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1.1. Important Definitions Pressure Pipe Flow: Refers to full water flow in closed conduits of circular cross sections under a certain pressure gradient. For a given discharge (Q), pipe flow at any location can be described by the pipe cross section, the pipe elevation, the pressure, and the flow velocity in the pipe. Elevation (h) of a particular section in the pipe is usually measured with respect to a horizontal reference datum such as mean sea level (MSL). Pressure (P) in the pipe varies from one point to another, but a mean value is normally used at a given cross section. Mean velocity (V) is defined as the discharge (Q) divided by the cross-sectional area (A) ܸൌ ܳ ܣ

1.2. Loss of Head From Pipe Friction Energy loss resulting from friction in a pipeline is commonly termed the friction head loss (hf). This is the loss of head caused by pipe wall friction and the viscous dissipiation in flowing water. It is also called major loss. The most popular pipe flow equation was derived by Henry Darcy (1803 to 1858), Julius Weiscbach (1806 to 1871), and the others about the middle of the nineteenth century. The equation takes the following form and is commonly known as the Darcy-Weisbach Equation.

hf ൌ

LVమ ଶD

(1.1)

When Reynolds Number (NR) is less than 2000 flow in the pipe is lminar and friction factor is calculated with the following formula;

fൌ

N୰

ସ

(1.2)

1

1 Roughness Heights . Graphical solution: Moody Diagram 2.1. Table 1. the flow in the pipe becomes practically turbulent and the value of friction factor (f) then becomes less dependent on the Reynolds Number but more dependent on the relative rougness (e/D) of the pipe. for Certain Common Materials Friction factor can be found in three ways: 1. Implicit equations : Colebrook-White Equation 3.e. Explicit equations: : Swamee-Jain Equation 2 . The roughness height for certain common commercial pipe materials is provided in Table 1.When Reynolds Number (NR) is greater or equal to 2000.

Fundamentals of Hydraulic Engineering Systems.. 2010 3 .1. Source: From Hwang et al. Friction factors for flow in pipes: the Moody Diagram.Figure 1.

5 m)2]=1. f=0.Example 1.011 e/D= 0.00x10-06 m2/s)=2. f=0.e.1(Use of Moody Diagram to find frition factor): A commercial steel pipe.5 m)(1. turbulent-transitional zone.00003 4 . relative roughness and the Reynolds number should be calculated. or turbulentrough pipe) Solution: To determine the friction factor.5 m3/s)/[(π/4)(1.045 mm Relative roughness (e/D) = 0. roughness heigth (e) = 0.5 m in diameter. For commercial steel pipe. laminar-critical.5 m3/s of water at 200C. turbulent-smooth pipe.98 m/s NR=DV/ν=[(1. carries a 3.011 The flow is turbulent-transitional zone. Determine the friction factor and the flow regime (i.045 mm/1500 mm = 0.97x106 From Moody Diagram.98 m/s)]/(1.00003 V= Q/A=(3. 1.

) within a moderate range of water velocity (V≤3 m/s.5) S= slope of the energy grade line. has been writtten in the form .849ܥுௐ ܴ ܵ (1.3) Swamee-Jain Equation : ݂ൌ /ವ ఱ. the hydraulic radius is ܴ ൌ ൌ πDమ /ସ πD ൌ ସ (1.3.ଷ . For a circular pipe. with A=πD2/4 and P=πD.318ܥுௐ ܴ ܵ (1.ళ ା బ.2.వ ಿೃ .1 Hazen-Williams equation: It was developed for water flow in larger pipes (D≥5 cm. The Hazen-Williams equation in SI units is written in the form of . Hazen-Williams equation. or the head loss per unit length of the pipe (S=hf/L) Rh = the hydraulic radius.ళర ቈ୪୭ ( య.ହସ ܸ ൌ 1.6) CHW= Hazen-Williams coefficient. D NR √ ଶ.7) Velocity in m/s and Rh is in meters.ହଵ ൰ (1. approximately 10 ft/s). approximately 2 in.ଶହ మ (1.3.ଷ . defined as the water cross sectional area (A) divided by wetted perimeter (P). 5 . Emprical Equations for Friction Head Loss 1.ହସ ܸ ൌ 0.4) 1.Colebrook-White Equation: √ ଵ ൌ െlog ൬ ଷ. The values of CHW for commonly used water-carrying conduits are given in Table 1. originally developed fort he British measuerement system.

It is also quite commonly used for pipe flows.3.9) 6 . The Manning equation may be expressed in the following form: ܸ ൌ ܴ ܵଵ/ଶ ଵ ଶ/ଷ (1.ସ଼ ܴ ܵ ଵ/ଶ ଶ/ଷ (1.8) n= Manning’s coefficient of roughness.2. Manning’s Equation Manning equation has been used extensively open channel designs. ଵ. Typical values of n for water flow in common pipe materials is given in Table 1.2. the Manning equation is written as ܸൌ Where V is units of ft/s.3 In British units.Table 1. Hazen-Williams coefficient for different type of pipes 1.

Table 1.3. Manning Rougness Coefficient for pipe flows 7 .

ቀ D . Bభ. A.1. ൬ ൰ L B = 0.4.4.Qଵ. V ൌ Q ൌ B. R ୦ .ఴఱ .318 in British Systems C = Hazen – Williams coefficient (for concrete C = 130) A.4. S .Dర.଼ହ x = 1.ఴఱ .ହସ R ୦ ൌ Hydraulic radius. C. C.଼ହ RHazen-W h ൌ R Hୟୣ୬ିW .1.ఴళ L .଼଼ ቃ .ଷ ቁ ସ .2 Hazen Williams Equation V ൌ B.10) X is dimensionless and the dimension of R depends on the friction equation and the unit system chosen.85 8 . ୵ୣ୲୲ୣୢ ୮ୣ୰୧୫ୣ୲ୣ୰ ୡ/ୱ ୟ୰ୣୟ h S = Slope of EGL.85 in SI Unit B = 1. ቀ ቁ L ୦ . Qଵ. hf ൌ RQ୶ (1.ଷ .11) R x=2 1. 1. Friction Head Loss-Discharge Relationships Head loss equations can be written in the form of dicharge and a resistance coefficient (R) in the following form.ହସ h ൌ ቂ Cభ. Darcy-Weisbach Equation: hf ൌ L(Q/A)మ ଶD ൌ ଶDAమ LQమ ൌ ଶDAమ L Qଶ (1.

1.3 B = 1 in SI System Rൌቂ ଵ. a) Hazen Williams Equation L .2: Calculate the friction head loss by using a) Hazen Willimas b) Manning’ s equation and c) Darcy-Weisbach equation for a commercial steel pipe (new) with 1.୬మ Bమ .ఴఱ .యయ ቃ .଼ହ)భ.(ଵ.17 9 .ଶଽ (ଵ ୫). n = from Table 1. Qଶ Rmanning x=2 Example 1.ఴళ .D B Rൌቂ C = 140 ଵ B = 0.2 ଵସభ.ఴళ . R ୦ ଶ/ଷ .3 m3/s at 100C water. Sଵ/ଶ ଵ. R ୦ ଶ/ଷ .଼଼ R ൌ ቂ భ.଼ହ h ൌ 2. Dఱ.ఴఱ ቃ C . Sଵ/ଶ Hydraulic Radius Slope of EGL = ୦ L Manning’s constant B = 1 in SI System B = 1.22 h ൌ (0.ଶଽ L. Manning’s Equation Vൌ ୬ ଵ . (.22)(3. భ.3 mଷ /s)ଵ. (ଵ.85 Table 1.ఴఱ .ଶଽ L.4.଼଼ ቃ R = 0.୬మ Bమ b) Manning’s Equation .యయ ቃ .3.ఴఱ ర.ସ)ఱ.49 in British System Q ൌ A.ସ)ర.4 m diameter and a flowrate of 3.0 m Rൌቂ ଵ. h ൌ ቂ B ୬ .యయ ቃ = 0.ଵ)మ ଵమ Dఱ.(.

17(3.D υ ଶDAమ .ସ ୫) ଵ.ସହ/ଵ) ୫ ଵ.85 m Rൌ V = Q/A = Rୣ ൌ V.L = (ଶ.14 m/s = 2.h ൌ 0.(ଵ ୫) = 0.045 mm e/D = (.1 e = 0.ଶ)(ଵ.3)ଶ h ൌ 2.ଷ ୫య /ୱ = 2.199Qଶ 10 .ସ)మ /ସ)మ (.013from Moody Diagram Rൌ ଶDAమ .3)ଶ c) Darcy Weisbach Equation h ൌ 1.29 ൈ 10ି e = Roughness Height (mm) Table 1.ଷൈଵషల π(ଵ.199 h ൌ 0.ଵଷ).ଵସ)మ /ସ ଷ.L = (ଵଽ.17 m h ൌ 0.ଵସ)(ଵ.ସ)(π(ଵ.2 ൈ 10ିହ f= 0.ସ ୫ = 3.199(3.

14 ft ଶ.(ଷଶ.0 ft ଷ /sec.g) mercury = 13.59 ft/sec π(଼/ଵଶ)మ /ସ (ଵଷ.6 Pressure Head = ρ. ୴B మ ଶ PB ρ. Velocity Head ୴A మ ଶ Vమ ଶ .3 Ib/ft ଷ (s.3.ଶ) Total Head for point B = 0 + ଶ.ଷ)(ିଵ/ଵଶ) (ହ.ൈଶ.5 ft/sec π(ଵ/ଵଶ)మ /ସ ଷ ୲య /ୱୣୡ VB ൌ ൌ 8. Velocity for discharge pipe ଷ ୲య /ୱୣୡ VA ൌ ൌ 5.ହ)మ + (25 15 40 ft)=81. + + PA ρ. : The pressure at point A in the suction pipe is a vacuum of 10 min mercury Q = 3.15 ft 11 .(ଷଶ. γ୵ୟ୲ୣ୰ ൌ 62. Elevation Head z Total Head for point A= zA + Total Head for point B= zB + Velocity for suction pipe.ଶ) ଶ. Total head at point A and B with respect to a datum at the base of the reservoir. P .ଶ) (଼.Example 1.(ଷଶ.ହ)మ Total Head for point A= + + 25 ft= 14.

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