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Chapter 7 Chapter Objectives Appreciate Emile Durkehims contributions toward understanding deviance as a normal phenomenon and the influence

fluence of structural forces on individual behavior. Be familiar with the social disorganization and social ecology approaches, including the work of Park and Burgess; Shaw and McKay; and more recent revivals of these approaches, especially with regard to economic deprivation and Starks theory of deviant places. Be able to critique social disorganization theory. Be familiar with anomie theory, including Mertons typology of logical adaptations to anomie, and the defense and extension of this approach. Be acquainted with general strain theory. Be familiar with subcultural theory, including Cohens status frustration model (and evaluation), Millers focal concerns (and evaluation), and Wolfgang and Ferracutis subculture of violence perspective (and evaluation). Appreciate how structural theories of crime fail to explain why females in poor urban areas have lower crime and delinquency rates than males in these same areas. Chapter Outline Durkheim Books include The Division of Labor in Society and Suicide: A Study in Sociology Felt deviance was normal; moral authority limits personal aspirations Key Terms o Socialization o Social Ties o Anomie o Social integration Mechanical Organic **Punishment and division of labor differ across these two types** Types of suicide (have to do with level of regulation and integration) o Anomic suicide o Fatalistic suicide o Egoistic suicide o Altruistic suicide o **Know what these types are, or the causes of them.**

Social Disorganization and Chicago School of Criminology Thomas and Zaniecki o Focused on immigrants o Immigrants have trouble assimilating to local norms Park and Burgess o Concentric zones approach o Studied Chicago o Each zone has different types of people and crime rates (**know the zones**) o **know how people move from each zone** o

Shaw and McKay o Suggested that certain factors (**know the factors**) lead to social disorganization o Social disorganization, in turn, leads to two key problems (**know them**) o That leads to delinquency (i.e., juvenile crime, which is what they focused on) Other Social Ecology concepts o Economic deprivation Two primary factors related to it (**know them**) Underclassthe extremely poor in the United States o Rodney Starks argument (social ecology) Kinds of places Kinds of people **what do these mean; what did he propose was most important** o Criticisms Heavy reliance on official data (**know why this matters**) Imprecision in the concept of disorganization Explaining individual differences

Anomie-Based Theories Mertons strain theory o Basics Societal goals Institutional means o Deviance Typology Based upon Cultural goals (accept or reject) Institutionalized/societal means (accept or reject) Typologies (see figured below) Conformity Innovation Rebellion Retreatism Rebellion o Defenses and extensions Serious offenses White collar crime Institutionalized anomie General Strain Theory (Agnew) o Concepts Cognitive/behavioral components (**know them) Leads to strain Leads to crime o Expansions from Mertons strain theory Widened focus Cumulative effect Comprehensive account of adaptations

Subcultural Theory Cohens Status Frustration o Lower class use want higher status

Cannot do so Status Frustration and Reaction Formation Collective solution (**what is it?**) Evaluations/critiques Overlooks middle-class delinquency Non-utilitarian assumption Not 1 to 1 predictive Millers Focal Concerns o Trouble o Toughness o Smartness o Excitement o Fate o Autonomy Differential Opportunity Theory o Lower/working class youth; gap between goals and means o Negative consequence o Leads to subcultures (**know what each is**) Criminal subculture Conflict subculture Retreatist subculture Subculture of violence o Explains high violence among certain groups o Insults conflicts (lower-class response is violence) o Critiques Racial implications Urban disapproval Racial differences not supported o o o o

General Critique: Gender Differences Male oriented theories

Concentric Zones (Picture)

Mertons Typologies (Chart)