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Process Capability
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
2
Process capability analysis
Objective is to determine how well the output from a
process meets specification limits
Compare total process variation and tolerance.
LSL USL
-3o +3o
Target
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
3
Process Capability
Tolerance (specification, design) Limits
 Bearing diameter 1.250 +- 0.005 inches
 LTL = 1.245 inches UTL = 1.255 inches


Process Limits
 The actual distribution from the process
 Run the process to make 100 bearings, compute the mean and
std. dev.
 Suppose, mean = 1.250, std. dev = 0.002

How do they relate to one another?

MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
4
Tolerance Limits vs. Process Capability
Actual Process Width
Specification Width
Specification Width
Actual Process Width
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
5
Process Capability Example
 Design Specs: Bearing diameter 1.250 +- 0.005 inches
 LTL = 1.245 inches UTL = 1.255 inches
 The actual distribution from the process  mean = 1.250, s = 0.002
 +- 3s limits  1.250 +- 3(0.002)  [1.244, 1.256]





 A new process,  std. dev. = 0.00083
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
6
Estimation of population sigma
from sample data
The relationship between the standard deviation for
individual values and the standard deviation for their
averages is given by the formula:
n
x
o
o =
Where n = subgroup sample size
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
7
To simplify calculation
If the process can be assumed to be normal, the population
standard deviation can be estimated from either the
standard deviation associated with the sample standard
deviation or the range:
d
2
R
=
.
o
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
8
Control limits and specification
limits
Xbar charts do not reflect how widely the individual
values composing the plotting averages spread.
The spread can only be seen by observing what is
happening on the r chart.
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
9
The Six sigma spread versus
specification limits
Case I: 6o < USL - LSL
Most desirable; individual values fall within specification
limits
Case II: 6o = USL - LSL
Okay, as long as the process remains in control
Case III: 6o > USL - LSL
Undesirable; process incapable of meeting specifications
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar
10
Process Capability Index, C
pk
 Capability Index shows how well parts being produced fit
into design limit specifications




 Compute the C
pk
for the bearing example.
 Old process, mean = 1.250, s = 0.002


 What is the probability of producing defective bearings?


 New process, mean = 1.250, s= 0.00083, re-compute the C
pk




|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
o o 3
X - UTL
or
3
LTL X
min = C
pk
MEC 309 Quality Engineering & Management Systems
By: Anil Kumar

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