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Rotation of Coordinate System Let us consider how motion (of a particle) is affected by the rotation of a coordinate frame! Consider Fixed frame: ( Rotating frame: ( ) )
Suppose, a vector is resting in the frame which is rotating with respect to some fixed frame: ⃗ ̂
⃗
̂ ̂ ̂
̂ ̂ (1)
Derivative in the rotating system:
Note, someone in the rotating system looks at this system frame is at rest (as we find our Earth as we are also rotating with Earth). So the basis vectors ( ̂, ̂, ̂ ) do not change with time as viewed by someone sitting in this frame. But from the fixed frame, other people see unit vectors (attached to the rotating frame) are also changing. Derivative in the fixed system:
⃗
(̂
⃗
̂
̂
̂
)
̂
̂
̂
̂
̂
(2)
Now consider the following: Velocity, ⃗ So, we can write,
̂ ⃗
⃗⃗
⃗
⃗⃗
, ̂
̂
⃗⃗
̂ and ⃗⃗ ( ⃗⃗ ) ̂
̂
⃗⃗
̂
The above means, we have an operator: Now, we can see,
̂ ̂ ̂
( ⃗⃗
) ̂
( ⃗⃗
̂)
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Lect Notes on Theoretical Mech by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, Deptt. Phys, Panskura B. College, kg.abhi@gmail.com
( ⃗⃗ ̂ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ So, expression (2) can be rewritten as
⃗ ⃗
) ( ⃗⃗ ̂ ̂
) ( ⃗⃗ )
̂
)
(̂ ⃗
̂
⃗⃗
⃗
(3)
Thus we see we can connect the two derivatives in two frames through the following operator: ⃗⃗ Or in short, ⃗⃗ [Note: This is an operator relation.]
Thus, above is the operator which can connect the positions, velocities or any other vectors between the fixed and rotating coordinate frames. For example, if we take the angular velocity, ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗
Therefore, angular acceleration is the same in both the coordinate systems. Let us now call, So that ⃗⃗ and for the sake of calculation.
Taking another derivative of expression (3), ⃗ ⃗ ( ⃗⃗ ) (
⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗
⃗⃗ ⃗⃗
⃗
⃗) ⃗) ⃗⃗ ⃗ *
⃗
( ⇒ ⇒
⃗ ⃗
⃗
⃗
⃗
⃗⃗ ⃗⃗
⃗⃗ ⃗
⃗+ (4)
⃗
⃗
⃗⃗
⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗
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Lect Notes on Theoretical Mech by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, Deptt. Phys, Panskura B. College, kg.abhi@gmail.com
If we now take the position vector ⃗ in place of ⃗, we can have the velocity and acceleration from (3) and (4), ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗̇ ⃗
Now, let us see what the terms in the expression of acceleration are. ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ̇ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗⃗⃗ = Coriolis acceleration ⃗⃗ = Centripetal acceleration
⃗⃗ = angular acceleration of the body due to acceleration of the rotating axes
In the expression of velocity: ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ is the absolute velocity in the inertial frame. is the velocity relative to the rotating system ⃗ is the velocity of the coordinate system itself
Note:
⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗
⃗⃗
, for circular motion it is
for
always. So we can
easily identify this as centripetal acceleration as this known to us. The fixed frame can be thought of as inertial frame and the rotating frame can to be noninertial frame. Therefore, the above expressions for velocity and acceleration are relations between the quantities in inertial and noninertial frames.
If the rotating frame also moves with respect to the fixed frame, we can now write ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗
So in the expressions for velocity and acceleration in (3) and (4), we have just an additional term as follows. Velocity:
⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗
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Lect Notes on Theoretical Mech by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, Deptt. Phys, Panskura B. College, kg.abhi@gmail.com
⃗⃗
⃗
⃗⃗
⃗
⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗
⃗⃗⃗⃗
(5) ⃗ (6)
Acceleration:
⃗
⃗⃗
⃗
⃗⃗
⃗⃗
Important Points to Note: In most cases, where there is no angular acceleration ( ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗̇ ), we can ignore the last term. [For example, for the motion of Earth, we know it is rotating with constant angular velocity. So no angular acceleration is considered in this case. ] So when the angular velocity of the rotating frame is constant ( ⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ),
Note that the Coriolis and centrifugal forces are due to noninertial frames of reference. If the body is not moving in the rotating frame, the Coriolis force is zero. Now we can say, the real force experienced in the rotating frame, ⃗ ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗
So, if Earth is considered as fixed frame, ⃗ For the rotation of Earth, ⃗ ⃗ (⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗ ) ⃗⃗ ( ⃗⃗ ⃗) ⃗ ⃗
Some Applications: #1. Effect of Coriolis Force on Freely Falling Particle A particle falling is freely towards the earth. Acceleration of the particle from the rotating earth,
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Lect Notes on Theoretical Mech by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, Deptt. Phys, Panskura B. College, kg.abhi@gmail.com
⃗
⃗
⃗⃗
⃗
[ ⃗ and ⃗ are measured from the earth, the rotating frame]
On the Northern Hemisphere: , [Note: At North pole, , , , ] latitude
The particle is falling along , ⃗⃗ ⃗  ̂ ̂ ̂
̂ direction.

̂
So the effect of Coriolis force is on the xdirection only! Integrating the above, 1 3
3
⇒ [
(
) initial velocity, ̇ ̇ ]
= initial height from Earth, √
Time of fall,
Therefore, the deflection of the body towards the xaxis (East direction):
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Lect Notes on Theoretical Mech by Dr. Abhijit Kar Gupta, Deptt. Phys, Panskura B. College, kg.abhi@gmail.com
1 3 #2. Coriolois force for the flow of a river: For the river flowing towards East, ⃗ ⃗ ⃗⃗ ⃗  ̂ ̂ ̂ 
3
(
)
̂ ̂ ̂
Component along yaxis ( ̂component) is to be considered only, ̂ component is not important.
Thus we check how the Coriolis force affects the flow of a river flowing towards East (xdirection): (Northern Hemisphere) (Southern Hemisphere) the deflection towards right the deflection towards left
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