A fluid power system is one that transmits and controls energy through the use of pressurised liquid or gas. In Pneumatics, this power is air. This of course comes from the atmosphere and is reduced in volume by compression thus increasing its pressure. Compressed air is mainly used to do work by acting on a piston or vane. While this energy can be used in many facets of industry, the field of Industrial Pneumatics is considered here. The correct use of pneumatic control requires an adequate knowledge of pneumatic components and their function to ensure their integration into an efficient working system. Although electronic control using a programmable sequencer or other logic controller is currently specified it is still necessary to know the function of the pneumatic components in this type of system. This book deals with the technology of the components in control systems, describing types and design features of air treatment equipment, actuators and valves, methods of interconnection and introduces the basic pneumatic circuits.

What can Pneumatics do?
The applications for compressed air are limitless, from the optician’s gentle use of low pressure air to test fluid pressure in the human eyeball, the multiplicity of linear and rotary motions on robotic process machines, to the high forces required for pneumatic presses and concrete breaking pneumatic drills. The short list below serves only to indicate the versatility and variety of pneumatic control at work, in a continuously expanding industry. • Operation of system valves for air, water or chemicals • Operation of heavy or hot doors • Unloading of hoppers in building, steel making, mining and chemical industries • Ramming and tamping in concrete and tarmacadam laying • Lifting and moving in slab moulding machines • Crop spraying and operation of other tractor equipment • Spray painting • Holding and moving in wood working and furniture making • Holding in jigs and fixtures in assembly machinery and machine tools • Holding for gluing, heat sealing or welding plastics • Holding for brazing or welding • Forming operations of bending, drawing and flattening • Spot welding machines • Rivetting • Operation of guillotine blades • Bottling and filling machines • Wood working machinery drives and feeds • Test rigs • Machine tool, work or tool feeding • Component and material conveyor transfer • Pneumatic robots • Auto gauging • Air separation and vacuum lifting of thin sheets • Dental drills • and so much more…

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Properties of Compressed Air
Some important reasons for the wide use of compressed air in industry are:-

Most factories and industrial plants have a compressed air supply in working areas, and portable compressors can serve more remote situations.

It is easily stored in large volumes if required.

Simplicity of Design and Control
Pneumatic components are of simple design and are easily fitted to provide extensive automated systems with comparatively simple control.

Choice of Movement
It offers both linear movement and angular rotation with simple and continuously variable operational speeds.

Installation is of relatively low cost due to modest component cost. There is also a low maintenance cost due to long life without service.

Pneumatic components have a long working life resulting in high system reliability.

Resistance to Environment
It is largely unaffected in the high temperature, dusty and corrosive atmospheres in which other systems may fail.

Environmentally Clean
It is clean and with proper exhaust air treatment can be installed to clean room standards.

It is not a fire hazard in high risk areas, and the system is unaffected by overload as actuators simply stall or slip. Pneumatic actuators do not produce heat.

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Pneumatic cylinders, rotary actuators and air motors provide the force and movement of most pneumatic control systems, to hold, move, form and process material. To operate and control these actuators, other pneumatic components are required i.e. air service units to prepare the compressed air and valves to control the pressure, flow and direction of movement of the actuators. A basic pneumatic system, shown in fig 2.1, consists of two main sections: • the Air Production and distribution System • the Air Consuming System


➉ ❻ ➅

š ❻ ❹

➀ ➇ ➃ ➄ ➆
Fig. 2.1 The Basic Pneumatic System

➁ ➂ ➈ ❷


Air Production System
The component parts and their main functions are: 1 Compressor Air taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed and delivered at a higher pressure to the pneumatic system. It thus transforms mechanical energy into pneumatic energy. 2 Electric Motor Supplies the mechanical power to the compressor. It transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy. 3 Pressure Switch Controls the electric motor by sensing the pressure in the tank. It is set to a maximum pressure at which it stops the motor, and a minimum pressure at which it restarts it. 4 Check Valve Lets the compressed air from the compressor into the tank and prevents it leaking back when the compressor is stopped. 5 Tank Stores the compressed air. Its size is defined by the capacity of the compressor. The larger the volume, the longer the intervals between compressor runs. 6 Pressure Gauge Indicates the Tank Pressure. 7 Auto Drain Drains all the water condensing in the tank without supervision. 8 Safety Valve Blows compressed air off if the pressure in the tank should rise above the allowed pressure.

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air is taken off from the top of the main pipe to allow occasional condensate to stay in the main pipe. Page 4 . 5 Actuator Transforms the potential energy of the compressed air into mechanical work. and occasionally adds lubricant to extend the life of those pneumatic system components which need lubrication. It helps to keep the line free from dust. 4 Directional Valve Alternately pressurises and exhausts the cylinder connections to control the direction of movement. this filter must have a minimal pressure drop and the capability of oil mist removal. The most efficient method is an Auto Drain which prevents water from remaining in the tube should manual draining be neglected. 2 Auto Drain Every descending tube should have a drain at its lowest point. 3 Air Service Unit Conditions the compressed air to provide clean air at optimum pressure. it can also be a rotary actuator or an air tool etc.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY 9 Refrigerated Air Dryer Cools the compressed air to a few degrees above freezing point and condenses most of the air humidity. when it reaches a low point a water take off from beneath the pipe will flow into an Automatic Drain and the condensate will be removed. Shown is a linear cylinder. The Air Consuming System 1 Air Take-off For consumers. 10 Line Filter Being in the main pipe. 6 Speed Controllers Allow an easy and stepless speed adjustment of the actuator movement. We will discuss these components in more detail in sections 4 to 7. This avoids having water in the downstream system. after a look at the theory of compressed air. water and oil. This is a must for understanding what happens in a pneumatic system.

COMPOSED UNITS: Radius Angle Area. θ r ␣␤␥␦⑀ϕ A. Work Power p Vn Q E. W M P SI Unit kg m s K °C m 1 m2 m3 m s-1 s-1 m s-2 m2 kg N N Ns J J J J W Name kilogram metre second Kelvin Degree Celsius metre Radian (m/m) square metre cubic metre metre per second radians per second metre per sec.m W Table 3.S V v w a J F G ¡ I W E.s-2 = kg· m2. W E. Quantity 1.2 Prepositions for powers of ten Page 5 .s-2 9.m p .1 SI Units used in pneumatics To name units by powers of ten.m3 = N. a number of prepositions have been agreed upon and are listed below.COMPRESSED AIR THEORY 3 COMPRESSED AIR THEORY Units For the practical application of pneumatics it is necessary to appreciate the natural laws relating to the behaviour of air as a compressed gas and the physical dimensions in common use. Section Volume Speed (velocity) Angular Speed Acceleration Inertia Force Weight Impulse Work Potential energy Kinetic energy Torque Power 3. kilogram per square mtr Newton Earth acceleration Newton Second Joule = Newton metre Joule Joule Joule Watt Pascal Standard Cubic Metre Standard cubic metres per second Joule Watt Remarks 0°C = 273. per sec.16 K = kg·m. smaller and larger than the above basic units. UK and Japan still use the Imperial System to a great extent.80665 m. BASIC UNITS: Mass Length Time Temperature.5·m·v 2 = J. W P Pa mn 3 Symbol m s t T t. The International System of Units has been in acceptance world-wide since 1960 but the USA.s-1 = N m-2 at ⍜ = 0°C and p =760 mm Hg Pa. Power 10 -1 Preposition deci centi milli micro Symbol d c m µ Power 10 1 Preposition Deka Hecto Kilo Mega Symbol da h k M 10-2 10-3 10-6 10 2 10 3 10 6 Table 3. RELATED TO COMPRESSED AIR: Pressure Standard volume Volume flow Energy.s-2 0.Q = N. absolute Temperature (Celsius) 2.m·s-1 = W m3n s-1 N.

03527 3.281 1. Section Volume Volume Flow Force Pressure Metric Unit (m) kg g m m mm °C m2 cm2 m3 cm3 dm3 m3n/min dm3n/min (l/min) N bar English (e) pound ounce foot yard inch °F sq. 100.155 1.3527 0.3048 0.) lbf.06895 Table 3.4535 28.5 Factor e =>m 0. Page 6 .0929 6.4516 0.2248 14.06102 0.yard cu.03937 1.4484 0.32 4.000 Pa. A pressure in the context of pneumatics is assumed as over-pressure i.914 25.ft scfm scfm pound force (lbf.inch (psi) Factor m => e 2.e.32 0.8°C+32 10.31 0.094 0.inch cu.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Non-metric Units The table below shows a comparison between the Metric SI units and the Imperial units. Magnitude Mass Length Temperature Area.7645 16.8 0.3 Non Metric Units Pressure It should be noted that the SI unit of pressure is the Pascal (Pa) 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 (Newton per square metre) This unit is extremely small and so to avoid huge numbers in practice.76 0./sq.03531 0.02832 28.388 28.308 0.4 (°F-32)/1. above atmospheric pressure and is commonly referred to as gauge pressure (GA).205 0.inch cu.ft sq. an agreement has been made to use the bar as a unit of 100.000 Pa = 100 kPa = 1 bar It corresponds with sufficient accuracy for practical purposes with the old metric unit kgf/cm2.03531 35.

although for normal pneumatic calculations the difference can be ignored.5 m3 then: p T1 V p1 ϫ V1 ϭ p2 ϫ V2 p1 ϫ V1 p2 ϭ ᎏᎏ V2 T2 101325Pa ϫ 1m3 i.2.013 With a gauge pressure of 4 bar. In vacuum technology a pressure below atmospheric i. the pressure of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume”. Note that this is not 1 bar.95 V2 1.5 Illustration of Boyles Law If volume V1 = 1m3 at a standard absolute pressure of 101325 Pa is compressed at constant temperature to a volume V2 = 0. a pressure relative to a full vacuum.COMPRESSED AIR THEORY A pressure can also be expressed as absolute pressure (ABS) i. The various ways of indicating pressure are illustrated in fig 3.013 Page 7 .5.e.4. p = 2 c = V = 0. Properties of Gases Isothermic Change (Boyles Law) “with constant temperature. 3.5m3 ϭ 202650 Pa V1 The ratio ᎏ is the “Compression Ratio” cr V2 V1 4 ϩ1.e under pressure is used. ᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 4. or: p ϫ V ϭ constant F F a v = 1. using a standard atmospheric pressure of 1013 m/bar as a reference. p = 1 b = v = 0. p2 ϭ ᎏᎏᎏ 0. p = 5 p1xV1 p2xV2 p3xV3 Fig.e.

the pressure is proportional to the temperature” (“Isochoric” comes from the Greek words χωρα (read “chora”).961 4 4.908 8 8.882 10 10.987 2 2. and ισο− . T1 ϭ 0°C. In the case of tools as well as cylinders the change is never Isothermic but always Adiabatic change. – no adjustment is made for practice when we simply use gauge pressure in bar +1! On the other hand it would be wrong to use Boyles Law in pneumatics.948 5 5.872 Note the difference between reducing a volume of atmospheric air to half. (see further below) Isobaric Change Charles Law 1 “at constant pressure. 1:1. for space. a given mass of gas increases in volume by ᎏ of its volume for every degree Celsius rise 273 in temperature” Law of Gay Lussac p1 p2 V T V V1 T1 V1 ϫ T2 ᎏ = constant. thus 100 ϫ 298 100 V2 ᎏ ϭ ᎏ І V2 ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ 109. “iso” = equal) V1 V2 p T p1 ϫ p2 T2 so ᎏ and p2 ϭ p1 ϫ ᎏ T1 ϫ T2 T1 pressure in bar. field etc.922 7 7. The previous relationships are combined to provide the general gas equation: p1 ϫ V1 p2 ϫ V2 ᎏᎏ ϭ ᎏᎏ ϭ Constant T1 T2 Where T is the absolute temperature in K (Kelvin). p cr 1 1. 1:2.974 3 3. V2 ϭ ? Isochoric Change “at constant volume.895 9 9.987! But this is theory.935 6 6.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY The table below shows the pressure ratio for pressures from 1 to 10 bar. so ᎏ ϭ ᎏ and V2 ϭ ᎏ T V2 T2 T1 We have to use the absolute temperatures in K. and p is the absolute Page 8 .157 273 273 298 Example: V1 ϭ 100.026 and the pressure ratio at a gauge pressure of 1 bar (2 abs). T2 ϭ 25°C. .

p·V = c p p·V k = c V It would take too much time to go into greater detail. Adiabatic (Isentropic) Change The previous Laws assume a slow change. Then Boyle’s Law “ p ϫ V is constant “ changes to p ϫ Vk = constant. Page 9 . In pneumatic practice volumes are expressed in terms of litres per minute (l/min) or normal cubic decimetres per minute (dm3/min). for example when air flows into a cylinder. We will meet this law again when discussing the air consumption of cylinders. pressure and temperature. this is not the case and “adiabatic change” occurs. it is necessary to refer all data on air volume to a standardised volume. 3. Flow The basic unit for volume flow “Q” is the Normal Cubic Metre per second (m3n/s). so only the two considered magnitudes are changing. Standard Volume Due to these mutual relationships between volume. In practice. the diagram illustrates the difference clearly enough: we see that there is a loss of volume when pressure builds up quickly. The usual non metric unit for volume flow is the “standard cubic foot per minute” .293 kg mass at a temperature of 0oC and an absolute pressure of 760 mm Hg (101325 Pa). the total energy at point 1 and 2 is the same” 1 1 or p1 ϩ ᎏ ␳ ϫ V12 ϭ p2 ϩ ᎏ ␳ ϫ V22 2 2 p1 p2 ➀ v1 ➁ v2 Fig. Air Humidity Atmospheric air always contains a percentage of water vapour. Applications of this equation are the venturi tube and flow compensation in pressure regulators.(kappa = the exponent for air). when temperature changes have to be considered.COMPRESSED AIR THEORY This law provides one of the main theoretical basis for calculation to design or select pneumatic equipment.6 Illustration of Bernoulli s Law This equation also applies to gases if the flow speed does not exceed 330 m/s approx. the standard cubic metre (mn3) which is the air quantity of 1. The amount of moisture present will depend on the atmospheric humidity and temperature . (scfm). Bernoulli’s Equation Bernoulli states: “If a liquid of specific gravity flows horizontally through a tube with varying diameters.

1 m3 of air at 25°C can hold a maximum of 23.7.15 0. This is known as the dew point.86 –5 3.6 g/m3 When air is compressed. the lower ones the volume at the given temperature.94 23.99 17.04 g/m3 ·10 m3 ϭ 130.61 20 18.83 –35 0.4 0.9 Ϫ 34. 1m3 of compressed air is only capable of holding the same quantity of water vapour as 1m3 of atmospheric air.28 2. The table below shows the number of grams of water per cubic metre for a wide temperature range from -40°C to +40°C.013 From Table 3.29 40 63. the lower to below zero.44 m3 V1 p2 6 +1. The upper half refers to temperatures above zero. 10 m3 of air can hold a maximum of 13.76 –25 0.2 ϭ 50.h.4 g ϫ 0.69 –20 1.h.64 0. r.76 g ϫ 1. If the air cools further it can no longer retain all the moisture and the surplus is expelled as miniature droplets to form a condensate.42 10 9.00 1. Table 3.98 4.86 9.64 –30 0. its capacity for holding moisture in vapour form is only that of its reduced volume. This condensate must be removed before the compressed air is distributed. The actual quantity of water that can be retained depends entirely on temperature.7 30 35.08 25 25.25 0.99 6. to avoid harmful effects in the line and the pneumatic components. Example 2: 10 m3 of atmospheric air at 15°C and 65% r. water will condense out. atmospheric air is never saturated.52 1.65 ϭ 84.12 31. hence 84.45 35 47.h.2 g (b) Condensation equals the total amount of water in the air (a) minus the volume that the compressed air can absorb (b).51 –10 2.7: At 15°C. and is indicated as a percentage. The upper rows show the content of a standard cubic metre. the air will contain 130.44 ϭ 34.65 = 15. such as a sudden temperature drop. For the temperature range of pneumatic applications the table below gives the exact values. Page 10 .36 3. it will reach a certain point at which it is saturated with moisture.013 bar ᎏ ϭ p2 ϫ V2 © ᎏ ϫ V1 ϭ V2 © ᎏᎏ ϫ 10 m3 ϭ 1. unless the temperature rises substantially.11 –40 0.18 Relative Humidity With the exception of extreme weather conditions. Hence.7 Water Saturation of air (Dew Point) Temperature °C g/m3n (Standard) g/m3 (Atmospheric) Temperature °C g/m3n (Standard) g/m3 (Atmospheric) 0 4.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY When atmospheric air cools.98 0 4.9 g (a) The reduced volume of compressed air at 6 bar pressure can be calculated: p1 p1 1. 65%. is compressed to 6 bar gauge pressure. Relative humidity r. ϭ actual water content ᎏᎏᎏᎏ saturation quantity (dew point) ϫ 100% Example 1: Temperature 25°C.04 –15 1. How much water will condense out? From Table 3.03 54. How much water is contained in 1 m3? Dew point 25°C = 24g/m3 · 0. The ratio of the actual water content and that of the dew point is called relative humidity.98 4.76 g therefore 23.h.76 13.37 15 13.4g At 65% r. The temperature is allowed to rise to 25°C.19 41.98 5 6.6 g of water will condense out.

The bold curve shows the saturation points of a cubic metre at the related temperature. but when there is flow from one point to another. the pressure in the latter will always be lower than that of the former.1 -30 0 50 100 C o Fig. kv or Cv factor). The bold line refers to atmospheric air with the volume at the temperature in question.5 0.5 1 0. this makes calculation unnecessary. the thin curve at standard volume. If there is no flow. the opposite of resistance is used. Pressure and Flow The most important relationship for pneumatics is that between pressure and flow. In pneumatics. All air consumption is normally expressed in standard volume. The equivalent flow section S is expressed in mm2 and represents the area of an orifice in a thin plate (diaphragm) which creates the same relationship between pressures and flow as the element defined by it. in electricity its equivalent is Ohm (Ω). This difference is called pressure drop. It depends on three values: • the initial pressure • the volume flow • the flow resistance of the connection The flow resistance for air has no unit.8 Dew points for temperatures from –30 to about +80 °C. 3. the pressure in an entire system is the same at every point. Page 11 .COMPRESSED AIR THEORY g H2 O/m 3 500 150 100 50 15 10 5 1. The thin line gives the amount of water per Standard Cubic Metre. the equivalent flow section (S.

The 54.5 mm2. where “voltage drop equals current times resistance”. For defining one of the four interrelated data. tube etc. it can no longer increase. 10 p (bar) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 20 40 60 80 Q (54. while the electric units are directly proportional. regardless if this is from 100 to 99 or from 4 to 3 volt. If an element has for example an “S” of 4. From there we go vertically down to the Flow scale (dotted line) and find about 55 l/min. for input pressures from 1 to 10 bar. This means that the flow no longer depends on the pressure drop. Example 1: Input pressure 6 bar. calculated with the formula further below.5 · 54. the flow would be 4. While in electricity a current of 1 A (one Ampère) creates over a resistor of 1 Ohm a voltage drop of 1 Volt. the pressure drop over the same object and with the same standard volume flow varies with the initial pressure and also with the temperature. What output pressure will result? Page 12 .PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY This relationship is by definition the same as in electricity. a figure found in valve catalogues for a quick comparison of the flow capacity of valves. only. Use of the diagram: The pressure scale at the left side indicates both input and output pressure. 3. input and output pressures are the same.) with an equivalent orifice “S” of 1 mm2. the relationship for air is very complex and never simply proportional. but only on the input pressure.44 l/min written below that line is the exact value. At the first vertical line on the left.44 l/min ϭ 245 l/min Example 2: Given an element with an “S” of 12 mm2. fitting. in this case 4.44 l/min applies to an element (Valve. The triangle in the lower right corner marks the range of “sonic flow speed”.9 Diagram showing the relationship between pressure and flow for an orifice with an equivalent Flow Section of 1 mm 2 . Fig. This can be transformed for pneumatics to “pressure drop equals flow divided by Flow Section”. all the curves drop vertically inside this triangle. Reason: the compressibility of the air. When the air flow reaches a speed close to the speed of sound.44 l / min) n S = 1 mm 2 Sonic Flow Range 100 120 Q (dm 3 n /min) Fig. a working pressure of 7 bar and an air consumption of 600 l/min. As you can see. This input and output pressures define the so called “Standard Volume Flow Qn”. The various curves. pressure drop 1 bar ϭ output pressure 5 bar. we require a diagram. The Volume Flow of 54. which represents a zero flow. We follow the curve “6” to the point where it cuts the horizontal line marked “5”.9 shows it. 3. mentioned above. indicate how the output pressure decreases with increasing flow. from the other three. whatever the difference of pressure between input and output might be.5 times higher.

Example: We calculate the flow. that there must be different formulae for the sonic flow range and the “subsonic” flow condition. A horizontal line towards the pressure scale indicates about 6. The transient from subsonic to sonic flow is reached.2 ϫ 12 ϫ ͙7 This shows that the accuracy of the diagram is sufficient for practical pneumatic use.74 l/min.3 bar: ෆ. as a supply pressure of.013 Ͼ 1.013) (l/min) dm3 Where S in mm2 and p in bar.3 bar.2 ϫ S ϫ ͙(p ෆ2 ෆෆ ϩෆ 1. Page 13 . the flow can be calculated with one of the two formulae below. assumed in example 2.7 ෆ ϭ 602.7 bar for work. Note that a pneumatic system can never operate satisfactorily under sonic flow conditions.2 is a constant with the equation ᎏ .013) The Volume flow Q for subsonic flow equals: Q ϭ 22. would give us less than 2.013 Յ 1. 3. which is litres per 60 seconds and per 60 Ns force (defined by the ruling pressure) .COMPRESSED AIR THEORY 600 A flow of 600 l/min through an “S” of 12 mm2 corresponds with a flow of ᎏ ϭ 50 l/min through an equivalent 12 section of 1 mm2.896 ϫ (p2 ϩ 1. We need this conversion for the use of the diagram of fig.896 ϫ (p2 ϩ 1.9 makes it clear.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ϫ ෆෆ (p ෆ1 ෆෆ Ϫෆ p2 ෆ) (l/min) and for sonic flow: Q ϭ 11. A glance at the diagram of fig. 22. with an Input pressure of 7 bar. 3.1 ϫ S ϫ (p1 ؉ 1.896: Sonic flow: p1 ϩ 1. We now follow the curve starting at 7 bar until it intersects with the vertical line for 50 l/min.9. Q ϭ 22. Formulae: When it is required to have a more exact value than that which can be estimated from the diagram. for example 6 bar. when the pressure ratio of the absolute input and output pressures is less or equal to 1.3 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ ϫෆ 0.013) Subsonic flow: p1 ϩ 1. a total equivalent flow section of 12 mm2 for valve and tubes and the calculated working pressure of 6.

Downward movement of the piston increases volume to create a lower pressure than that of the atmosphere. 4. the piston moves upwards. Displacement Compressors Reciprocating Rotary Piston Diaphragm Vane Screw Fig. forcing the outlet valve to open discharging air into a receiver tank. At the end of the stroke.2 Single Stage Piston Compressor Air taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed to the required pressure in a single stroke.1 The Main Compressor types used for Pneumatic Systems Reciprocating Compressors Single stage Piston Compressor Fig. causing air to enter the cylinder through the inlet valve. the inlet valve closes as the air is compressed. Air compressors fall into two main categories: Reciprocating and Rotary . This type of compressor is generally used in systems requiring air in the 3-7 bar range Page 14 . 4. The principal types of compressors within these categories are shown in fig 4.1.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY 4 AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Compressors A compressor converts the mechanical energy of an electric or combustion motor into the potential energy of compressed air.

thus improving efficiency compared to that of a single stage unit.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Two stage Piston Compressor Intercooler Output Intake Fig. piston compressors used in industrial compressed air systems are usually two stage .3 Two Stage Piston Compressor In a single-stage compressor. 4. after which it is cooled. This allows air intake in the down stroke and compression in the up stroke Page 15 . pharmaceutical and similar industries. Because of this. Air taken in at atmospheric pressure is compressed in two stages to the final pressure. The final delivery temperature may be in the region of 120°C.4 Diaphragm Compressor Diaphragm compressors provide compressed air in the 3-5 bar range totally free of oil and are therefore widely used by food. Diaphragm compressor Output Intake Fig. the first stage normally compresses the air to approximately 3 bar. when air is compressed above 6 bar. It is then fed into the second stage cylinder which compresses it to 7 bar. The compressed air enters the second stage cylinder at a greatly reduced temperature after passing through the inter-cooler. the excessive heat created greatly reduces the efficiency. If the final pressure is 7 bar. 4. The diaphragm provides a change in chamber volume.

make portable compressors ideal for spray painting. 4. The most common industrial type of air compressor is still the reciprocating machine. Oil flooding provides lubrication and sealing between the two rotating screws. this type of compressor offers a continuous pulse-free delivery. Continuous high flow rates in excess of 400 m3/min are obtainable from these machines at pressures up to 10 bar. Lubrication and sealing is achieved by injecting oil into the air stream near the inlet. Oil separators remove this oil from the outlet air.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Smaller types.). The oil also acts as a coolant to limit the delivery temperature. although screw and vane types are finding increasing favour.6 Screw Compressor Principle Two meshing helical rotors rotate in opposite directions. The free space between them decreases axially in volume and this compresses the air trapped between the rotors (fig 4.5 Vane Compressor This has an eccentrically mounted rotor having a series of vanes sliding in radial slots.6. Rotary Compressors Rotary sliding vane compressor Intake Output Fig. with an electric motor of ≤ 1 kW power. More so than the Vane Compressor. As the rotor rotates. Screw compressor Drive Output Intake Fig 4. centrifugal force holds the vanes in contact with the stator wall and the space between the adjacent blades decreases from air inlet to outlet. so compressing the air. Page 16 .

The final pressure is then 9 bar abs. With increasing final pressure however. developed by this relatively low compression. and then again reduced to a third of its volume. A compressor.12 ϫ 0. there is some space left. Volumetric Efficiency free air delivered The ratio ᎏᎏ expressed as a percentage. dmn3/s or litres/min. Page 17 . The first one is inevitable as it is not possible to discharge all of the compressed air from the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. a single stage compressor is better. taken in by a first stage cylinder. 4. the so called “dead volume”. The diagram in fig. The heat. The compressed air is then led to a second stage cylinder. These losses reduce the overall efficiency further depending on the compression ratio and load. only the first stage cylinder should be considered.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Compressor Rating A compressor capacity or output is stated as Standard Volume Flow. therefore its volume is increased and decreases when cooling down to ambient temperature (see Charles Law in section 3). partly compressed in a first stage cylinder. As an average figure. The capacity may also be described as displaced volume. The heat developed by compressing the same air volume in a single stage directly from atmospheric pressure to 9 bar abs. and will vary with displacement the size. 4. through the inter-cooler.7 compares the typical overall efficiencies of single and two stage compressors with various final pressures. The specific energy consumption is a measure of the overall efficiency and can be used to estimate the generating cost of compressed air. the absolute pressure at its outlet is 3 bar. is known as the volumetric efficiency. as its pure volumetric efficiency is higher. The effective delivery is always less due to volumetric and thermal losses. working at almost full capacity accumulates great heat and loses efficiency. having a higher thermal efficiency become preferable .15 m3n / min / kW). Example: If the atmospheric air. For a piston compressor it is based on: Q (l/min) ϭ piston area in dm2 ϫ stroke length in dm ϫ number of first stage cylinders ϫ rpm. it can be assumed that one kW of electrical energy is needed for the production of 120 Ϫ 150 l/min ( ϭ 0. would be much higher and the overall efficiency severely reduced. In the case of a two stage compressor. Thermal loss occurs due to the fact that during compression the air assumes a very high temperature.7 Overall efficiency diagram For low final pressures. number of stages and the final pressure. for a working pressure of 7 bar. there are also thermal effects which lower the efficiency of the air compression. is correspondingly low. Exact figures have to be established according to the type and size of compressor. thermal losses become more and more important and two stage types. a theoretical figure. is compressed to a third of its volume. In a two stage compressor the compression ratio per stage is less and the air. The volumetric efficiency of a two stage compressor is less than that of a single stage type as both the first and second stage cylinder have dead volumes. type and make of machine. given in m3n/s or /min. Thermal and Overall Efficiency Beside the losses described above. is cooled in an intercooler before compression to final pressure in a second stage cylinder. Single Stage 90% Total 80% Efficiency 70% 60% 4 5 Two Stage 6 7 8 9 10 Final Pressure (bar) 11 12 Fig. or ‘’Theoretical Intake Volume’’.

The most effective way to remove the major part of this condensate is to subject the air to aftercooling. with intake piping of sufficiently large diameter to avoid excessive pressure drop. which is caused mainly by the abrasive effect of these impurities. Air Dehydration Aftercoolers After final compression the air will be hot. This control is called “automatic”.D. the rule of thumb for the size of the reservoir is: Air receiver capacity Ϸ compressor output of compressed air per minute. This needs a certain minimum receiver volume to avoid over frequent switching. but it also provides additional cooling to precipitate oil and moisture carried over from the aftercooler. but the suction valves are lifted so that the air can freely flow in and out of the cylinder without being compressed. and inspection covers for checking or cleaning inside. 7 A tank with a volume of 2750 l will probably be an available and convenient size. If this air is compressed to 7 bar. supplying a network. Inlet Filter A typical city atmosphere can contain 40 million solid particles.e. When a silencer is used. dirt. it may be arranged to include the air filter which will be located upstream of the silencer position so that it is subjected to minimum pulsation effects. etc. The pressure difference between compressing and running idle is quite small. To this end it is an advantage to place the air receiver in a cool location. In this case only a small receiver is needed.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Compressor Accessories Air Receiver An air receiver is a pressure vessel of welded steel plate construction. installed horizontally or vertically directly downstream from the aftercooler to receive the compressed air. and so very small particles (2-5 ␮) cannot be removed. etc. Aftercoolers are heat exchangers. before the air is distributed further. thereby damping the initial pulsations in the air flow.A. For industrial plants. size of the system and whether the demand is relatively constant or variable. An important condition for the reliability and durability of a compressor is that it must be provided with a suitable and efficient filter to prevent excessive wear of cylinders. pressure gauge. dust. The vessel should be fitted with a safety valve. average line pressure 7 bar 18000 therefore compressed air output per minute ϭ ᎏ ϭ 2500 litres approx. The air intake should be sited so that as far as possible. i. The filter must not be too fine as the compressor efficiency decreases due to high resistance to air flow. Its main functions are to store sufficient air to meet temporary heavy demands in excess of compressor capacity. being either air cooled or water cooled units. piston rings. Page 18 . Sizing a receiver Air receivers are sized according to the compressor output. drain. per m3. the concentration would be 320 million parts/m3. Electrically driven compressors in industrial plants. when it cools it will deposit water in considerable quantities in the airline system which should be avoided. pollen. and minimise frequent “loading” and “unloading” of the compressor.!) Example: compressor delivery 18 mn3/min (free air). (Not F. are normally switched on and off between a minimum and a maximum pressure. immediately after compression. clean dry air is drawn in. Mobile compressors with a combustion engine are not stopped when a maximum pressure is reached.

The principle is shown in fig. Page 19 . and that the remaining moisture passes out with the exhaust air released to atmosphere.8 Principle of an Air Cooled Aftercooler Consisting of a nest of tubes through which the compressed air flows and over which a forced draught of cold air is passed by means of a fan assembly. The control and operating elements of the pneumatic system will normally be at ambient temperature (approx. removes the accumulated condensation . for example during night time. 4. a steel shell housing tubes with water circulating on one side and air on the other.4. pressure gauge. This may suggest that no further condensate will be precipitated.9 Cooling Water IN Air Input Air Output Cooling Water OUT Fig. An automatic drain. Aftercoolers should be equipped with a safety valve. Water cooled Essentially. This situation cools the compressed air further. and it is recommended that thermometer pockets for air and water are included. 4. the temperature of the air leaving the aftercooler may be higher than the surrounding temperature through which the pipeline passes. Air Dryers Aftercoolers cool the air to within 10-15°C of the cooling medium.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Air cooled Fig. 20°C). A typical example is shown in fig. attached to or integral with the aftercooler. usually arranged so that the flow is in opposite directions through the cooler.9 Principle of a Water Cooled Aftercooler A water cooled aftercooler should ensure that the air discharged will be approximately 10°C above the temperature of the cooling water . thus condensing more of the vapour into water. 4. However. The outlet temperature of the cooled compressed air should be approximately 15°C above the ambient cooling air temperature.8.

lithium chloride or calcium chloride which reacts with the moisture to form a solution which is drained from the bottom of the vessel. but the inlet temperature must not exceed 30°C. The lower the dew point. There are three main types of air dryer available which operate on an absorption. adsorption or refrigeration process. 4. the chemicals involved are highly corrosive necessitating carefully monitored filtering to ensure that a fine corrosive mist is not carried over to the pneumatic system. which is the temperature at which the air is fully saturated with moisture (i. but a pressure dew point of 5°C at 7 bar is possible. the less moisture remains in the compressed air. The main advantages of this method are that it is of low initial and operating cost.e.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY The measure employed in the drying of air is lowering the dew point. The drying agent must be replenished at regular intervals as the dew point increases as a function of consumption of the salt during operation. 100% humidity).10 Principle of the Absorption Air Dryer The compressed air is forced through a drying agent such as dehydrated chalk or magnesium chloride which remains in solid form. Absorption (deliquescent) Drying Output Input Fig. Page 20 .

heatless by a flow of previously dried air. The directional control valve is switched periodically by a timer to alternately allow the supply air to one column and regenerating the other.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Adsorption (dessicant) Drying Column 1 (working) Column 2 (regenerating) O1 O2 Output Dry Air Input Wet Exhaust Fig. The regenerating air flow then goes to exhaust. or. Between 10-20% of the dry air passes through orifice O2 and column 2 in reverse direction to re-absorb moisture from the dessicant to regenerate it.11 Principle of the Heatless Adsorption Air Dryer A chemical such as silica gel or activated alumina in granular form is contained in a vertical chamber to physically absorb moisture from the compressed air passing through it. but maintenance costs tend to be low. Micro-filtering is essential on the dryer outlet to prevent carry over of adsorbent mist. 4. Initial and operating costs are comparatively high.11. 4. Wet compressed air is supplied through a directional control valve and passes through dessicant column 1. The dried air flows to the outlet port. heating. Page 21 . to provide continuous dry air. When the drying agent becomes saturated it is regenerated by drying. for example –40°C. as in fig. Extremely low dew points are possible with this method. A colour indicator may be incorporated in the dessicant to monitor the degree of saturation.

At this time. This prevents dew forming on the discharge outlet. 4. Inlet temperatures may be up to 60°C but it is more economical to pre cool to run at lower inlet temperatures. It is then cooled by the refrigerator principle of heat extraction as a result of evaporating freon gas in the refrigerator circuit. As a general rule. The cold dry air return pipe passes through air heat exchanger ➀ and gains heat from the incoming high temperature air.12 Principle of the Refrigerated Air Dryer Humid high temperature air is pre-cooled in the first heat exchanger ➀ by transferring part of its heat to the cooled output air. moisture and oil mist condense and are automatically drained. Dry Air OUT Hot Air IN ➀ ➀ Heat Exchanger ➁ input air / output air Heat Exchanger input air / freon ➆➁ ➅> ➃ ➄ ➂ Freon cooler ➃ Ventilator (for 3) ➄ Freon compressor ➅ Thermostatic valve ➆ Air filter ➇ Auto Drain Heat Transmission ➇ ➂ Fig. increases volume and lowers relative humidity. in heat exchanger y. although an output air temperature of 5°C is sufficient for most common applications of compressed air. Page 22 .PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Refrigerant drying This is a mechanical unit incorporating a refrigeration circuit. the cost of drying compressed air may be 10-20% of the cost of compressing air. An output temperature of 2°C is possible by modern methods.and two heat exchangers.

oil vapours from the compressor and water from the air. It has no deflector.4. which requires a certain minimum pressure drop to function properly as the “Standard Filter” discussed later in the section on Air Treatment.13 Typical Line Filter A large capacity filter should be installed after the air receiver to remove contamination. A built-in or an attached auto drain will ensure a regular discharge of accumulated water. This filter must have a minimum pressure drop and the capability to remove oil vapour from the compressor in order to avoid emulsification with condensation in the line. The filter is generally a quick change cartridge type. Page 23 .AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Main line filter Filter Cartridge Metal Bowl Viewing Glass Drain Valve Fig.

4.This will reduce pressure drop.14 Typical Dead End Line Mains To assist drainage.15 Typical Ring Main In a ring main system main air can be fed from two sides to a point of high consumption. Page 24 . At suitable intervals the main can be brought back to its original height by using two long sweep right angle bends and arranging a drain leg at the low point. However this drives condensate in any direction and sufficient water take-off points with Auto Drains should be provided. Isolating valves can be installed to divide the air main into sections. This limits the area that will be shut down during periods of maintenance or repair. Ring Main Fig. the pipework should have a slope of about 1 in 100 in the direction of flow and it should be adequately drained.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Air Distribution The air main is a permanently installed distribution system carrying the air to the various consumers. There are two main layout configurations: DEAD END LINE and RING MAIN Dead End Line Fig. 4.

hole in the spring loaded piston and along the stem of the manual operator. The condensate accumulates at the bottom of the housing and when it rises high enough to lift the float from its seat.16 Take-offs for air (a) and Water (b). but this is off-set by the man-hours saved in the operation of the manual type.18. and is internally connected to atmosphere via the filter. Branch lines are taken off the top of the main to prevent water in the main pipe from running into them. These should be frequently drained or fitted with an automatic drain.17 and 4. Unless an efficient aftercooler and air dryer are installed. Auto drains are more expensive to install initially. Nozzle Float Pressure Relief Valve Manual Operation Filter Drain Seat Fig. Page 25 . the pressure in the housing is transmitted to the piston which moves to the right to open the drain valve seat and expel the water.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Secondary Lines The Water remains in the Pipe The Water runs into the Auto Drain a b Fig 4. 4.17. Automatic Drains Two types of automatic drains are shown in the figures 4. instead of into drainage tubes which are taken from the bottom of the main pipe at each low point of it. the compressed air distribution pipework acts as a cooling surface and water and oil will accumulate throughout its length.17 Float Type Auto Drain In the float type of drain. With manual draining neglect leads to compound problems due to contamination of the main. The relief valve limits the pressure behind the piston when the float shuts the nozzle. a relief valve. 4. This pre-set value ensures a consistent piston re-setting time as the captured air bleeds off through a functional leak in the relief valve. the tube guides the float. The float then lowers to shut off the air supply to the piston.

18 shows an electrically driven type which periodically purges the condensate by a rotating cam wheel tripping a lever operated poppet valve. but the flow capacity of the 50 mm Dia pipe will be four times that of 25 mm.20 gives the equivalent lengths for the various fittings commonly used. two elbows. Join X to 0. we find the following equivalent pipe length: Page 26 . the average is 9 bar. will increase the air pressure drop in the system. normally recommended at 6 m/s.19) allows us to determine the required pipe diameter. 125 m Referring to Nomogram 4.pipe. a 65 mm nominal bore pipe (see Table 4. Sizing Compressed Air Mains The cost of air mains represents a high proportion of the initial cost of a compressed air installation. The size of the air main and branches is determined by the limitation of the air velocity. Pipe with a minimum bore of 61 mm can be used. the cost of installing say a 25 mm Dia bore pipe is similar to that of a 50 mm Dia pipe. this dual feed should be ignored. two 90° bends. Synchronous Motor Cam Wheel Manual Operation Fig. so lending itself to use in mobile compressors. Table 4. assuming that at any time air will be supplied through one pipe only. the operating costs will rise and will exceed the additional cost of the larger diameter piping. Example (a) To determine the size of pipe that will pass 16800 l/min of free air with a maximum pressure drop of not more than 0. the supply for any particular take-off point is fed by two pipe paths.20 . In a closed loop ring main system. The pressure drop from the compressor to the end of the branch pipe should not exceed 0.21) has a bore of 68 mm and would satisfy the requirements with some margin. while sub-circuits at a pressure of around 6 bar and a few metres in length may work at velocities up to 20 m/s.3 bar.24 kPa / m on the pressure drop line to cut the reference line at X.19: Draw a line from 9 bar on the pressure line through 0.28 m3n /s and draw a line to cut the pipe size line at approximately 61 mm. e. although lowering the investment cost. A reduction in pipe diameter. and as this cost varies very little between pipe sizes. 4.3 bar in 125 m of pipe. The nomogram (fig 4.24 kPa / m. The 2 stage compressor switches on at 8 bar and stops at 10 bar. Also as labour charges constitute a large part of the overall cost. column “65 mm Dia”. When determining pipe size. and bus or truck pneumatic systems. Example (b) If the 125 m length of pipe in (a) above has a number of fittings in the line.g.18 Motorized Auto Drain It offers the advantages of being able to work in any orientation and is highly resistant to vibration. Bends and valves cause additional flow resistance. 30 kPa 30 kPa pressure drop in 125 m of pipe is equivalent to ᎏ ϭ 0. will a larger size pipe be necessary to limit the pressure drop to 30 kPa? In Table 4.. which can be expressed as additional (equivalent) pipe lengths in computing the overall pressure drop.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Fig 4. six standard tees and two gate valves.

0 m = 9.2 m 2 ϫ 0.015 0.5 2 3. Note: The possibility of future extensions should be taken into account when determining the size of mains for a new installation 3 2 1.6 m 6 ϫ 0.6 0.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION two elbows: two 90° bends: six standard tees: two gate valves: Total 2 ϫ 1.02 0.7 0.8 m = 1.7 m = 4.5 2.01 1" 25 3/4" 20 0.22 kPa/m 135 m Referring again to nomogram in fig 4.25 2.04 0.03 0.5 0.8 0. The “Effective Length” of the pipe is thus 125 ϩ 9.0 0.3 0.15 1/2" 3/8" X 15 ∆p kPa / m = bar /100 m Pipe Length Q (m 3n /s Reference Line Inner Pipe Dia.19: The pipe size line will now cut at almost the same dia.05 0.6 m The twelve fittings have a flow resistance equal to approximately 10 m additional pipe length.5" 2" 60 50 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Line Pressure (bar) 1.25" 35 30 0. 4.4 m = 2.2 40 1.4 0.025 0.5 m = 1.8 m 2 ϫ 0.25 0.4 0.5 1 4" 100 90 80 70 3" 2.0 1.5" 0.0 2.6 Ϸ 135 m 30 kPa and the allowed ⌬p/m: ᎏ ϭ 0.3 0.9 0..2 0.15 0.19 Nomogram for Sizing the Mains Pipe Diameter Page 27 . a nominal bore pipe of 65 mm.75 1.1 1.5 0. with an actual inner diameter of 68 mm will be satisfactory. mm Fig.

4 1.7 3.3 0.470 12.8 1.4 0.2 1.2 2.9 3. For over 80 mm Dia.3 Thickness mm 2.7 48.8 0.2 5.3 2.0 2.4 40 0.2 3.5 0.21 Pipe Size Specification Stainless steel pipes Primarily used when very large diameters in long straight main lines are required.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Type of Fitting Elbow 90º Bend (long) 90º Elbow 180º Bend Globe Valve Gate Valve Standard Tee Side Tee Nominal pipe size (mm) 15 0.8 3.7 80 1.4 3.100 ⁄8 ⁄4 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄4 1 1 1⁄4 1 1⁄2 2 2 ⁄2 1 3 4 Table 4.Dia.7 7. mm 10.8 3.5 2.3 2.8 0.4 Table 4.0 0.4 1.1 1.380 3.6 1.0 4.4 1.9 3.8 17.9 1.890 5.6 50 1.5 13. welded flanges are often more economical to install rather than cut threads into large pipes.100 6.6 2.1 65 1.2 34.2 0.652 0.1 125 3.5 6. This type of piping can be screwed to accept the range of proprietary malleable fittings.05 4.6 0.1 0.8 1.65 3. Copper Tube Where corrosion.7 25 0.1 9.3 21.851 1.3 0.5 3.2 0.4 1.310 1.0 2.1 88. heat resistance and high rigidity are required.2 0.9 30 0.4 1.1 0. This is obtainable in black or galvanised form which is less liable to corrode.6 60.9 2. Page 28 .0 0.3 0.5 2. The specifications of the Carbon Steel Standard Gas Pipe (SGP) are: Nominal Width A 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 75 100 B 1 1 3 1 3 Outside Dia.65 4.7 100 2.430 3.4 0.4 0.419 0. copper tubing up to a nominal diameter of 40 mm can be used.5 0.510 8.7 27.3 76.2 1.8 0.2 4.1 2.6 1.1 0.4 0.5 3.7 2.1 4.1 0.5 20 0.5 7.2 0.0 42.3 1.9 114.2 1. but will be relatively costly over 28 mm.2 0.0 0.3 0.8 2.4 0.680 2.2 1.20 Equivalent Pipe Length for the Mains Fittings Materials for Piping Standard Gas Pipe (SGP) The air main is usually a steel or malleable iron pipe.5 Mass kg/m 0.7 0.6 5.5 0. Compression fittings used with annealed quality tubing provide easy working for installation.1 0.6 0.4 0.

2 6. inches 1 1 3 1 5 3 Outside Dia.5 12.3 18.2 10. The tube is pressed by the sleeve when screwing in the cap nut. Plastic tubing Commonly used for the interconnection of pneumatic components.1 90.2 70.22 Rubber hose Specification* Cloth-wrapped hose Rubber hose is mainly recommended for tools and other applications where the tube is exposed to mechanical wear. The tube (insert) entering into the tube.5 Inside Dia.4 45. reduces its inner diameter and thus represents a considerable extra flow resistance. and rapid connection by either compression or quick-fit fittings.4 31.8 38.5 50. but it has lower maximum safe working pressures.AIR COMPRESSION AND DISTRIBUTION Rubber Tube (“Air Hose”) Rubber hose or re-inforced plastic is most suitable for air actuated hand tools as it offers flexibility for freedom of movement for the operator. 4.5 Inner Sectional Area mm2 8.0 35. pneumatic components are connected by various methods. allowing easy cutting to length.5 66. a softer grade nylon or polyurethane is available. Fittings in Systems In systems.10 29.7 15.04 31.9 127 199 284 507 794 1140 1560 2030 2560 3170 ⁄8 ⁄4 ⁄8 ⁄2 ⁄8 ⁄4 1 1 1⁄4 1 1⁄2 1 3⁄4 2 2 1⁄4 * 2 ⁄2* 1 Table 4.8 81.9 19.1 44.1 63. Page 29 .5 21. The dimension of Pneumatic Rubber Hose are: Nominal Width.8 57.0 25. mm 3.8 52.1 60. Within its working temperature limitations it has obvious advantages for installation. If greater flexibility for tighter bends or constant movement is required.7 24. mm 9.3 9.23 Example of an Insert Fitting The INSERT type provides a reliable retaining force inside and outside of the tube. Fig.

elbow type The SELF SEALING fitting has a built in mechanism so that air does not exhaust after removal of the tube and is also applicable for copper free applications.25 Example of a Self Seal Fitting b Page 30 . There is no additional flow resistance. If no tube is pushed in. the fitting is shut off by a check valve. it opens the air flow by pushing the check valve from its seat. a. b When a tube is inserted.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY The PUSH – IN connection has a large retaining force and the use of a special profile seal ensures positive sealing for pressure and vacuum.24 Example of a Push-in Fitting. Fig. as the connection has the same inner flow section as the inner diameter of the fitting tube. a Fig. 4. 4.

seal expansion. Filtering Standard Filter The standard filter is a combined water separator and filter. all atmospheric air carries both dust and moisture. After compression. such as worn sealing material. caused by the deflector at the inlet. If the air has not been de-hydrated beforehand. Page 31 . To remove these contaminants. sparks etc. 5. a considerable quantity of water will be collected and the filter will hold back solid impurities such as dust and rust particles.1 Typical Filter/Water Separator and an automatic Drain as option The water separation occurs mainly by a rapid rotation of the air. moisture condenses out in the aftercooler and receiver but there will always be some which will be carried over. For safety it must be protected by a metal bowl guard. water and oil are thrown outwards to impact on the wall of the filter bowl before running down to collect at the bottom. The standard element will remove all contamination particles down to 5 microns in size. Clean Air Pilot Valve Deflector Filter Float Vortex Baffle Plate Quiet Zone Bowl Bowl Guard Auto Drain Valve Manual Drain Valve Symbol Filter/Separator Symbol Filter/Separator with Auto Drain Fig. Air treatment also includes Pressure Regulation and occasionally Lubrication. The element can be easily removed. The baffle plate creates a quiet zone beneath the swirling air. Moreover. Where the bowl is exposed to heat. pipe scale and other foreign matter.AIR TREATMENT 5 AIR TREATMENT As described previously. cleaned and re-used a number of times before needing to be replaced because of excessive pressure drop. corrosion and sticking valves. fine particles of carbonised oil. rust scale and carbonised oil as the air flows through to the outlet. a metal bowl should be used . The heavier particles of dirt. The liquid can then be drained off through a manual drain cock or an automatic drain. preventing the separated liquid from being re-entrained into the air stream. form gummy substances. The bowl is normally made from polycarbonate. For chemically hazardous environments special bowl materials must be used. All of this is likely to have injurious effects on pneumatic equipment by increased seal and component wear. the air should be further cleaned as near as possible to the point of use. The filter element removes the finer particles of dust.

It should be noted that using a standard filter for the application may not separate as efficiently because of a lower flow velocity. Manufacturers provide flow/pressure diagrams to enable correct sizing to be done. but its filter element has additional layers with a higher filtration efficiency. forming drops on the filter cartridge to collect at the bottom of the bowl. Dust is trapped within the micro filter element.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY If the condensate accumulates at a high rate it is desirable to provide automatic draining. to provide maximum protection for pneumatic precision measuring devices.2 Typical Micro Filter Micro Filters Where contamination by oil vapour is undesirable. 0. b) The maximum acceptable pressure drop for the application. The air flows from the inlet to the centre of the filter cartridge then outwards through the outlet. Sub-micro Filters A sub-micro filter will remove virtually all oil and water and also fine particles down to 0. Being a pure filter it is not equipped with a deflector plate. Cartridge Perforated Stainless Steel Plate Filtering Tissue. The right hand side of Fig 5. Page 32 . Filter Selection The size of air filter that is required for a particular application is dependant on two factors:a) The maximum flow of compressed air used by the pneumatic equipment.3 m PVC Sponge Filter Paper. 4 m ISO Symbol Multistage Filter Fig. cleaning and drying of electronic assemblies etc:The principle of operation is the same as a micro filter. 5. electrostatic spray painting.1 shows a float type of auto drain unit built-in for standard filters. a micro-filter is used. the oil vapour and water mist is converted into liquid by a coalescing action within the filter material.01 of a micron.

installed on the bottom. use refrigerated dry air. Additional drains may be fitted to all low points on the pipeline. Air from a compressor passes through an aftercooler with an auto drain to remove condensate. Typical applications are listed in Table 5. Branch 7 incorporates an additional dryer of the adsorption type. branch 3 requires no auto drain. thus. the moisture having been removed by a refrigerated type of air dryer.3 Schematic Definition of 7 Degrees of Filtration Branches (1 and 2) provide air direct from the air receiver. As the air cools further in the air receiver more condensate is removed by an auto drain. equipped with auto drains remove condensate. Sub branch 6 incorporates an odour removal filter. branch 4 needs no pre filtering and branch 5 gives an improved level of air purity using a micro filter and sub micro filter. 5. The system divides into three main parts:- Aftercooler Tank Refrigerated Air Dryer Auto Drain Compressor Auto Drain 1 a 2 3 a Micro Filter b Submicro Filter c Odour Removal Filter d Adsorbtion Air Dryer a a a b d a b c b 4 5 6 7 Fig. Branches (3 – 6) use air conditioned by a refrigerated type of dryer.AIR TREATMENT Air Quality Filtering Levels Fig 5. Sub branches 3 – 5. An adsorption type dryer eliminates all risk of condensation at low temperatures in sub branch 7.4. Page 33 .3 illustrates different levels of purity for various applications. sub-branch 2 being higher purity because of the micro filter. Standard filters in sub branches 1 and 2.

01 µm Where pure air.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Removal of… >99% Saturated humidity Dust particles >5µm Liquid oil >96% Dust particles >0. blowing. measuring Dust particles >0. air transport and air is required brewing.9999% electrostatic spray painting. Pharmacy. Breathing air Drying electronic Where every risk of conden components All impurities as in (6) but sation during expansion and Storage of pharmaceuticals withan atmospheric dew at low temperatures must be Marine measuring point below –30 C avoided equipment Air transport of powder O O Table 5. required Humidity as (4) cleaning and drying of electronic assemblies Where absolutely pure air. fine equipment. with additional odour removal as under (5) .but odour free packaging. humidity and oil can be accepted Where the removal of dust and oil dominates.3 µm Where no humidity. free from any impurity is Oil mist >99. high quality Oil mist >99. air tools and air motors Where the removal of Similar to (1) but as the air is humidity is imperative but dry additionally general traces of fine dust and oil are spray painting acceptable Process control.9% dust and oil vapor are spray painting. but a certain amount of condensation can be risked Typical Examples Workshop Air for clamping.4 Definition and typical applications of the seven qualities of air. food industry for as (5). simple pneumatic drives General industrial equipment pneumatic controls and drives Sealless metallic joints.3 µm Oil mist >99. cooling of Humidity to an atmospheric acceptable foundry and injection dew point below –17 C moulding dies Pneumatic precision Dust particles >0.9% Saturated humidity 99% Humidity to an atmospheric dew point below –17 C Further as in (1) O Application Where some solid impurities. Page 34 . practically measuring devices.

allowing flow from the primary pressure p1 inlet port to the secondary pressure p2 outlet port. The air flow through the valve will be reduced until it matches the consumption rate and the output pressure is maintained. diaphragm and valve drop until the spring force is equalled again. momentarily stronger than the lifting force from p2 on the diaphragm. Fig 5. When consumption starts. diaphragm and valve will then lift until the spring force is equalled again. creating a lifting force against the spring load. Air pressure which is too low is uneconomical because it results in poor efficiency. opens the valve. 5. p2 will initially drop and the spring. Then the pressure in the circuit connected to the outlet rises and acts on the diaphragm. This increases the air flow through the valve to match the consumption rate. The secondary pressure is set by the adjusting screw loading the setting spring to hold the main valve open.AIR TREATMENT Pressure Regulation Regulation of pressure is necessary because at pressures above optimum. p2 will slightly decrease. Page 35 . Standard Regulator Adjusting Knob Adjusting Spindle Setting Spring Diaphragm Disc Diaphragm p1 p2 Valve Valve Spring Pressure regulators have a piston or diaphragm to balance the output pressure against an adjustable spring force. If the consumption rate drops.5. If the consumption rate increases. this increases the force on the diaphragm against the spring force. the diaphragm will lift to open the relieving seat so that excess pressure can be bled off through the vent hole in the regulator body. p2 will slightly increase. This decreases the force on the diaphragm against the spring force.6 The Relieving Function Without air consumption the valve is closed. If the secondary pressure rises above the set value by virtue of: • re-setting the regulator to a lower outlet pressure or • an external reverse thrust from an actuator. rapid wear will take place with little or no increase in output.Principle of the Pressure Regulator Relieving p1 p2 a b Fig.

cut at an angle with the opening oriented towards the outlet (fig 5. the balance against the weakened spring at high flow rates is compensated. trying to close it. As p3 is now at a lower static pressure. a higher force is acting on the bottom of the valve. 5.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY p3 p1 p2 Connection Fig. This can be eliminated by a valve having equal surface areas for both input and output pressure in both directions.8 Fully compensated Pressure Regulator Page 36 . 5.8). That means that an increasing input pressure decreases the output pressure and vice versa. 5. The effect can be improved by inserting a tube in the connection. This is realised in the regulator of fig. the static pressure is then low (Bernoulli).7: if the inlet pressure p1 increases. In this channel the flow velocity is high. The spring is therefore elongated and thus weaker and the equilibrium between p2 on the diaphragm area and the spring occurs at a lower level. 1 ❶ ❷ 2 3 ❸ There is still an inconvenience in the regulator of fig. As explained in section 3.8 The most important parts are: ❶ Adjusting Spindle ❷ Setting Spring ❸ Relieving Seat ❹ Diaphragm š Flow Compensation Chamber ❻ Flow Compensation Connection Tube ❼ Valve  O-Ring for Pressure Compensation ❾ Valve Spring ❿ O-Ring for Flow Compensation 10 ❿ 4 ❹ 5 ❺ 6 ❻ 7 ❼ 8 ❽ 9 ž Fig. 5. This problem can be corrected by creating a third chamber with a connection to the output channel.7 Principle of a Flow Compensated Regulator With very high flow rates the valve is wide open.

5. The pilot regulator on top of the unit supplies or exhausts pilot air only during corrections of the output pressure. This enables the regulator to achieve very high flow rates but keeps the setting spring length to a minimum. Adjusting Knob Setting Spring Pilot Pressure Relief Pilot Diaphragm Pilot Valve Main Diaphragm p1 p2 Main Valve Main Valve Spring Main Secondary Pressure Relief Fig.AIR TREATMENT Pilot Operated Regulator The pilot operated regulator offers greater accuracy of pressure regulation across a large flow range. This accuracy is obtained by replacing the setting spring of a standard regulator with pilot pressure from a small pilot regulator sited on the unit.9 Pilot Pressure Regulator Page 37 .

∆p should however be kept below 1 bar.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Filter-Regulator Air filtering and pressure regulation is combined in the single filter regulator to provide a compact space saving unit. For a “Standard Filter/Separator “ (not a Line Filter). The curve has three distinct portions: I the inrush.10 Typical Filter Regulator FRL elements have to be sized in accordance with the required flow capacity. Characteristics A regulator size is selected to give the flow required by the application with a minimum of pressure variation across the flow range of the unit.5. The size of the filter is defined by the pressure drop. 5. a minimum pressure drop of about 0. with a small gap on the valve that does not yet allow real regulation II the regulation range and III the saturation range. The size is therefore defined by the required flow. the valve is wide open and further regulation is impossible p2 (bar) 8 7 6 5 4 II a 1 ˘p Q (l/min) 3 bar 5 bar 7 bar 1 bar 0. Modular systems give the capability to adapt the connection thread to the available tube size. The most important is the Flow / p2 diagram.11 Typical Flow/Pressure Characteristics: a: Regulator.5 0 b 0 2000 4000 6000 Q (l/min) Fig. (Fig. Manufacturers provide graphical information regarding the flow characteristics of their equipment. 5. the average volume flow should be the one in the middle of the regulating range (II in fig.2 bar is required to ensure functioning. 5. not by the connection size of the component. It shows how p2 decreases with increasing flow. b: Filter Sizing of Regulators and Filters Fig. With maximum flow. For Regulators.11 a). Page 38 .11).

the pressure in the dome is lower than that in the bowl. the greater the pressure drop. lubricators must have self-adjusting cross sections to produce a constant mixture. To ensure they are continually lubricated. The oil is broken up into minuscule particles. flooding the pneumatic system. for a healthier. c) Oil free atmosphere. a greatly increased flow rate would create an excessive pressure drop and produce an air/oil mixture that had too much oil. a certain quantity of oil is added to the compressed air by means of a lubricator. The higher the flow. The advantages of “non-lube” systems include:a) Savings in the cost of lubrication equipment. in the oil tube and the sight feed dome. the same pressure exists above the surface of the oil in the bowl. The life and performance of these components are fully up to the requirements of modern high cycling process machinery. Conversely a decreased flow rate may not create sufficient pressure drop resulting in a mixture which is too lean. through the oil check valve and flow regulator into the dome. Air entering at A (in Fig 5. the oil seeps through the capillary hole into the main air stream in the area of the highest air velocity. atomised and mixed homogeneously with the air by the turbulence in the vortex created by the damper vane. Consequently there is no movement of oil. Once in the dome. When there is no flow. directly proportional to the flow rate.12) follows two paths: it flows over the damper vane to the outlet and also enters the lubricator bowl via a check valve. Page 39 . most are available prelubricated for life. When air flows through the unit. Since the sight feed dome is connected by the capillary hole to the low pressure zone immediately after the damper vane. Proportional Lubricators In a (proportional) lubricator a pressure drop between inlet and outlet. b) Cleaner more hygienic systems. With a fixed size of restriction. To overcome this problem. is created and lifts oil from the bowl into the sight feed dome . lubricating oil and maintaining oil levels. safer working environment.AIR TREATMENT Compressed Air Lubrication Lubrication is no longer a necessity for the majority of modern Pneumatic components. Certain equipment still requires lubrication. of particular importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. the damper vane restrictor causes a pressure drop between the inlet and outlet. This pressure difference forces oil up the tube.

Size and Installation The combination unit must again be sized for the maximum flow rate of the system.R. 5. The oil check valve retains the oil in the upper part of the tube when the air flow temporarily stops. A pure (no-additives) mineral oil of 32 centi-stokes viscosity is recommended. The air check valve allows the unit to be refilled under pressure. a general guide is to allow one or two drops per cycle of the machine. Mounting brackets and other accessories can be easily fitted in more recent designs. pressure regulator and lubricator elements can be combined into a service unit by joining with spacers and clamps. to proportionally adjust the pressure drop and thus maintain a constant mixture throughout. Fig. while work can normally go on. Manufacturers will generally provide this information.L Units Modular filter.13 Typical FRL Unit in a modular design Page 40 . widening the flow path. Some oil companies have a special oil for compressed air lubrication. but.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Refill Sight Feed Dome Capillary Connection Oil Throttle A Damper Vane Air Check Valve Oil Check Valve Oil Tube Bowl Bowl Guard SinterBronze Oil Filter Fig. Lubricator Regulator Filter F.12 Proportional Lubricator The damper vane is made from a flexible material to allow it to bend as flow increases. The oil throttle allows adjustment of the quantity of oil for a given pressure drop. 5. The correct oil feed rate depends on operating conditions. with a high capacity to absorb moisture without loss of lubricating properties.

2 Double Acting Cylinder Cylinder Construction The construction of a double acting cylinder is shown. It may be a “push” or “pull” type. Linear movement is obtained by piston cylinders. bronze or stainless steel may be used for the cylinder body for aggressive or unsafe environments. Aluminium. 6. The thrust available on the retracting stroke is reduced due to the smaller effective piston area. The end caps may be aluminium alloy or malleable iron castings held in place by tie rods or.(fig 6. reciprocating rotary motion with an angle up to 270° (standard) by vane or rack and pinion type actuators and continuous rotation by air motors.1 Typical Single Acting Cylinder. but is only a consideration if the cylinder is to “pull” the same load in both directions Rod Seal / Scraper Rod Bearing ISO Symbol : Fig. accommodating the spring results in a longer overall length and limited stroke length. The barrel is normally made of seamless tube which may be hard coated and super-finished on the inner working surface to minimise wear and friction. Single acting cylinders are used for clamping. in the case of smaller cylinders. They have a somewhat lower air consumption compared with the equivalent size of double acting cylinder. ejecting etc. brass. fit into the barrel tube by screw thread or be crimped on. Double Acting Cylinder With this actuator. Linear Cylinders Pneumatic cylinders of varying designs are the most common power components used in pneumatic automation. thrust is developed in both extending and retracting directions as air pressure is applied alternately to opposite sides of a piston. The piston rod is returned by a fitted spring or by external force from the load or spring. However there is a reduction in thrust due to the opposing spring force. Also. Push Type . 6. and so a larger bore may be required. • Double acting cylinders with two air inlets to produce extending and retracting power strokes. Page 41 . Single Acting Cylinder A single acting cylinder develops thrust in one direction only. marking.1) Sinter Bronze Filter P Stop Spring iston ISO Symbol : Fig.ACTUATORS 6 ACTUATORS The work done by pneumatic actuators can be linear or rotary . There are two basic types from which special constructions are derived: • Single acting cylinders with one air inlet to produce a power stroke in one direction.


Front Cover


Barrel Seal

Piston Magnetic Guiding Ring Ring Cylinder Seal Barrel

Back Cover

Scraper Ring / Rod-Seal

Piston Rod

ISO Symbol

Rod Cushion Seal Bearing

Cushion Barrel

Tie Rod

Tie Rod Nut

Fig. 6.3 The component parts of a double acting cylinder with air cushioning. Various types of seals ensure that the cylinder is airtight.

Pneumatic cylinders are capable of very high speed and considerable shock forces can be developed on the end of the stroke. Smaller cylinders often have fixed cushioning i.e. rubber buffers, to absorb the shock and prevent internal damage to the cylinder. On larger cylinders, the impact effect can be absorbed by an air cushion that decelerates the piston over the last portion of the stroke. This cushion traps some of the exhausting air near the end of the stroke before allowing it to bleed off more slowly through an adjustable needle valve.(fig.6.4.) Adjusting Screw

Fig. 6.4 Principle of Air Cushioning The normal escape of the exhausting air to the outlet port is closed off as the cushion sleeve enters the cushion seal, so that the air can only escape through the adjustable restriction port. The trapped air is compressed to a relatively high pressure which brakes the inertia of the piston. When the piston reverses, the cushion seal acts as a check valve to allow air flow to the piston. It however restricts the air flow and delays the acceleration of the piston. The cushioning stroke should therefore be as short as possible. To decelerate heavy loads or high piston speeds, an external shock absorber is required. If the piston speed exceeds about 500 mm/s an external mechanical stop must be provided, which is also the case with built-in cushioning.

Page 42


Special Cylinder Options
Double Rod

ISO Symbol Fig. 6.5 Principle of the double rod
A double rod makes a cylinder stronger against side load, as it has two bearings at the widest distance possible. This type of cylinder is often mounted with the rods fixed and the cylinder itself moving to displace a part.

Non Rotating Rod
The piston rod of a standard cylinder rotates slightly as there is no guide to prevent this. Therefore it is not possible to directly mount a tool, e.g. a cutting blade. For this kind of application, where no considerable torque is exercised on the tool, a cylinder with a non-rotating rod can be used. The suppliers specify the maximum allowable torque. As fig. 6.6 shows, the rotation is prevented by two flat planes on the rod and a fitting guide. It shows also how a torque creates a high force on the edges of the rod profile, which will damage it in the long run.

Fig. 6.6 Non-Rotating Rod Twin Rod A Section A-A Symbol: Unofficial:

ISO: A Fig. 6.7 Twin Rod Cylinder. Flat Cylinder
A cylinder normally has square covers and, generally, a round cylinder. By stretching the piston to a relatively long rectangular shape with round ends, it achieves the same force as a conventional cylinder. The advantage, of course, is the saving in space achieved if they are to be stacked together.


Section A-A

ISO Symbol :

A Fig. 6.8 Principle of a Flat Cylinder

Page 43


Tandem Cylinder
A tandem cylinder is two double acting cylinders joined together with a common piston rod, to form a single unit.

ISO Symbol :

Figure 6.9 Principle of the Tandem Cylinder
By simultaneously pressurising both cylinder chambers the output force is almost double that of a standard cylinder of the same diameter. It offers a higher force from a given diameter of cylinder, therefore it can be used where installation space is restricted.

Multi Position Cylinder
The two end positions of a standard cylinder provide two fixed positions. If more than two positions are required, a combination of two double acting cylinders may be used. There are two principles: For three positions, the assembly on the left is required; it enables users to fix the cylinder. It is very suitable for vertical movements, e.g. in handling devices. The second is to mount two independent cylinders together back to back. This allows four different positions, but the cylinder cannot be fixed. A combination with three cylinders of different stroke lengths gives 8 positions, one with four 16, but a rather exotic structure is required and the movement, when cylinders run in opposite directions, is very unstable.

Stroke Length’s 200 100



100 200 300

0 1


ISO Symbols :

Figure 6.10 Three and four position cylinder

Cylinder Mounting
To ensure that cylinders are correctly mounted, manufacturers offer a selection of mountings to meet all requirements including pivoting movement using swivel type mountings.

Page 44

There are four main cases: 1.13 The four mounting cases and seize thus rendering the cylinder useless. Rigidly fixed on one side. in the case of smaller cylinders. 6. 4. the general rule of thumb is if the stroke of cylinders above 50 mm bore is three times the diameter or. 6. i. 2. If a certain specified stroke length is exceeded. 6. Pivoting on both ends. a floating joint must be fitted to the piston rod end. This excess thrust can manifest itself when there is -: 1 -: Compressing Stress. is long and slender.11 The various methods of Cylinder Mountin g Floating Joints To accommodate unavoidable “misalignment” between the cylinder rod movement and the driven object.e a cylinder.12 Floating joint Buckling Strength When an excess thrust is applied to a cylinder the buckling strength must be taken into consideration. the stroke is five times the bore and the cylinder is pushing a load. Page 45 . it is then subjected to compressing stress. Fig. To avoid unnecessary loss of time and money. 2 -: If the stressed part.ACTUATORS Direct Threaded neck Foot Rear flange Front flange Rear Clevi s Trunnion Fig. check with the “buckling length table” in the suppliers catalogue.pivoting on the other. The above mentioned conditions apply if a cylinder lifts or pushes a load. The buckling strength depends greatly upon the mounting method. the cylinder can “break out’ sideways Fig. Rigidly fixed on one side and loose at the opposite end. 3. Rigidly fixed at both ends.

ø (mm) 2. This. 125. 7 and 5 bar working pressure. 100. 50. 12. 6. 160. 10. or any similar suppliers information to select a cylinder size. theoretical force. 63.5 5000 4000 2500 2000 1500 1250 10 1000 5 4 2.5 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 140 160 200 250 500 400 250 300 ø (mm) Fig. 16. the thrust on a stationary piston. 320 mm The force developed by a cylinder is a function of the piston diameter. the friction is neglected. 20. 250. For the theoretical force. the operating air pressure and the frictional resistance. 25. from 2. 140. 40.14 Theoretical Force of pneumatic cylinders.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Cylinder Sizing Cylinder Force Theoretical Force Linear cylinders have the following standard diameters as recommended in ISO: 8.14. 32. pg ϭ Working (gauge) pressure) π Retracting stroke : FR ϭ F ᎏ · (D2 – d2) · pg 4 where (d ϭ piston rod diameter) for a single acting cylinder: π FE s =F ᎏ · D2 · pg – Fs (Fs ϭ Spring force at the end of stroke) 4 It may be quicker to use a diagram such as the one in fig. showing the theoretical force for 10. 80. 200. is calculated using the formulae: Force (N) = Piston area (m2) · air pressure (N/m2). Page 46 F (N) . 6.5 1000 4 6 8 10 12 16 20 25 30 100000 500 400 300 250 200 150 125 50000 40000 25000 20000 15000 12500 F (N) p : (bar) 10 7 5 100 10000 50 40 30 25 20 15 12.5 to 30mm (left and top scales) and from 32 to 300mm (right and bottom scales) for 10. or Force (lbf) = Piston area (in2) · air pressure (lbf/in2) Thus for a double acting cylinder: π Extending stroke: FE ϭ F ᎏ · D2 · pg 4 Where (D ϭ piston diameter.7 and 5 bar .

15 a). 6. All the cylinder thrust is then available for acceleration. the larger size providing extra force to overcome frictional resistance.15 d. π Assuming an extending stroke:FE ϭ F ᎏ D2 · p 4 Transposing: Dϭ Ί๶ Ί๶๶ 4 FE ᎏ ϭ π·p 4·1600 N ᎏᎏ ϭ 0.3 mm. There is no doubt that the same diameter is correct for 1600N as well as 1500 N. π · 600000 N/m2 A 63 mm Dia.15 c). rolling on iron (0. The mass represents a load. the angle of movement or elevation. The weight is the force created by the earth’s acceleration on the mass. The load consists of the Weight of the mass (Fig. when the movement is vertical(90° elevation). 9. The earth’s acceleration equals.005 for iron.15 b) and the required acceleration (Fig. on a latitude of 45° (Standard for Europe). Its value as a factor is the sine of the inclination angle. 0 for horizontal. the Force F represented by the friction factor times mass (Fig. 6.1 to 0. This coefficient enters the formula as a cosine. 6.15 The component forces of the load. the working pressure and the effective piston area. By using the diagram. The re–partition of these forces depends on the angle of the cylinder axis with the horizontal plane (elevation) as shown in fig.001 for balls on the ring in a ball bearing). The load of the mass varies therefore with the inclination from 0 to 100%. 6. With a horizontal movement the weight is a zero load as it is fully born by the construction. Friction is defined by the friction coefficient µ which varies between about 0. which varies from 1 for horizontal to 0 for vertical. A horizontal movement (elevation ϭ 0°) has only friction to overcome. F = G · (sin a + µ · cos a) F=G F=µ· G W a = m /2 · v 2 B x a h y R a a b c d A a G Fig.4 for sliding metal parts and about 0. cylinder would be selected. We follow it to the left until we reach a point between the Pressure Lines for 5 and 7 bar and find an intersection between 50 and 63 mm Dia on the Diameter Scale on the bottom.80629 m·s-2. 6. we look for 1600 N on the Force Scale at the right side and find 1500 as a dashed line. Required Force The required force depends on the mass of the load. the friction.ACTUATORS Example: Determine the theoretical size of a cylinder operating at a pressure of 6 bar that would generate a clamping force of 1600 N.0583 m ϭ 58. 1 for vertical: Page 47 . equal to its weight.

9 2 1 0.6 -– 50 – – (94.5 4.7 48 24 85 42. If an accurate speed control is required or load forces vary widely.2 – – 50.6 78.6 31.2 – – (97.5) 48.2) 45.8 _ 50.8 43.8 – (96.4 33.6) 48.9 9.4 Table 6.2 µ 0.2 µ 0.8 27.1 0.8 – 67.4 35.8 – – – 50 60° µ 0.5) 48.7 50.9 40 20 10 (95.5 3.6 – – 63.1 67.8 – – 65.9 25.8 49.9 0.2 – – 72. 60-70% should not be exceeded.7 – 73.4 – – 80.5 9.2).6 48.4 39 55.9 22 11 78 39 20.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Load Ratio Required force This ratio is generally referred to as “Lo” and equals ᎏᎏ · 100% Theoretical Force A cylinder should not have a higher load ratio than about 85%.5 (93.9 79. Table 6.8 41.1 – – (96. Ø 25 32 40 m (kg) – – – 51.7) 43.9 – (99.1 39 19.8 25.1) 46.5 80 40 20 10 87.7 32.4 50 63 80 (87) 43.3 – – (91.7 34.9 2 1 0.4 – – 84.16 Page 48 .01 µ 0.5 180 90 45 22.4 – – 67.2) 51.3 33.3) 47.4) 47.3 35.2 1.3 – – 71.3 33.9 – – – 54.8 25.8 42.8 – – – 47.1 – – 82.4 33.3 – 84.6 – – (94.9 37 – – 68.2) (96.5 69.3 41.8 100 (87) 43.3 10.2 µ 0.4 78.01 45° µ 0.55 3.8 18.01) and sliding steel parts (0.5 71.7 – – 84.5 4 2 1 0.4 2.6) 47.01 30° µ 0.6 – – (86) 46.2 100 50 25 12.1 40.2 1 0.01 µ 0.5 35.4 39.8 54.3 53 – – – 52.6 4 2.1 1.3 36.8 79.9 0.4 42.5 71.5 4.8 – – 67.16 gives the Load Ratio for cylinders from 25 to 100 mm dia and various elevations and two friction coefficients for rolling (0.5 250 125 65 35 400 200 100 50 650 300 150 75 1000 500 250 125 1600 800 400 200 – – – – (87.9 342.9 40 20 0 81.8 37.5 4 2 1 0.6 27.7 82.6 24.

16 shows this case and 90 kg mass a load ratio of 43. Any increase of the piston speed increases the opposing force.857 m· s-2. horizontal movement with a friction coefficient of 0.2 % of the force is left for the acceleration of the load.2 30° 0.17 shows the mass of the total load in kg. A positive speed control is obtained by throttling the exhaust of the cylinder by means of a “Speed Controller”.01 42.2 for sliding (right column).5 97. table 6.01 for rolling (left column) and 0. which is a combination of a check valve. The lower the load ratio the better the speed control. Without control. With a cylinder efficiency of 95%.4 88 139.2. The units are for force: kg · m · s-2 and for acceleration: m · s-2.9 %. The acceleration is therefore: 185.5 390.8 %. the piston would theoretically approach 2 m/s after one second. Cyl.2 80. the stronger it can stabilise the piston speed.01 2123 3920 5450 8500 13500 21775 34020 ↔ 0. above the force opposed by the load.7 155 250 390.2 0. Therefore.9 · ᎏ 90 ϭ 48.5 425 675 1089 1701 Table. working pressure 5 bar. especially when the load is subject to variations.8 225. limited by the tube and changing the needle position has little effect. if there is no limitation to the access of compressed air behind and no back pressure in front of the piston. With a load ratio of 85% and a cylinder efficiency of 95%. Thus for 100 kg: 100 43. these variations will no longer have any visible effect on the speed. and an adjustable throttle (needle valve).2 39.8 % of 401.5 77 107 167.2 54.3 119 189 305 476.5 0. Cylinder Dia 32 mm.5 428 669. 95 48. the Load Ratio should be approx 75%. Example: Mass of the load 100 kg.9 126.2 64. Page 49 .8% ϭ 46.7 340. The load ratio should never exceed 85% approx. An example of speed control is shown in the section on valves in the chapter on Auxiliary Valves.8 76. that results in a Load Ratio of 85% It is based on 5 bar working pressure on the cylinder and again the two friction coefficients 0.17 Mass in kg for cylinders from 25 to 100 mm Dia.2 N Table 6.2 31.This is 185. With a load ratio of for example 50%.5 85 135 217. Dia 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 ↑ µ: 21.7 N.92 N ϭ 196 N.5 323. The Force of the load is 48.2 256. the flow capacity of the tube has to be much higher than that of the speed controller setting. Force is mass times acceleration. This limits and stabilises the piston speed.5 58.5 505. to allow free flow towards the cylinder. When the mechanical load shows a variation of ± 5% there is a compensation of half the influence.4 200.5 45 62. With a tube which is too small in diameter the flow is. “Theoretically” means.01 24.ACTUATORS A more practical help for finding the correct cylinder diameter would be to know the allowed load under various conditions.5 0.2 100. The limitation of the exhaust air flow creates a pneumatic load.5 56.8 60° 0. which is defined by the piston speed and the volume flow through the restriction of the speed controller. 10 percent of the force is stabilising the pneumatic load.2 159.3 265. To get a constant speed. The higher the pneumatic part of the total load is.2 25 46. These values are the maximum mass of the total load. Note that for a subtle speed control.7 kg · m · s-2 / 100 kg ϭ 1.7 352 0. The theoretical force is 401. for a Load Ratio of 85% with 5 bar working pressure Speed Control The speed of a cylinder is defined by the extra force behind the piston.2 45° 0.2 106 196 272. 6.2 22 40.01 30 54. for a great part.

19. or for a whole system. With A ϭ D2 · π/4 we get for outstroking π D (m) · D (m) · ᎏ · (p + 1.636 0. The Air Consumption of a cylinder is defined as: Piston area · Stroke length · number of single strokes per minute · absolute pressure in bar. to properly size the F.235 1. 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 Working Pressure in bar 3 0.971 1. the volume is zero.124 0.870 1.398 0.479 5.465 3.993 1.498 0. in litres per 100 mm stroke Page 50 . unit and supply tubes.359 2.291 0.243 0.557 0.18 a). The second is the peak consumption of a cylinder required to ascertain the correct size of its valve and connecting tubes.746 1.186 0. 6.158 3. the theoretical air consumption of a cylinder is for the extending stroke as indicated in fig.477 0.18 b). a b c Fig.013) · Stroke (mm) · n (strokes / min) · 10-6 (l / min).661 6 0.340 0.1 bar) Table 6. a figure used to calculate the energy cost as part of the total cost price of a product and to estimate the required capacity of compressor and air main.· Inner Tube Dia.777 1. Explanation: When the piston is against the cylinder cover (fig.217 0.165 1.993 3. in addition to the atmospheric pressure of 101325 Pa.013)· Stroke (m) · n (strokes / min) · 103 (l / min).18 The Theoretical Air Consumption of a cylinder With that.Theoretical Air Consumption of double acting cylinders from 20 to 100 mm dia. D is replaced by (D-d). The first is the average consumption per hour. When we pull the rod out until the piston is on the opposite end. or 4 π D (mm) · D (mm) · ᎏ · (p + 1. For the return stroke.850 2.388 0. 6.319 0.111 4 0.194 0. the swept volume times the gauge pressure in bar is added.R.983 4.975 6. 6.487 3.18 and for the return stroke AR · s · (p + patm). 4 (Where p the gauge pressure and n the number of single strokes). (mm) · Tube Length (mm) · Gauge pressure in MPa (0.211 Table 6.886 5 0. the cylinder is filled with atmospheric pressure of 101325 Pa abs (fig. The consumption of the tubes between valve and cylinder equals: Inner Tube Dia (mm).622 0. for various cylinder diameters and working pressures: Piston dia.553 2.248 0. 6.436 7 0.When the pressure from the supply enters.19 gives the theoretical air consumption per 100 mm stroke.155 0.542 2.L.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Air Flow and Consumption There are two kinds of air consumption for a cylinder or pneumatic system.

66 7 6. without making things too complicated.890 1.961 2.729 2. “p·Vk ϭ constant”.304 0.987 0. we find an electrical consumption of 1 kW for 0.991 1 2 1.044 1.697 1.482 5 4. if any. defines the flow on which the FRLunit has to be sized.895 4. It should however be noted that.948 3. 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 Working Pressure in bar 3 0. In table 6.611 7 0.790 4. Table 6. • the transfer of energy is not without losses (see further below).779 1.216 3 2.749 1. Air Consumption of double acting cylinders.451 5.088 1.4.218 1. • the consumption figures in the above table do not include the “dead volume” at either end of the stroke.159 3.178 1.983 1.974 2. It depends on the highest cylinder speed. but the change is generally not100% adiabatic. nor that for the connecting tubes. but with this correction factor.174 0.365 4 3.340 0.924 To compensate for the phenomena related to this change. Piston dia.923 3.136 1.482 5. 5 ct · 8 kW The cost of producing a volume flow of 1 m3n/min is then ᎏᎏ ϭ 40 ct / hr.633 1.908 4. In the section on the property of gases we discussed “adiabatic” change. Page 51 .19.987 1.20.021 4.565 8.347 0.174 3.217 0.360 2.408 0.903 3.882 5.38 1.440 5 0.935 3.668 1.476 0. We assume a currency in which one kW hr (Kilo Watt Hour) costs 5 ct.4 ct per hour. represents the air consumption as energy cost.543 0.870 7. pabs crisothermic cr adiabatic factor 1 0. kW hr 0. The highest sum of the peak flows of all simultaneously moving cylinders.176 6. calculated that way.12 – 0.631 2. For sizing the valve of an individual cylinder we need another figure: the peak flow. To produce 1 m3n / min we require therefore approximately 8 Kw of electric power.870 1.260 0. 1 m3n/min The sum of all the cylinders on a machine. The table of the compression ratio table from page 7 is reproduced below with an additional row for p·Vk ϭ constant and one with the ratio isothermric / adiabatic compression.557 0.576 1. This figure is less than in theory. Find the energy cost per hour of a double acting cylinder with an 80 mm Dia and a 400 mm stroke with 12 double strokes per minute and a working pressure of 6 bar.19 we see that an 80 mm dia cylinder consumes 3.4.ACTUATORS Example 1.391 2.80 9 8.525 6 0. In the paragraph “Thermal and Overall Efficiency” in section 4. Boyle’s Law.15 m3/min with a working pressure of 7 bar.336 m3n/min ᎏᎏ In our example: · 40 ct / hr ϭ 13. We may no longer neglect the thermal losses. which means that there is no time to exchange any heat.133 1.673 1.738 8 7.272 0. which represents a fair average confirmed in a high number of practical tests.5 litres (approx) per 100 mm stroke so : Q /100 mm stroke · 400 mm stroke · number of strokes per min · forward and return stroke ϭ 3.20 shows the figures of table 6.873 10 9. the theoretical volume flow has to be multiplied by a factor 1. The exponent k (kappa) for air is 1.but changes to.579 6 5.696 Table 6.5 · 4 · 24 ϭ 336 l/min.590 4. “p·V ϭ constant” is no longer applicable.446 0.355 4 0.

22 Vane Type Rotary Actuator Sizing Rotary Actuators Torque and Inertia Linear cylinders have a cushion to reduce the impact when the piston hits the cover. Adjustable stops may be provided to adjust any angle of rotation of the unit. we find 3. 180 or 270°.023bar π Q ϭ 1.021 litres ϭ 453. 270 O 180 O 90 O ISO Symbol: Fig. What is the real air consumption for 15 cycles per min? 6 bar + 1.15 l/min. The capacity of the Page 52 . and 500 mm stroke works at 6 bar. Rotary Actuators Rack and Pinion Type The output shaft has an integral pinion gear driven by a rack attached to a double piston.021 l/min per 100 mm stroke. Standard angles of rotation are 90° or 180° Ball Bearings Rack Pinion ISO Symbol: Fig.4 · (63 mm)2 · ᎏ · 500 mm · 30/min · ᎏᎏ ·10-6 mm3/litre ϭ 453. 6. A special three dimensional seal seals the stopper against the shaft and the housing. The size of the stopper defines the rotation angle of 90. This figure has to be multiplied by 150. The vane is sealed against leakage by a fitted rubber seal or elastomer coating.013 bar By using the table.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Example2: A cylinder of 63 mm Dia. 6.21 Rack and Pinion Rotary Actuator Vane Elastomer Damper Vane Type Rotary Actuators: Air pressure acts on a vane which is attached to the output shaft.195 l/min 4 1. for 5 times 100 mm stroke and 30 times per minute: 150/min · 3.

multiplied by the square of its distance from the rotation axis gives the total inertia. (kg · m2) Page 53 . This energy equals ᎏ · v 2. The basic case is a cylinder. the sum of the mass of each individual part. It is most important when a load is 2 propelled with little friction and high speed. The allowable energy published by the manufacturer must be carefully respected.ACTUATORS m cushioning is the kinetic energy it can absorb.23 Formulae for the moment of inertia of various body shapes To define this energy we need to know the inertia of the rotating mass. r1 r r r2 a J = m·r 2 b J=m· a r 2 2 c J=m· r1 2+ r2 2 2 r r r d J=m· r 2 4 e r2 a2 + ) J=m· ( 12 4 f J=m· 2r 2 5 a b a a b g J=m· a2 12 h J=m· a2 12 i J=m· 2 + b2 a 12 b a m a = m· a a+b b m b = m· a+b J=m a · b a k b2 a 2 +m J=m a · · b 3 3 l 2 4a 2+ c 2 4b + c 2 +m · b 12 12 Fig. These dynamics are even more important to understand in the case of a rotary actuator. Think of its material being composed of extremely small parts. 6. A free stop of a rotating mass without cushioning or overloading risks breaking the pinion or vane. Its inertia equals its mass times the square of the radius: J ϭ m · r2.

6. if not limited by a stabilising backpressure. For a rotation.24 a. a Stops Stopper Lever on square Shaft End Reaction c Shock Absorbers b Stops Fig. For example a chuck on an arm as in fig. 6. For fast pneumatic movements. the speed is defined by the “Angular Speed w”.25 Definitions of angular speed. 6.3° Fig. Fig.23 k is added to the inertia of the arm by multiplying its mass with the square of the distance of its centre of gravity from the rotation axis. s ϕ= r rad ϕ s ω = r ϕ t 1 rad: ϕ = 57.26 Average and final speed Page 54 . 6. it can be done with a stopper lever on the opposite end of the shaft. As for the cushioning capacity for linear movements. Whenever possible. see fig. A rotating construction has to be split up into basic elements and the partial inertia totalled. preferably a shock absorber.24 b.26 Low Speed High Speed Final Speed Average Speed ω a ω=ϕ/ t t b ω = 2ϕ / t t Fig. This is subject to high reaction forces and should be done only with the consent of the supplier. 6.24 Stopping a rotating arm. Fig. It is expressed in radians per second.25 illustrates these expressions. for the maximum allowed energy to be stopped by a rotary actuator we have to consider the final speed. It should be placed as far from the axis as possible as in fig. rotating masses have to be stopped against a mechanical stop. Any closer to the centre would create a reaction. 6. 6.23 shows the formulae for a number of basic shapes. The inertia for rotating objects is what the moving mass is to a linear movement. may be considered to be almost constant. 6. If an external stop on the arm itself is not possible. The movement starts at zero and reaches about double the average speed (Stroke per time) at the end of stroke. which should therefore have a square end. An acceleration by compressed air. The energy is defined by its speed.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY The inertia of more complicated forms has to be calculated with the help of formula for specific shapes. calculations have to be based on twice the average speed as fig. 6.

Vertical movements are therefore not recommended. 6. It will hold the piston rod in any position. For these types. Suppliers give data for any possible mounting orientation and side load.29). with magnetic coupling Depending on the kind of guide used. unguided Magnetic Rings with opposite polarity Carriage Iron Discs Piston Stainless Steel Cylinder Tube Fig. Fig. 6. the problem of side load can be solved or made worse. x Load Fo Fig. Fig. even in the case of pressure breakdown. but at a certain distance (X in fig. With ball bearings for the guide. 6. the stroke length is a main factor for the allowable force. up to 7 bar working pressure. It equals that of a normal rod cylinder. so ensuring the piston rod is securely held.27 Typical Locking Cylinder Rodless cylinders With magnetic coupling. The locking action is mechanical. unless a safety margin specified by the supplier is observed. A rodless cylinder of the same stroke can be installed in a much shorter space of approximately 600 mm.29 Side Load X reduces the allowable load Guided types. Precision guides however have so little tolerance that the slightest deformation increases friction. 6. The data. the allowable force decreases drastically. When the coupling between the carriage and the load cannot be done in the centre line of the cylinder. It has particular advantages when very long strokes are required.28 Typical Rodless Cylinder with magnetic coupling between piston and carriage A conventional cylinder of say 500 mm stroke may have an overall outstroked dimension of 1100 mm.ACTUATORS Special Actuators. 6. but with dynamic shocks a separation of the carriage from the piston is possible. Page 55 . Pilot Port Clamping Lever Brake Shoe Brake Piston Locking Cylinder A cylinder can be fitted with a locking head in place of the standard end cover. The force available from a magnetically coupled type of rodless cylinder is limited by the magnetic retaining force.30 shows a typical guided rodless cylinder with magnetic coupling between piston and carriage. specified by the supplier has to be respected to avoid damage to the cylinder. a side load can be considerable and also the stroke length.

31 Rodless Cylinder with mechanical coupling. the valve can be connected to the fixed part. the body can be fixed and the rods with end bars can move (b). Slide Units The slide unit is a precision linear actuator of compact dimensions which can be used on robotic manufacturing and assembly machines. but it is not totally leak free unlike the magnetically coupled type.32. Guided. It is recommended that the carriage is decelerated softly with shock absorbers on both ends. In one position. 6. Precisely machined work mounting surfaces and parallel piston guide rods ensure accurate straight line movement when built in as part of the construction of a transfer and position machine. Page 56 .PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Fig. Pistons a b c Fig. In both cases. operated by a magnet built-in to the carriage. 6. a “slotted cylinder” type excludes the risk of disconnection of the carrier from the piston under dynamic shocks. 6.32 Typical Slide Unit.30 Rodless cylinder with guides. either by the ports and or and in fig. with mechanical coupling Carrier Cushioning Tube Covering Strip Seal Belt Piston Cushioning Seal Fig. For lifting or moving heavier loads. 6. 6. Hollow Rod Cylinder This actuator is specifically designed for “pick and place” applications. Shock Absorbers and cylinder switches. the end bars touch the mounting surface and the body can move (c). Upside down.30 they are built in. in fig. A rail holds adjustable switches.

6. 6. A rotating arm attached to the shaft can be equipped with a gripper or vacuum pad to pick up work pieces and deposit them in another location after rotating the arm. Fig.ACTUATORS Locking Nut for Vacuum Pad AntiRotation Rod Switch The hollow rod provides a direct connection between a vacuum source and a Vacuum Connection vacuum pad.34 Typical Rotating Cylinder. Opened Main Piston Closed Air Chuck (Gripper) An actuator designed to grip components in robotic type applications.33 Hollow Rod Cylinder with a non moving vacuum connection Rotating Cylinder A so called rotating cylinder is an assembly of a linear cylinder with a rotary actuator. to open and close the jaws. Fig. This gives a complete “pick and place” unit for materials handling. Secondary Piston Speed Control Screw Fig. Page 57 . 6.35 Typical Pneumatic Fulcrum Type Gripper. attached to the (stationary) working end of the rod. The connecting tube at the rear of the cylinder remains static. while the rod extends and retracts. The type shown has two opposing pistons.

36 shows three typical applications of the last two elements: Fig.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Fig. 6. Page 58 .36 Typical Applications of the Rotating Cylinder and Air Gripper.

Special applications e. Page 59 .g Locking head cylinders. The main functions and their ISO symbols are: SYMBOL 2 PRINCIPAL CONSTRUCTION 2 FUNCTION APPLICATION 2/2 ON/OFF without exhaust. its normal ( not operated ) position and the method of operation. Double acting cylinders with stopping possibility. the number of switching positions. The first two points are normally expressed in the terms 5/2.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES 7 DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES Valve Functions A directional control valve determines the flow of air between its ports by opening. 3/2 Normally open (NO). Single acting cylinders (pull type). 5 1 3 4 2 5 4 1 2 3 5 1 3 4 2 5 4 1 2 3 5 1 3 5 1 3 Fig. 5/3 Closed centre: As 5/2 but with mid position fully shut off. The valves are described in terms of : the number of ports. inverse pneumatic signals.1 Valve Symbols. The first figure relates to the number of ports ( excluding pilot ports ) and the second to the number of positions.pressurizing or exhausting the output A. 1 2 3 1 2 3 3/2 Normally closed (NC) . 5/2 Switching between output A & B with separate exhausts. Double acting cylinders. Single acting cylinders (push type). 4/2 Switching between output A & B with common exhaust. Double acting cylinders. 2/2 etc. 3 1 3 4 1 2 4 2 1 4 3 2 2 1 3 4 5 1 3 4 2 3 1 4 5 2 Double acting cylinders. 5/3 Pressurized centre. 1 2 1 2 Air motors and pneumatic tools. Principles. 7. with the possibility to de pressurize the cylinder. 5/3 Open centre:As 5/2 but with outputs exhausted in mid position. 3/2. description and main applications. pressurizing or exhausting the output A. closing or changing its internal connections. pneumatic signals.

Originally. the outputs “2“ and “4”. The second exhaust port in 5/2 valves was then named S. A bistable valve has no preferred position and remains in either position until one of its two impulse signals are operated. antivalent output port “B”. delaying the termination of the standard ISO 1219 by another 6 years.2 Port identifications mainly in use Monostable and bistable Spring returned valves are monostable. one of the ISO work groups had the idea that ports should have numbers instead of letters. for a four or five port valve two or more poppet valves have to be integrated into one valve. The preferred option is now numbers. Fig 7. The outlet of a 2/2 or 3/2 valve has always been ”A”. The exhaust is invariably “R” from Return (to the oil tank). Poppet valves can be two or three port valves. After 20 years bargaining about pneumatic and hydraulic symbols. Poppet Valves Flow through a poppet valve is controlled by a disc or plug lifting at right angles to a seat with an elastic seal.3 The various types of valves and sealing methods. 7. They have a defined preferred position to which they automatically return. or the former “R1” and the latter “R2”. Valve Types The two principal methods of construction are Poppet and Slide with either elastic or metal seals. the second. Directional Control Valves Poppet Valves Spool Valves Sliding Valves Rotary Valves Elastomer Seal Metal Seal Plane Slide Valves Fig. “P” for the supply port comes from “pump”.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Port Identification The identification of the various ports are not uniform. Table 7. the hydraulic source of fluid energy.2 shows the four main sets of port identifications in use. Page 60 . it is more of a tradition than a respected standard. the pilot port connecting”1” with “2” is then “12” etc. Supply should be “1”. Supply P P P 1 output A A A 2 output B B B 4 Exhaust R R1 EA 3 Exhaust S R2 EB 5 Pilot Port Z Z PA 12 Pilot Port Y Y PB 14 Table 7. the codes previously used the older hydraulic nomenclature.3 relates to the various combinations. The pilot port initiating the power connection to port A was originally coded “Z” (the two extreme letters in the alphabet belong together) and the other “Y”.

8.5 a) shows a NC 3/2 poppet valve as shown in fig.7 O-rings are fitted in grooves on the spool and move in a metal sleeve. 2 1 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 a b ISO Symbol This feature allows valves to be connected up normally closed (NC) or normally open (NO). rotary and plane slide valves use a sliding action to open and close ports. Sliding Valves Spool.7 and 7.4 b. Two of them are crossing output ports. Page 61 . These factors limit these designs to valves with 1/8” ports or smaller.7. Spool Valves A cylindrical spool slides longitudinally in the valve body with the air flowing at right angles to the spool movement. 7. Design 7.4 The main types of poppets c In a) the inlet pressure tends to lift the seal off its seat requiring a sufficient force (spring) to keep the valve closed.4 c) is a balanced poppet valve.the outlet exhausts through the plunger. When operated (b) the exhaust port closes and the air flows from the supply port 1 to the outlet 2. but the operating force varies with different pressures. Spools have equal sealing areas and are pressure balanced. which are therefore divided into a great number of small holes in the sleeve. 3 3 1 2 3 1 ISO Symbol 2 2 1 3 Fig 7. Elastomer seal Common spool and seal arrangements are shown in fig.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES a b Fig. Normally open valves can be used to lower or return single acting cylinders and are more commonly used in safety or sequence circuits. In fig 7. The inlet pressure acts on equal opposing piston areas. In b) the inlet pressure assists the return spring holding the valve closed. 7. In its non-operated position (a).

8 Spool Valve with seals in the housing. 7.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY 4 2 4 2 5 1 3 5 1 3 . Fig.8 has seals fitted in the valve body. Page 62 . a small internal leakage rate of about one deci l/min occurs. This is of no consequence as long as the cylinder does not need to be held in a position by a 5/3 valve with closed centre for some time. Fig 7. 4 2 4 2 5 1 3 5 1 3 Fig. 7. 7. crossing the cylinder ports The valve in fig. This design provides a leak free seal with minimum friction and therefore an extremely long life. 7. 5 14 4 1 4 2 2 3 5 4 4 2 1 2 12 3 12 5 1 3 ISO Symbols 14 51 3 Fig. but just need to open or close its own seat.9 Valve with oval ring spool . Plane Slide Valve Flow through the ports is controlled by the position of a slide made of metal. nylon or other plastic. None of them have to cross a port.003 mm.10 Principle of the sealless Spool and Sleeve Valve.9 shows a spool with oval rings. rapid cycling and exceptionally long working life. Metal Seal Lapped and matched metal spool and sleeve valves have very low frictional resistance. But even with a minimal clearance of 0. which are kept in position by means of sectional spacers 4 2 4 2 3 5 1 5 1 3 Fig. The slide is moved by an elastomer sealed air operated spool.7 Spool Valve with O-Rings on the spool. 7.

12 Section through a Rotary Disc Valve and a disc for a 4/3 function with closed centre Page 63 . Rotary Valves A metal ported disc is manually rotated to interconnect the ports in the valve body. Pressure imbalance is employed to force the disc against its mating surface to minimise leakage.11 5/2 Plane Slide Valve. 7. The pressure supply is above the disc.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES 1 14 12 14 1 A 4 5 3 4 14 51 3 2 12 14 2 4 5 4 2 12 51 3 3 2 ISO Symbols Fig. 1 3 1 3 Fig. 7. 2 4 1 3 ISO Symbol 2 4 2 4 1 3 1 3 2 4 2 4 .

Page 64 . The one way roller (or idle return roller) will only operate when the control cam strikes the actuator when moving in one direction. OT. 7. suitable for Flush Raised Mushroom manual control.: Over Travel TT.15 The main monostable Manual Operators. stopping and otherwise controlling a pneumatic control unit. Fig.16 Bistable Manual Operators. should be located as close as possible to its actuator and be switched by remote control with a pneumatic signal. A monostable air operated valve is switched by air pressure acting directly on one side of the spool or on a piston and returned to its normal position by spring force. Manually operated.13 Plunger Straight Roller Square Roller Roller Lever Fig. NO ! PT: pre travel OT.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Valve Operation Mechanical operation On an automated machine. TT. Manual Operation Manual operation is generally obtained by attaching an operator head. PT. In the reverse direction the roller collapses without operating the valve.14 illustrates this: the working portion of the roller’s total travel should not go to the end of stroke. but it can also be an “air spring” by applying supply pressure to the spool end.:Total Travel Roller Stroke to be utilized Yes Fig. 7. Air Operation. Fig. In the latter case. 7. For many applications it is more convenient if the valve maintains its position. 7. or a combination of both. The main direct mechanical operators are shown in fig. used as “Power Valves”.13 The Main Mechanical Operators. are generally used for starting. mechanically operated valves can detect moving machine parts to provide signals for the automatic control of the working cycle. 7. 7.7. monostable (spring returned) valves. The slope of a cam should have an angle of about 30°.16 shows the more important types of bistable manual operators Rotating Knob Toggle Key Fig. Fig. The spring is normally a mechanical spring. opposite to the pilot port. onto a mechanically operated valve. Directional control valves. which is provided by a piston. the pilot side requires a bigger effective area. steeper slopes will produce mechanical stresses on the lever. Care when using Roller Levers Special care must be taken when using cams to operate roller lever valves.14 Care with Roller Levers and Cams.

19. or “piloted” operation.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES 2 2 2 Pilot Input 3 1 1 3 Air connection for spring assistance 1 3 Piston with twice the area of the spool on spring side Air assisted spring return gives more constant switching characteristics. Bistable valves hold their operated positions because of friction. especially if the valve is subjected to vibration. the external operator acts on a small pilot valve which in turn switches the main valve pneumatically. 2 Pilot Input 2 Pilot Input 2 ISO Symbol 1 3 1 3 3 1 Fig. Port”2” is exhausted through “3”. With indirect. and higher reliability. shifting the spool to the right and connecting the supply port “1” to the cylinder port “4”. an air spring is provided through an internal passage from the supply port. 14 4 2 12 4 14 2 12 5 13 ISO symbol 5 1 3 Fig. In fig 7. but the more common air operated valve for cylinder control has a double pilot and is designed to rest in either position (bistable). air operated 5/2 Valve. The valve will remain in this operated position until a counter signal is received. moves the spool or poppet directly.18 Air operated 3/2 Valve with air spring return . a short pressure pulse was last applied to the pilot port “14”. 7. roller or plunger. to act on the smaller diameter piston. Page 65 . the positions are locked by a detent.19 Bistable. This is referred to as a ‘memory function’. A direct operation occurs when a force.18. Piloted Operation. 7. In fig. The air operated valves discussed so far have been single pilot or monostable types. This method of returning the spool is often used in miniature valves as it requires very little space. but should be installed with the spool horizontal. 7. In the case of metal seal construction. applied to a push button. Pressure applied through the pilot port on to the larger diameter piston actuates the valve.

21 a.21 b) Directly operated 5/2 solenoid valves rely on the electromagnetic force of the solenoid to move the spool (fig 7. In small size solenoid valves. The armature is fitted with an elastomer poppet and is lifted from a supply seat in the body by the magnetic force of the energised coil.Fig 7.20 a shows a 5/2 Valve with indirect or “piloted” mechanical operation in its normal position. It can only be a sealless lapped spool and sleeve type if there is no friction. b: 3/2 direct solenoid. The magnified details in (b) and (c) show the pilot part in normal (b) and in operated position (c). 7.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY 4 2 ISO Symbol 51 3 F 3 2 1 4 5 c Fig. 7. spring return. Fig. 2 1 3 ISO Symbol a b Fig. 7. an iron armature moves inside an air tight tube. Page 66 . 7. poppet type valve. A 3/2 valve also has an exhaust seat on top and the armature an elastomer poppet in its top end (Fig.21 a: 2/2. Solenoid Operation Electro-pneumatically and electronically controlled systems are discussed in a later book in this series and it is sufficient at this stage only to consider the electrical operation of directional control valves.22 ).20 Indirect Mechanical Operation.

when both solenoids are de-energised. 7. Valve Mounting Direct Piping The most common method of connection to a valve is to screw fittings directly into the threaded ports of a so called body ported valve.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES 4 2 5 1 3 ISO Symbol Fig. The 5/3 valve has a third (centre) position to which it will return. Page 67 .24) 4 2 513 ISO Symbol Fig. by means of springs. This method requires one fitting for each cylinder. 4 2 51 3 ISO Symbol Fig.(fig 7. 7. which is sub base mounted. All the valves shown previously are body ported types.. except fig.22.24 Pilot operated 5/3 Solenoid Valve with closed centre and spring centering. To limit the size of the solenoid. 7.22 Direct solenoid operated 5/2 Valve with spring return .23 5/2 monostable Solenoid Valve with elastomer coated spool . 7. pilot and supply port and one silencer for each exhaust port. larger and elastomer sealed valves have indirect (piloted) solenoid operation.

This allows quick removal and replacement of a valve without disturbing the tubing. Fig.25 shows a manifold with four valves of different functions: a 5/3. Multiple sub bases also have to be ordered for the required number of valves and are able to be blanked off in the same way as manifolds. 7.26 shows a manifold with four base mounted type 3/2 Solenoid Valves. Common Supply Valve Outputs Common Exhaust Fig. Generally. also the cylinder ports are provided in the sub base. With 5 or more valves it is recommended that air supplies and silencers are mounted at both ends. Sub Bases Valves with all of their ports on one face are designed to be gasket mounted on a sub base. extension is not possible but spare positions can be sealed by using a blanking kit. Multiple Sub Bases In a similar way to the manifold. Common Supply Common Exhausts Ports Fig. This is not only recommended for sound elimination but also for dust protection. a bistable and two monostable types of the same series. a base mounted valve has a slightly better flow capacity than a body ported valve of the same type. Fig.25 Typical Manifold. 7. The outputs are connected separately to each valve. 7. A manifold should be ordered to accommodate the required number of valves. Fig.26 Multiple Sub Base with four 3/2 Valves Page 68 .PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Manifolds Cylinder Ports Manifolds have common supply and exhaust channels for a given number of body ported valves. multiple sub bases supply and exhaust a number of valves through common channels. 7. to which all the external connections are made.22 shows a typical base mounted valve. 7. The common exhaust ports are to be equipped with silencers. preferably on both ends to avoid back pressure.

Other constructions may also have bolts or tie rods for this purpose. Fig. These factors require formulae or diagrams to define the flow under various pressure conditions. the dimension of “S” is Pa Page 69 . provide a leak free Blanking Plate Supply Clamps End Plate Exhausts connection of supply and exhaust channels from end to end. with a pressure drop of 1 psi at 60ºF. They are as follows: Q ϭ 400 · Cv · ͙ෆ (p2 ෆෆ +ෆ 1. or with a flow factor. Flow capacity is usually indicated as the so called “standard flow” Qn in litres of free air per minute at an inlet pressure of 6 bar and an outlet pressure of 5 bar. The selection of the valve size will depend on the required flow rate and permissible pressure drop across the valve. The manufacturers provide information on the flow capacity of valves. The Cv factor of 1 is a flow capacity of one US Gallon of water per minute. This system has the advantage of allowing extension or reduction of the unit if the system is altered. The individual sub bases are held together with clamps. All three methods require a formula to calculate the air flow under given pressure conditions.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES Ganged Sub Bases Ganged Sub Bases are assemblies of individual bases which allow any reasonable number to be assembled into one unit. 7. without disturbing the existing components. Valve Sizing Indications for Flow capacity Port dimensions do not indicate the flow capacity of the valve. creating the same relationship between pressure and flow. The equivalent Flow Section “S” of a valve is the flow section in mm2 of an orifice in a diaphragm.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ෆ ·∆ ෆෆ p· Where Cv. O Rings. equipped with one monostable and two bistable solenoid valves and a blanking plate.27 shows a typical assembly. The kv factor of 1 is a flow capacity of one litre of water per minute with a pressure drop of 1 bar at 20ºC. or with the equivalent Flow Section “S”.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ෆ ·∆ ෆෆ p· Ί๶ 273 ᎏ 273 + ␪ 273 ᎏ 273 + ␪ Q ϭ 22. if required.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ෆ ·∆ ෆෆ p· Ί๶ 273 ᎏ 273 + ␪ Q ϭ 27.94 · kv · ͙ෆ (p2 ෆෆ +ෆ 1. inserted in grooves around the channels. There is still the option to blank off positions.2 · S · ͙ෆ (p2 ෆෆ +ෆ 1. Cv or kv. kv = S = Q = p2 = ∆p = ␪ = Coefficient of flow Equivalent Flow Section in mm2 Flow rate standard litres/min Outlet pressure needed to move load (bar) Permissible pressure drop (bar) Air temperature in *C Ί๶ m3 ᎏ With this.

5 S=2 S=2 S=2 Q=1 Q=1 Q =1 Fig. For example a ͙L ෆ tube 8x6 mm with 0.055 0.73 S=1.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY To find the flow capacity.85 54.4 S=1.73 S=1. S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 S=1 Q=1 S=1 Q = 0.94 · ͙ෆ (p2 ෆ+ ෆ1 ෆ.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ෆ ·∆ ෆෆ p The normal flow Qn for other various flow capacity units is: The Relationship between these units is as follows: 1 Cv = 1 kv = 1 S = 981. Orifices in series connection Before we can determine the sizes of valve and tubing.2 · ͙ෆ (p2 ෆ+ ෆ1 ෆ.0844 · ᎏ . Flow capacity of tubes Still unknown is the flow capacity of tubes and fittings. as the effective area of the inner tube diameter is only 28. The formula for the resulting “S” is: S total ϭ ͙ 1 ᎏᎏᎏ 1 1 1 ᎏ ᎏ ᎏ S12 + S22 + … Sn2 To avoid unnecessarily dealing with such formulae we look for a rule of thumb.4 Q = 0. d the Pipe ID in mm and L the tube length in m. This formula has the inconvenience.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ෆ ·∆ ෆෆ p Q ᎏᎏᎏ 27. The two formulae can be united to S ϭ ct · d2.7 S=1.73 S=2 Q = 0.28 shows the relationship between a number of equal orifices in series connection and the resulting flow. normally used for pneumatics.794 1 Note: The outcome of this following calculation does not give the flow capacity of the valve. Fig.5 68.26 0. from the diagram 7.0 ෆ1 ෆ3 ෆෆ )ෆ ·∆ ෆෆ p Q ᎏᎏᎏ 22. We consider these parts as two equal flow capacities in series connection and to have the calculated flow through both parts.577 S=1. Page 70 .26 mm2. that with very short tubes it is no longer viable. Therefore the above formula for S total has to be applied for correction. but that for the assembly of the valve and the connecting tubes and fittings.155 where ct is the tube coefficient in ᎏ Pa ct is 1. Sϭ␣· L Ί๶ m ␣ ϭ 0.28 Q =1 Returning to our topic. 7.0 for Plastic.655 0. The formula for the equivalent section of a tube is: d5 ᎏ where ␣ is the tube coefficient (see below). This is impossible.07 1 1. these formulae are transformed as follows: Cv ϭ kv ϭ Sϭ Q ᎏᎏᎏ 400 · ͙ෆ (p2 ෆ+ ෆ1 ෆ. we can say that it is obvious to have the same flow capacity for the valve and the connecting tube with its fittings.6 for gas pipe and 2.4 ( which is ͙2 ෆ) to allow for adiabatic charge. we have to look at how pressure drops over a number of subsequent orifices in series. Rubber and Copper Tubes. as we stated above.1 m length would have an S of 65 mm2.3 18 0.29.You can by-pass all these calculations by reading the equivalent section of nylon tubes.0844 · ct · d0.44 1 14. the required section has to be multiplied by 1. 7.

(mm) 4 x 2.00 45 (27) 35 58. Tube Dia.64 20. especially in smaller sizes.78 6 6 13.2 25 21.4 4. 7.6 elbow 1.86 0. To reduce the need of its use to exceptions.65 13. This is the peak flow.41 11 (9.12 7.30 The equivalent Flow Section of current tube connections Table 7.05 29.5 N 28. as discussed above.5 m 3. all the calculations mentioned before on this subject.97 22.2 0.18 39.00 13.02 9 7.5 12 x 8 U 33.5 6 4 3 0.87 Insert type straight 1.96 6. you can find the sections for the most current tube assemblies in table 7.5) 11 18 8x6 N 16.31 gives you the required Page 71 .5 1 2 5 10 Tube Length in m Fig.16 35 (24) 30 46.5 U 20.6 14.U 1.30 shows the flow capacity of current tubes and fittings. 4.50 35 (24) 30 29.6 6x4 N.45 32.30.17 20.U 6. To make things easy. depending on speed.73 9.72 5.5 Length Material 1m 1. based on so called “push-in” or “One Touch” fittings (fig.06 Table 7. having the same inner diameter as the tube.70 15.6 5.18 3.2 39.5 10 x 7.1 0.92 25.05 0. table 7.23 10. a major figure in calculating the valve size.7 35.9 11.5 m tube + 2 strt.1 10 x 6.2 Fittings One Touch straight elbow Total 0.29 The equivalent Flow Section S in mm 2 of the current tube sizes and length The Flow Section of fittings have to be specified in the catalogues. Valves with Cylinders We now return to the cylinder consumption. Insert fittings (fig.1 8x5 U 10.28 17 (12) 16 26.1 12 x 9 N 43. The total of a tube length with its two fittings can be calculated with the formula above.64 33.3 50. and should be avoided for pneumatics.79 51.38 30 (23) 26 41.65 12. fittings N. The actual size of the valve has to be much higher than the theoretical value. Secondly we have to define the allowable pressure drop.88 19.22). 4.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES S mm 2 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.21) reduce the flow considerably.19 24. to compensate for the additional pressure drop in the connecting tubes and fittings.48 3.

4 55.1 27.31 for practically any possible input pressure and pressure drop.5 1. It also includes the loss by adiabatic pressure change and the temperature coefficient for 20°C.2 21.46 0.7 11 17 27 42 68 108 168 211 276 Table 7.2 33. mm 8.4 5.1 0.3 1. two high flow 3/2 Valves will do the job.7 2 2.2 13.8 20. Page 72 .8 3.4 27.4 6.85 1.2 2.3 0.6 27 32.4 0. there might be other pressure conditions. Where these sizes are not available.2 69 82. for 6 bar working pressure and a pressure drop of 1 bar (Qn Conditions) The figures in the shaded section are values which are in general not covered by 5/2 valves.2 16.23 0.5 8.2 0. The diagram 7.7 2.4 2.8 3 5 8.25 0.10 12.4 4 6.6 0.12 0.4 10.2 1.8 62 84.5 51 81 126 158 207 1000 1 2.4 2.7 4.6 42 50. Although the assumed pressure of 6 bar and a drop of 1 bar is a quite normal case (the Qn is based on the same assumption).36 0.67 1.5 13.6 0.8 4 5.8 10.16 20 25 32 40 50 63 80 100 125 140 160 50 0.4 5.75 1.8 10.1 10.6 13.4 41.4 0.1 1.6 3.2 6.72 1 0.7 4.55 0.31 Equivalent Section S in mm2 for the valve and the tubing.8 16.1 0.8 1 1.5 12.4 43.8 110 Equivalent Flow Section in mm 500 0.31 require a correction.30.8 21.2 31.2 52.3 5 6.4 8.35 0.15 0.8 100 0.4 10.2 0.7 1.6 Average piston speed in mm/s 150 200 250 300 400 0.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY equivalent section S for the valve and for the selection of a suitable tube and fittings assembly from table 7.2 2 3.8 8.7 2.5 21 34 54 84 106 138 2 750 0. dia.8 6.3 31.7 42.4 67.6 16.6 17 20.2 25.5 12.3 8.1 3. The table is based on a supply pressure of 6 bar and a pressure drop of 1 bar before the cylinder. Then the figures from table 7.4 4.6 1 1.32 gives the percentage of the figures in table 7.

25 7 8 9 10 0.6 1.4 0.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES cf 1.5 0.5 2 2.5 3 3. 7.2 3 1 4 5 6 0.5 4 5 ˘p in bar Fig. Page 73 .4 p 1: 1.8 1. for other pressure conditions.6 0.75 1 1.25 1.31.32 Correction Factor "cf " for the Sections given in Table 7.8 0.

In a). The maximum allowable pressure drop is 1 bar. If only one input is pressurised. A tube of 8x5 or 8x6 mm Dia is suitable. consists of a check valve and a variable throttle in one housing.66. the shuttle prevents the signal pressure from escaping through the exhausted signal port on the opposite side.5 bar. a b ISO Symbol Fig. air flows freely to the cylinder. We find a “cf” of 0. This figure needs correction for a supply pressure of 7 bar and a ∆p of 2. Select a valve of this size or larger.5 bar ∆p. in b) it flows back to the exhaust port of the valve with a restricted flow. 7. Auxiliary Valves Non-Return Valves A non return valve allows free air flow in one direction and seals it off in the opposite.5 bar. Shuttle Valve This is a three ported valve with two signal pressure inlets and one outlet. These valves are also referred to as check valves.8 mm2. what is the minimum Cv of the valve? We find in Diagram 7. Fig.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Example 1 An 80 mm Dia cylinder with a stroke length of 400 mm has an average working pressure of 6 bar.34 shows a typical example with the flow indicated.66 ϭ 7. sometimes referred to as a Uni-Directional Flow Control Valve.31 an equivalent section of 34 mm2. That means that the cylinder size is based on an effective piston pressure of 4. A Tube size of 12 x 9 mm with “One Touch Fittings” is required to achieve this speed.31 gives an S of 10.89. To obtain the Cv factor we have to divide this number by 18: 34 /18 ϭ 1. Table 7.35) Page 74 . Speed Controllers A speed controller. with an available supply pressure of 7 bar and an allowable pressure drop of 2. Example 2 A 50 mm Dia cylinder has to run at a speed of 400 mm/s.8 · 0.5 bar. ISO Symbol a b Fig. 7. 7.34 Typical Speed Controller. We follow the line “7 bar “from the right to the left until it intersects the vertical line of 2.128 mm2. The outlet is connected to either signal input. The required S of the valve and the tube connection is therefore 10.33 Check valve. (fig 7. Non-return valves are incorporated in speed controllers and self-seal fittings etc. If a cylinder speed of 500 mm/sec is required.

connected to the inlet port on top is reversed. 7.35 Shuttle Valve. the air in the tube is only compressed and decompressed. When the directional control valve.DIRECTIONAL CONTROL VALVES ISO Symbol Fig. The rubber disc closes off the exhaust port on the bottom as the supply air flows to the cylinder. it often occurs that the volume of the tube between valve and cylinder is as big or even bigger than that of the cylinder.36 Quick Exhaust Valve. Quick Exhaust Valves This component permits a maximum outstroking piston speed by exhausting the cylinder directly at its port giving an unrestricted flow. If a shorter tube is not possible. It then closes the inlet port and automatically opens the wide exhaust port. the supply tube is exhausted and the disc lifted by the cylinder pressure. 7. a quick exhaust valve can be used to solve the problem. In that case. IN CYL CYL a b EX IN ISO Symbol EX c d Fig. but never completely evacuated and moisture can condensate in the tubes and disturb normal operation. Page 75 . With miniature cylinders. instead of through the tube and valve.

or • operate another valve . VI SI Selection Selection is achieved by converting from a 3/2 to a 5/2 function Fig. .1 can also be used to change the function of a valve from normally open to normally closed or vice versa. There is a limited number of elementary functions of which even the most sophisticated circuits are composed. There are four basic logical functions: • Identity (“YES”) • Negation or Inversion (“NOT”) • AND • OR We will not deal with logical methods of switching here. Signal Inversion The method as shown in fig. This function is called “Flow Amplification”. The latter type of function is also referred to as a “logical function”.to change one valve function into another.1 Flow amplification or indirect control of a valve. the pressure on the output of valve VI disappears and re-appears when 1 is released Page 76 . but we will use the terms as they clearly describe functions in a single word.2 Signal Inversion: if valve SI is operated.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY 8 BASIC CIRCUITS Introduction Basic Circuits are assemblies of valves to perform certain functions. 8. 8.for safety interlocks etc. . S1 Fig. the pressure on the output of valve VI disappears and reappears when SI is released. Elementary Functions Flow Amplification V1 A large cylinder needs a large Air Flow. These functions can have the ability to: • control a cylinder. 8.for remote control from a panel. If valve SI in fig. This is often combined with remote control: the large valve is close to the cylinder but the small one can be built into a panel for easy access.2 is operated. We can avoid having to manually operate a large valve with sufficient flow capacity by using a large air operated valve and operating it with a smaller manually operated valve. 8.

the time delay to switch a valve with a switching p pressure ps will be t1. with b it will be b bar increased to t2. the other” lights” the red. In practice. V1 S1 S2 Fig. The same function is also used for selection between two circuits: one of the ports of the 5/2 valve supplies for example an automatic circuit.5 The pressure / time relationship of compressed air. with a given volume and orifice we get the pressure/time characteristic a in fig. This makes sure that no automatic action can take place during manual operation. the indirectly operated valve is a 5/2 V1 green S1 Fig. a In the case of characteristic a. flowing through an orifice into a volume Page 77 . One position of the toggle switch “lights” the green indicator. 8.5.BASIC CIRCUITS red The initiating valve S1 is a small 3/2 manually operated valve. t1 t2 Fig. Time functions A pneumatic delay is based on the time required to change the pressure in a fixed volume. 8. 5 Either a larger volume or a smaller orifice will change it to b. the pressure of the volume is ps connected to the pilot port of a spring return valve and a speed controller is used to vary the orifice. valves for manual control. 8. the other. red Memory Function green A regular type of function requirement is to perpetuate a momentary valve operation by holding its signal on. Using this function Flow Amplification is also performed.4 Switching from red to green by tripping valve S1 and from green to red with valve S2. until another momentary signal switches it permanently off. by the air flow through an orifice. If.3 Selection between two circuits with one manually operated monostable 3/2 valve. The red indicator is “memorising” that valve S2 was the last to be operated and the green indicator that valve S1 will give the signal to change over. its built-in check valve allows an unrestricted flow in the opposite 0 direction and therefore a short reset time. valve of a sufficient flow capacity to operate a double acting cylinder. 8.

8. For a very short delay.9. S1 Fig. when the valve S1 is switched on. 8. S1 Fig. S1 Fig. 8.7 Delayed switching on. 8. which is operated with the same signal. After operating valve S1 the indicator immediately goes on.8 Delayed switching off. The delay of switching OFF a pressure signal 3. the reservoir can be omitted. its exhaust is restricted. Delayed switching on V1 Fig. The delay of switching ON a pressure signal 2.6 The four time functions. A pulse to switch ON a pressure signal 4. 8. but after releasing the valve. the pressure can pass until the operation takes effect after the delay. 8.7 shows how a pressure signal can be delayed. Delayed switching off V1 The delayed reset of a valve is achieved in the same way as before. This is due to the flow restriction valve. In fig. The signal on the output port of valve V1 appears a variable time after operation of the valve S1.9 Pulse on switching on.8 shows a delay in switching a signal off . there will be no pressure at the output of the latter valve. Fig. Page 78 . However if its operation is delayed. a pulse appears at the output of the normally open valve V1. Pulse on switching on V1 If a signal from a valve is passing a normally open valve. A pressure pulse to switch OFF. the indicator will stay on for an adjustable period. but instead of limiting the air flow towards the pilot port of valve V1. Fig. The result is a pressure pulse of adjustable duration on the output of the normally open valve.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Initial Signal ON OFF a) delayed at "ON" b) delayed at "OFF" c) Pulse at "ON" d) Pulse at "OFF" There are four different time related functions: 1. 8.

Shuttle Valve Fig. Cylinder Control Manual Control Single Acting Cylinder Direct Operation and Speed Control If a single acting cylinder is connected to a manually operated 3/2 valve. valve V1 switches in its normal position. This is the so called “direct control.” In the case of a large cylinder.10 Pulse on a disappearing signal . by means of the spring. 8. 8.12 Operation of a single acting cylinder from two points. manually or via a signal from an automatic circuit. flow amplification as shown in fig. The method is to simultaneously operate a normally open 3/2 Valve V1 and pressurise a volume Z1 with the initial signal. 8. The only way to regulate the outstroking piston speed of a single acting cylinder is to throttle the flow into it. When valve S1 is released. for example. is seldom limited in practice. A shuttle valve type application avoids this problem. Page 79 . the pressure to produce it must come from another source. Fig. The pressure from the volume will ebb away after a short period.1 is applied.BASIC CIRCUITS Pulse on releasing a valve V1 When the pressure pulse has to appear after the initial signal has been switched off. Control from two points: OR Function A cylinder or a valve may be operated in two different ways. connecting the volume with its output.11 Direct control of a single acting cylinder .The speed of the return stroke. the air coming from one of the valves will escape through the exhaust of the other. If the outputs of two 3/2 valves are interconnected with a Tee. Z1 S1 8. it will extend when the valve is operated and return upon release. adjustable by means of the speed controller.

stops for products on a conveyor and similar situations might require a cylinder to be energised for locking. an air operated 3/2 valve can perform the AND Function: One of the signals supplies it.14. by operating a separate air operated normally open valve. For this type of application a normally open valve can be used. the input of the manually operated valve is connected to its output. Unlocking occurs by operating a valve. Page 80 . the same signal for unlocking must also start any other device. 8.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Interlock: AND Function In some cases two conditions have to be fulfiled to allow a certain operation. If however. so there is an open flow path only if both valves are operated . A typical example could be that a pneumatic press may only operate if a safety door is closed and a manual valve is operated. as symbolised by the indicator in fig. as illustrated in circuit b by the two indicators. To control the safety door it trips a mechanically operated 3/2 valve. the other operates it. In case the signals from the two valves each have another purpose. a signal inversion has to be used. with a normally closed valve. green red a b Inverse Operation: NOT Function Mechanical locks.

thus compensates variations in the load. In circuitry this phenomenon is known as “overlapping commands” and is one of the major problems in circuit design.16 Maintaining the positions of a double acting cylinder . Holding the end positions In most cases. V1 4 2 5 1 S1 3 S2 Fig. For independent speed control in both directions the speed controller is attached to both connections. A bistable valve will stay in position until switched from the opposite end. It has to be connected to the rod side of the piston if the cylinder is naturally in the negative position.15 Direct control of a double acting cylinder . This is referred to as reciprocation of a cylinder. Page 81 . 8.16.16 can be replaced by a roller lever operated valve. This gives a more positive and steadier movement than throttling the air supply. 8. Instead of supplying just enough power to get the piston moving. the outgoing stroke of a double acting cylinder is initiated with valve S1 and returned with valve S2. 8. Automatic Return Detecting Cylinder Positions Valve S2 in the circuit of fig. 8. 4 2 5 1 3 Fig. In Fig. a cylinder has to maintain its position. Valve V1 will only operate when only one of the manually operated valves is depressed.4. even after the operating signal has disappeared. Valve V1 maintains its position and therefore also that of the cylinder.BASIC CIRCUITS Double acting Cylinder Direct Control The only difference between the operation of a double acting and a single acting cylinder is that a 5/2 valve has to be used instead of a 3/2. In its normal position (not operated). If both pilot ports are pressurised at the same time the spool maintains its primary position as an equal pressure on an equal area cannot override the primary signal. The cylinder then switches valve V1 back by itself and thus returns automatically. an additional load is added with a back pressure. port 2 is connected with the supply port 1. tripped at the positive end of the cylinder stroke. This requires the “Memory” function of fig. which increases with increasing speed. Their orientation is opposite to that of a single acting cylinder as the exhausting air is throttled.8.

Valve S2 is unable to switch valve V1 back as long as the opposing signal from valve S1 remains. A bistable valve can only be switched with a pilot pressure when the opposite pilot input has been exhausted. Valve S2 situated here S2 Page 82 . A problem will arise if valve S1 is not released when the cylinder reaches the end of its stroke. the cylinder does not return.17 Semi Automatic return of a cylinder.9 and 8. a simple solution would be to transform the signal of the manually operated valve into a pulse.17.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Valve S2 situated here V1 S1 S2 Fig 8. This is a combination of the two elementary functions of fig. 8. If the cylinder has to return unconditionally as soon as it reaches the end of stroke.

The opposite end position being the “Positive Position”. With a bistable manually operated valve connected in series with the roller operated valve the cylinder will cease to cycle if switch S3 is turned off. 2Z2. the cylinder will reciprocate. All other valves then assume an identity according to when they are operated in the heirarchy of the circuit. 2V1 etc. the next one 2A and so on. In order to stop the motion we apply an AND function of fig. roller valves. and then finally all other equipment 1Z1. and also the actuators identity. A command is given its own identity relating to which port the pressure/input comes out of e. but as before it will always return to the negative position. 1V3. 1V2. The sensor detecting the opposite state being coded S2. 1Z2. e. The position of rest.BASIC CIRCUITS Repeating Strokes By sensing both ends of the stroke with roller lever operated valves and using them to switch the main valve V1 back and forth. 2V2. 2Z1.g. 2S1. is defined as the “Negative Position”.13. Page 83 . 2V3 etc. As the rest position is the first position of the circuit then the sensor recognising the rest state is coded S1. S1 S2 V1 S1 S3 S2 Fig. to distinguish them from other signals.g. 2S2 etc. 8. as the pressure/input is 1 if it emerges from port 2 then the command is 12 if it emerges from port 4 then the command is 14. 8. The switches and sensors then assume their own identity and also that of the actuator they operate 1S1. The valve that controls the actuator then assumes the actuators identity number and also its own identity 1V1. Sequence Control How to describe a sequence A few rules help us in describing a cycle of movements in a short but precise manner. Nomenclature Each component in a diagram assumes an identity capital letter Pumps & Compressors P Motors & Prime Movers M Actuators A Valves V Switches & Sensors S All other equipment Z or any other letter except the ones already indicated The first actuator in the circuit to move becomes 1A.. If an air service unit is shown in the circuit its number is 0 as it supplies air to all of the components in the circuit. Pressure signals to switch a directional control valve are called “commands”. 1S2. If the command switches of the valves output then the command is 10 or 1 to nothing.19 Repeating stroke roke as long as valve r e is operated. in which a circuit diagram is drawn.

The sequence of signals and commands is then as follows: 1S3 Start Signals 1S2 2S2 1S1 2S1 Commands 1A+ 2A+ 1A- 2A- The same sequence as in the block diagram above is drawn in Fig 8. 2A+. With these codes we can write the solution for the above mentioned sequence as follows: 1A+ ➛ 1S2 ➛ 2A+ ➛ 2S2➛ 1A. a “Zero Command” 1A– by 1S1. This is another application of the elementary “AND” function of fig. 1A-.but if the circuit is switched off in mid-cycle it will continue to operate until all of the movements in the sequence have been completed and then the cycle will come to rest .21. The answer is quite simple: from the roller lever valves which sense the ends of the stroke. that the termination of a command (1A+. Page 84 .20 Functional Unit with all codes. The command 1A+ needs both signals: 2S1 and 1S3 . there is no need to draw the circuit as a map with the end-of-stroke valves topographically shown near the cylinders. 1A+. The standard is to draw all the cylinders at the top.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY - Direction S1 1A Positions: Sensors: 1A Signals: S2 + 1S2 1 1S1 4 Commands: 14 2 12 Fig. This may be referred to as a “closed loop” circuit.➛ 1S1 ➛ 2A. This means that the last signal 2S1 has appeared but it is unable to pass through the start switch (coded IS2). 8. 8. 2A+) will always be signalled by the roller/lever valve with the same number and an index 2: 1S2. 2S2.➛ 2S1 We also need a manually operated valve for starting and stopping the sequence. again quite self explanatory: Furthermore it is obvious. As we have now coded the roller lever valves according to their position. Now comes the question of where these commands come from. In switching algebra this is written as a multiplication in normal algebra:1S3 • 2S1. 8. we can write the sequence for two cylinders for example with: 1A+. This is the case with the start valve 1S3 in fig. etc. The sequence of events now becomes patently obvious. They also need a code. Sequence of two Cylinders With these codes. it is placed in the line prior to the first command.21 as a pneumatic circuit with ISO Symbols. Should the sequence need to continue then the start valve should be left open. 2A-. In more sophisticated circuits there may be some additional valves in a level between the main and signal valves. directly beneath them their power valves and below those the valves providing the end of stroke signals.13.

The cycle is started manually but in practice. We can again use the basic circuit of fig 8. valve 2S2 will provide this information. Page 85 . i. so its pilot input has to be connected with a Tee to the cylinder port. In the case of a bistable valve. 1A 1S1 1S2 2A 2S1 2S2 1V3 1V2 2V3 2V2 1V1 2S1 2V1 1S3 2S2 1S2 1S1 Fig.9 to solve this problem by transforming the remaining signal from the sequence valve into a pulse. one single cycle will be performed. the circuit will always complete the cycle and then stop. Opposing Commands Elimination with a Pulse Clamping: Pressure Control Short stroke single acting cylinders are often used for clamping. the operator will insert a component for machining and then keep the button depressed until the work is completed. its output signal will then start the machining operation. there is no security. See fig 8. It allows the operator to adjust the minimum pressure required for secure clamping. Although they can have built in switches for electrical control. The cylinder has to return immediately after the operation is finished. but also it must not return and un-clamp before the machining device is back in the rest position.22 for clarification.e the end of the stroke. The pressure it has to sense is that of the clamping cylinder. 2A-. Here we face a problem: 2A is unable to return as long as the clamping cylinder 1A is pressurised. For this a “Sequence Valve” is used. cylinder 2A. No matter when we do it. the cycle will repeat continuously until we reset it.21 Circuit for the sequence 1A+. The only reliable signal is one that indicates sufficient pressure behind the piston. 1A-. 8. 2A+. Is the part to be machined sufficiently clamped to withstand the forces exerted on it during machining ?.BASIC CIRCUITS Single Cycle / Repeating Cycle The type of valve used for starting the sequence makes the difference between the two cycles: if it is a monostable valve and we trip it.

single cycle. Page 86 . The solution is to “memorise” the manual starting signal with the circuit of fig. the clamp will open. But that valve is operated in the rest position. 8. We have to prevent that. a valve 2S1.22 Circuit for clamping and machining. 8. For the function of valve S1 in that circuit we used a valve for sensing the rest position of cylinder 2. when clamping has been done and 2 has to outstroke. This means there is another opposing command which we have to get rid of by making a pulse of it.16. 8. That results in the circuit of fig.23: 1A 2A 2S1 2S2 2V4 1V2 2V3 1V1 1V3 2V1 2V5 1V4 2S2 1S1 2S1 2V6 Fig.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY 1A 2A 2S2 2V3 1V1 2V2 1V3 1S1 1V2 2V1 2S2 Fig. There is however an imperfection: if the operator releases the button after the machining has started.23 Clamping and machining with additional locking. 8.

2A+. Sometimes one has to try until the least amount of groups has been found. called “ The Cascade System ”. ᕈ All end-of stroke valves giving the commands in group II . In the example above. II". It is not necessary that the cycle starts with a new group. ᕅ All the commands to the main valves in group I are supplied from " line group I". 1A-. The cycle is divided into two or more groups. ᕆ the line of group I is exhausted and that of group II pressurized. The steps of the circuit are now quite easy. Further rules are explained in the following block diagram all further commands in group I first command in group I ᕅ all further commands in group II first command in group II ᕉ ᕃ ᕄ ᕇ ᕈ line group I line group II ᕆ Selector ᕊ ᕃ First Cylinder Valve to be switched in group I . This will be demonstrated with one example: the given cycle is: 1A+. The division of the groups. 2A+ 2A-. Each one has a supply line from the selector valve. The true solution is to switch overlapping signals off. except the last in sequence. cannot be the best one. 8. 8. 2A+.2A.24 Block Diagram of the Cascade System. we can sub-divide the commands into groups. 2A-. 3A+. 2A-. when it has three or more groups. the rule being that you may only have 1 command of any cylinder in each group be it either + or – e. the end-of-cycle may be in the middle of a group.BASIC CIRCUITS Cascade System You must admit that the way in which opposing commands have been eliminated in the previous example. not by timing tricks. ᕇ Main valve of the cylinder making the first stroke in group II . 4A+.3A+ 4A+ 4A. this is not always the case and. The “start/stop” valve is simply put in the line to the first command of the cycle.3. For further explanation we assume that there are only two groups.except the last one. for example cycle “1A+. There is a simple procedure for drawing sequential circuits. 1A-. 3AIf we divide the sequence from the front we get the result as below a 3 Group Cascade: 1A+ 2A+ 1A. group I group II The principle remains the same with longer cycles. The start switch is always inserted in the line to the first command of the cycle. Fig. as mentioned above not necessary.3A- Page 87 . 1A-” is done as follows : Looking at each command from left to right. but by switching a selector valve as in the circuit fig. The valve sensing the end of the last stroke in group I switches the selector. ᕄ All end of stroke valves in group I. There must be a more straightforward and reliable solution. The problem is to know where such a valve has to be put in and how it is to be switched and connected. ᕉ All end-of stroke valves giving commands in group II are supplied from"line group ᕊ The valve sensing tha last stroke in group II switches the selector back. 4A-.g: 1A+. the cycle ends at the end of a group.


If we divide the sequence from the rear we find that we now have only 2 groups, as the movements 1A+,4A-,2A,3A- can all be performed with the same group air: 1A+ 2A+ 1A- 3A+ 4A+ 4A- 2A- 3AThe cascade valve will be switched on with 1S2 and be switched back with 4S2. The start / stop valve will be in the connection from 3S1 to the command input 1A+. Remember that both roller lever valves, coded with S1 identities have to be drawn in the operated position, as you can see in the diagram of fig. 8.25 for the sequence 1A+, 2A+, 2A–, 1A–.











1V1 1S3 2S1 1S2




0V1 2S2


Fig. 8.25 Two cylinder cascade

Page 88


The symbols for Fluid Power Systems and Components are standardised in ISO 1219. The standard combines hydraulic and pneumatic components. Symbols show the function of a component but do not indicate the construction . As an example: according to ISO, there is no difference in symbol between a conventional Double Acting Cylinder and a Twin Rod Cylinder, although some manufacturers have introduced their own symbols for clarification.

Air Treatment Equipment
The basic Symbol for Air Cleaning and Air Drying Components is a diamond with the input and output drawn as a line from the left and right corners. The specific function is indicated inside the diamond with a few further symbols. The table below will explain itself. The basic symbol for pressure regulators is a square with the input and output drawn in the middle of the left and right side. Air flow is indicated with an arrow, the setting spring with a zigzag, crossed by an arrow for adjustability. The main symbols are:


Air Cleaning and Drying

Auto Drain

Air Cooler

Refrigerated Air Dryer

Air Dryer

Air Heater

Heat Exchanger

Water Separator


Filter / Separator

Filter / Multi stage Lubricator Separator Micro Filter w. Auto Drain

Pressure Regulation

Basic Symbol

Adjustable Settting Spring

Pressure Regulator

Regulator with relief

Differential Pressure Regulator

Pressure Gauge


FRL Unit, detailed

FRL Unit, simplified

Fig .A-1 Symbols for Air Treatment Components ISO 1219.

Page 89


A linear cylinder is drawn as a simplified cross section. No difference is made between piston and other types of cylinders. A rotary actuator has its own symbol; generally described as a torque unit, it applies to all kinds, with rack and pinion or vane etc.

Single Acting Cylinder, push type

Single Acting Cylinder, pull type

Double Acting Cylinder

Double Acting Cylinder with adjustable air cushioning

Double Acting Cylinder, with double end rod Fig. A-2 ISO Actuator Symbols

Rotary Actuator, double Acting

The basic symbol for a directional control valve is a group of squares . The input and exhaust(s) are drawn on the bottom, the outputs on top.There is one square for each function. As valves have two or more different functions, squares are lined up horizontally, the rule of thumb is that each function is represented by a square:

Inside the square, flowpaths are indicated by arrows ports are shown with the symbol T. Externally, on the bottom of the square, air supply is shown with A supply line is drawn as a solid line, a pilot line is dashed

between the interconnected ports, internally shut

and exhausts


exhaust lines are dotted Symbols for the operators are drawn on the ends of the double or triple square. The following operator symbols are shown for the left hand side, except the spring which is always on the opposite side of an operator as it is a reset mechanism, but is technically termed as an operator. If operators are placed on the right hand side they will be in reverse (flipped horizontally).

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Normally Open 3/2 valve with Spring Return Exhaust Air Supply Mechanical Operation Input Input closed. connected Output to Output exhausted Return Spring Mechanical Operation Input Input closed. This symbol is always combined with another operator. Direct solenoid operation piloted solenoid operation The table A-3 below explains how these symbol elements are put together to form a complete valve symbol. but a built-in reset mechanism) Roller Lever: Manual operators: general: Push Button: Mechanical (plunger): one-way Roller Lever: Lever: Push-Pull Button: Detent for mechanical and manual operators (makes a monostable valve bistable): Air Operation is shown by drawing the (dashed) signal pressure line to the side of the square. Output connected exhausted to Output Return Spring OR Mechanically Operated.APPENDIX The main operator symbols are: Return Spring (in fact not an operator. the direction of the signal flow can be indicated by a triangle Air Operation for piloted operation is shown by a rectangle with a triangle. normally closed 3/2 Valve with Spring Return Air Supply Exhaust Fig. Page 91 . A-3 How to combine Valve Symbols. Manual Operation Closed Input Input connected to Output Return Spring Manual Operation Closed Input Input connected to Output Return Spring OR Manually Operated.

normally close bistable valves: both positions possible. monostable valves never operated Page 92 .4 illustrates this: This cylinder chamber and the rod side of the piston are under pressure: rod in This line is in connection with the supply through the valve: it is pressurized Rear cylinder chamber and this line are exhausted In rest there is no solenoid energized: operator inactive and valve position defined by the spring As spring defines position. Equally. A.A-4 Basic Rules for composing circuit diagrams. without electrical power. controlling the rest positions of the cylinder driven parts. Further rules are: Manually operated Valves no pressure pressure detent. 3/2. it has to be drawn in the operated position. with the supply under pressure. are operated in rest and have to be drawn accordingly: with the external connections drawn to the square on the operator side. Rest Position Mechanically operated valves. but in the case of mixed circuits. normally open. 3/2.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY Circuits Basic Rules A circuit diagram is drawn in the rest position of the controlled machine. In a normally closed 3/2 valve. this square is in function Fig. normally closed. must correspond with valve position pressure no pressure 3/2. the output is then connected with the supply and therefore under pressure. if the signal line to a monostable air operated valve is under pressure. All components must be drawn in the positions resulting from these assumptions. Fig.

The power valves are drawn directly below their cylinders. the flow of the working energy is drawn from the bottom to the top and the sequence of the working cycle from the left to the right. the cylinder that performs the first stroke of the cycle. In purely pneumatic circuits. there may be additional valves to ensure the correct sequence (memory function) and sometimes additional valves to realise certain interlocks by logical functions. A-7 Rules for rest position of mechanically operated valves Circuit Layout In a circuit diagram.APPENDIX Electrically and pneumatically operated Valves Air operated valves may be operated in rest no pressure no pressure pressure pressure Solenoids are never operated in rest Mechanically operated Valves No valve with index S2 is operated no pressure pressure S2 S2 All valves with index S1 are operated pressure no pressure S1 S1 Fig. Between them and the power units. they form a ‘Power Unit’ that is coded (see Nomenclature). controlling the end positions of the cylinderdriven machine parts. The block diagram of fig. Page 93 . the air supply (FRL) unit is situated in the lower left corner. in the upper left corner etc. Consequently. are situated in a lower level. 6 explains this better than descriptions. 3/2 roller/lever valves.

In modern more sophisticated circuits. Then. A-8 The basic layout of a pneumatic circuit diagram. Only in simulation with a training kit do we consider “rod in” as the rest position. 3S1 and 3S2 Fig. This is the situation we will have on the training kit when simulating a machine control. and position them to allow vertical signal lines. a command will be the output of a valve used for a logical function. and commands. In more complicated circuits. In simple circuits. 2S1. this leads to a multitude of crossing lines . The (mentioned) “functional set” includes the actuator. 1S2. the “working position” with a S2.PNEUMATIC TECHNOLOGY First stroke of the cycle Last stroke of the cycle 1A 2A 3A 1A+ 1A- 2A+ 2A- 3A+ POWER Level LOGIC Level Memories. pneumatic circuits were drawn ‘topographically’. The rest position is coded with an index S1. The starting point is the “Power Unit” which is coded with a number and a capital letter. Note that the rest position is the real position of the moving machine parts and not that of the piston rod. the code of the signal defines the source (the now completed action on the machine) and the code of the command tells which next movement will be started. with the roller operated valves positioned on top. 2S2. Page 94 . drawn as being operated by ‘cams’ on the cylinder rod ends. the power valve and the two roller/lever valves which detect the two end positions. Star t SIGNAL INPUT Level Codes: 1S1. Their place on the machine is then indicated with a self-explanatory code. a signal can be a command. We have to differentiate between a signal. . A-8. straight to their destination. AND’s. OR’s. signal pressures which operate the power valves. Timings etc. produced by the roller/lever valves. This self-explanation is achieved by considering certain equipment to form one functional set. Nomenclature Previously. as in Fig. The modern and only reasonable method is to line the symbols of these roller operated valves up.

Fig. an impression of how the circuit looks when simulated with the training kit and the circuit diagram. A-9 shows a situation with a lifting table moving up and down as long as the start/stop valve is switched on in the three versions: as a situation sketch. A-9 Comparison of a situation sketch with the simulation set-up and the circuit diagram. 1S2 1S2 1S1 1A V1 SITUATION SKETCH CIRCUIT DIAGRAM 1A SIMULATION 1S1 1S2 1V1 1S3 1S1 1S2 Fig. all end-of-stroke valves operated in the rest position have an index S1. Those operated in the opposite end (“work position”) have an index S2. Page 95 .APPENDIX As the rest position is S1.


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