Introduction A tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such

as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass. Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as table tops. Alternatively, tile can sometimes refer to similar units made from lightweight materials such as perlite, wood, and mineral wool, typically used for wall and ceiling applications. In another sense, a tile is a construction tile or similar object, such as rectangular counters used in playing games (see tile-based game). The word is derived from the French word tuile, which is, in turn, from the Latin word tegula, meaning a roof tile composed of fired clay. Tiles are often used to form wall and floor coverings, and can range from simple square tiles to complex mosaics. Tiles are most often made from porcelain, fired clay or ceramic with a hard glaze, but other materials are also commonly used, such as glass, metal, cork, and stone. Tiling stone is typically marble, onyx, granite or slate. Thinner tiles can be used on walls than on floors, which require thicker, more durable surfaces. Roof Tiles Roof tiles are designed mainly to keep out rain, and are traditionally made from locally available materials such as clay or slate. Modern materials such as concrete and plastic are also used and some clay tiles have a waterproof glaze. A large number of shapes (or "profiles") of roof tiles have evolved. These include:

Flat tiles - the simplest type, which are laid in regular overlapping rows. An example of this is the clay-made "beaver-tail" tile common in Southern Germany. Flat roof tiles are usually made of clay but also may be made of stone, wood, plastic, concrete, or solar.

Imbrex and tegula, an ancient Roman pattern of curved and flat tiles that make rain channels on a roof.

Roof tiles are 'hung' from the framework of a roof by fixing them with nails. but avoided the Brick Taxes of the 18th century. concrete or plastic. hip and valley tiles. An example of this is the "double Roman" tile. The tiles are usually hung in parallel rows.flat in the middle. with a concave curve at one end at a convex curve at the other. Originally they were made by forming clay around a curved surface.  Pantiles . to allow interlocking. with each row overlapping the row below it to exclude rainwater and to cover the nails that hold the row below. with tiles specially moulded to cover corners and jambs.  Antefixes: vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of a tiled roof. They include ridge. nailed and then grouted. This form of tiling gives an imitation of brickwork and was developed to give the appearance of brick. Today barrel tiles are mass-produced from clay. tiling has been used to provide a protective weather envelope to the sides of timber frame buildings. Often these tiles are shaped at the exposed end to give a decorative effect. Similarly to roof tiling. metal. often a log or the maker's thigh. allowing adjacent tiles to interlock. These can either be bedded and pointed in cement mortar or mechanically fixed.with an S-shaped profile. dating from the late 19th century in England and USA. particularly where the planes of the several pitches meet. .  Interlocking roof tiles are similar to pantile with side and top locking to improve protection from water and wind. There are also roof tiles for special positions. which was hung on laths. These result in a ridged pattern resembling a ploughed field. Another form of this is the socalled mathematical tile.  Mission or barrel tiles are semi-cylindrical tiles laid in alternating columns of convex and concave tiles. Roman tiles . These are hung on laths nailed to wall timbers.

Different types of tile profiles: .

Different types of tile fittings: .

The strength of concrete roof tiles increases with age. cost effective solution for roofing. The tiles are extruded under pressure resulting in a product of high quality. providing maximum protection against the elements. b) Quality standards Concrete roof tiles manufactured by members of the Concrete Manufacturers Association meet the requirements of SANS 542-2004 Standard specification for the manufacture of concrete roofing tiles. portland cement. inorganic pigments and water. a) Manufacture Concrete roof tiles are manufactured from selected raw materials such as washed graded sand. They have proved their worth over many years of trouble-free use. colours and finishes which enhance the visual appearance of any roof and provide designers with a wide scope for expression.Concrete roof tiles are an outstanding example of a high quality. . They are manufactured in accordance with the SANS ISO 9002 Quality Management System. Concrete roof tiles are manufactured in an extensive range of profiles.

of the same material as the valley liner) that is used to hold the valley liner in place. Battens: Timber or steel members of small section fixed parallel to the line of the eaves. at right angles to the rafters. d) Colours Large selections of standard colours are available. Coastal area: The area between the sea and a line 5km inland.c) Surface coatings Concrete roof tiles are manufactured in a vast range of finishes which will vary from one manufacturer to another. For further information. Boards: Lengths of flat timber that are nailed to the rafters to form a soffit and act as a support for the underlay. Fittings are available in colours to match tiles. Bargeboard: A component fixed along the edges of a gable and covering the ends of the horizontal roof members. Cleat: A specially formed strip of corrosion resistant material (eg. e) Definitions For the purposes of this publication. Bedding: The setting and pointing of tiles and fittings in mortar. and the upper edge of which is dressed up a vertical surface. Surface finishes for tiles are categorised in accordance with SABS specifications. Apron flashing: A flashing. contact the manufacturers. Apex: The intersection of two or more roof slopes at the highest position on the roof. the following definitions shall apply: Abutment: An intersection on the roof surface and a part of the structure that rises above it. special colours and samples. . colour charts. All surface coatings are applied under factory controlled conditions. the lower edge of which is dressed over the roof covering. onto which tiles are fixed. Bedding pieces: Small pieces of broken tile that are used to reinforce areas of bedding where excessive mortar shrinkage can occur.

Head lap: The distance by which one course of tiles overlaps the course immediately below it. counter battens. Gable: The part of the wall above the general level of the eaves at the end of a ridge roof or of a partially hipped roof. Hip: The sloping intersection of two inclined roof surfaces that meet at a reflex angle (greater than 180°). Eaves: The overhanging lower edge of a roof slope. Cover flashing: A flashing that is used in conjunction with other roof components (such as side gutters and apron flashings) and that overlaps any vertical parts of such components. Counter battens: Timber members of small section fixed between the battens and the underlying structure. ridges and fittings. Fascia board: A member. Flashing: A strip of flexible impervious material that is used to exclude water from the junction between a roof covering and another part of the structure. Pitch: The angle of inclination to the horizontal of the rafters. the wall face or the wall plate immediately below the eaves. usually timber. or of the surface on which tiles are laid. boards or underlay are fixed. cut from sheet material or timber that is fixed to the rafter ends. Gutter: Any form of roof-water channel at eaves. Moonridge: The intersection of a single roof slope and a vertical masonry face at the highest part of the roof. . normally at right angles to the direction of the battens onto which the tiles are laid. Mortar: A mixture of sharp plaster sand. establishing the slope of the roof to which the battens. verges and abutments. cement and inorganic pigment (optional) used for bedding tiles. Rafter: A supported structural member.Concealed gutter: A pre-formed channel (manufactured from a suitable corrosion resistant material) that is overlapped by tiles and shaped to form a watertight joint at abutments (in conjunction with cover flashings).

The cause lies in the chemical composition of the cement. Welt: The edge of the valley liner that is so shaped that the cleats can hook onto it. Soffit closure: A closure manufactured from rigid materials. When water added to cement a series of chemical reactions take place resulting in the setting and hardening.Ridge: The horizontal junction between two roof slopes at the apex. There it reacts with the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere forming a white powder deposit of calcium carbonate crystals which is referred to as . Truss: A structural system of timber or metal members that supports the roof covering and forms part of the structure to support a ceiling. One product of these reactions “lime” in the form of calcium hydroxide which is slightly soluble in water and under certain conditions can migrate via capillaries in the concrete tile to the surface. is a natural phenomenon found in cementitious products such as concrete roof tiles. For aesthetic reasons however. Valley liner or gutter: A strip of impervious material that is used to exclude water at the sloping intersection of two interesting roof surfaces. Properly erected concrete roof tiles do not require any maintenance work or surface treatment to improve their durability or functional properties. Tilting batten: A batten that is used at eaves to support the tiles in the correct plane relative to the roof surface. Valley: The sloping intersection of two inclined roof surfaces that meet at a re-entrant angle (less than 180°). fitted to the underside of the roof over-hang at eaves and verges. Underlay: A flexible under tile membrane fitted between the roof support structure and the battens. it may become necessary to carry out maintenance work where roofs have become unsightly due to a number of factors: a) Efflorescence Efflorescence often referred to as “limebloom”. Verge: The edge of a roof surface at a gable.

The roof should then be washed with a high-pressure water spray and a hard bristle brush. Whilst the white deposit may appear unsightly. c) Painting of tiled roofs Where it is required to change the colour of the roof for aesthetic reasons. Powered mechanical processing such as cutting or drilling of the products will release some quantities of respirable silica dust. If the roof cannot be restored to a uniform colour. With time and the natural process of weathering it will disappear restoring the true colour of the tile. It should be treated with approximately 2% copper sulphate solution to kill the growth. The following control measures are required: . These raw materials contain a proportion of crystalline silica. At present there is no viable method during the production process of preventing efflorescence.efflorescence. d) Health and safety instruction Many building products such as roof tiles are manufactured using natural raw materials. This can be carried out by using an approved pure acrylic paint which can be applied either by brush. it can lead to lung disease (silicosis) and an increased risk of lung cancer. Where exposure to this dust is high or prolonged over time. b) Fungal growth on roofs Small deposits of fungal lichen or moss on a fairly new roof can be removed by using water and a hard bristle brush. the roof should first be thoroughly cleaned. the strength or the original colour of the tile. Where lichen has been prevalent for a number of years. This condition is purely superficial and does not affect the durability. All dirt and dust should be washed down with water before a coat of approved pure acrylic paint is applied. roller or with spraying equipment. it may require repainting. This process can take three or four normal rainy seasons. it is a temporary effect and should not be treated.

Comparative Analysis of different types of tiles: .

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