and terrorism can suppress the indomitable human urge for freedom and liberty. The martyrdom of these freedom fighters will only serve to further strengthen the determination of the people of South Africa to liquidate the inhuman system of apartheid and racial discrimination. The continuation of the oppressive policies and destructive actions of the apartheid regime adds fuel to the already explosive situation it has created in the region and may pose a threat to international peace and stability. The international community, particularly those holding considerable leverage with the Pretoria regime, must no longer delay taking adequate steps to oblige it to heed and respect international opinion and observe the basic tenets of human law, justice and international behaviour.

MESSAGE BY MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND CHAIRMAN OF THE MOVEMENT OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES, ON THE INTERNATIONAL DAY FOR THE ELIMINATION OF RACIAL DISCRIMINATION, MARCH 21, 1984 Racial discrimination is against all norms of civilised behaviour. It makes mockery of democracy and deprives not only of talent and capability but the basic feeling of fellowship so necessary for cooperation and progress.

As we observe once again the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the Government and the people of India reaffirm their staunch and lasting support for the struggle against apartheid. The shock of the Sharpeville massacre cannot be forgotten but the stifling of the liberty and dignity of a whole people by racist tyranny is a continuing horror. The crushing of the spirit of a people is the greatest dis-service to the creative urges of humankind. Steadfast opposition to a racial discrimination is fundamental to the Nonaligned Movement. Successive Summits have strongly condemned the racist regime of South Africa for perpetuating this obscenity. History is witness that a determined people cannot be subjugated for long. Racism is in retreat and its high priests have now taken resort to increasing violence through desperation. The people of South Africa are struggling for their freedom. In this worthy cause they deserve and need the whole-hearted support of people everywhere. India and other nations of the Nonaligned Movement are with them.

LETTER FROM MR. P.V. NARASIMHA RAO, MINISTER OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS OF INDIA, TO MR. M. MOOLA, CHIEF REPRESENTATIVE OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ASIAN MISSION), NEW DELHI, JULY 1984 When the ANC delegation led by Mr. Josiah Jele, National Executive Committee Member, met me on 3rd May 1984, you had acquainted me with the steps being taken by the South African regime to implement the so-called constitutional changes. It seemed clear from what you had said that the proposal to institute legislatures, based on race groups, was nothing but an attempt to perpetuate the system of apartheid in South Africa whereby the ruling minority would deprive the majority of the population of any meaningful say in the political processes of their own country. 2. The elections proposed on 22nd August 1984, particularly for the Indian Chamber and Coloured Chamber of the new legislature, appear to be nothing but a facade to mislead public opinion worldwide. There also appear to be more sinister motives such as an attempt to split the Liberation Movements and sow discord between the Coloured and Indian communities on the one side and the black majority on the other. I have the impression that the objective of the South African regime in this exercise is to try and gain tactical advantage by diluting opposition to apartheid abroad, and thus reducing the pressure for political

isolation and economic disinvestment. These so-called constitutional reforms which totally ignore the black majority, which constitutes 73 per cent of the population, are an endeavour by the racist minority to weaken those forces that are striving to bring about a more equitable system of government and society in South Africa. 3. The Government and people of India would urge all the people of South Africa, and especially those of Indian origin, to take no part in this so-called election, and to maintain unity in the struggle against apartheid and racialism.

STATEMENT BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ON THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN SITUATION, JULY 23, 1984

The Government of India has noted developments in the southern African region over the past few months. These developments have resulted in critical changes in the situation prevailing in the area. The Government of India has always believed that the root cause of the problems faced by the southern African region is the practice of apartheid by the regime in South Africa, which has led to aggression and attempts at destabilisation of States bordering South Africa. The Government of India has always supported, and will continue to support, the liberation movements in South Africa and Namibia, by extending to them political, moral, diplomatic and material support in accordance with its capacity. It reiterates its support for the United Nations Security Council Resolution 435 as a basis for working out the independence of Namibia, and, at the same time, rejects any attempt to link this independence process to matters concerning internal affairs of other States. The Government of India supports the views and decisions arrived at by the African Frontline States after their meeting in Arusha on April 29, 1984, and calls upon like-minded countries to express their solidarity with the liberation movements.

STATEMENT BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, ON BEHALF OF THE MOVEMENT OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES, REGARDING THE ARRESTS IN SOUTH AFRICA, 22 AUGUST 1984

The fraudulent elections in South Africa scheduled on 22nd and 28th August, with segregated chambers for "Coloured" people and people of Asian origin, are an affront to the non-white communities of South Africa. The Security Council has already declared them without any validity whatsoever and as

intended to aggravate the already explosive situation prevailing inside apartheid South Africa. The country-wide raids by the Security Police of the racist regime and the arrests and detention of a number of leaders of the non-white communities are clearly intended to intimidate the local population into submission and passivity. Apartheid is an offence against all humankind. It represents a challenge to the universal concepts of human dignity and equality of man. No amount of disguises through so-called "constitutional proposals" can hide this fact. As the Prime Minister of India stated in a message recently, the "elections" represent a "fraud on the people of South Africa and the very spirit of liberty." The Prime Minister has urged the people of South Africa, especially the black, Coloured and Asian communities, to strongly oppose the "elections" which are meant to divide and weaken the struggle against apartheid. The Nonaligned Movement cannot but deplore the recent raids and arrests of South African patriots. MESSAGE FROM MRS. INDIRA GANDHI, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA AND CHAIRPERSON OF THE MOVEMENT OF NON-ALIGNED COUNTRIES, TO BISHOP DESMOND TUTU, OCTOBER 18, 1984 On behalf of the Government and people of India and on my own, it gives me great pleasure to send you our sincere felicitations and good wishes on your selection for the Nobel Peace Prize for 1984. India was the first country to raise its voice against South Africa's abhorrent policy of apartheid. Mahatma Gandhi did so more than 80 years ago and the Government of India took the lead in the United Nations in 1946. In recent years my Government and I have been exerting maximum efforts, together with enlightened public opinion elsewhere in the world, to influence the South African Government to change its behaviour towards its African and Asian population. We have yet to achieve success and the struggle must go on. The Nobel Peace Prize Committee's recognition of your courageous contribution to this formidable fight will strengthen the hopes, aspirations and determination of anti-apartheid forces not only in the rest of the world but also, and more importantantly, within South Africa. Needless to say, we shall persist in our support for the achievement of our common objective.

STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, ON REPORTS OF VIOLENCE INVOLVING AFRICANS AND INDIAN SOUTH AFRICANS, AUGUST 14, 1985

I am distressed at the reports of violence involving Africans and people of Indian origin in South Africa. The Government and people of India, and the Indian National Congress which led our independence movement, have had a historical and emotional link with the situation in South Africa. It was in South Africa that Mahatma Gandhi tested and tried out the instruments of civil disobedience and non-violent resistance. He was concerned about the right and welfare equally of Indians and Africans. India was the first country to raise its voice against apartheid in the United Nations. India considered that its independence was not complete unless all other countries suffering under colonial yoke, especially in Africa, also achieved emancipation. We have never discriminated among people of different religions or colour. The South African authorities are resorting to extreme methods to curb the winds of change. The persistent and tireless efforts of the progressive forces in the world are having their impact, as we were confident they would. The manoeuvres of the South African regime must not be allowed to sow discord among the African and Asian populations. This is the time when all the non-white people of South Africa, and even those sections among the whites who oppose apartheid, should close their ranks and fight unitedly to vanquish the racist policies. The people of India will be with them.

APPEAL BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, FOR THE RELEASE OF MR. NELSON MANDELA, AUGUST 19, 1985

The recent escalation of violence in South Africa is a matter of profound concern to the international community. Hundreds, if not thousands, of innocent lives have been lost, the poor majority black population has been further impoverished, the denial of human rights or any kind of freedom has been further accentuated by the imposition of a State of Emergency in several districts inhabited by black people. All this is the direct result of the policy of apartheid practised by the racist South African regime. Violence is implicit in the theory and practice of racial bigotry, which is the essence of apartheid. To struggle against this tyranny is the natural and just response of the oppressed people of South Africa, it is our common cause. The man who personifies this struggle and its sufferings is Nelson Mandela, who has now been in solitary confinement for 23 years in a notorious prison in South Africa. It is astonishing that the South African Government

expected this idealist to accept a number of humiliating conditions as the price for his release. They perhaps thought that after all these years of incarceration his spirit would be broken and he would settle for his personal "freedom" at the cost of his life-long ideals. His answer to the offer of a conditional release made by the Government in February this year is a moving testimony to his indomitable will. His reply, read out by his daughter at a rally, was: "I am in prison as a representative of the people and your organisation, the African National Congress, which was banned. What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people remains banned? I cherish my own freedom dearly but I care even more for your freedom from apartheid. I cannot sell my birthright nor am I prepared to sell the birthright of my people to be free." South Africa must be made to see reason. It must be made to release Nelson Mandela unconditionally. The only way this can be done is to totally isolate the racists. It is futile to hope that cooperation in any manner with that regime will give anyone leverage or influence, so as to change things for the better. I, therefore, earnestly appeal to all Governments to secure the unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and his colleagues and to sever all contacts with the racist regime in Pretoria. RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE LOK SABHA ON AUGUST 19, 1985, AND RAJYA SABHA ON AUGUST 20, 1985 This House unanimously resolves: 1. To condemn the inhuman policy of apartheid of the racist regime of South Africa; 2. To denounce the attempts of the South African authorities to divide the African, Asian and other peoples of South Africa struggling for their human rights; 3. To appeal to all the freedom loving forces of the world to remain united in the struggle against apartheid; 4. To call upon governments to impose effective and comprehensive mandatory sanctions against South Africa; 5. To call for the unconditional release of the brave patriot Nelson Mandela and other freedom fighters; 6. To continue to extend all support to the freedom struggle of the people of South Africa and to espouse their cause in all relevant international forums;

7. To call upon the forthcoming NAM Ministerial meeting in Luanda and the fortieth commemorative session of the United Nations to redouble efforts to secure the liberation of the people of South Africa from the unmitigated crimes of apartheid; and 8. To call upon the people of Indian origin in South Africa to continue their struggle in solidarity with their African brethren in their common cause against apartheid.

PRESS RELEASE OF THE PERMANENT MISSION OF INDIA TO THE UNITED NATIONS, AUGUST 20, 1985

Intervening in the course of a debate today in the Indian Parliament on the situation in South Africa, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, inter alia, made an appeal to save the life of Benjamin Moloise, a freedom fighter of A.N.C., who was due to be executed tomorrow, 21st August. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi also requested the Secretary-General of the United Nations to intervene with the South African Government to spare the life of Mr. Moloise. Mr. Rajiv Gandhi was making this appeal in his capacity as Prime Minister of India and Chairman of the Movement of Nonaligned Countries. This appeal has been conveyed to the United Nations SecretaryGeneral this morning by the Permanent Representative of India to the United Nations.

INDIA'S CONTRIBUTION TO MRS. WINNIE MANDELA, 20 SEPTEMBER 1985

Ambassador Natarajan Krishnan of India today presented a cheque for US $5000 to the Vice-Chairman of the United Nations Special Committee against Apartheid, Ambassador Elie Charles, in his capacity of coordinator for the fundraising to Mrs. Winnie Mandela in South Africa whose house and clinic were recently firebombed. This represents India's contribution to the special fund. The contribution is made for the reconstruction of the home and clinic of Mrs. Mandela to enable her to continue her important work among the oppressed people of South Africa deprived of their fundamental political and human rights. The contribution is a token of India's recognition and appreciation of Mrs. Mandela's outstanding services to the people of South Africa in the face of constant persecution by the apartheid regime.

MESSAGE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, TO THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID ON THE DAY OF SOLIDARITY WITH SOUTH AFRICAN POLITICAL PRISONERS, OCTOBER 11, 1985 On the Day of Solidarity with South African Political Prisoners being observed by the Special Committee against Apartheid, I wish to reaffirm the unqualified support of the people and Government of India for the brave fighters for freedom in South Africa. Forty years ago, in the first session of the United Nations General Assembly, it was India which first brought up the question of racial discrimination in South Africa. We were also the first country to ban trade with South Africa. We have also worked wholeheartedly with the Special Committee against Apartheid ever since its inception in 1963. To suppress the legitimate struggle of millions of Africans and others for their inalienable human rights, the racist regime of South Africa has armed itself with many weapons under a wide range of so-called laws. One of the most inhuman of such weapons is the indefinite imprisonment of political opponents. Thousands have suffered from such state terrorism. Arrests and detentions without trial - all these and more are common, everyday occurences. Many detainees have actually died of torture while in State custody. It is a tribute to the indomitable spirit of the freedom fighters of South Africa that none of these acts of terror have succeeded in cowing down the people. On the contrary, they have made the mass of the people further intensify their struggle, filling South African prisons to bursting point. There is increasing awareness in the international community that the situation cannot be allowed to remain as it is. Initial punitive steps aginst the racist regime have recently been announced by many States. But it is essential for Western countries who are continuing to provide economic succour to the besieged racist regime to recognise that mere persuasion will not move the insensitive authorities in Pretoria and that specific and wide-ranging economic sanctions alone will bring about the dismantling of the criminal structure of apartheid. I extend my greetings and strong support once again to the South African political prisoners. Freedom must - and will - be theirs soon.

STATEMENT BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, AT THE MEETING OF THE UNITED NATIONS SPECIAL COMMITTEE AGAINST APARTHEID, OCTOBER 22, 1985 I have come here from a meeting of the Commonwealth Heads of Government held in the Bahamas. Combating apartheid was on the top of our agenda. The pain and the passion with which leaders spoke at that meeting are still echoing in my ears. I was heartened to find at the Commonwealth meeting that nation after nation made common cause with the South African people. It is a struggle between humanity and inhumanity. It is a battle between freedom and oppression. Governments, who genuinely believe in human equality, are on one side. The Pretoria regime, clinging to the totally untenable and discredited doctrine of apartheid, is on the other. Some Governments had believed that the Pretoria regime could be brought round through persuasion. Their opposition to sanctions was on the ground that they would be ineffective, not that Pretoria deserved a respite. They are gradually finding out that a Government without conscience is not amenable to a change of heart. There is no alternative to the removal of the regime and the installation of a Government based on racial equality. The Commonwealth has demosntrated solidarity with the struggling people of South Africa. It has called for dismantling of the detestable apartheid regime. To this end it has worked out a package of specific measures that bind all its members. We shall carefully monitor how they work. We hope that these measures will help the freedom fighters who are struggling valiantly to end apartheid. The people of South Africa are capable of doing that on their own. But the regime has amassed such vast military power that the people, unaided, will have to fight a long battle. Our duty is to shorten the battle and save lives and avoidable agony. But let us not underestimate the regime's brazeness. Did it not, only last week, execute Benjamin Moloise, mocking international opinion? Does it not continue to hold Nelson Mandela in prison, defying the pleas and protests of an anguished world? The people's organizations in South Africa have shown exemplary courage. Barring a handful of collaborators, they have spurned enticing offers from the regime. There is "no easy walk to freedom". South Africa compounds the guilt of apartheid by the crime of aggression against its neighbours and by the illegal occupation of Namibia. The Security Council has unanimously agreed on steps to vacate that colonialism and end that

aggression. The countries that have so far temporised in enforcing the resolution should know the damage to their credibility. They must now come out on the side of positive and effective action. Many nations have imposed economic sanctions unilaterally against racist Pretoria. India was the first to do so, 40 years ago. But sanctions have not been imposed by those whose decision will have the maximum effect on South Africa. It is up to them to show how else they plan to change the Government in South Africa and usher in the rule of law and equality there. As Indira Gandhi declared: "The idea of freedom cannot be stamped out. Some spark will persist to burst into flame, somewhere, some time, to light the way and illumine hearts and ultimately lead to success. Neither colour nor caste nor sex makes one person superior or inferior. No matter what laws South Africa devises for itself, history cannot be denied, nor will the inexorable march of the future be halted. Apartheid cannot survive." We have gathered here to pledge our support to Nelson Mandela and to the hundreds of thousands of men, women and children of South Africa who, through their suffering, are upholding our collective cause. Their victory will be our victory. I give my good wishes to the work of the Special Committee against Apartheid, which has done so much to bring the heroism of the South African people to the world's notice.

BAN ON ENTRY INTO INDIA OF MEMBERS OF SOUTH AFRICAN PARLIAMENT, MAY 21, 1986 Press release by the Ministry of External Affairs, May 21, 1986 The South African regime introduced a tricameral legislature in August 1984 as part of the so-called "constitutional reforms". These "constitutional reforms" totally excluded the black majority from any form of political participation and even Coloured and Indian communities were given limited powers. These socalled "constitutional reform" were not seen as such by the majority of the world community. Since that time, the Asian and Coloured representatives in this legislature do not appear to have made any meaningful effort to press for an end to apartheid or for a representation of the black majority. As a measure of our sympathy and support for all those struggling to introduce an equitable and democratic regime in South Africa, the Government of India have decided to ban the entry into India of any member of the Coloured and Asian legislatures, which form part of these so-called "constitutional reforms". They are not representatives of the Coloured or Asian communities in South Africa, and their participation in

this sham exercise only serves to divide and weaken the struggle against apartheid.

STATEMENT BY THE MINISTER OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS AND COMMERCE, MR. P. SHIV SHANKAR, ANNOUNCING THE WEEK OF SOLIDARITY OF INDIA WITH SOUTHERN AFRICA, JULY 17, 1986 The identification of India with struggles of people of southern Africa can be traced to the beginning of twentieth century, not only with the action of Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa but also with the positions adopted from that time onwards by other leaders of the freedom movement in India. First concrete manifestation of Indian Government action against white minority Government of South Africa came exactly forty years ago today with the issuance of orders prohibiting trade between India and South Africa. India's unilateral boycott of South Africa in ever-increasing number of areas, including the cultural, economic, political and diplomatic, has not flinched since then. India has been steadfast in this policy. India was the first country to introduce a resolution in United Nations calling for universal comprehensive mandatory sanctions against South Africa. It is a matter of gratification to India that now the overwhelming majority of the United Nations supports such action against South Africa. India's solidarity with nations of southern Africa, whether on question of apartheid or on question of independence of Namibia, has gone beyond actions within the United Nations. To the extent possible India has extended material support to freedom movements in various countries in southern Africa as well as to SWAPO and the ANC. The recent visit of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi to frontline States of Africa was further expression of solidarity with southern African causes. I am happy to announce that on a directive from Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi India will observe the next full week as Week of Solidarity with Southern Africa. This week will be marked by various events meant to mobilise opinion within India and outside in favour of continuing struggle against the last vestiges of colonialism in South Africa and Namibia. I take this opportunity to express India's support to and admiration for the valiant fighters for freedom in Namibia and against apartheid in South Africa. We salute, above all, Nelson Mandela on the eve of his birthday tomorrow, July 18, 1986.

MESSAGE BY PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, TO MRS. WINNIE MANDELA, ON THE 68TH BIRTHDAY OF NELSON MANDELA, JULY 18, 1986 My warm greetings to Nelson Mandela on his 68th birthday. To the people of India, and indeed to the entire civilised world, Nelson Mandela is a symbol of the free human spirit. We admire the heroic resistance of the people of South Africa to the inhuman apartheid regime. We salute the indomitable fortitude with which Nelson Mandela has borne his personal tribulations during his long incarceration in the pursuit of human rights and a majority government in South Africa. We reiterate our demand for his immediate and unconditional release, together with all other freedom fighters of South Africa. We renew our pledge of solidarity with their just struggle against the racist regime. The course of history cannot be changed. Nelson Mandela will emerge victorious. RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE LOK SABHA, AUGUST 7, 1986 This House unanimously 1. Condemns the inhuman policy of apartheid of the racist regime of South Africa; 2. Expresses the solidarity of the Indian people with the brave freedom fighters of South Africa and supports their just struggle for human rights; 3. Denounces the obstinate refusal of the South African authorities to enter into meaningful negotiations with the African National Congress and other political organisations to dismantle apartheid; 4. Condemns the action of governments which provide moral encouragement and material assistance to the racist government of South Africa; 5. Welcomes the efforts made by the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, to mobilise world opinion in support of the heroic battle of the South African people for freedom and human dignity and the courageous stand taken by India and five other countries at the seven-nation Commonwealth Summit to impose mandatory economic sanctions against South Africa; 6. Regrets that Britain has not adopted the full range of measures agreed upon at Nassau;

7. Appeals to all the freedom-loving forces of the world to remain united in the historic movement against apartheid; 8. Calls upon all governments to impose comprehensive, effective and mandatory sanctions against South Africa; 9. Calls for the unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and other freedom fighters of South Africa and for the removal of the ban on the activities of the African National Congress and other political organisations; 10. Appeals to parliamentarians of the world to use all moral and constitutional means at their disposal to persuade governments and other authorities all over the world to take effective action against the South African authorities; and finally, 11. Calls upon the forthcoming meeting of the Heads of Government and State of the Non-aligned Movement to redouble efforts to secure the liberation of the peoples of South Africa and Namibia from the unmitigated crimes and tyranny of the racist Pretoria regime.

RESOLUTION ADOPTED BY THE RAJYA SABHA ON AUGUST 8, 1986 This House unanimously resolves to: 1. Condemn the inhuman policy of apartheid of the racist regime of South Africa; 2. Express the solidarity of the Indian people with the brave freedom fighters of South Africa and to support their just struggle for human rights; 3. Denounce the obstinate refusal of the South African authorities to enter into meaningful negotiations with the African National Congress and other political organisations to dismantle apartheid; 4. Deplore the action of governments which provide moral and material encouragement to the racist government of South Africa; 5. Strengthen the efforts made by the Prime Minister, Shri Rajiv Gandhi, to mobilising world opinion In support of the heroic bathe of South African people for freedom and human dignity; 6. Welcome the forthright stand taken by India and five other countries at the seven-nation Commonwealth Summit to impose mandatory economic sanctions against South Africa;

7. Express its deep regret that Britain has not adopted the full range of measures agreed upon at Nassau; 8. Appeal to all the freedom-loving forces of the world to remain steadfast In the historic movement against apartheid; 9. Call upon all governments to impose comprehensive, effective and mandatory sanctions against South Africa; 10. Call for the unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and other freedom fighters of South Africa and for the removal of the ban on the activities of the African National Congress and other political organisations; 11. Appeal to parliaments of the world to use all moral and constitutional means at their disposal to persuade governments and other authorities all over the world to take effective action against the South African authorities; and 12. Call upon the forthcoming meeting of the Heads of Governments and States of the Non-aligned Movement to redouble efforts to secure the liberation of the people of South Africa from the unmitigated crimes and tyranny of apartheid.

MESSAGE BY THE PRIME MINISTER, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, TO MRS. WINNIE MANDELA ON HER FIFTIETH BIRTHDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1986 MY WARMEST FELICITATIONS TO YOU ON YOUR FIFTIETH BIRTHDAY. WE ADMIRE YOUR UNFLINCHING COURAGE AND INDOMITABLE SPIRIT IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST THE EVIL OF APARTHEID IN SOUTH AFRICA. YOU HAVE COME TO PERSONIFY THE FORTITUDE OF AFRICA, ESPECIALLY OF AFRICAN WOMEN, AND THE HOPES AND ASPIRATIONS OF MILLIONS IN THEIR QUEST FOR BASIC FREEDOMS AND HUMAN DIGNITY. YOUR SUCCESS IS INEVITABLE. YOU CAN COUNT ON THE FULLEST SUPPORT AND SOLIDARITY OF THE PEOPLE OF INDIA. WE KNOW THAT YOU WILL BE REUNITED WITH YOUR VALIANT HUSBAND IN A FREE AND DEMOCRATIC SOUTH AFRICA.

MESSAGE FROM THE PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, MR. RAJIV GANDHI, ON THE OCCASION OF THE 25TH ANNIVERSARY OF UMKHONTO WE SIZWE, DECEMBER 16, 1986

I am glad that the African National Congress is commemorating the Heroes' Day to mark the 25th anniversary of the launching of armed struggle by the African National Congress under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. During this period, the African National Congress and its leadeers have faced the most brutal repression from the racist authorities of Pretoria. Nelson Mandela himself has spent twenty-four out of these twenty-five years in jail. Other leaders and activists of the African National Congress have been executed, imprisoned or been forced to go into exile. These measures of suppression have not daunted the spirit of the African National Congress. The struggle has continued and even intensified. The spirit of freedom can never be vanquished. I am confident that the people of South Africa will continue to wage their war against the inequalities and injustice of apartheid till the system is eliminated. In this struggle the African National Congress has played a leadership role and will undoubtedly continue to do so. In their fight the people of South Africa have our wholehearted and unconditional support.

TEXT OF STATEMENT BY OFFICIAL SPOKESPERSON OF THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, MARCH 1988

The Government of India condemns the new regulations promulgated by the racist Pretoria regime banning political activity by 17 leading anti-apartheid organisations and the Congress of South African Trade Union (COSATU). This action by the apartheid regime is yet another attempt to perpetuate the evils of racism and deny the people of South Africa their basic human rights. That the South African Government has resorted yet again to such repressive measures shows its fear of the movement for freedom which is gaining ground. Government reiterates its firm support to the people of South Africa in their valiant struggle against the abhorrent system of apartheid. (TO OBTAIN OFFICIAL TEXT, DATE AND REFERENCE) "INDIA: A TRUSTED ALLY": ARTICLE IN SECHABA, ORGAN OF THE AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS, JANUARY 1989 When, in 1946, the South African Indian Congress under the leadership of Dr. Y. M. Dadoo and Dr. `Monty' Naicker launched a passive resistance struggle against racial discrimination, they appealed for support. India, which was on the verge of independence from British rule, was the first country to respond. It did so

by breaking off relations, both trade and diplomatic, and by giving support to the South African Indian Congress and the ANC at the United Nations. The spirit of its pledges have continued in various forms over the years, and were to find expression through the Commonwealth, the Non-Aligned Movement, and virtually every international body to which India belongs. Recognising the importance of collective action, Gandhi and Nehru constantly counselled Indians in South Africa to follow their leaders in the search for unity with the African people in a common struggle for freedom. In 1979, the prestigious Jawaharlal Nehru Award was conferred on Nelson Mandela, who, like many of his colleagues in the ANC Youth League, had been inspired by the leadership of Gandhi and Nehru in the struggle for Indian national independence. The prestige of the ANC and SWAPO in India is widespread. The offices of the ANC and SWAPO enjoy embassy status, and neither President Tambo nor President Nujoma are strangers in the country. Demonstrations and acts of solidarity, not only by the Government of India, but by the vast masses, reached new heights in 1988. Coal miners in Bihar started a collection through their trade unions, and have pledged a sum of 20 million rupees to the Africa Solidarity Fund, while students in Delhi collected 16,000 rupees. Events to mark the 70th birthday of Nelson Mandela included concerts, exhibitions and rallies; the occasion was observed in many schools, and for many days there was a steady stream of students visiting the ANC office with petitions, poems and pledges. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi sent birthday greetings, which Winnie Mandela acknowledged with a powerful reply. More than 100,000 people in Delhi signed a petition for Mandela's release. After consultations between Sam Ramsamy of the South African Non-Racial Olympic Committee and the Indian parliamentarian, Anand Sharma, moves began to stop the English cricket tour, because members of the team, including the captain, Graham Gooch, had broken the sports boycott. Recently, the Indian Government has put a ban on any member of the Tri-Cameral Parliament from entering the country; and this ban includes any known collaborators. September and October 1988 marked the centenary of the birth of Pandit Nehru and the 119th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi. The Government of India invited Monomaney Naidoo (widely known as `Ama' which means mother), together with her exiled daughter, veteran activist Shanthie, to mark the events. This invitation was in recognition of the contribution made by Ama's father-in-law, C. K. Thambi Naidoo, to the struggle against racial discrimination made in the early part of this century by the small Indian community in South Africa, led by Mahatma Gandhi.

This family has a proud record - the struggle against apartheid has continued over 82 years, and through four generations. The most recent to have been imprisoned is 17-year-old Kuben, during the run-up to the racist municipal elections. Ama's son, Indres, was among the first soldiers of Umkhonto we Sizwe, and was held on Robben Island for ten years. Ama and Shanthie were received by the President of India, Mr. R. Venkataraman, and the Prime Minister, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi. They were taken on a three-week tour of the major cities, where they gave people a first hand account of the brutality of the apartheid system, the position of the ANC as the central force of the liberation struggle, and the Freedom Charter as the guiding factor in the new South Africa. They had cordial discussions with the ANC mission in New Delhi. At the same time, in Lusaka, the ANC was engaging in an historic meeting with a selection of representative leaders of the Indian people in South Africa.

STATEMENT BY THE OFFICIAL SPOKESMAN OF THE MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS, 15 FEBRUARY 1990 Mr. Prakash Shah, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister, met Mr. Nelson Mandela on 14th February, 1990. Mr. Mandela was greatly touched and impressed by the Prime Minister's address on the day of his release. This message was a source of great inspiration in the great tradition of the Indian freedom struggle which had acted as a beacon light for the struggling and oppressed people of South Africa. History of the liberation movement is deeply influenced by India's freedom struggle. When one thinks of this struggle, one thinks of Mahatma Gandhi. India was the first country to raise the matter of the liberation of South Africa at the United Nations. Mandela told Prakash Shah that he recalled vividly the stunning image of a non-white Mohamed Karim Chagla challenging the whites in a forum created by them. Whenever the leaders of freedom struggle visited India, they have invariably given clarion calls of support for the struggling masses of South Africa. Mandela recalled specially the appeal of both Gandhi and Nehru to the Indian community in South Africa urging them to associate themselves and identify themselves with the stirrings and aspirations of the African people. This appeal of Gandhi and Nehru acted as a magnetic galvanising force and had a signal impact on the unity of the freedom movement in South Africa. What really touched his heart and that of his oppressed brothers and sisters was the generosity of the gesture of India in giving him the Nehru Award while he was incarcerated in prison. No South African can ever obliterate from his individual or collective memory, the historical significance of the fact that India was the first country in the world to impose diplomatic sanctions in 1946 against the racist regime of South Africa. Mandela told our Prime Minister's

Special Envoy that he had ordered the postponement of several engagements and the rescheduling of his entire programme to ensure that our Prime Minister's Special Envoy should be received at the earliest possible opportunity. Mr. Mandela conveyed through Mr. Prakash Shah his assurance to Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh of the seminal importance that is attached by him individually and by his people collectively, to India's support through these long and hard decades and of the special gesture of sending a special envoy. Mandela told Prakash Shah that without any reservation or hesitation, whatsoever, he gladly accepted Prime Minister's invitation to visit India. He had asked his National Reception Committee to work out mutually convenient dates.

PRESS RELEASE BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ON THE VISIT OF DR. NELSON MANDELA TO INDIA, 19 OCTOBER 1990

Dr. Nelson Mandela, the Deputy President of the African National Congress, on a 5-day visit to India, was given a warm welcome on arrival in New Delhi on October 15, 1990. He is being honoured as a visiting Head of State. His engagements in New Delhi included a State banquet by the President, a civic reception by the Mayor and people of Delhi, official discussions with the Prime Minister and meetings with leaders of various political parties. At a special investiture ceremony, the President of India conferred on Dr. Mandela India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. After New Delhi, Dr. Mandela visited a number of other Indian cities, viz. Agra, Varanasi and Calcutta where several engagements had been planned. 2. Dr. Mandela described his visit to India as fulfilment of his long-cherished ambition to see the land where Mahatma Gandhi applied his ideas. He referred to the strong ties that existed between the peoples of his country and India and recalled that it was Mahatma Gandhi who had started the first organised and disciplined political struggle in South Africa when he established the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. He added that since then, the people of South Africa had been influenced by Mahatma Gandhi's precepts and practice of non-violent struggle. 3. In his discussions with the Prime Minister of India, Mr. Vishwanath Pratap Singh, and other leaders, Dr. Mandela expressed the appreciation of the African National Congress for the support given by India to the struggle by the majority to regain their rights in South Africa. He also noted with appreciation the invaluable contributions made by large segments of the Indian community in South Africa, especially the Transvaal Indian Congress and the Natal Indian Congress. These groups had played a stellar role in uniting South Africans and in leading the movement for democracy and freedom.

4. Dr. Mandela briefed Indian leaders about the on-going discussions with the South African government. He narrated his first and subsequent meetings with the South African Government leaders as being constructive. He expressed optimism about the outcome of these talks, which he described as being on course. He said that as a result of his discussions, he had been able to remove several obstacles which were standing in the way of further cooperation between the ANC and the government. 5. Addressing a Press Conference in New Delhi, Dr. Mandela reiterated that there can be no solution to the South African problem other than the complete dismantling of apartheid and the installation of a truly democratic government on the basis of universal adult franchise without any discrimination of colour or race. Answering a question, he said that the decision of the Pretoria regime to scrap the Separate Amenities Act was welcome, inasmuch as the removal of any means of apartheid was a step forward. 6. Indian leaders assured Dr. Mandela of India's continuing support for the valiant struggle of the South African people. President R. Venkataraman, speaking at the banquet hosted by him in honour of Dr. Mandela, described the latter as an emblem of the world's struggles in the service of humanity. He said that the people of India welcomed him as a man who had conquered fear, despair and hate. India would continue to fully support the position of the ANC on international sanctions so that the Pretoria regime enters into meaningful negotiations with representatives of the people for ushering in a new era of genuine democracy. 7. Dr. Mandela was presented with a cheque for US $5 million as a token of the solidarity of the people and Government of India in the struggle of the people of South Africa against apartheid.

STATEMENT BY MR. P.V. NARASIMHA RAO, PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA, ON THE OCCASION OF THE INAUGURATION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY IN SOUTH AFRICA ON 10 MAY 1994

Today is a special day for South Africa, for the whole world and for people of India. A new Government, elected on the basis of the first ever multiracial elections in South Africa, assumed office today, and Nelson Mandela has been elected as South Africa's first democratic President. As the people of South Africa celebrate the dawn of freedom, we join them with joy, happiness and pride for what they have achieved and for what their achievement signifies for humanity.

The South African people have succeeded in overthrowing decades of domination and exploitation based on the dark aspects of human existence; the belief that one man is superior to another because of the colour of his skin, because he can force his will on the majority. All this has been relegated to history. The South African people have achieved what is rightfully theirs, a country that belongs to all who live in it, and a Government that they can claim as their own based on the will of the people. The South African struggle has shown that the strength of the human spirit, the strength of values of moral conviction, and the strength of uncompromising struggle against domination and exploitation are indeed formidable forces for change. The achievements of the South African struggle are a homage to Mahatma Gandhi. It was in South Africa 101 years ago that the father of our nation saw a link between the struggles for freedom in that country and ours. Gandhiji said "truly speaking, it was after I went to South Africa that I became what I am now. My love for South Africa and my concern for her problems are no less than for India." By history, circumstance or choice, about one million people of Indian origin now live in South Africa. Most of them have lived there for generations and have toiled with their South African compatriots, and contributed to the prosperity of that country. Many have also struggled shoulder to shoulder against the minority racist domination. Today, they are a vibrant part of the family of the South African people. We will endeavour to reinforce the closest cultural and social links with them and with the people of all races in South Africa. We welcome post-apartheid South Africa to the comity of nations. The ties we have forged in the long years of being in the forefront of the struggle against apartheid will stand us in good stead in developing mutual cooperation. India was in the vanguard of the anti-apartheid struggle, the first to raise the issue at the United Nations, and we have done this because we felt it was our cause, and not that of a distant neighbour. On this very happy occasion, I would like to extend our congratulations and felicitations to one of the great men of our times, the father of the South African nation, whom we honoured in 1979 with the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding and in 1990 with the Bharat Ratna award, President Nelson Mandela, as he takes up his responsibilities as Head of State of South Africa. We pay tribute to his role as a great reconciler and wish him success in leading South Africa through the interim period towards a peaceful, democratic and prosperous future.

FOOTNOTES 
From: Harijan, March 24, 1946  From: Harijan, June 23, 1946  Source: United Nations document A/149  Source: Gazette of India (Ext.), Part IV-V, Supplement 1946, July 17, 1946.  This was sent through Dr. Y. M. Dadoo and Dr. G. M. Naicker who met Gandhiji on May 18 and 19, 1947.

Source: Harijan, May 25, 1947; Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Volume 87, page 492  Source: United Nations document A/2183  This press note was reproduced in United Nations document A/5452 of July 19, 1963.  The text of this letter was published in United Nations document A/5452 of July 19, 1963  Source: United Nations document A/AC.115/L.100  United Nations document A/AC.115/L.143/Rev.1 of 13 October 1965  The provisions in these paragraphs concern an arms embargo against South Africa.  Press Release of the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations, 21 March 1968  From: United Nations document A/CONF.91/4/Add.1, August 15, 1977; document of the World Conference for Action against Apartheid, Lagos, August 1977  Information on assistance to African States members of the United Nations is omitted here.  From: United Nations document A/CONF.107/5, May 1981; document of the International Conference on Sanctions against South Africa, Paris, May 1981.  Source: Acts of Parliament, 1981 (Government of India, Ministry of Law, Justice and Company Affairs), pages 264-66  Press Release of the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations, 11 May 1982  From: Press release of the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations, New York  United Nations document A/39/338-S/16659, 6 July 1984  From: Press release of the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations, New York  Statement by Government of India, New Delhi, 22 August 1984, and United Nations document A/39/425-S/16711, 24 August 1984  From: Foreign Affairs Record, New Delhi, August 1985  From: Foreign Affairs Record, New Delhi, August 1985, and United Nations document A/40/560  Non-aligned Movement  Press Release of the Peemanent Mission of India to the United Nations, 20 September 1985 

From: Press release of the Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations  United Nations document A/AC.115/L.630, and Foreign Affairs Record, New Delhi, October 1985  When this message was conveyed to Mrs. Mandela, she responded as follows:

"I have not words to thank him. I would like to convey my gratitude to Mr. Rajiv Gandhi. The warmth, love and solidarity of the people of India gives us courage and strength to stand up and walk upright under the load of apartheid and to continue the bitter struggle against this unhuman regime. We are especially indebted to India's solidarity. India was the first country to honour Mandela. Since then many other countries have given him prizes but India was the first. "We are looking up to India at the forthcoming Commonwealth Summit. We have just heard on the radio about India's boycott of the Commonwealth games. You cannot imagime the rejoicing in Soweto. Cars are hooting and young people are ululating on the streets."  Rajya Sabha Debates, Volume CXXXIX, No. 17, dated 8 August 1986, Columns 218-20  From Asian Times, London, March 11, 1988  United Nations document A/48-941-S/1994/577, 16 May 1994

INDIA AND SOUTH AFRICA - CHRONOLOGY March 22, 1945. Central Legislative Assembly of India adopted a motion demanding the imposition of sanctions against South Africa and recall of High Commissioner from South Africa. March 25, 1946. The day that the Asiatic Land Tenure and Indian Representation Bill was introduced in the South African House of Assembly for second reading, the Government of India gave formal notice of the termination of the 1938 "favoured nation" trade agreement with South Africa. A trade boycott was instituted on July 19, 1946. June 11, 1946. The Indian Government recalled its High Commissioner from South Africa in protest against the Union Government`s continued indifference to the representations made by the Government of India. June 22, 1946, India requested the inclusion of the question of "the treatment of Indians in the Union of South Africa" in the agenda of the United Nations General Assembly.

[To fill in] November 14, 1967. ANC office formally inaugurated in New Delhi. [To fill in] January 1983. Visit of ANC delegation, led by Oliver Tambo, to India. May 1989. A five-member delegation of NIC, TIC and Cosatu visited India for two weeks. It consisted of Cassim Salojee and Reggie Vandayar from TIC; Yunus Carrim and Sharm Govender from NIC; and Frederick Gona, second vicepresident of COSATU. It discussed implementation of cultural boycott, boycotting of apartheid collaborators etc. (This followed discussions with the Indian High Commissioner in Lusaka in 1988). UDF was also invited but could not send representative as South Africa denied passports to several of the ten members originally nominated to the delegation. Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Foreign Minister Narasimha Rao received the delegation. Rajiv Gandhi said that Indians in South Africa should actively participate in the mass democratic movement in South Africa and work towards majority rule. Their destiny lay with the majority. (The Leader, May 19, 1989) September 1989. Campaign against English cricket tour of India: 8 players refused visas. February 1990. Prakash Shah of Indian Foreign Ministry - accompanied by Shiv S. Mukerjee, ambassador to Namibia - arrived in South Africa on 13 February as envoy of Prime Minister V.P. Singh to Nelson Mandela. Mandela rescheduled his appointments to see them the next day. Mr. Shah delivered a letter from Prime Minister V.P. Singh inviting Mandela to India. Mr. Shah also met leaders of Indian community and others - but did not meet officials of the government or apartheid institutions. March 21, 1990. During Namibian independence celebrations, Prime Minister V.P. Singh and Rajiv Gandhi met Mandela. April 1990. India set up a Nelson Mandela Reception Committee of nearly 200 persons with Prime Minister V.P. Singh as Chairman. October 15, 1990. Mandela began a 5-day visit India. He was accompanied by Thomas Nkobi, Treasurer-General of ANC; Stanley Mabizela, Deputy Director, Department of International Affairs; Barbara Masikela, Director, Culture; Lalloo Chiba, Chairman, ANC (Lenasia); and M. Mphele, ANC representative in Delhi. India awarded him its highest honour, Bharat Ratna, gave a check for $ 5 million and an offer of material assistance of two crores of rupees etc. President R. Venkataraman said, at a banquet in honour of Mandela on October 15: "Our struggles, the Indian and the South African have... been twins in the

cradle of revolution. And so it has been only natural for us in India to watch every phase and unfolding sequence of South Africa's fight against apartheid, with instant and complete empathy." October 31, 1991. India decided to lift people-to-people sanctions against South Africa in conformity with the decisions of the Commonwealth Summit in Harare earlier. These include sports and cultural boycotts, restrictions on travel and air links, and consular and visa restrictions. November 1991. South African cricket tour of India - the first international tour of the South African team for 21 years. December 1991. During visit of Prof. Jayaram Reddy, Vice-Chancellor of UDW, to India, ICCR and he discussed a festival of India to be organised by UDW around July 1993. January 1992. Dr. Subramanian Swamy, M.P. and Chandra Swami, and six other Indians spent a week in South Africa from the end of January. They travelled in a private plane of Tiny Rowlands who accompanied them, and attended the opening of Parliament. Dinesh Singh, former Foreign Minister, visited South Africa as a member of the Commonwealth delegation to CODESA. Rusty Evans, deputy director-general of Department of Foreign Affairs, visited India around this time. March 1992. Shyam Benegal visited South Africa in connection with his proposed film on Gandhi in South Africa. April-May 1992. A high-level South African delegation led by Dr. S.J. Naude, Director-General of Trade, visited India. June-July 1992. Anand Sharma, visiting South Africa for 3 weeks, as representative of Indian National Congress, delivered a message from P.V. Narasimha Rao, Congress President (and Prime Minister) to Mandela - and represented the Prime Minister at the mass funeral for the victims of the massacre at Boipatong. October 1992. Mandela visited Pakistan. October 12, 1992. India announced a decision to open a cultural centre in South Africa, with authority to perform consular and visa functions; and to encourage visits to South Africa of trade delegations. October-November 1992. Indian cricket tour of South Africa, with approval of ANC.

November 1992. SAFTO said Indian businessmen were visiting South Africa at the rate of 120 a month. (The Leader, Durban, November 6, 1992). January 1993. Salman Haider, Secretary MEA, visited South Africa. April 1993. India and South Africa signed a bilateral air services agreement. K.M. Devarajan, Director-General of Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO), visited South Africa. April-May 1993. Tour of South Africa by a 19-member delegation of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). It signed a Cooperation Agreement with the South African Chamber of Business at Johannesburg on May 5, 1993. May 1993. India opened cultural centre in Johannesburg around this time. A senior official of South African Department of Trade and Industry visited India. July 1993. On a 12-hour visit to India, Rusty Evans met Minister of State Salman Khurshid, Foreign Secretary J.N. Dixit, and Salman Haider. September 1-2, 1993. Salman Khurshid, Minister of State, made a brief 2-day visit to South Africa. September 1993. Mr. K.M. Devarajan, Director-General of Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO) of India, made a very optimistic report on possibilities of economic relations with South Africa.He suggested the setting up of a trading bloc - "Indian Ocean Rim" - with Sri Lanka, Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, Comoros, Reunion, Mozambique and South Africa. The combined population of these countries was 1,400 million and the total trade $ 250 billion. (The idea of a trading bloc was apparently first suggested by the South Africa Foundation in 1991.) October 2, 1993. Air India inaugurated a twice weekly flight to Johannesburg and Durban via Dar es Salaam. (In addition to Air Mauritius, Gulf Air and Singapore Airlines had already begun offering flights to India). October 7, 1993. India announced the lifting of economic sanctions against South Africa, except on petroleum and arms. November 15, 1993. Mr. D. Villiers Graaff, deputy minister of trade and industry, led a 12-member trade mission to India.

November 22, 1993. The Foreign Ministers of India (Dinesh Singh) and South Africa (R.F. Botha) signed an agreement in Delhi, establishing diplomatic and consular relations. Botha was on a 2-day visit to Delhi. He proposed the grouping of Indian Ocean countries. A South African Representative Office was set up in Delhi with Barry Moolman as the head. January 1994. Minister of Salman Khurshid visited South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, and said that they responded favourably to the idea of forming a trading bloc of Indian Ocean rim states. Ghulam Nabi Azad, Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism, led a delegation to South Africa of officials and leaders of travel trade and hotel industry. January-February 1994. A 100-member delegation of the Federation of Indian Export Organisations visited South Africa. May 10, 1994. K.R. Narayanan, Vice-President, represented India at the inauguration of Mandela as President - and had a breakfast meeting with him the next day. A few days after, the Indian Consulate was opened in Durban. July 1994. "Expo India" trade fair in South Africa. January 25, 1995. India and South Africa signed "Treaty on the Principles of Inter-State Relations and Cooperation between the Republic of India and the Republic of South Africa"; Agreement on the Inter-governmental joint commission for political, trade, economic, cultural, scientific and technical cooperation; Protocol on cooperation between the Ministry of External Affairs of the Republic of India and the Department of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of South Africa. January 26, 1995. Nelson Mandela was guest of honour at Republic Day celebration in India. January 27, 1995. Nelson Mandela attended ceremony of award of India Gandhi Prize for 1994 to Archbishop Trevor Huddleston. January 28, 1995. South African High Commission in Delhi formally opened by Foreign Minister Alfred Nzo.

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