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Water is lost through breathing, in the form of urine and through perspiring (we may die if we lose as much as 20% of the water in our blood.) Food Tests Aim (a) To test for starch Method Add a few drops of iodine solution Observation Yellow -> dark blue
(b) To test for glucose
Pour the glucose solution into a test tube and add the same amount of benedict’s solution. Heat the misture in a beaker of boiling water Pour a little albumen solution into a test tube and a few drops of million’s reagent. Heat the mixture in a beaker of boiling water Place a drop of oil or fat on a piece of filter paper and dry over a flame
Blue -> brick red precipitate
(c) To test for protein
White -> brick red precipitate
(d) To test for fat
Greasy spot left
2.2 Importance of A Balanced Diet
2.2.1 A Balanced Diet 1. A balanced diet contains 7 classes of food in the right amount. 2. A balanced diet: - Provides energy for work and movement, and maintains the body temperature - Provides building materials needed to grow new cells and tissues. - Enables the repair of damaged tissues. - Is important in maintaining body functions. - Helps fight diseases 3. A balanced diet is determined by: (a) Age - A child requires more carbohydrate and protein ( more energy and body-building materials.) (b) Sex - Males need more energy than females. - Males have less fatty tissues. Therefore, heat loss is faster in males. (c) Body size - Bigger body = more energy needed (d) Physical activity and occupation - Athletes need more protein for building muscles and instant energy (e) State of health - Ill person needs more energy to overcome infections, maintaining the body temperature and repairing damaged cells and tissues. - Pregnant woman needs more iron and calcium ( blood and bones) - Diabetes should reduce sugar and fat intake. - High blood pressure should avoid food that is salty and fatty (f) Climate 4. Babies = More protein, calcium and phosphorus ( most nutrients are from mother’s milk) 5. Children = calcium + phosphorus ( teeth and bones), minerals + vitamins ( prevent disease) 6. Adults = Protein ( repair tissues), carbohydrates 7. 1 calorie = 4.2 joules
Insufficient protein Insufficient fibre Too much salt Too much fat
-Will not be energetic -tired -weak -kwashiorkor -constipation -cancer of intestines -high blood pressure -heart disease -obesity
• The salivary glands secrete saliva which contains an enzyme called amylase. 5. simpler molecules. gall bladder and pancreas. 3. secretes gastric juices which begin the digestion of protein • secretes acids contains hydrochloric acid which kill the bacteria in food. There are two types of digestion: (a) Physical digestion = breaking down of large pieces of food into smaller pieces using teeth and churning actions of the alimentary canal (b) Chemical digestions = breaking down of complex food molecules into small soluble molecules by digestive enzymes 4. Digestion is the process of breaking down large and complex food substances into smaller. salivary glands. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the biochemical reactions in cells. liver. These molecules are soluble and can be absorbed by body cells. 2. The amylase enzymes in the saliva change cooked starch to maltose. • Digestion and absorption of food. Oesophagus Stomach Duodenum . End products of digestion: (a) carbohydrates -> glucose (b) proteins -> amino acids (c) fats -> fatty acids and glycerol Mouth • chew and grinds food using the teeth • digests cooked starch.Human Digestive System 1. Digestive system consists of alimentary canal (gut). • holds food. • Amylase digests starch and convert it to maltose (a type of sugar) •bolus-shaped food is moved from the mouth to the stomach along the oesophagus by wave-like muscular contractions called peristalsis. • receives bile from the liver and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.
b. ii. iii. The functions of hydrochloric acid include: a. Preparation of an alkaline medium for enzymic action. • stores faeces • removes faeces through defecation 6. ix. Enzymes in the gastric juices start the digestion of protein. Flow of food particles in the alimentary canal: Mouth -> Oesophagus -> Stomach -> Small intestine -> Large intestine -> Rectum -> Anus 7 a. The teeth chew and grind food into smaller particles. Digestion begins in the mouth. Digestion is completed in the small intestine. iv. . Partially digested food is then released into the duodenum. b. iv. ii. The lipase digests fat into fatty acid and glycerol. carbohydrates and fat. The function of bile: a. The duodenum receives bile and pancreatic juice. The protease digests protein/peptones into amino acids. (bile is stored in the gall bladder) iii. The digested food is then ready to be absorbed through the thin walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Amylase digests starch and converts it to maltose. breaking up large fatty globules into small droplets for enzymic action. the salivary glands secrete glands secrete saliva which contains an enzyme called amylase. v.small intestine large intestine Rectum Anus • secretes intestinal juice which completes the digestion of protein. stomach i. Protein -> pepsin -> peptones b. vii. a type of sugar. iii. Liquid milk proteins -> rennin -> solid milk proteins v. The wave-like contractions of the oesophagus muscles are known as peristalsis b. ii. The pancreatic amylase digests starch into maltose. Hydrochloric acid stops the action of the enzymes in saliva. Rennin coagulates milk in the stomach to help in the enzymic action of pepsin.e. in the stomach. Gastric juices contains hydrochloric acid and enzymes (rennin and pepsin) . iv. Gastric glands in the stomach wall. Emulsifications of fat i. small intestine i. Example: a. The small intestine (ileum) produces enzymes which digest maltose into glucose (simple sugar) viii. c. pepsin digests protein into peptones. mouth i. The duodenum is the first parts of the small intestine. v. food is mixed with gastric juices. It also kills bacteria in food. • Absorbs end products of digestion into the blood • absorption of most of the remaining water and minerals. vi.
Materials left behind = faeces ( mostly fibre) 5. Undigested food: water + undigested matter )(fibre. D. Food that has been digested into its most simple form is absorbed by the villi on the small intestinal walls into the bloodstream. Glucose. 7. ( in the large intestine) 4. villus with very thin walls 5.Absorption of the products of digestion 1. glycerol and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin A. Lack of fibre = constipation . minerals and water-solube vitamins are absorbed into the blood capillaries. mucus) 3. Each villus has a network of a blood capillaries and a lacteal. 6. 4. cellulose. Faeces is stored in the rectum temporally before it is removed through the anus by defecation. These projections are called villi 3. 6. Absorption is the process when the end products of digestion enters the bloodstream through the small intestinal walls 2. The efficiency of absorption of digested food at the small intestine can be increased by: a. 2. Fibre helps smoothening the movement of food along the alimentary banal. E and K) are absorbed into the lacteal.Water is reabsorbed together with dissolved minerals and vitamins. Fatty acids. Undigested food passes into the large intestine from the small intestine. The inner surface of the small intestine (6 metres long) covered with millions of small projections about 1mm long. Reabsorption of Water and Defecation 1. more villus to increase surface area b. amino acids.
2. ii. iv. Animals without backbones. vi. The place where organisms live is habitat 3. (vertebrates) b. Classification of animals 1. Classification is the scientific method of organizing living organisms into groups. iii. (invertebrates) . Biodiversity is the variety of different kinds of living organisms. sugar and fat BIODIVERSITY 1.Healthy eating Habits i. v. Animals with backbones. Eating balanced diet Eating a variety of food Eating in moderation Eating at regular times Eating nutritious food Reduce the intake of salt. Animals can be classified into two big groups: a.
Invertebrates 1.Worm-like & non-worm-like . Invertebrates are animals which do not have backbones. Generally.Have hard skin ( exoskeleton ) .Have differing number of legs (b) without jointed legs .Some Non-worm-like have shells Classification of Plants Flowering Plants: Non-flowering Plants .Some Worm-like have segmented bodies ( earth worm. leeches) . 2.Have segmented bodies . invertebrates can be classified into two groups. that is (a) with jointed legs .
or species that need the same resources (ii) The stronger one will win (iii) Competition occurs to restrict the population of a certain organisms in order to maintain a balanced ecosystem (iv) Two Types: . and capable of breeding among themselves Habitats is a natural living place where a particular species lives and grows A population is a collection of organisms of the same species inhabiting in a habitat A community consists of several types of animal and plant populations that interact with one another in a same environment An ecosystem is made up of all communities that interact with one another and with their habitats and the materials such as air.Carnivore . the one who eats is the predator (ii) Predator: .Intraspecies competition .) Type of interaction Prey-Predator Characteristic (i) The eaten is the prey. water and mineral salts.Lives in groups .Good hearing (i) Two or more organisms. ( made up of living and non-living components. population. + ) .Interspecies competition (i) Mutualism ( +.Monocular vision .Both organisms benefit Examples Lion – zebra Frogs – grasshoppers Owls – mice Competition Bitter gourd competes for sunlight Two male tigers fight to mate with a tigress Symbiosis Hermit crab – Sea anemone Lichen ( algae produce .Importance of Biodiversity (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Sources of food Source of material Source of medicine Clean water Air to breathe INTERPENDENCE AMONG LIVING ORGANISM AND ENVIRONMENT Species Habitat Population Community Ecosystem A species is a group of organisms that have the same shape and structure.Stereoscopic vision (iii) Prey .
trees (iii) Commensalism ( +. fungus provide shelter) Sea anemone – clown fish (ii) Parasitism ( +. tapeworms – Inestines of humans Remora fishes – shark Bird nest ferns . the host got nothing Biological Control 1.Parasite benefits. Producers are all green plants that make food through photosynthesis..) . .Parasite lives inside or outside the host Ticks. 3. Decomposers are organisms that decompose dead organisms (animals or plants) and change them into simple substances. Biological control has many advantages as compared to using pesticides. is used to control the population of that pest in an area.0 ) . A food chain is an energy link showing how energy in food is passed from plants (producers) to animals (consumers). The predator-prey interaction is applied in biological control Food Webs 1. 4. Biological control is a method in which a predator.The commensal benefits. a. host suffers . Examples of decomposers are bacteria and fungi. Consumers are animals that eat plants or other animals. is cheap and safe to use.food. does not kill other pests because natural enemies are used c. lice – skin or mammals ( blood ) Round worms. which is a natural enemy to a certain pest ( biological control agents). fleaces. 2. does not pollute the environment b. 2. 3.
(b) stored as starch. in which food is made from water and carbon dioxide in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight. 3. It can be tested with iodine solution. Aim: To test the presence of starch in leafs Observation: The leaf becomes dark blue when tested with iodine solution. Photosynthesis is a process that occurs in green plants. Equation for photosynthesis: 3. 2. The leaf pieces are soaked in hot water to soften them. The leaf pieces are boiled in water to kill the cells and break the cell walls. 4.Photosynthesis 1. if in excess. The leaf pieces are boiled in alcohol to remove chlorophyll. The glucose produced is brought to other parts of the plant to be (a) oxidised through the process of respiration to provide energy. 2. . Plants store food in the form of starch in leaves. Discussion: 1. Conclusion: Starch is a product of photosynthesis.
Observation: A leaf is plucked for starch test. A: dark blue ( starch ) B: no change ( no starch ) Conclusion: Carbon dioxide is needed in photosynthesis Observation: A leaf is plucked for starch test A: dark blue (starch) B: no change ( no starch ) C: dark blue ( starch ) Conclusion: Sunlight is needed for photosynthesis Test with iodine Observation: White area ( no change. this gas is used by organisms for respiration as well as in the processes of combustion. rusting and decomposition . starch ) Conclusion: Chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis The importance and role of photosynthesis are : (a) supplies food to animals (b) removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (c) enables green plants to make theor own food (d) regulates and maintains carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere (e) increase oxygen content in the atmosphere. no starch ) Green area ( turns dark blue.
2. (d)This is why solid particles cannot move freely. (c)Liquid particles are pulled together by strong forces of attraction between particles. surface area b. 4. The particles move more slowly. liquid particles cannot move freely anymore. Water is a colourless. The rate of water evaporation is influenced by a few factors and can be explained using the Kinetic Theory . 3. 2. A liquid changes into a solid at freezing point.WATER AND SOLUTIONS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER 1. liquid (water) and gas (steam). (b)At freezing point. 5. The factors that affect the rate of evaporation of water are: a. Water evaporation 1. which are solid (ice). The relationship between the freezing and boiling points of water and the Kinetic Theory (a) When water is cooled. When water evaporates. Water evaporation is a process in which liquid is slowly lost from surface of the liquid in the form of water vapour into atmosphere. the particles lose kinetic energy (heat is released). odourless and tasteless liquid. 6. Water exists in three states. temperature . its changes into gas called water vapour. 3. Impurities in water can affect the freezing and boiling point of water 4. The amount of water vapour in the air is called its humidity. Evaporation occurs at any temperature and at any time.
3. 5. A non-aqueous solvent or organic solvent is used to dissolve substances that are insoluble in water. c. 9. Water is the universal solvent. air movement Solvent. 7. 2. A saturated solution cannot dissolve any additional solute that is added to it. Acids have the following properties: . solute and solution 1. tartaric acid b. humidity d. 8. ethanoic acid (acetic acid) 3. Acids can be divided into two groups – organic acids and inorganic acids (mineral acids). A dilute solution is a solution that has very little solute. The suspended substances do not dissolve in water. 6. A suspension is a liquid that has small particles in it. liquid – for examples. Acids and Alkalis Acids 1. A concentrated solution is a solution that has a lot of solute. The nature of the solvent. solid – for examples. 4. A few factors affecting solubility of a solute are: a. Acids exist in three states which are: a. A saturated solution is a solution that has the maximum amount of solute. 2. The nature of the solute. The small particles are known as suspended substances. The solubility is the maximum amount of a solute which can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a fixed temperature. b. . The temperature.c.
Acid is a chemical substance that releases hydrogen ion when dissolved in water Alkali 1.(a) Boiling (b) Filtration (c) Chlorination (d) Distillation (e) Ultraviolet (f) Ozone treatment 2. Have pH values of less than 7 e. 7.Alkalis have the following properties: 1. React with carbonates to release carbon dioxide and form salt and water. feel slippery like soap when touched with the fingers 3. taste bitter 2. are corrosive 4. acid + alkali -> salt + water 2. (a) Hydrochloric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium chloride + water (b) Hydrochloric acid + potassium hydroxide -> potassium chloride + water (c) Hydrochloric acid + calcium hydroxide -> Calcium chloride + water (d) Sulphuric acid + sodium hydroxide -> sodium sulphate + water (e) Nitric acid + potassium hydroxide -> potassium chloride + water Purification of water 1. have pH values of more than 7 6. react with ammonium salts to release ammonia when heated. change red litmus paper to blue 5. Water treatment plant . Can be done using Titration 3. Change blue litmus paper to red d. Taste sour b. Alkali is a substance that releases hydroxide ion when dissolved in water 2.a. react with acids to form salt and water (neutralisation process) orange purple (green) Neutralisation 1. Are corrosive c. 4.
Air has mass. . Air has particles that are continually moving and colliding with things on Earth. the amount on air decreases.AIR PRESSURE 1. 2. Therefore air has weight. 3. This feature exists because at high place. These collisions produce air pressure. The features of air pressure are : (a) acts in all direction (b) changes from one place to another (c) decreases the higher you go above ground level.
have an endoskeleton made of cartilage (cartilage is a strong flexible material that is also in our nose and ears).i. 2. some fish such as sharks and rays.DYNAMICS Forces 1. Smaller land vertebrates have strong but smaller bones or hollow bones (birds) to move faster . 4. All vertebrates have internal skeleton.ii. The skeletal system/endoskeleton consists of bones and cartilages. upper limbs and pelvic girdles. 3. appendicular skeleton (pectoral girdles. Supported by endoskeleton: . Big sized vertebrates need strong and bigger pectoral and pelvic girdles 3. rib cage and back bone) . Forces are push and pull acting upon an object 2.(a) Gravitational force (b) Magnetic force (c) Electrostatic force (d) Frictional force Work(J) = Force (N) X Distance (m) Power (W) = Work (J) Time (seconds) SUPPORT AND MOVEMENT Endoskeleton or Internal Skeleton 1. axial skeleton (skull. However. Functions of an endoskeleton (a) Support body weight (b) Protect our soft internal organs (c) Maintain the animal’s body shape (d) Point of attachment for muscles (e) Produce blood cells (bone marrow) Land Vertebrates 1. lower limbs) 2.
Non-woody plants (herbaceous plants) . They are supported by buoyancy of water 2. 2. Their pelvic girdles are very small or non-existent Exoskeleton/External Skeleton 1. 3. Point of equilibrium (centre of gravity) = point at which the weight of an object is considered to act on. 2. formed in rings of the stem or trunk. Have smaller and lighter endoskeletons. Contraction of the muscular wall creates a fluid pressure that force the fluid in any direction resulting in movement. Covering of some insects is cuticles ( made up of chitin. Woody plants = supported by woody tissues. 3. 2. Function of exoskeleton: (a) Maintain the rigidity and body shape (b) Surface for muscle attachment (c) Allow the movement through relaxation and contraction of muscles (d) Prevent water loss Hydrostatic Skeleton 1. waterproof to prevent water loss ) 3. Additional support structures: (a) Prop roots ( maize ) (b) Stilt roots (Mangrove) (c) Buttress roots (d) Clasping roots (orchid) (e) Thorns & Prickles (f) Tendrils (g) Twining Stem Support system in Aquatic Plants 1. Hard bodied invertebrates = exoskeleton ( made up of calcium carbonate) 2.Supported by turgidity ( the water in the plant cell press against the cell walls. 2. Factors affecting stability: (a) Height/position of the centre of gravity (b) Weight of the object (c) Base area of the object . 4. stalks or leaves ( makes them light and able to float ) STABILITY 1. non-woody plants.Aquatic Vertebrates 1. Most of their body weight is supported by buoyancy of water 3. Plants = woody plants. There are air sacs in their stem. Found in soft bodied invertebrates/aquatic invertebrates Support System in Land Plants ( Terrestrials Plants ) 1. Stability = ability of an object to return to their original positions after being slightly tilted or displaced. making the cell firm and rigid ) or turgor pressure of the plant cells. Consists of fluid filled cavities which is surrounded by muscular wall. 3.
SIMPLE MACHINES 1. Equilibrium = Load x distance = effort x distance of effort from the fulcrum . Moments of force = Force X Perpendicular distance from the pivot to the force (m) 2.
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