Imaginary Numbers – Final Project Option Name ________________________ A LGEBRA II WITH T RIGONOMETRY Date ____________ Pd _________ In this project

, you will investigate imaginary and complex numbers. You will represent them graphically and algebraically. You will add and multiply them, and find their absolute values (magnitude). You will create a picture with complex coordinates and use trigonometry to convert them to polar complex coordinates. In the fall, in precalculus, you may be asked to lead the class one day: you will teach your classmates how to graph complex numbers, and then assign your picture as a graphing activity. Your goal is to create an activity with clear directions for them. I. Basic Graphing – Real, Imaginary, and Complex (20pts) 1. In the middle of your page, draw a real number line, labeling integer values from -10 to 10. Also plot ½, -½, π, 2π, and e. 2. Vertically through 0, draw an imaginary number line, labeling i, 2i, 3i, …, 10i, above 0 and - i, -2i, …, -10i below. You should now have a familiar Cartesian coordinate plane, labeled in a somewhat new way. Plot (with a dot) 4i, -i, ½i, and πi. i is defined as the square root of -1. “But wait,” you say! “Negative numbers don’t have square roots!” Well, they do now!!! Square roots of negative numbers are called imaginary. Imaginary numbers were discovered/created in the 1500s to solve equations that previously couldn’t be solved, and have since come to have applications in geometry, chaos theory, and physics. Since − 1 = i, it follows from this definition that − 9 = 9 * − 1 = 3 * i = 3i. 3. Use the definition of i to represent these imaginary numbers: a. − 25 b. − 100 c. −3 d. − 75 4. Use the definition of i to find: a. i2 e. i6 b. i3 f. i7 c. i4 g. i8 d. i5 5. On your plane, plot the point 2+3i, by putting a dot at the point corresponding to 2 on the x (real) axis and 3i on the y (imaginary) axis. Also plot -7 – i, 6 – 8i, and -7.5 + 4i. Check with Mr. Yates that these are graphed correctly. These numbers, combining real and imaginary parts, are called complex numbers, and what you have plotted them on is called the complex plane.

II. Adding Complex Numbers (5pts) When adding complex numbers, add the like terms: (5 + 6i) + (7 – 4i) = 12 + 2i 1. Add (2 + 3i) + (4 + i). 2. Add (-8 + 2i) + (6 – 4i). III. Multiplying Complex Numbers (5pts) When multiplying complex numbers, use the distributive property or FOIL: (5 + 6i) * (7 – 4i) = (5)(7) + (5)(-4i) + (6i)(7) + (6i)(-4i) F O I L = 35 -20i +42i -24i2 = 35 -20i +42i -24(-1) = 35+24 + (-20+42)i = 59 + 22i 1. Multiply (2 + 3i)(4 + i). 2. Multiply (-8 + 2i)(6 – 4i). IV. Absolute Value / Magnitude (10pts) The absolute value of a complex number is its distance from the origin. 1. Pick a complex number with both real and imaginary parts. Write it. Graph it in the complex plane. 2. Drop a line down or up to the real axis and then over to the origin to form a right triangle. Label the lengths of each side. Use the Pythagorean Theorem (show work) to find the hypotenuse. You just found that number’s magnitude! 3. Plot, then draw a right triangle for 6 – 8i. Use the Pythagorean Theorem (show work) to find its magnitude. The concise formula for the magnitude of complex number a + bi is a + bi = a 2 + b 2 . 4. Use this formula to find |-7.5 + 4i|. 5. Use this formula to find |1 + 2i|. V. Integrated Practice (20pts) On a sheet of graph paper, plot the following points (some involve calculation; connect them in order as you go): A) 4 I) 16 + − 81 B) 3+3i J) (4+i) + (1+5i) C) i K) 8+8i D) (1+2i) + (1+2i) L) ½(12+10i) E) -1+4i M) (7+i) + (2+3i) F) (3+2i) + (-1+3i) N) (5-i)(1+i) = (5-1i)(1+1i) G) − 64 O) (4+2i) + (4-i) H) 3(1+2i) = (3+0i)(1+2i) P) 5+3i Q) –4 * i2

VI.

Your Complex Graphing Lesson (40pts) 1. Create your own connect the dots picture involving 15+ points. Show it to Mr. Yates for approval. (5pts) 2. Record in a word document all points’ complex number coordinates. (15pts) 3. Turn this into a worksheet by creating a set of clear directions to go with the points’ coordinates. (5pts) Each point can alternatively be expressed in polar complex coordinates as re iθ , where r is the point’s magnitude and θ is the point’s angle measured in radians. The formula −1 for r is given above in the section on magnitude. The formula for θ is tan b a , adjusted by adding π if we are in the 2nd or 3rd quadrant. 4. Express each complex number in polar. Have Mr. Yates check after the first one (or help you with the first one). (15pts)

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