This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
TWO THOUSAND MILES' EIDE
Reprinted from the edition of 1853, London and
published Manufactured in the United States of America
0-404-04102-7 Vol. one: 0-404-04103-5
Library of Congress Catalogue Number: 70-128433
AMS PRESS INC. NEW YORK, N.Y.
TAYLOR. SMITH. By WILLIAM MacCANN. AND CORRIENTES. 65. IN TWO VOLUMES. is known a mental revel in which he cannot but dehght. AUTBOK OF TH> " PRXSENT POSITION OF Af PAIBS ON THX RiTZS PlaT£. ELDER & CO..— TWO THOUSAND L— MILES' RIDE THE AEGENTINE PROVINCES. WITH A HISTORICAL RETROSPECT OF THE RIO DE LA PLATA. SStt^ Illustrations. & CO.." —G. M. " A tmthiol melange of scenes and circumstances relating to a country personally unto the reader. BEING AN ACCOUNT OF THE NATUEAL PEODUCTS OF THE AND HABITS OF THE PEOPLE. BOMBAY. COUNTEY. MONTE VIDEO. CORNHILL.. 1853. . . VOL. I LONDON: SMITH.
Ayres against however. convince even the bitterest opponents of Rosas. that the causes of this deplorable warfare lie deeper than any system of government or the policy of any dictator.PREFACE. The downfall of the power of Rosas and the opening of the River Parana for commerce up to Paraguay. "While the these volumes have been passing through press. the state character and habits of the people. and the and commercial afifairs of pohtical in the Argentine Provinces. The Buenos hostilities now unhappily commenced by General Urquiza. events have occurred on the to River those Plate which must appear inexplicable not well acquainted with the nature of the country. must. . naturally raised the hopes of all who deemed the policy of that Dictator inimical to the political freedom and commercial prosperity of the countries on the Plate.
I hope. commerce was not so likely to flourish. before leav- ing England.. vi PREFACE. of the general character of the people amongst whom I had intended to settle . for their removal. My object being the extension of my com- mercial relations. or whether on the contrary the were so deep-rooted and chronic. The some following pages will. and though difficult. may deduce conclusions. Under such circumstances my first business was calmly to investigate the origin and progress of so much national calamity. as to require I years. but when I came into actual contact with them. that leisure they had neither nor disposition to enter upon the peaceful pursuits of agriculture or commerce. I informed myself. entered upon this investigation partly with the view of satisfying myself as to whether I should continue . tend to throw light upon to this perplexing subject . satis- I at first arrived in the River Plate in the year 1842 civil which time the country was distracted with war. that I might be enabled to judge whether these convulsions were likely to have a speedy termination evils . I found just reason to apprehend that amongst communities so unsettled. I do not pretend to solve a problem so I may be found have furnished facts and information from which others factory or otherwise. or perhaps generations. The inhabitants indeed were absorbed by the care and anxiety arising out of political convulsions.
PREFACE. at the suggestion of some friends. prompted me to be vigilant in my ob- servations and accurate in my judgment. I For this purpose in 1848. gave I had such letters of introduction as me access to the highest sources of information in every pro- vince I visited. I extended the range of my observations. a small publication political. . and another journey fresh fields of self-interest that province. as full and complete as possible. made a journey to the south of the province of to the north of Buenos Ayres. and being in search of openings for commerce during both these journeys. and partly to ac- quire such solid information as would enable me to make correct reports to my mercantile correspondents. The knowledge of affairs I acquired. and the strong opinions I had formed regarding the position and prospects of the country. patiently sought for facts in every quarter this respect and in for was favourably circumstanced. but it was confined to questions purely Having. VII my connection with the country. I resolved to publish a larger it work and with a design to render . induced me. accumulated a variety of information. to issue in 1846. both internally and externally. and formed what appeared to correct me to be views regarding the true policy of the country. however. I therefore . I entered on the investigation with a sincere desire to arrive at the truth upon every point that came .
1853. form so as to include the latest events in order to give a comprehensive and clear view of the present actual position and prospects of the countries on the Kiver Plate. . calm My journeys. political is to information respecting those countries. within the range of desire has influenced my observations . The volume. . and given a higher colouring to the descriptions but my aim has been to lay before the public a true statement of facts. have enabled me add some from reliable sources. Had I allowed myself the usual latitude claimed by travellers. did not extend beyond the Argentine Provinces. I might possibly have thrown more interest into my narrative. but the knowledge I acquired of the Banda Oriental and Paraguay. history contained in a in the second brought down somewhat extended .viil PREFACE. Jan. and such opinions upon political questions as I have myself formed. though exceeding more than two thousand miles. and which are the result of reflection. and the same me throughout every page I have written. Birkenhead.
and wages of labourers— Morning scene on of wild horses— Beauty of the verdureof Pampas— Troop lazo Mounted shepherdess— Homed plovers— Estancia Mr. archal scene— Price of land— Currency.Modes of travelling— Tropilla of horses— Patriarchal family— Scene starting the cavalcade on the plain— Selecting a tropiUa and page 1 CHAPTER n.Value of horse-flesh- Instinct of horses— Manadas— Mode of breeding mules— Native population— Mode of catching partridges— Lazoing a bullock— Colt-breaking. Halt and changing horses— Making for the " clouds"— An extempore deer-hunt— Homely hospitality at an estancia— Native of roasting and eating mode meat— Native riding-boots— A firagraot resting-place— A bull tossing the carcaas of a cow— Reception . I.— CONTENTS OF VOL. CHAPTER I. Bell The and the bolas— Horse-breaking— Folding sheep— Ride across the plains— Wild horse of the desert— A pulperia— Patri-. Departure from Buenos Ayres— Equestrian traveller's equipments —Church and —Value the village of Quilmes— Mr. Clark's farm— Irish labourers— Potato crop and Spanish flies— English hospitality of land.
Thwaites at missing— Prevalence of horse-stealing— A Perils of free-speaking— Sheep farms justice of the peace — page 38 CHAPTER Irish III. and his treaty with them — Burning grass on the Pampas —A happy old woman —Cheerfulness a Christian virtue frontier . plan for increasing population —Value of land. —Remarkable rocking stone— Different species of armadilloes— Fabulous story of an extinct volcano— F6te in commemoration of the independence of the Argentine Confederation— Gaiety and courtesy of the guests 69 CHAPTER A chimney the indication of comfort IV. Prosperity of Irish immigrants. and ant's tory—Dogs reared with sheep— Mrs. and market for labour— Supperparty in a cook-house — Standard of good housewifery— The reahty of Arcadian —The fork a of —Asul..— X CONTENTS. the boundary of Indian —Expedition of Rosas against Ramon Gomez life test civilization territory the Indians.. by the host and hostess of a British estancia— Hospitality as described in Scripture— Danger of losing sheep by inundation- Native well and modes of drawing water— Chascamus Lake. —Residence and family of Don —Disadvantages of want of labourers— Influence of pastoral hfe on the mind— Efiects of night dews on horses Earnings of Irish labourers. —Indian huts—The commandant of the Indian 93 . and profits of sheep-breeding— An settler— The river Salado— Trade of in nutria-skins— The Cameron estancia— Hospitality Dolores— Primitive for mares'-flesh as fire-place Don Martinez —Village of and bedstead— Traffic of Indians airy dormitropilla food— Rustic supper-party. and lovely scene— Native huts and women— Dishonesty Chascamus— The of the tropilla soldiery— fistaucia of Mr. Methvin and her —Sleeping upon an village nest— Arrival at Tandil— A deserted and sheep and ruined church— The Sierra de la Ventana— Rosas' cattle..
XI CHAPTER Tapalqueen huts V. an three-halfpence Irish flock- owner— Buying sheep at with mutton— Crossing a ney each— Feeding pigs swollen river— Review of the jour- 133 . dances. or caciques — Crimes and punishments evil spirit rites tial — The manchi or —Forms of wooing and wedding— Polygamy— ServUe condition of the wives — Mode of rearing infants — Food and drink — Feasts. and his methods of cure ments page 109 CHAPTER Kindness of Colonel Echavaria VI. but none for a traveller to rideMilitary exactions and arbitrary tyranny— Negro and kindness— Sleeping among widow rats — Estancia and famDy of the Bums— Horses beat to a stand-stUl— A generous herds- man — Plains covered with sheep— Mr. Handy. and amuseMihtary government and mode of warfare medicine-man.— CONTENTS. ground"— Estancia Dick— Value of land — Tidings hospitality of a tiger— Troops of wild horses. —Traffic of the Pampas Indians—Filthy state of their —Influence of Colonel Echavaria over the Indians—Native method of weaving—Indian women— Sun-worship and sacrifices — Government of the Indian tribes — Their physiognomy and modes of painting the face — Robust health and youthful aspect of the men — Clothing of men and women — Their toldos or huts and —Fimeral of hide — Belief in a good and an ceremonies — Lasting grief of relatives— Traditionary ideas of a past and future stat« — Division of the years into months — Celesportents — Chiefs. Methods of threshing com the dweUers in — Store for supplying Indians —A and dreary waste— Low tone flat of sexual morality— Deadening influence of vast plains upon them— Lazoing a cow for supper— Keen scent of carrion birds —Bivouac on the plains —Mode of roasting beef on the Pampas— Sleeping for travellers in the open air— Vague directions on the plains— A night's " lodging on the cold of Dr.
—Aspect of the city— Plaza de la Victoria — Churches and mansions — Arrangement and furniture of houses — Market and prices of edibles — Buenos Ayres an expensive place to in — The Alameda. his character and habits of life— Two classes of land-owners . Besults of observation— The Gaucho. and habits— Owls and ostriches— Habits of the ostrich — Venompage 154 ous spiders and toads— The Becho Colorado CHAPTER Bistant view of Buenos Ayres or sea-wall VIII. or peasant. or promenade — Bullock-carts and their drivers — Hickman's pubhc pleasure-grounds — Residence of General Rosas — The Retiro and Protestant cemetery— Striking panoramic view— The Recoleta church. Peon. convent.— XU CONTENTS. Buenos Ayres — Terrific storms —Winter comfortless for want of and neglect of roads ice waiin dwellings — The " Pam— Inunda- tions of plains Showers of — Invigorating effect — Meteorological table of winter — Autiman and spring delightful seasons — Gradual change in the temperature of the —Miasma and fevers unknown. civilized and uncivilized— A contrast— Transition state of national habits —Absence of a middle class— Evils arising from want of la- bourers-Fertile country and scanty population— Superabun- dance of animals valueless to the owners— Inconveniences of travelling— Cleanliness impossible— Dirty habits of the people- Good its teeth indispensable— Inconvenience of a late breakfast- Fuel an expensive luxury— System of police— The Bizcacha. and cemetery — Funeral and burials of the poor — Bathing by lamplive rites light 167 CHAPTER Climate and pero" soil of IX. —Landing at the port—The MuraUa. CHAPTER YII. but contagious diseases .
Brown 211 and Rev. and brokerage of the barracero— Monetary matters— Bank of Buenos Ayres its Government— The Casada Moneda and official managementFluctuating value of the paper currency of Buenos Ayres— Table of exchange— Mercantile operations based on barter— Working drained of its specie by operations— The Savings Bank under of the system— Currency of of the other provinces— Circulating of British merchants medium Monte Video— Influence — Prosperity of British settlers— Letters from Rev. W. curing the flesh. its bers —Anointing with grease a universal practice —Races com- posing the inhabitants of Buenos Ayres. Fahy. on the prospects of immigrants . and extracting tallow from the carcass— Cost of estabUshing a saladero— Price and purchase of cattle— Loss attending the driving of the city— Barracas or warehouses of Buenos Ayres. salting XI. or cattle-steaming establishments — Mode of Idlling the cattle to and drying hides. D. the Paraguay. prevalent Xm government and mem- —The medical profession.— CONTENTS. Dr. Saladeros. the Parana of great rivers— Extent of inland navigation Mode means ties of of communication between Buenos Ayres and Salta— The of long journeys two high roads through the Provinces— BuUock-carts the only of carriage for of cattle merchandize— Duration drivers —Numbers and employed in a troop— Difficul- the route— Food and habits of the drivers— Expenses of carriage— Water communication wholly disregarded 197 CHAPTER beasts. and other provinces Numbers emigrants of the population of the Argentine Provinces —British page 181 CHAPTER X- The Argentine Provinces deficient in water— The four great rivers —Causes of the want of water— Small proportion of wet days in the year— Canals impossible— Surface water only availablefor Course of the principal rivers favourable commercial inter- communication—The Rio de —Importance la Plata. A.
&c. BEMABKS ON CHRISTIAN MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN. Characteristics of savages —Aboriginal races becoming extinctin Probable effect of slave emancipation— The Jesuits Paraguay — Labours of EUiott. and — Prosaints. breeding sheep in Buenos Ayres. Brainerd. CHAPTER Xn. the missionary in Africa— Natiu-e of religious influence— Spiritual destitutionof emigrants— Their value as aids to missionaries 253 CHAPTER On an estancia. in the streets — PubUc pulpits for the cession on Friday night by lamp-light — Striking scene on Holy Thursday laity Saturday at noon to commemorate the Ascension— Burning of Judas Iscariot in eflBgy— Indulgences offered for attending pro- cessions—Mendicant monks— PoUte behaviour and good humour of the people— Costly preparations of the ladies for costumes to wear on Holy Thursday— High mass at the cathedral— Display before the altar— The ladies and their dresses— Contrast of South AmericEin and Enghsh beauty— Procession of the bishop and clergy page 233 CHAPTER XIII. the Virgin. or cattle-farm XIV.. the Virgin. Religious establishments of the Roman Catholics— A state church beggared by the temporal power— Government the head of the Church by fees in South America— Parish priests paid by the State. and on the management of 272 . on Monday — Preparations on the following days for —Exhibition of images of Christ. and other missionaries in North tinction of the America— Antagonism of strong and weak races— Ultimate exheathen— Effect of Christian missions— Moffatt.XIV CONTENTS. and and gifts— Friars and nuns— Established reUgion of the state country— Decay of the Jesuit College— Low but improving of education— Schools in Buenos Ayres kept by foreigners on sufferance— Cathedral of Buenos Ayres— Holy Week as celebrated by the ecclesiastics— Public procession of images of Christ.
„ 137 Waggoners preparing Supper .. Map of the Principal Rivers .... to face page . 209 . 1 Hunting a Wild Cow . . Frontispiece. .ILLUSTRATIONS TO VOL. .. . I. Preparing to Mount .
" . line 6 from the top. Page 141." read " commemoration of their independence. for " commemoration of a victory.ERRATUM.
ina^rftlit BINCIPXL BITERS ARGENTIXI PROVINas .
Departure from Buenos Ayres— Equestrian traveller's equip- — Church and village of Quilmes — Mr.— TWO THOUSAND MILES' RIDE THE ARGENTINE PEOYINCES. It was a bright and beautiful morning in spring when I started from Buenos Ayres on my first equesac- trian tour through the Argentine Provinces.CHAPTER ments I. . B . I. Clark's farm Irish labourers — Potato crop and Spanish — English hospitality — Value of land. Bell — The lazo and the bolas — Horse-breaking flies desert —Wild horse of the — A pulperia — Patriarchal scene— Price of land— Currency —Value of horse-flesh — Instinct of horses — Manadas —Mode of breeding mules — Native population — Mode of catching partridges — Lazoing a bullock — Colt-breaking Modes of travelling —Tropilla of horses — Patriarchal family — Scene on the plain— Selecting a tropilla and starting the Folding sheep— Ride across the plains cavalcade. and wages of labourers — Morning scene on the Pampas — Troop of wild horses — Beauty of the verdure— Mounted shepherdess— Horned plovers — Estancia of Mr. VOL.
very strong. for the pur- pose of keeping off the rain next came a woollen made for such purposes in Yorkshire. being all considered indispensable. the owner assured corn me would eat and — a proof that they have been for some time doI mesticated. consisted of the following items My saddle — first a large sheep- skin placed on the horse. but it was at not every one that would suit a rider accustomed only to the well-trained last I and docile steeds of Europe . and the bits are of English manufacture. deserve enumeration. Horses in great plenty were to be had. finding finally them tame for my purpose. on this was quilt laid a covering of untanned dry hide . The saddlery and other necessary equipments for making the journey. with long tassels hanging from the corners : this was carefully . and at home would be considered very suitable for ladies. The usual preparations for onr journey had occupied a few . They were well-formed young animals. may be desir- able to describe them. I bought them (after a long palaver) for a sum equal to about one pound sixteen shillings sterling each. though just arrived from the country. and as they are characteristic of the it mode of travelling in this country. The bridle reins are of plaited raw hide. companied by days my friend and guide Don Jose. but of a Spanish pattern. purchased two.Z THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. then a woollen rug neatly folded. which serves the rider for a blanket . which. saw them sufficiently tried with the bridle.
was in addition. termed the saddle-tree. The entire of this furniture was secured by a large girth of raw hide. during a long journey at full speed. occupied more than . with a few other necessaries and comforts. 3 and on it was laid a piece of leather. having the wool on. EQUESTRIAN TRAVELLER folded. manner having however. with a sheep-skin. The horse of Don furnished in a similar Jose. twelve or fourteen inches wide. and the ad- justing of our equipments. for the sake of ease and also to serve for a pillow at night. The saddle comfort. forms a very heavy burden even for a strong animal. from which the stirrups are suspended. a large saddle bag of canvass. of a brilliant purple dye simi- upon this is placed a flat covering. The saddling of our horses.. and made forming the basis of a little although curved a to suit the back of the horse. ends and sides were neatly stamped with an or: namental border English saddle these coverings answer to the cloth. flat seat. containing our small wardrobe. suf- ficiently large to protect the whole its from damp or rain. Then came what may be of strong leather and wood. This paraphernalia. my . thin soft leather. somewhat lar to the fringed woollen mats laid at drawing- room doors whole is in England. and over that a piece of . S EQUIPMENTS. in addition to the weight of the rider. is covered. forming the seat of the rider the again secured to the horse by an ornamen- tal leather girth. companion.
for the most part. there were a few good brick houses. sold . and are allowed to grow three years from the time of being . Clark. and poplars. either recent erections of wood. At the end of three or four leagues. we ap- proached the undulating grounds around Quilmes. while the root and stem . we crossed the plain. Here for the the road led us through planta- tions of peach-trees. than a place within one hour's ride of the capital of a large republic . peach-trees are used for firewood. southward through the Pampas. and mud plaster . near which place the English troops landed fatal in that expedition under the unfortunate General Whitelock. belong- ing to Basque immigrants. but the whole scene had more the appear- ance of an entrance to some boundless plain. in the saddle. we mounted. and growing . as we passed along. when. and the country. a British subject. and entered upon the open proximity of a large where there was no indication whatever of the city. or built of timber. which must be performed After a ride of about a league. The houses were. and commenced a jour- ney of eight hundred miles. having received the farewell wishes of our friends. TAB ARGENTINE PROVINCES. they are then cut for down and more. and horses. canereeds. willows. sheep. three years are again pollarded and so on.4 an hour . Baracca bridge. was covered with cattle. where we stopped The planted after day at the house of Mr.
detached plots of ground. Some in the river Parana are covered shall be a with timber. which at a distance appear rank weeds. The village consists of one very fine house. 5 is . or huts. however.VILLAGE OP QUILMES. which cutting it may be had for the labour of down . which is now quite destroyed and the cattle entering in search of grass. deface and destroy the tombs. Quilmes has a large brick-built church. interest but fuel such a mode of supplying artificial to the town with appears quite too of the islands continue long. as seems to illustrate one of the modes by . . and about the year 1820 their lands were given to certain parties. with a cemetery attached wall. formed of cane-reeds and mud. to be smothered in tall Quilmes was formerly the tribe of Indians. . and perhaps a dozen of ordinary character in little around. gra- view to their domestication dually disappeared. head-quarters it of a from whom . provided they erected history houses and made improvements. planting timber for fuel will probably be abandoned. and who were brought here from the interior with a they. This class of investment ex- pected to pay twenty-five per cent. of Indians possesses The some of this tribe it interest. this was once enclosed with a . are the usual ranchos. and whenever there foreign population sufficient to employ boats in this branch of industry. retain vitality. takes its name.
ance I of English comfort and English walked through the garden and grounds. fit to produce any- the yards were alive with domestic fowls . however. this purifying process. finest land I —a rich black loam. they capitu- and were removed here In for their comfort and civilization. can never be of importance. gardens. but finally where for generations they fought against the en. and thus industrious families. or vineyards. not being on a main road.6 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. croaching influence of the Spaniards being reduced lated. . I entered the house of Mr. enclosed rich paddocks . yet. happy Irish women . The home in the province of Catamarca. were and stocked with a profusion of vegetables neat strong fences. to two hundred families. in it might be laid out small farms. caused by the male portion of the inhabi- tants being obliged to join the army. which in beautiful order. while healthy. the tribe has become extinct. and herds of swine large ricks of hay stood in an adjoining field. Clark with feelings allied to those of home everything had : the appearindustry. some Scotch ploughs and harrows had just turned up the ever saw thing . afford a happy home it to many At present is a scene of wretched poverty and desolation. less civilized races which the feebler and Quilmes Indians was of manof the kind are subdued by the stronger. and good paling. instead of being overrun with weeds. This place. and otherwise neglected.
two crop. pigs. planted in Sepis crops in the year. I saw a very fine field of potatoes. is The greatest drawback the road. with the exception of butchers' meat. the fact Mr. 7 this were busied with milk vessels. should there be an early summer. and sold to the druggists in town . the vats are of wrought Clark's trious. of persons employed that. and save nearly uU their maintenance of The people in Mr. within a few days after making their first appearance. MR. all find a ready sale and. down to (or rather steaming) cattle iron. eggs. grass. employment are chiefly Irish. they are so numerous during some seasons that. made in England. fruit. At convenient distance from the city. destructive influence of the Spanish exposed to the fly. which in winter becomes almost impassable. firewood. who are induswages the number . CLARK S FARM. generally speaking. besides sheep. at prices far beyond those of London or Paris.. may be turned money and Mr. mutton. These insects are gathered. and large enough contain a hundred oxen. every thing into . Clark is one of the few men who know how to make the most of everything. vegetables. fowls. butter. Beef. for the may be guessed from his household. and gathered in January. they are neither so good nor so abundant as in England : there are. however. Close to the farmyard is a fabrica for boiling. The first tember. Clark usually kills an ox every third day. they literally eat up . hay. although.
The second crop of potatoes is planted about February. Every come to perfecthese. The price of land in the wilds of Australia I believe. from the captains of ships ficient moisture. and turned them out for the night to graze. Clark lent invited us to partake of a most excelpudding. is Unenclosed land here which worth from about thirty acre. pumpkins and the melons might form a large portion of the food of the two latter are abundant and people : cheap. leaving only a bare withered stem in their tracK. young shoots as fast as they break The best potato seed is obtained . but should a lingering flies. is. summer continue to give vitality to the to destroy the they are sure the ground. owing chiefly to the want of suf- Of late years the price has ruled from one penny up tion here to threepence per other sort of English vegetables will . dinner of roast beef. and white bread. not half the distance from England. is the usual value for all land at this : distance from the city that is. it is. a very uncertain crop. in a delightful country. twenty shillings per acre. fowls. five leagues.8 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. for to forty shillings per English the fee simple . Mr. we fettered our horses. served up beautifully . the entire root. clean. however. plum potatoes. and within ftfteen miles of a city containing sixty thou- . and well cooked and being pressed to stay in the evening. and in addition to pound. while here.
paid by the perch. the earth appeared to tremble under our On looking up. land lings per acre. mushrooms which covered the ground in a few minutes we filled a handkerchief full. accompanied by a perceived the cause vibration feet. I found . less On plain.PASTORAL SCENE. fence to keep out the cattle. cattle. now bright with fresh spring verdure. scene. and bringing them in. . I : an im- eyes they mense herd of wild horses to my unaccustomed numbered at least a thousand were — — galloping across the plain. if may be obtained at forty shil- In any attempt at agriculture. with this their board. and of a large flock of the latter belonged to our We were astonished at the quantity . I by a muffled sound. Upon inquiry. is at once the is expense of ditching being considerable. and covered with myriads of sheep host. horses. Almost all work is in the hands of the Scotch and Irish. Fencing at Labourers employed usually farm work and ditching earn three pounds per month. While engaged was startled : in collecting the mushrooms. the difl&culty of making a felt. to which they formed a relishing addition. had them cooked and served up with our beefsteaks at breakfast. sand inhabitants. The bright sunlight piercing through the crevices and enjoy the pastoral beauty of the every side extended a seemingly bound- of our shutters tempted us to turn out of bed at an early hour.
but dwellings were few. not so much on account of the grass which they eat. They had gradually increased here to such an extent as to become a serious inconvenience. of our worthy host. except one or two near a house.10 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. There were no timber very scanty. country for a distance of five or at liberty six leagues where they were again to roam about and provide for themselves. with white mushrooms. their white fleeces in strong contrast . well mounted. as the injury done to the fences. they were all collected into a corral. some places. that the grass in the bad. in far as the eye could reach. we took leave . and half a dozen men. and pursued our journey our road lying through this Pampas of the finest pasture. the plain was thickly spotted trees. more remote country was very of . After a very substantial breakfast. to get rid In order of them. owing it to the want still rain. as we beheld a beautiful hue. and close around us. which showed they had been tended with much care. or enclosure formed of stakes. were sent to drive them back into the . At its season the grass was beginning to display rapid growth and rich verdure. thickly velvet-like carpet of a deep green sprinkled with the golden-coloured spring flowers. while around Quilmes was abundant and these horses had consequently strayed away from their own dried-up pastures. as the population is Close to a small stream we passed a large flock of sheep.
and roasted a few in the wood ashes with these. which then bear away to the left. and on the bank of the stream were some Turkey buzzards ready lamb. A MOUNTED SHEPHERDESS. and the accompaniment of a biscuit. regarded her for some time with more than common interest. with the deep green grass. and having found some recent hoof-prints. rest I felt fatigued. about half a league distant. until a deep but narrow rivulet the place that in order to was fordable. we crossed over without any far in- convenience. my me imagination at once clothed her with Arcadian beauty and loveliness. Thus here we had to inquire we knew our our way at a course. that we at once kindled a fire. we sought the track of other equestrians.— . we and refreshment. but rancho. to pounce on a stray stopped by discover for We continued our journey . and dismounted take The mushrooms all around looked so fresh and tempting. the owner of which very courteously pointed a small plantation on a rising ground. her care for the lambs giving a favourable opinion of her industry and kindI ness. enjoyed a most grateful repast. we were to reach. Wild birds in great variety were all around us . and Having passed this to waymark. Birds of prey were hover- ing around her. or hut to . and as 1 was not near enough to judge of her features. 11 A mounted shepherdess stray was engaged in driving in some lambs .
and given our we again rode on. a Bible. The refreshing sleep I enjoyed during the early part of the night. and in at the estancia. gave us a hearty welcome. glad to observe. they derive name from a curved horny substance.12 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Having enjoyed our simple repast. steeds and ourselves rest. or lake. I was other books. by the smoke. and to dream of home. in his first absence. seeming to scrutinize us and our proceedings. I thought the beauty of the scene would be complete could the music of the groves . The duty after our arrival. literally covered with wild ducks attracted . poised on their wings. and towards . we have listened to but here no leafy coverts afford shelter to the songsters of nature. birds some were species . retired to sleep. The habits of this bird. Bell. and In our sitting-room. Having parI taken of refreshment for both mind and body. both on foot and on the wing. that lay at our feet. are precisely the same as the green plover at their home . a Scotch gentleman. the turned out to graze. hovered above our heads. while the horned plovers. about an hour arrived of Mr. chiefly of the hawk was a laguna. or cattle-farm. of prey. usual companion among to a Scotch family. projecting from the joint of the wing. about three quarters of an inch long. yoked together by the neck. was to see the horses carefully fettered. was afterwards disturbed by sounds that were somewhat strange to me . whose representative.
for the open plain. BELL. with the noose ready formed it. he secures one end firmly to his saddle. The morning being foggy. one of about twenty yards is required. : before throwing he swings it round his head to give it momentum. we had a long search as Don Jose. and when it is used by a horseman. and other anilazo is chiefly used. It is of one entire is piece. but. is by which means a running noose formed . horses. of them. we stalls discovered that their head had been stolen left we congratulated ourselves that the thief had us the animals. together . and the noise of domestic and wild fowls. and is a most . having neglected to take the bearings of the house his with his compass before starting. made I a discord which effectually banished sleep : but soon be- came familiar with such sounds.: ESTANCIA OF MR. 13 morning I was aroused sufficiently to ascertain that my chamber window overlooked a corral filled with sheep and lambs the bleating of these. important and necessary implement in the country that used for a corral is usually about twelve yards in length. while he watches the favourable moment . way in the fog and when they were found. an opportunity of seeing mode of The catching cattle. lost . cut from raw hide an iron ring secured to one end. this estancia I had. coiling up the other end in his hand. the barking of dogs. . who went in search for our horses . with the lowing of cattle.. On the mals.
will throw eighty or ninety yards. is Another mode of catching animals las. fine The horse-breaker. which is three leagues in length. and we had an opportunity of seeing the mode of taming a wild horse for the saddle. young fellow. each five feet from the centre. natives is are extremely expert in using the lazo earliest toy in childhood . it becomes so entangled as to arrest his course. though there are some horses were cattle. with a ball at the end of each. from the fleetness of horse aiding the force of his arm. it their and to lazo cats. are selected and covered with hide either end of a strip of the feet one is fastened to same is material. we proceeded to viewtheestancia.14 to THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. A troop of untamed driven into the corral. and sheep. by about one al- league in width. throw it over the head of his victim. each about the size of an egg. the third stone ball secured to a strip five feet long. which is attached to the middle of the longer strip: thus the bolas consists of three stout thongs. When flung at an animal's hind in- legs. The . and chiefly designed for sheep. and endeavours to free himself. about ten long . as he creases his speed. and. . a Frenchman. fifty It may be thrown . with the bo- Three round stones. a very corral with his lazo. the bolas twines round them. to sixty yards with some certainty his it and an equestrian. dogs. is the delight of children. entered the and selecting the horse best . After breakfast.
HORSE-BREAKING. but so skil- maintain his seat. Another spirited young animal was saddled in the same manner. for a long time he continued to rear and plunge. but. and apparently much and subdued . again mounted. and brought to the ground . suited for his 15 purpose. and was quickly out of sight. he was saddled. the horse violently. which is merely a strip of hide securely fastened to the under jaw. he soon came back. The rider. varied with occasional spasmodic leaps and plunges. lazoed. and the rider at once mounted. the animal stood still. but the horse was finally sub- . he then put on the bridle. who was a runaway twenty-two years athletic old. and to unseat his seemed determined fully did the rider rider . but forward he would not go. The horse was then allowed first to get on his feet. sailor. he darted off across the plain with lightning-speed. that horse and man seemed taur . however. upon feeling the spurs. and sustained by a head stall of the same material. this is the first step in horse-breaking. The moplunged ment he leaped most into the saddle. when the animal set off in at length the horse a furious gallop. when At trembling with excite- ment. and came down on his side. threw the noose over the it animal with unerring precision. who was unhurt. and then mounted by an Englishman. covered with sweat and foam. about and certainly I -one of the most and manly fellows ever saw. to realize the idea of the fabled cen- made a fearful plunge.
each carried a long thonged whip. The shepherds. some were employed in burning bricks. After this. kick. so thoroughly entangled around his legs. with which they raised the the ground without dismounting.. In all probability several young lambs . a small apparatus for out-build- steaming sheep some of the sheds and ings being covered with zinc. ing and jumping most violently but soon be- came him. all In our rides we fell in with several Irish obtaining high wages. remarkable for on small and tame horses. In the evening we assisted in the truly pastoral employment of the estancia. . was thrown at a fine black colt the moment it reached his legs. and we hastened is to relieve Upon this estancia there . it it As the troop escaped from the corral. which cost about twenty shillings per thousand. Three or four year old wethers are those usually selected for that purpose. mounted weak lambs from The strong lambs but some of the very The dogs be carried. 16 dued. he increased his speed. were playfully skipping. that he fell on his side. as they are then considered in their prime. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. settlers. with the intelligence for which shepherds' dogs in Britain are and on reaching the corral the flock was folded the night. young and feeble had to obediently did their duty. and rode out to drive home the sheep at sunset. we were amused by the throwing of the bolas.
I came mouth of the hole VOL. she then returned for the other. they were good. inquiring the way. thence we were to turn off to the right. as they ahvays are at this season of the year. but in winter they are very bad. along. probably the female. I dismounted. . . The next morning was cold. attack but the moment it they reached the ap- parent mother seized one of them by the back of the neck. and join what is called the main road. c . and misty but we mounted our horses. two more of smaller size joined in the us. . to look across the plain towards a small until and there sweep the horizon house the point our eyes rested upon a house standing by the side of a tree : this is first we had to reach . was very picturesque.. Just then. they would perish before morning. for although they frequently to reconnoitre. ran towards us grinning and chattering fiercely as we halted. and. we passed close to a one of which. were left 17 careful behind us. but which m^erely consists of the beaten tracks of travellers crossing grassy plains. The country was here much more . undulating than I was led to expect and the appearlevel pastures to ance of cattle ascending from the the top of the rising grounds. and finally took refuge herself. hoping to shoot and examine one. As we journeyed burrow of ferrets. and dragged into the hole . and lay quietly for a long time on the grass. but was disappointed to the I. UNDULATING PLAINS. cloudy. although we were very and if so. were desired plantation.
18 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and action. we observed stallion careering along some rising grounds. with plumage very distance. and driving into his herd one or two mares been coquetting with his rivals long tail. his flowing who had mane and full streaming on the wind as he galloped at speed. showed off his noble form. The end of the house ranged with opening. and the place altogether had a few desolate appearance. through which the owner handed they required . While watch- ing for the ferrets. could not cover one with my pistol. and seemed to realize the idea of a fiery Pegasus. We is stopped for refreshments at a pulperia. After a delio^htful ride of a leag^ues. This had once been a pretty spot. the road. similar to our goldfinch. and had a square well secured with bars of wood during whatever the day and closed with a shutter at night. is It contains well watered. proportions. must be a very valuable property the stock embracing . . Taylor. league and a half of land. to his customers travellers being protected from the general weather by a verandah. a numerous flock of small wild birds. Such is the character of the pulperias throughout the plains. we a reached the estancia of Mr. a beautiful white As we proceeded. which of a a combination for public-house and general shop the country people. and . but the vines were neglected. parsed over our heads and alighted on a pool of water at a little where they enjoyed a bath.
standing in a garden stocked with fruit-trees and vegetables. and. like Abraham and wishes to visit Lot. the flocks were all coming and we sat down on the steps of the door to contemplate the scene. The house flat brick-built. I remember when a boy being extremely Jacob sleeping in sceptical in reading the story of the open air at night. than the use of tents for if the dwellers in these plains sojourned in tabernacles. for if he some of he has to go an immense perhaps distance. and desires. then the Old Testawould ment account of the manners of be descriptive of life early times on these plains at the present moment. A of this description so completely resembles in habits. he must divide them his herds. every variety of domestic animals sheep. . like the asses of. which carried the mind back to the pastoral habits of the patriarchal in the age as recorded Old Testament. but here the habit of sleeping out of doors is general during summer. 19 — horses. presents a most inviting and agreeable appearance : a little oasis of comfort and cultivation in a desert of uncultivated wildness. one story high. mules. arrived. finds Saul went in search life that. and asses. that nothing to realize more is wanting those primitive scenes and associations . Children . When we into the fold. is cattle. feelings. they have gone astray. the patriarchal times. The flocks and herds of our host had become so large that. with a roof. and on reaching the place.PATRIARCHAL SCENE.
as the exchange will gradually advance. however. and the primitive habits of the people. or three-and-fourpence per acre. the exit change was fourpence. supposing. their I had taken some pains to habits. never seem recognize the alte. Land in this neighbourhood sells at sixty . and horses. may be sure of making a valuable investment. the still be sixty thou- sand dollars : so that those purchasers is who buy land when the exchange low. equal to about six thousand English acres. Being now about to spend a few weeks amongst plains covered with cattle. on account of the continued fluctuations this in the value of paper currency : about two years since. when reading the Scriptures should have explained to them the nature of an eastern climate. and this for a splendid sheep-walk within fifteen It is leagues of the city of Buenos Ayres. then a square league of land. little not a surprising that the Buenos Ayreans. to in their monetary dealings.20 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. sheep. now does not exceed two- pence three-farthings . ascertain value and No animal varies so much in price as the . rations in value of their currency for whether the exchange value be at threepence or price of the league of land would at sixpence. would cost one thousand pounds sterling. the paper dollar at the present time to be worth fourpence. thousand difficult paper dollars for a square league but it is to attach an accurate sterling value to this sum.
but with it bringing them into subjection. as in England. which called the rodeo. 21 A troop of wild mares. to drive is customary. those proprietors who have men. colts. for. or fifteen each . one with . sufficient In spring. especially to the south. are worth. handsome. or ought to have. or nine in. collect them every morning cruel . or three times a week. ten dollars. fifty dollars. and . good and bad together. but purchased in lots of an hundred and upwards. for thirty dollars. strictly speaking.VALUE OF HORSES. This is a great mistake literally . there no limit to the price paid for a docile. each. horse. one hundred and hundred dollars each is but here. they are as necessary to the happiness and existence of a gaucho as the very clothes he wears. and either have. and fillies of all ages. each picked. unbroken colts. A very general opinion prevails in Europe that these plains. and form a favourite subject of conversation. The habits of the horse are very remarkable. were they neglected . and are careful of their stock. are covered with wild horses. Colts broken fifty to five vary in price from . . or three shillings sterling. they are sold shillings. and although the horses are treated with in and unnecessary severity the process of taming. there are none try. another. since all wild in the coun- of right belong to some owner. a view of There can be no doubt they would very soon become wild. two to them is some parti- cular spot on the estancia. and serviceable horse. fetch shillings. his mark upon them.
and taken care of for a few days. and drives will his any of them wander. the victor of course carrying off the captive. fifty to families. a battle royal the extraordinary instinct and ensues. or until their affianced spouse has formed the acquaintance of his seraglio . or flocks). and prevent her from wandering. them home. together with a stallion. bite slow not he all them. and fillies. his year and collects all the mares having mark. but will sometimes rivals. exhibit extraordinary into They are formed manadas (companies. he they are stallion follows and return. The only keeps own family together. the care of one stallion affection. They are then. each off. year. under . driven by themselves. Such ther. steal the mares from his neighbouring stallion When an act of abduction is detected by the to whom the coquette belongs. which may have wandered during the and when they are collected together. but if he should ap- . instinct. each containing from one hundred animals. each stallion would all his own mares. colts.22 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. if the manadas to The mares if are all known to him. he sends round to his neighbours. the safety of entirely depends. and watchfulness. animal has a piece of her hoof cut sufficiently large to cause lameness. When the owner of an estancia wishes to form a in the spring of the manada. and upon his instinctive courage. is sympathy of horses. that were ten thousand of them driven toge- be followed by when they were driven off.
or the Mauritius. The is rate of increase . his feet are fettered. very much for attended to they are kept in large numbers to by Mr. and it is some time continually them prevent the animals starting horses have been home after at a full gallop known to reach their native plains a hundred leagues distant. they fetch a doubloon. On the estancia of .MANADAS OF HORSES. as soon as a mare foals. meet the demand them from Rio Janeiro. and in this way. old and young. In breed mules. the foal . to a when removed from their native pastures necessary to keep a riding round man to : for new tract. 23 pear inclined to ramble aud seek for stolen pleasures. Taylor. an absence of two or three years. which chiefly consist of cavalry . to the entire satisfaction of the supercargo. before spring departs. the West Indies. of mules is The breeding in this district . is about thirty- three per cent. It is difficult to locate a manada. in troops good and bad or at . only a few infantry being required in cantonments. They are worth one hundred paper dollars each. per annum the cause of this extra- ordinary increase that the Government of the : province will not allow them to be killed horses its being so very important to the State in ^raising armies. but when put on board at Ensanada order to is Buenos Ayres. my his host there are seventeen manadas and one of neighbours possesses at least two thousand horses. the whole family are moulded into affectionate companionship.
24 killed. and its skin immediately spread over a the same age . and those from amongst * is whom Mate is an iufusion of yerba : for which plant Paraguay celebrated. The population is very thin. without the smallest spot of either to plant a flower or raise a vegetable. . They usually take mate* it early in the morning indeed they are drinking throughor or out the entire day. nor vegetables. rears the adopted one. ground The land. young male ass of about is the hot blood of the slain foal then sprinkled upon the head and limbs of the thus ass. which never afterwards follow his own species. and the natives are generally unwilling to occupy themselves in any except in the ordinary duties of an estancia. The resources of the country are altogether neg- lected for want of an industrious population is . their food being exclusively beef and mutton they have neither bread. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. . They breakfast on beef and make a supper dinner of the same about an hour after sunset. milk. though very fertile. mutton at eleven o'clock. live in way They ranchos or huts. low. and the mare being will deceived. the laundry for this house sent to a dis- tance of six leagues every week. but they are really high . them. he soon begins in money so very some way or other for himself. is never tilled by . Wages appear one dis- for every posed to be that industrious saves rapidly. for instance. and seldom eat salt.
together salt in . which he sold in Buenos Ayres. sheep-skins and horse-hair. with six pounds of yerba and some and beef a rancho. he per day horses. and at once began to save four or five pounds monthly. by . who know very little. follow such toil. He has now a flock of sheep in is partnership with an Englishman. Shepherds and herdsmen receive one hundred one hundred and fifty to dollars per month. Horses are soon exhausted. They live they have wives or children to assist in keepthey ing the sheep. labourers can be obtained or newly-arrived emigrants 25 are either the useless. out of which. He arrived about two years back. I met with a Basque immigrant. or to mark them. receives from twenty to twenty- five dollars but then he for is expected to bring his own and such work they will require is ten or twelve. and it is not surprising that indolence should particularly in so hot a climate. and mutton without and if stint. The labour often very severe in- deed. hired either to part cattle.labourers' wages. and when he had gained a little knowledge of the habits of the people. and when so employed will earn twenty dollars per day addiis tional. whose history shows what industry will accomplish. and also ditching a piece of land to make a garden . and grass alone does not invigorate them for long-continued effort. he buying travelled through the country with a cart. When a man . may themselves on exercise the privilege of occasionally going out hire.
as naturally wondered how he was to be caught we were on a boundless plain. and after some minutes. and as we proceeded ducks took to to meet the herdsmen. predicting a delightful day. fixed his choice on a prime young bullock . which gradually becomes less and less. Mr. Having arranged were to turn out early this morning to see the cattle driven to the rodeo. indeed. were also abundant. and vegetables. there being no obstacle to hinder him. the sun was rapidly climbing the heavens. the birds being bewildered by the continued circular motion. wild Partridges plenti- wing in every direction. than he tossed up his head and appeared determined to show . on which tliey steadily fix their gaze. The urchins ride round the birds in a circle. and for aught I knew the animal might lead us a chase as far as Patagonia. we rose and in the saddle betimes. they are so very ful and tame that boys occasionally amuse them- selves by catching them with a noose of horse-hair on the end of a cane-reed.26 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. until sufficiently close to reach the prey . but no sooner did the animal find that he attention. an ox had for be selected the household. The to cattle having reached the rodeo. Taylor rode in amongst the herd. he will obtain a selling the fruit good income : there can be no doubt but that very soon he will be comparatively rich. was an object of was made and that an attempt to separate him from the herd. and I very .
who now took mounted on a swift and powerful grey a dexterous hand at the lazo. when presently we watched its he swung it the youth gathered up the lazo. as despising my cowardice. galloped off at a right angle to get a good view. as . but in the whole herd became alarmed and in a fer. 27 to The horsemen. sport. ment and the animal. I charged me rode off as rapidly as possible. is breaking cover. and was almost out I of sight of to my companions. Both the pursued and the pursuer were soon top of their speed. as little . and again. the plains. the lead. had the courage if bridle while the bullock. before . when the ox. bounding away across Three horsemen gave chase . at the if struggling for life. without so much draw as looking behind me. after Again the horsemen approached. and gyrations as steadily and gracefully in round his head widening circles. turned and finally joined the herd. appeared to reach the bullock's horns. the horseman gained a but just as it the fatal noose was thrown. so. es- caped. being closely pressed. As he approached the game.LAZOINO A BULLOCK. the beast took to the plains. and closer. endeavouring approached closer surround doing him. to give it he began swinging momentum to the lazo by gently if around his head. four Don Pepe. the beast suddenly wheeled round and furiously. colt. and appeared to gain on the animal. a youth on a brown colt I took the lead. and appeared to gain on the beast. horsemen giving chase.
and would not move forward an inch from exhaustion or from instinct. gave a slight curve . : on this at an attempt to break in a wild In instance the attempt was a failure the animal plunged most furiously for a long time. faithful to his charge. followed in the course. bellowing and plunging all the way. until finally the noose was thrown with unerring and reached the horns and preterror. coil. now mad with and at the full stretch of his speed. and thus held from opposite sides he allowed himself to be drawn for a long distance. of the animal instantly the horse halted pared for the shock. . The ox.28 instinctively THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. reached the end literally of the and was thrown on the ground. again stand up at last. Another lazo was then thrown over horns. rolling over and over feet in . at length. . After breakfast we rode over the estancia. the horse. apprehending danger. until he reached a con- venient place. . was it possible to literally make him to a post. Every moment the chase became precision. nor . Mr. and in on our return spent two or three hours ing lookcolt. thrilling with excitement. tossing up his head violently in his endeavours to his and plunging most get loose. either he lay down. where he was despatched. he was lazos dragged along the grass by two and secured to Previous resuming our ride I had a long consultation with our hospitable friend. Taylor. but with fearful bellowings he gained his a moment.
Every tropilla has a mare with a bell suspended if well-trained. and we learned that further on in the country they are cheaper. never leave her side. Two modes themselves . Our horses were capable of taking us a long distance still. horses in following the mare.MODES OF TRAVELLING. will Only as many as are needed . to obtain colts that are thoroughly broken. or turned out a vexatious failure. for the travellers are saddled at starting the re- mainder being driven along the way. and choose our latter case each traveller should own route in the have at least four horses. they run wild and are lost. The point to be decided was. On the docility of the troop . the other purchase a or : little troop of horses. should ceed further with our to town. or send we prothem back and buy fresh ones here. Another very important precaution ordinary riders. and sufficiently quiet for The natives are . from her neck. to carry us sufficiently strong and numerous through. of travelling in this country present to the post roads. for a long journey. and the horses. depends the money value and of the if the real they are not w ell or it trained. one to keep where horses and guides may be to obtained at each posttropilla. depended on present arrange- ments. for journey proved agreeable and successful. ready a change to supply when utility needful. own horses. house . requires an additional number of men to drive and keep them is together. as to the best 29 whether the mode of proceeding .
I resolved to and thus be free to vary different my course. perhaps not one could be found quiet enough to be mounted. was not white-washed the walls were scarcely six feet high. except by an expert equestrian. SO used to horses. and on friendly terms with him. came out to meet This customary and hospitality forcibly brings Abraham's going out of his tent to meet the three 'angels disguised as young men. The object of to the my journey being to obtain infor- mation as amount of population. — begged dwelling and he being a neighbour of Mr. and habits of the people. we found ourselves in a moment The hut. and mud. at least us to dismount and enter his high . as us. we rode to the residence of a native about half a league distant. on the eve of the destruction of the cities of the plain.30 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. as I to visit places in : directions might have occasion having this object in view. the manners buy a and tropilla. we drew near his house. built of cane-reeds . . I would not leave myself dependent on the post-houses. and the sources of industrial wealth. mark of to mind The man who approached six feet —a very fine looking old man. and in a troop of horses which they would swear were as tame as lambs. that they can ride anything with four legs. or be confined to the post roads. In order to select a tropilla. who he had one attention for sale . quite at our ease. Taylor.
As soon as we took our seats.NATIVE HUT AND FAMILY. neither of them having a window. Though . to the extent of at least three thousand pounds sterling. in a gourd somewhat larger than a goose egg. this The household was a . one of our host very courteously handed us mate. yet he possessed property of such a nature as to be at all times available. fair specimen of his amongst the natives all although the erection of it house and the furniture contains cost less than thirty pounds. and three : younger sons (the elder being in the army) master of class his all were clothed in articles of British manufacture. the the family was large there being several daughters in and daughters-in-law the house. figure. that first was at- the movement of her arms any caught my tention nothing exhibits the perfection of woman's defects. adjoining apartment tall In the I discerned the figure of a it woman : standing up combing her hair. as I could discover 31 It contained two rooms. so . Standing under the agreeable I shade of two ombu-trees near the house. and the roof was thatched with bulrushes. mounted. This infusion is silver very similar in flavour to strong tea. it is drunk through a house was small. or betrays more completely than of the daughters such an attitude. far but the door was well hung upon iron hinges of British manufacture. and is the universal and favourite : beverage of the natives tube by suction. took a view of the .
How me long he continued giving play to his joyous activity. if gradually increasing his speed. plants and flowering shrubs. in the sun's bright rays close to the a little boy lay stretched on the grass clipping weeds with sheep-shears. of the same materials as the dwelling-house. as startled. but . I inquired the way . size. and came with the speed of lightning towards the house. but his movements were to both novel and exciting. until suddenly. he altered his course. rays The sun's were now very strong. which ap- peared studded with little islands. track on Intending to make my way home. and ran another direction.32 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. built . then he pretended to be again frightened. and residence for the men-servants one end was a contrivance shaped double its like a bee-hive. and some fringed with this poplar . and towards the west the landscape seemed to be enlivened with the most beautiful lakes. dogs surrounding scene.trees. the plain was covered with cattle. sheep. and domestic fowls were basking door . As far as the eye could reach. one more joyous than the others was careering in the plenitude and vivacity of his impulsive nature . and horses. I cannot tell. Cats. On the plain behind the house were several tame ostriches. overgrown with beautiful thither. for baking bread and a well was near at hand. now starting off for some in distance. formed a cookat bouse. A long hut.
or place of Isaac and Rebecca. The next quesD . were . and the primeval simplicity of the landscape..it. that carried one imagination to the earliest ages : the vast- ness of the solitude. as they had opened negotiations for the purchase of a tropilla. VOL. cent delights of when viewed perspective of fancy by the hopeful gaze of happy youth. to 33 my disappointment. which was now brought for our inspection. for an immense distance. Nothing can and evanesin the bright more strikingly represent the unreal life. my my reverie. and found. made me feel as though I were amongst the Bedouin Arabs. I. The horses appeared to be of a very superior breed. being drained by the thirsty sun the whole scene had an back in air of eastern life about. that the lakes all optical illusion : and wooded islands were it was the well-known mirage of the desert. was glowing with May-flowers their golden cups. close to the abiding While contemplating the impressive companions disturbed scene. and : their attach- ment to the mare was very evident we separated them by a variety of means. THE MIRAGE. nor were they satisfied with being near her. filled with the dews of night. but still they all struggled to keep by her side. for they strove with each other to place themselves in such a position as to have their necks across her back : upon this point there could be no deception. The foreground of the picture before me.
we agreed that. my next business was to obtain a person to act as guide. One man was who has to horses. price. however. or should have had to pay hirn about seven day. was. and as 1 found . I symmetry. I shall be able to obtain town the same price that I now pay here: although I believe I paid too much. small as the sum seems. as eight shillings per remuneration for . and beauty. more intendwhen they shillings be mounted. to the most necessary duties of to recommended five as a good guide. and the few who remain at home us if are not sufficient to attend life. Then came to the question as to A sum equal two pounds sixteen each was demanded.34 tion THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. docile. and also to take care of my tropilla. This. at the to his The . from his size. his son strongly Both the old man all and so assured me they were tame that a child could ride them with perfect safety. He was saddled. as to taraeness. nor would the owner abate a single fraction . him very were price. set of chose for myself at the out- our journey. as a troop. . tropilla consists of eight horses is and the end of in the mare and there no doubt but a successful journey. to we did not try any ing to take our chance of their tameness. For trial we selected one which. and as they were very superior and well-trained horses. Having now provided horses. I and he had consented go with me. I found for the to be a great difficulty male members of almost every family are away in the army.
well skilled in the use of the bolas and the lazo . was an uncommonly fine young man . ceiving to 35 but I could not hope to My good friend Mr.. though not yet twenty. per- my disappointment. with whom is acquainted. he stood nearly six feet high. On to returning from his he told us that three were tame. I made ready to resume my journey gentleman who now so under very favourable auspices. together with three tame and three wild colts. and one only fit be a perch for a wild bird — a report more Pepe. and he entered upon it with ardour and animation. kindly permitted his son to be ray accompany me. tropilla. Don Pepe. and. was a superior equestrian. therefore. himself and his horses. the true chaI racter of the horses and charged him to ascertain with certainty their docility when saddled visit. DON PEPE. two neither tame nor wild. . the son. — that being the only point of which I entertained the least doubt. T. I had not much to fear : I had seen him perform extraordinary feats of horsemanship. as well as handsome. to be surpassed he was amiable and intelligeVit too. with his aid. with him as our guide. Don born and brought up in the country. moreover. to learn He from visited the late owner of the he .. being- favourable than we expected. and had a chest and shoulders not . obtain his services. companion and adviser and. the young opportunely joined me. The prospect of such an ad- venturous journey was delightful to him.
to Our cavalcade now began assume a formidable . my new companion. were. I also abandoned native spurs. eight the corral. my old fellow-traveller. since a single . Jose All being ready for our deto horse. and Don Pepe. the horses being too wild for my large me to use them. each in some separate department. in the country that the children scarcely it any novelty. and joined Don Pepe then where our horses were to in waiting. them all farewell. mounting we proceeded saries. excitement. The morning was had arranged and to leave rather cloudy on which I Magdelena . which was placed across the back of a horse. busily engaged. My heavy canvass saddle bags were condemned by experienced travellers as totally useless. nor did aspect to I in future require any others. where all we of found a sumpter-horse loaded with our neces- spare horses for the saddle —four : which were Don Pepe's — besides the mare none of them had ever been shod. preparatory to our Don Jose. shower of rain would saturate them transferred I therefore my wardrobe and other necessaries to a bag of raw hide. together with all the members of this kind family.36 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Don summoned me to With feelings of thankfulness my kind host and his family. all was bustle departure. I bid at the door. as well as myself. . my inexperienced eye but it is one so common thought parture. and covered over and well secured with a large piece of hide.
fancying our trouble was over. of course. 37 The men in charge of the corral were desired to . they led many a chase. yet found to it a very difficult tropilla in the and troublesome task proper direction us : keep the unwilling to leave home. by her companions.STARTING A TROPILLA. turn loose the troop when the mare cleared out at a somewhat rapid pace towards her own pastures. when we Our starting was very similar to agrainst a a ship beating out of harbour head wind. We put our horses to full speed. followed. to proceed in better order. . while the horses of Don This Pepe took a sweep began in the opposite direction. and a sudden turn one way. the mare would perhaps take one. in every direction but the right when we got them all together. labour continued for about three leagues.
Here we asked permission to put our horses into the corral. whose horse appeared tired — he having ridden very hard during the morning. store. on which were fifteen to twenty thousand head of cattle. needful for our journey. halt Our from first was at an estancia. bolas. CHAPTER Halt and changing horses tive II. and women — Dishonesty at of the soldiery Thwaites speaking Chascamus — scene— Native huts and Estancia of Mr. and having also to carry a heavy lazo.38 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. containing an extent of pasture five leagues square. The tropilla missing— Prevalence — of horse-stealing —A justice of the peace — Perils of free- —Sheep farms. Close to the corral was a which we visited with the hope of obtaining a . in order to obtain a fresh one for Don Pepe. and sundry hide ropes. tempore deer-hunt— Homely hospitality at an estancia —Making for the " clouds"— An ex— Nameat— Native riding-boots mode of roasting and eating —A fragrant resting-place— A bull tossing the carcass of a cow—Reception by the host and hostess of a British estancia —Hospitality as described in Scripture sheep by inundation —Danger of losing — Native well and modes of drawing lovely water— Chascanius Lake.
since we had only to ride dismounted. He walked slowly up to the tropilla and fettered the mare. few biscuits. to catch the horse which . troop went round to the other side and then. and we halted smoother pace. and was gentle. was). if he . although very timid his mouth was bridle. house and resting ourselves he also made us par- take of an excellent luncheon.CHANGING HORSES. Don Pepe which was most untameable. and and now turned off the road (such as entered upon the grassy plains. of our daily business him one with a In performing this necessary part of a well-trained we found the priceless value tropilla. was restive to give and uneasy. or 39 entering. and then endeavoured he wished for. easy gait. This was an amusing operation side of the when he went on one mare the whole . his horse. We again it mounted. The horse of Don Jose. however. who upon our going mto the . insisted Upon it we were agreeably surprised to find belonged to a Scotchman. was most fortunate with my horse. and I held round them slowly a few times. so tender that I dared not let I him feel the and sometimes felt as if mounted on a wild antelope. For I about a league we galloped on most agreeably. some bread. which had an . making a detour an oppor- from our proper course to give Don Pepe tunity of obtaining from an acquaintance some ne- cessary information regarding our journey. when they became a close group.
— 40 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. you " Yes. also in changed and went back the other way. " I inquired our way. Before we started." : . select a particular one and in this he at length succeeded." " Fleecy clouds ! still think you are on the ' ocean ! Very well : ride straight for those * clouds. pursuing each other a We were much pleased to observe that the horses never attempted to leave the steal mare. : and went an opposite direction it was in like the play of children circle. Do you see those " I see nothing else but cattle. mounted.'" "But where am I to go when I reach the clouds?'" " Never mind where you are to go before you reach them we shall see something else. cattle ?" Don Pepe pointing with his hand. but his object was to . they changed their course to avoid him." " Well. Once Don Pepe attempted all to ." " Well. can you see anything in that direction on which to fix your eye?" oh. do you see something dark. a march upon them. by going under her belly but he was instantly perceived. I see something dark. like a large herd of cattle?'* "Yes. and they sheered round to the opposite direction. I see large fleecy clouds. He could at any moment obtain some horse. but I can't dis- tinguish whether they are cows or horses. and as soon as Don Jose was replied.
turkey buzzards. all the dogs in the as commence a most melancholy howling. where for the saw wild deer and ostriches. stition It reminded : me of a super- amongst the natives it almost every night. composed of colts. a gentle pace. the sound of which attracted their notice for they turned their heads. if 41 the all Don clouds Jose now inquired what he should do then. as ' moved. until we were near enough bell. and here we enjoyed a glorious chase. and their bits of tails stiff with tally-ho. them to hear the mare's . country is said. we seemed as colts. if in chase of a troop of wild : It was most finer princely sport chase. Nimrod himself never had a The cattle on the estancia cleared out. when we came upon a herd of deer for they did not appear to take mucii notice of us. . expectation. poised on their wings. leaving a broad open space for our coursers for a long distance and we followed at full speed a quarry Storks. first We time I now entered upon plains. deer. off both horses We and gave a long which sent deer at a killing pace. to full keep up with them.A CHASE ACROSS THE PAMPAS. We were going at rather . slackening their pace. and stood with ears erect. . and being compelled. and countless flocks of birds. nolens volens. we agreed to gallop off for the clouds' as fast as possible. if astonished at the unwonted At length the ostriches and deer parted and we very gladly saw our tropilla company . and ostriches. at about the same hour. as sight. and if in despair.
42 if THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and being requested to bring in we were shown our quarters for the night. on his nightly rounds. As is customary. we placed our saddles upon the grass for a few minutes. and the natives say that this spirit rides past colt. and the owner politely came out to meet us. and seated myself at a round table biscuit. obtain and where Don Pepe hoped to some valuable information. where we exchanged civilities. which was a dish containing the tin vessel some brown to of water. strong enough to a deer. The house was shaded by three or four ombu-trees. on beef. panied our host into the house. and to use our knives. we did justice to the repast. asking us to alight and come to see in for the night. mounted on a wild and driving a troop of horses before him. and afterwards we . which we enjoyed exceedingly. A piece of beef was quickly roasted. while we accomour saddles. I was agreeably surprised two beautiful greyhounds. a covered with a clean tablecloth. After an exciting day of my life — we — perhaps the most exciting we in- reached the estancia where tended to sleep. and we were invited to partake of supper. Upon going into the house I I took with me the chair from under the tree where had been sitting. with a plate and a fork : for each guest. pull down who playfully responded to my caresses. but no knife we were expected own provide salt for ourselves. they were lamenting the dead occurs when some . Being very hungry.
it all and a stork has been luxuOpposite the garden sunset. The room contained one small bedstead. 43 us very wel- who made how come. a peach orchard. and flowering plants. At when the labours of the day were over. to surprise. and is rushes.HOMELY HOSPITALITY. Towards bedtime we were very plentifully sup-. having understood that there was no stone whatever on these plains. and also a catre. was reluctant sheathe it uncleaned . and clean as well as I could that way : which I did. riating in is the evening. plied with mate before retiring to rest. a description of bedstead in universal use throughout the country^ . Walking about afterwards to inspect the place. my host very kindly pulled a piece out of the wall for the purpose. In the front an enclosed space designed for a garden. Wishing to obtain a specimen for the satisfaction of a geological friend. The house is is one story high. and having a variety of sweet-smelling but shrubs. with a mattress (I believe) of wool . rose and thanked our host. it some cabbages does not show any careful cultivation. that my great the front wall of the house was of stone . at last occurred to rae to thrust it into the thatch of the house. I was somowhat for at a loss I it to clean ray to good it dagger-knife. with and onions growing in it. I found. conthatched with bul- tains only two rooms. the men-servants and others had a game of bowls with the master.
Our host having supplied each guest with a clean sheet and pillow. . there- put into the corral— only those intended for let to the saddle to-morrow being feed on the grass. not the slightest undulation being discernible. its unusual bitterrising when taken without I Upon going out flatness was at once struck with the perfect : of the country it was a dead level of vast extent. Such is the . who knew best where the tender pieces knife and cut off are. and we were anxious to resume our route. and Don Pepe. peculiar dles sup})lied the to the country) and our sad- remainder of our bedding. At an early hour in the morning Don Pepe very : kindly brought me a mate while in bed it must be and an excellent ness tonic. we left them on the grass during the night fore. wished us good-night : our ponchos (the large square cloaks with a hole in the middle to put the head through. it is very convenient and portable: made on the a same principle as a folding garden-chair. us horses continued to give feared they might some if anxiety. accordingly took his a piece to roast. and these were hobbled. judging from sugar. and therefore asked our host some beef. we wished before to have some substantial food for we started.44 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. they were. As the natives do not breakfast sooner than eleven o'clock. with canvass bottom that doubles up. as Our we return home. he very hospitably desired us to cut what we wanted.
and then. of smoke. seats We took six our around it on logs of wood about or eight a boy. during which . in and to secure one end of the ground. reluctant to partake of it When our joint had been suf- ficiently long in its reclining position. custom of the country is 45 . sometimes concealed felt the might perhaps have at breakfast. seeing the quantity of smoke and meat from dust which sight. all sides. and a peculiarly fine flavour though a very fastidious person.PAMPAS COOKERY. for the heat. in these cases the traveller is desired to take what he chooses. inches high. over it. Mate was then handed round by full There being no chimney. fireplace M^as on the ground the centre of the room. we found our host and two or three others sittinsr round the in fire. the place was the removal of the kettle. such a position as In this allowed the meat to lean over the blaze. in as there always place. enclosing about a yard square. quantity of dry weeds. with his scraped the clay and grease off the spit— a piece of iron about four feet high . but by sitting low the annoyance was avoided. supported on an iron frame. a kettle was boiling. abundance of meat hanging up Following some open Don Pepe The into the cookhouse. penetrates it : thoroughly. the fire being in the centre . After Don Pepe put down a knife. and consisted of a row of bricks on edge. Don Jose assisted him to run it through the piece of spit in the beef. manner meat may be ascending on gives it nicely cooked .
: 46 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and we sat round it. Don Pepe then placed the spit across the hot embers. and heartily enjoying this gipsy feast there was no table in the place. and care must be taken by one who has a long nose. and as juicy as The beef mushroooms : as soon as a piece touched my lips it seemed to melt my mouth. and the meat was done " to a turn. equal to nine thousand English acres. and I hastened to wash them in a dish. we took a draught of good man of the house" felt it he would have : insulted is had 1 power for offered him payment indeed in his . or the tip may be off. was into particularly tender. apply the knife with your right hand. and thanked hospitality ." The spit was then stuck upright into the ground. and then. practice to eat in this manner. seizing on a piece with your teeth. as It requires some you have to hold the meat with your left hand. directing the edge upwards cut to cut off the piece . the boy commenced pounding some Lisbon salt in a large wooden mortar. cutting off pieces with our knives. water. the ends resting on the : bricks to keep the meat clear of the ashes one or two more changes. for baking- want of any other the " vessel. My hands were covered with tin gravy. Having for his finished our repast. Jose had turned it Don from time to time. to live like a prince. well- . a handful of which he partially sprinkled on the beef. if he only knew how he possesses a league and a half square of fertile land.
he staked and upon won nearly two hundred pounds sterling. small stirrups of our it is To give an idea of these boots. and unsuited saddles. stocked with total cattle. the skin upwards covering the leg. downwards. In shaping the hide. together : with dancing. a young colt killed. except the three visible. is contracted . from the fetlocks up to about the is middle of the thigh. the hair is is re- moved. 47 So far as happiness consists in freedom from care. obtained here a pair of the countrythose he had on being of European to the make. and while the skin it is moist and flexible. all Our horses being ready. card-playing. our host his occupations are . forms the foot of the boot. one part becomes expanded is while another part the foot toes. and a consciousness that his want can never approach possessed pastoral it : dwelling. and universally worn by the Gauchos.NATIVE RIDING BOOTS. those saddled were . which are generally is This description of boot is very light and convenient for riding. That part from the hough. so as to make it fit comfortably. and the skin of the hind legs. To is obtain the materials. taken off. fitted to the leg and foot of the wearer. Don Pepe made boots . and horse-racing the success of a late race. and in this way first entirely covered. neces- sary to describe the way of making them. merely those of a life and his pleasures consist in visiting amongst his friends on the Sabbath-day. or hamstrings.
covered little with flowers and a similar shrub emitting an odour verbanum. We did not long indulge this luxurious enjoyment of mental and bodily and it in a fitting . was well we did not we reached our tropilla just at a moment when the sumpter-horse. Our first was only a few to minutes. " I calling know a bank. exercise had been healthful more joyous and Our and invigorating we had felt allied breathed so fresh an atmosphere. following our example. and we saw large herds of deer. to examine a round stone placed estancia. home. haunt for for fairies. dismounted and lay down to rest the words of Shakspeare's beautiful song. for as yet we were strangers to them. that we scarcely to this dull earth. and we were barely in time to save ." recurring to recollections of my mind. as we galloped over the plain. we . laid himself down to enjoy a roll in the grass — unmindful of the looking-glass. spirit-like. quietly exercised for a few minutes to prove their docility . we rode through herds for of cattle. mark the boundary of an Upon to reaching a tempting spot. and other . bottles. with which he was laden them. tins. when resuming our journey. No fox-hunter ever started for the chase with feelings elastic than ours. but no ostriches.48 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. fragile articles. and up sweet rest. and been fanned by such perfumed breezes. As halt usual. and had to proceed with caution. but seemed to float through the air. .
To escape his fury. Nothing remained me . went away. horns against leather of the saddle. as accurately as possible. frightened as I was." said he. the pleasures Don Pepe narrated the following incident that occurred to himself. didn't I laugh grass I when away. I but. We remained quiet in the grass until the bull. he first ran at the horse of man who was struck with me. and saw a bull his quickly approaching us the . tired of tossing up the cow." Cows are even : more dangerous to a man on his feet than bulls a VOL 1 £ . I turned round. saw the bull tossing up the carcass of the old ? cow The man who was with me for at first it also ran and lay down. knife. when hearing a noise behind me. I intended to have cut the fastenings. " I was one day. which he gored with his to horns. 49 As we rode along conversing upon and pains of a pastoral life. horse. and saved the animal. I ran mount my horse . but he was so wild that he would not suffer I then rae to reach the saddle. Had I been able to mount. fortunately. but to run away and hide myself in the long and. that had died near a laguna. the bull then immediately attacked the carcass of the old cow. which otherwise must have been killed . when I put it my hand to lay hold of dis- covered that for was missing. which I record. as he could not take to his was secured with a rope. intending to cut his went behind the hamstrings with my it.A BULL TOSSING A COw's CARCASS. the but. " taking the hide off a cow. in his own words. bull.
and immediately sent flock and had a lamb dressed for our supper. Mr. in the discharge of his ordinary occupations. but we were most kindly out of doors welcomed by excellent wife. We crossed over the river Sanborombon. Newton. Ford. and when charging with his horns. The house looked very imposing. even at a great distance. Newton was his absent in Buenos Ayres. invited us to enter the house and refreshment. Mrs. sunk to supply the cattle with water. and remained at a respectful distance from the house until we were taken . four leagues square. and surrounded by a strong stake fence to prevent the cattle throwing down the brick wall around its mouth. and Her husband being to us. he so that. Mr. . Ford came out where we had halted with our and take rest off to the horses. by reason of the extent of This property is the surrounding plantation. : The manner of our reception was truly primitive we were travellers and strangers. while makins her attack but a bull will not search always shuts his eyes man. you may avoid him by jumping on one side. it being completely dry in consequence of the long drought. his major-domo. and well stocked. that wells have been much wanted. So little rain had fallen this summer. and keep her eyes open . if you are smart. will COW for a look for you.50 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the estancia of Mr. without any trouble. We now approached a British subject. We passed a well.
PRIMITIVE HOSPITALITY. and for the . Inns or hotels . thy want upon . 17 — 20 only substituting the plain for street. am now is going to the house and there no man that receiveth both straw and prois me also to house. notice of. cannot be maintained on trackless plains veller tality a tra- must therefore depend of those amongst solely upon the hospisojourn.ople are necessarily unchangeable. Whither goest thou? and whence comest thou ? And he said unto him. 51 to enter. We are passing from " . but I of the Lord . lie is no want of anything. and made us welcome. and to whom we had no introduction and no recommendation but our appearance and wants. vender for our asses and there bread and wine me and young man which for for is thy handmaid. and who set before us all that was at her disposal. be with thee : And the old let all man Peace howsoever. I can now thoroughly lady comprehend the recorded in domestic and nomadic usages the Old Testament. tion was a similar situa- with . The habits of a pastoral pe. Yet there . And when he had lifted up his eyes. the Levite mentioned in Judges a xix. when we were at once invited by a who had never before even heard of us. from thence am is and Bethiehem-judah. with thy servants there said. whom I he may in Considered as a traveller. he saw a wayfaring man in the street of the city and the old man said. Bethlehem -judah toward the I : side of I Mount went to Ephraim .
the most agreeable that can be well imagined. various kinds. or a sheep. and for where everything may be bought well built. N. I the first convenient house. wearing the highest which refinement can confer upon its in- habitants. money but good feeling. and der for may be said to have provenis my horses. which affords a shade from the sun. were of iron. both tropical and European though . Adjoining the portico a vine. The garden. and shutters. as in this country of little or no value. as my wants may require.62 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Mr. I remain at a little distance from the house with my is horses until the messenger returns. I Journeying onwards. sashes. me only lodge not in the street. and will let all our wants upon them." Here it I have no need of anything. well stocked with vegetables of . and imported is Birmingham. having pillars. towards sunset to draw near traveller. and that buy from them a piece of beef. and respectfully acquaint the inhabitants that I am a and have need of will gladly shelter for the night. and in — a portico front supported by wooden from Some of the window-frames. who then pretty sure to inform me that the people spoke lie kindly to him. tiful : Nothing can be niore primitive and beaua journey of this sort in the awakens more human soul than a thousand sympathy and poetry polish adventures in a civilized country. enclosed is with a strong fence of iron wire. .'s house is of brick. a lamb.
and by an iron fence. to be traced directly to the want of population drowned. Mate. quinces. which is prepared on the spot for shipment. the remaining two adjoin the is yard and out-buildings. the potatoes consist 53 rain. adjoining the garden is a large peach orchard. to me in the mornday and on rising I found the . peaches. was supplied ing while in bed . however. any means of preventing the for he has no servants or labourers to come to his aid. and a small plantation of paradisetrees. drowned. a person in the neighbourhood nearly six thousand valuable sheep. fruits of pears. strawberries.A PRODUCTIVE GARDEN. they are Sanborombon rises very suddenly. and a screw-press for baling the wool. without : the owner may and see his sheep his cattle straying. his iiorses running evil . Nearly the whole of such losses in this country are. have failed for want of The apples. which of necessity are on a small scale. Two sides of the house are sheltered by trees. or else numbers of sheep for may be lost extremely stupid animals. by the rising of this river. as usual. river During the winter the becomes a rapid stream. pluins. wild. Very recently. amongst which a steaming apparatus for melting down the flesh of fat sheep and cattle. and walnuts. apricots. figs. and on approaching ihe river Plate it is therefore necessary to be very watchful. oranges. The pleasure grounds and shrubberies. gooseberries. are defended from the inroads of cattle and sheep 'by hedges of various prickly shrubs.
" few leagues. All things being ready for our . departure. I rode a fresh horse to-day. our pack-horse fright. hard gallop of some distance. which. I While making my toilet. Ford. passing the cook-house I saw two large at ribs of the megatherium. who had impressed me with an exalted idea of her innate kindness of heart and true vicious. a right line This mode of keeping the tropilla we found to be the best. and while looking them attentively. while Don Jose brought up the rear. heard an English joiner. though not for was of too mercurial a temperament first my enjoyment of the a wild bird. leading the way. and the breeze invigorating.54 bright. which was evidently one of the vertebrae of the same animal. it saved us much labour and needless detours the horses followed. we were summoned to mount and we bade farewell to Mrs. was at some distance on the plain and and as we drew near. them into the Throughout this day's journey I kept on one flank. they took my horse snorting and neighing with ardour to join them. we got proper direction. a person invited me in to look at a large bone used as a seat. hospitality. Don Pepe rode the horse said to be only suitable for the " perch of At the time of starting. singing one of Wesley's hymns. our tropilla . not soon to be forgotten. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. from NewIn castle-on-Tyne. We . for wherever the mare went could not remain behind. and Don Pepe in on the other. after a me of his sprightliness . as . warned at last.
and therefore the horses are always first . and next the sheep. 55 alto- one of the gentler sex : movements if she went seven or eight miles an hour. this case. very large. through which a hide- passed. . bucket.— : MODE OF DRAWING WATER. the strongest bird gets to the top of the nest. and open at both . Here which rope is is I saw for the first time the is mode of draw- ing water. as in all others. A flock of parrots accompanied us for some distance on our way. and of a peculiar form it is five or six feet long. Over the well a frame-work from suspended a pulley. and therefore our rate of travelling did not gether rest with ourselves (as is . to ride We continued through this tract of coarse grass for several miles. In where many persons were watering their cattle. but tract of coarse grass. man mounts draws up the and riding a little distance. and were thankful for breathing-time when she condescended to go slowly. tacitly allowed by the other animals to drink then the oxen slake their thirst. which ascends with both ends uppermost the adjustment of the rope is so accurate that. one end being secured to the bucket to a horse. the his horse. bucket being lowered into the well. was disagreeable. we must needs do so usual) controlled our likewise. until we had reached a well. their departure was a relief. upon reaching a very extensive they dropped behind as their noise . and the other end fastened is The bucket ends the made of hide.
the horse reaches the extreme length of the when rope. long. of canvass. and empties itself into a cistern or trough for the cattle. flocks has to been Suppose a well be fifteen feet . is it must be also about sixteen feet wide full a hose then made . Another mode of watering the recently adopted. pose end a strong nailed or rivetted suit the — the pur- upper edge of a stable bucket would —and to strengthen the sides of the hose. one mouth of the bucket it leans into a cistern itself. deep. such work . into which tion is empties This operaa change so rapid and simple. as already de. it. open at and about fourteen or both ends other. two ropes are stitched along or an inch thick. fifteen feet one end is somewhat wider than is the and the canvass cut in such a the broad is way as to Around and heavy wooden hoop form a curve. There are thousands of in this country. scribed and being lowered into the well it at once sinks sufficiently deep to contain several buckets of water . dry seasons because the owners do not attend to their wells. when it is drawn up by the cattle lost in horse. or trough. the breadth doubled. three-quarters of an inch is Tlie narrow end then fastened . that a man with of horses can water two thousand head of cattle in about eight hours.56 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. to two stakes at the mouth of the well the broad end is attached by a rope to a horse. The natives are altogether useless either for sinking or cleaning a well .
I . every other source is of trade. either resigned to forei":ners or nejjlected altogether. commerce. We had not proand ceeded far when little my attention was arrested by a but on in- hillock not completely covered with grass. cart having got stuck in the yielding there being nothing like a road. To side in a town. Suddenly thirst. delighted with the novelty of the scene. their sole ambition is to be good equestrians.NOMADIC HABITS OP THE COUNTRY PEOPLE. far away from town life and habits. and industry. and thus made a heap of earth. and ten or twelve oxen are sometimes yoked drag it to a cart to out . is 57 therefore for the most part neglected. would be to them like the confinement of a cage to a wild bird . and The men who were watering we rode on their cattle pointed I feeling . but not unfrequently it is broken. I which tiiought must be a land-mark Pepe. are seldom induced to enter upon any source of employment or industry not immediately connected with cattle or horses. or the labour of agriculture. because it. that in general all the natives born and reared out in the country. out our way. and their favourite employment that of herdsmen. quiring from Don learned that a bullocksoil. or confine themselves to re- one locality. there are not enough foreigners to do I may observe in passing. I experienced an unusual feeling of in and presently we came quite unexpectedly . it had been dugout with spades. Such accidents often occur . or left in the bog until the dry season.
presenting a most pecu- appearance. with their . nor would they quit the lake until we drove them out. hence the necessity of large estancias with undulating grounds. while in summer the higher grounds are arid and dusty from the intense heat. floated on all their native grace and stateliness. and for miles along the scat- we could see the budding May-flowers tered in profusion. not fur off. during winter.58 sight of THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. they galloped on. rode my the down to moment our the brink and assuaged tropilla caught sight of water. now : would present a very different aspect in the heat of summer. After leaving this resting-place. or during the cold of winter covers nearly water one-half of the district in winter. forming a rich velvet-like carpet of green and gold the hike. This landscape. Chascamus Lake : whether the it vicinity of water had stimulated but I eagerly tliirst : my desire for I know not. day was beautifully plain fine. depends the supply of grass during the summer . : wildness the The whole scene was lovely in its sun had now reached the zenith the . at and the so extreme end of the lake. As we rested ourselves on liar the grass. a herd of white colts surrounded us. Upon the pastures being covered with water. . plumage being seen above the sedge were visible wild ducks were swimming and diving flocks of the turkey-buzzard at our feet. beautiful. swans. and refreshed themselves by plunging in . we resumed our .
black hair. and mud. and the water appeared delicious but at any time a cup of water presented by the hand of the good and the beautiful becomes a cup of nectar. examine it . and she was really handsome her long together. Thwaites. had enclosed a large tract of land adjoining the lake. was extremely . with a wall apparently built of mud. and neither wind nor weaSeveral ther proof. badly built of cane- reeds. tied hung over her I shoulders. which we declined. Near vants late the residence of these lonely women — lonely because they are unwilling to become domestic ser- — General Wishing to Prudencio Rosas. GROUP OF LONELY WOMEN. A all young the girl the house was plaiting her hair —a very favourite employment of brought us women here. Two huts. divided in two plaits. where we intended to find the estancia of Mr. its structure and thick- ness I rode towards but a wall was so great a it. and soon drew near human dwelling. stood in a spot that once appeared to have been enclosed as a garden. but . asking only some water. women made for their appearance. journey 69 to a much refreshed. brother to the Governor. rushes. her waist.. and reached to thirsty. Water was in a tin vessel by the only good-looking female of the group. and most kindly invited us on the shady side of to alight and rest . an English gentleto stop for the night . novelty to my horse that he would not approach As we neared Chascamus we were anxious man.
and I invited to rest for a day. therefore. 60 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Thwaites about an hour before where we were hospitably welcomed. were likely to excite the cupidity of men who never knew what our first care. being very good ones.: . unfortunately we did not know his Christian name. In general. the Christian name of the proprietor should be known. but entirely raiirht depended on the hospitality of those amongst whom I be thrown. we turned them out graze. and our horses. when I until I had travelled four safely might require a fresh supply of either funds or horses. We were now close to a town con- taining a garrison of soldiers. and supported by wooden pillars. had not provided myself with any letters of introduction — except I one. reached the house of sunset. We. which would not be available hundred miles. The of Mr. the Christian it name to more in use here than is in England . diffi- nor the name of his estancia. Don Pepe's colts being fettered society the others loose. it was our to be honest . however. Mr. the mare and two or three of . His estancia about five is miles from the town of Chascamus. forming an agreeable colon- . the house quite an English cottage. and had some culty in finding is it. brick-built and thatched the roof projecting over the front. and find out any residence. was for this tropilla and having satisfied to our minds on point. Thwaites and his amiable family added greatly to my enjoyment while paris taking his hospitality.
and the white-flower- ing acacia. otherwise they droop and wither. all combine awaken agreeable remembrances of other days and scenes warming the heart of the traveller with servants. paddocks. while he sighs for the land containing the dwellings of those he loves.ESTANCIA OF MR. violets were abundant. gardens. is The number of souls on the estancia fifty altogether about seventy. once at- tract attention by their delicious fragrance is the sun : too powerful for them to thrive on the open plain like many a gentle spirit they require some friendly and protecting shade. so thickly that they overshadow the dwelling the paradise-tree is very like the mountain-ash. and an English cook. THWAITES. . to be killed every week . — the glow of patriotism and home affections. denoting an approaching autumn . are enclosed by a deep ditch and hedge . 61 Paradise-trees. orchards. farmstead. the whole cover- ing an area of about half a mile square. and corral. and at . and afterwards clusters of yellow berries. cheerful fire. nade. a London-made piano. The house. requiring sheep for and two or three oxen their sustenance. and pro- duces a small blossom of the sweetest fragrance. with its out-offices. poplars. The mode accor : of living in this happy retreat is in perfect dance with the dearest recollections of home a good Irish to library. are planted close to the house. The grassy sward under the trees before the house was covered with sere and yellow leaves.
although the land all around very and ready for the plough is . he had been on board Ayrean when was seizedj by the British and French squadrons. North American is consumed fertile. which is to undergo repairs when sub- scriptions can be raised. the labour . It has a large church a ruinous state. Chascamus is a small town thirty leagues distant It from Buenos Ayres. but where the population cattle. not suflficient to take care of to they cannot of agricul- be expected to attend ture. the Buenos told us fleet. . in a very ruin- having been in 1839 the scene of revolt Since against the government of General Rosas. ous once contained four thouit is sand inhabitants. doing very well. pay being twenty . A few stores and shops are to be met with and several English and other European mechanics are settled here. besides rations of beef and dollar at present is mate . all who were imtheir proin plicated being compelled to and leave perty to confiscation. Upon who entering the shop of a French- man. we were it accosted by an Englishman. artillery.eight dollars per month. Privates receive twenty dollars per month. but at present state. to buy a few articles. who are all . that period it has suffered much fly. and received a wound fifty in his dollars his arm for which he had a pension of monthly he was now a sergeant of .62 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. here. but a paper not worth more than two-pence flour is halfpenny.
on their return they went look after the . all who were badly mounted. or a part of our tropilla to finish their as As soon Don Pepe had solicited aid refreshment. from which a . any information they returned about noon from diffe- rent directions without any tidings. buy some dried and other to necessaries. Next morning. they might ride a long distance before they obtained . but as the estancia includes an area of several miles. that a One young girl taking care of sheep told him that as she was guiding her flock towards home . he returned at supper-time with only the assurance . Don to Jose and Don Pepe had gone fruit to Chascamus and tropilla. but our horses were not to be found several of the household all set off in pursuit in different directions. Shortly after we were informed that two strange horses were on the grounds. chain of smaller lakes extends to the river Salado they are not navigable. before day-break. she said she took care of sheep and not of horses.THE TROPILLA MISSING. gan to fear that the soldiers. taken some had taken journey. however. reported. he went to Chascamus to an officer of his acquaintance and and advice . 63 A very large lake adjoins this town. but returned after dark without having seen them. very tired and shod and we therefore be. Don Jose and Don Pepe went in search of the horses. she saw two soldiers driving a tropilla of horses and when asked why she did not report the circumstance. and are nearly all brackish.
and when ." use an elliptical assert is The natives. when without a horse. whom he left the marks on the would make every inquiry. his horses were perfectly docile they were stolen a third. he tied him to a long rope. but no news of the tropilla and now 1 began to reflect seriously I upon my situa- tion and prospects. one man had six having never been saddled. One who cause that may is be assigned for the prevalence of the practice of hiring labourers . if all intended for a journey his leisure to another had devoted the training of a pet tropilla for himself. costs him nothing. I heard : accounts of horses being stolen fine cart . who was on a journey little put out a valuable horse to eat a grass. however. must be done on horseback. had set out resolved to explore . as a precaution. if you put him there.. and simply "without feet": whatever work are that they to be done. I Wherever went. could be of little . use to the thieves. horse-stealing find their own horses the wages of a man with five or six horses not being lings a day : more than six or seven shil- their food. which. and whomsoever I met. in a few minutes the animal disappeared .horses taken. that his friend. they would scoop a horse out of your eye. driving. " Sir. marking. with horses. mode of expression. or taming cattle. 64 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. either in collecting. and a though. fourth (an Irishman) forcibly illustrated the adroitness of horse-stealers by exclaiming. Nio-ht approached.
I carefully avoided extremes. would not return travel post. . much-prized and unable proceed further. negotiate the Don : Jose was despatched purchase upon examination he found tliem small. but bargain. my own tropilla ever that our comforts are prized highly as they take their flight. in case the post-houses should disappoint me. I My heart and hopes being set on the journey. full 65 a circle of eight hundred miles novelty. . I. and thin. Political matters were then approaching to a crisis in Buenos Ayres. What dis- tressed me most was the loss of time for having allowed every myself but a limited period my journey.LOSS OP MY TROPILLA. when he entered upon a parley for the the good woman. horses. and day being of great value. I now . hearing hun- of a tropilla about a league distant. Rashness and despondency are both and nil be a-voided . learned to value so true is it. and to I had determined to return to that city within a month. as a forlorn hope. and chose happy medium. which the owner had to for some time been offering to sell at a dred dollars each horse. I found myself deprived of to my . and inter- rupted the negotiation. but somewhat docile. more than more However. she infused a portion of her VOL. and of interest and when just fairly entering upon the ground. young. or I therefore resolved either to buy two or three horses. very unlike her sex in Beckoning to her general. husband p to follow her outside. desperandum being my this motto. threw impediments in the way.
there to make some inquiries. T. VV^e however. posting. first. kindly proposed to accompany me Chascamus. to Under these circum- Mr. and both re- turned resolved to exact a large sum from the impatient traveller . to be used only disappointed at the post-bouses ." an Irishman. the gover- His parting advice was to proceed with three or four horses.66 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. After leaving " his worship. and I the merce- nary couple to regret the I loss of a purchaser. who solicited the influence we were met by of Mr. was now obliged . who but said my loss was one to which all were liable. craft own and greediness into his spirit. such as bad or wild horses. when where he thinks we are sure to get relays of horses and every other at . and sometimes a long delay in waiting for them. called on the justice of the peace. . very courteously offered his sympathy and aid. moreover. there are many inconveniences. to turn my thoughts it is to posting as the last resource although a mode of travelIn ling that did not suit my purpose.\ accommodation. advanced at once to two hundred and to the left But as I would not give way imposition. the negotiation ended here. or three dollars an expense of not more than two league. the price of the horses was therefore fifty dollars. stances. lately stolen from General Prudencio Rosas. as I wished to be able to deviate from the direct road at pleasure. and related how some valuable horses were nor's brother.
taking that city as a centre. and I could now resume my journey : satisfactorily. his ancestors and posterity. and when near the lake perceived a man coming towards us. to to for which offence he was be sent a state-prisoner to Buenos Ayres. and the prisoner was never to repeat the offence. Thwaites to obtain the pardon of his brother. Mr. were at once Thus all my difficulties removed. is one vast . used like high treason all language amounting to : he had consigned the governor. in company with some natives. T. my way has been through sheep-farms indeed the whole country. kindly promising population and successfully pleaded rities. FOUND. We at once galloped forward. As evening approached we returned homeward. and describing a semicircle with a radius of thirty leagues. he found a tropilla which he was informed by some herdsmen probably belonged to us. is The Irish very dense in this neighbourhood. with the joyful tidings that our much-valued troop had been found. in a pulperia. with perdition . returned about an hour after dark. and sent Don they Jose and Don Pepe along with our informant . Since leaving Buenos Ayres. his cause with the authoset at liberty. 67 who was imprisoned something for having. and they ^eatly stand in need of the pastoral care of an intelligent and affectionate resident clergyman. who said that the day before. while looking for some horses of his own that had been stolen or had strayed.THE TROPILLA.
which fifty. applied the Mr. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the wealth it Harratt. effect upon Mr. . His flock. Harratt. John Peter Sheridan. in 1841 numbered only one hundred and thousand : increased within six years to a chiefly in consequence of the extraor- dinary care with which the ewes are housed for two or three days when lambing. which he favoured me with. Thwaites pays great attention to purity of breed. will be found at the end of the volume. Experience has proved that sheep. as well as to the late this Mr.68 sheep-walk. derives from the wool trade to and as was anxious to obtain the best information reI specting this important branch of industry. I country is mainly indebted for . in his flocks. and has shown me Saxony several producing the finest wool. To Mr. the quantity of wool that will be shipped from the river Plate must produce a very sensible in the prices Europe. who is acknowledged : to be highest authority upon such matters cation. the result of his a communi- own individual experience. farming is an extremely profitable occupation is and as soon as the population sufficiently increased.
and profits of sheep-breeding — An Irish settler —The river Salado — Trade in nutriaskins — The Cameron estancia — Hospitality of Don Martinez —Village of Dolores— Primitive fire-place and bedstead Traffic of Indians for mares'as food — Rustic supperparty. —Different species of armadilloes— Fabulous — Rosas' plan for increasing popuand sheep — Remarkable rockstory of an extinct volcano— Fete in commemoration of the in- dependence of the Argentine Confederation courtesy of the guests.— THE JOURNEY RESUMED. and had been treated as a son or a brother. paring to renew our journey table entertainers with : and we left our hospiof their a grateful sense I arrived a stranger. 69 CHAPTER III. — Gaiety and We were all on kindness the alert early in the morning. Prosperity of Irish immigrants. and airy dormitory — Dogs reared with sheep — Mrs. we stopped to purchase bread for our luncheon at a pulperia kept by a family of Basques. After travelling for several miles through coarse grass. pre. Methvin and her tropilla— Sleeping upon an ant's nest flesh Arrival at Tandil — A deserted Ventana cattle. village and ruined church The Sierra de la lation ing stone —Value of land. where we met a butcher from Buenos .
being ignorant of the language. deductions for contingencies.70 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. he seeks be employed by his own countrymen . residing on the banks of the river Salado. and instead of remaining a shepherd he buys sheep for himself. Murray. in a year and a quarter ever. or joins some of of. habits and mode to of industry peculiar to the country. in the purchase of a flock. if he be sober and industrious he soon saves money. of the river in the neighbourhood of are very densely Irish. he one shilling and ninepence per head. how- only produced by extreme care and attention. the Irish are from the county When a poor man arrives here. The banks Chascamus subjects. but they were not to be sold shillings each. is : this extraordinary increase. under two A little before sunset we arrived at the house of Mr. to Ayres endeavouring wanted them for buy some fat sheep . an Irishman. will his in countrymen small flocks. A poor man. their increase will be on an average one hundred and forty-five per cent. all peopled by British chiefly employed on sheepthe sole or sin- farms. where we put up for the night. Sheep when properly taken care some years double their usual calculation is that the ewe brings the number: but making forth two lambs every fifteen months . accustomed from his youth to attach . and for the most part either joint owners of the all flocks : it is somewhat first gular that nearly of Westmeath.
and the increase therefore al- ways much greater with him^than with the wealthy owners of immense for experienced flocks. his favourite is days. had not been he had a .sons and daughters. if well conducted. very prosperous and although its tlie house was not as yet provided with comforts. we As soon as we arrived a sheep was killed and a messenger despatched for wine . employed ditching earn seven shillings a day. and were entertained in the true spirit of hospitality. with plenty of beef and mutton and the most helpless of new if comers may. Mr. save twenty shillings monthly. only diligent. who. at any work. for he entertained us until nearly midnight with reminiscences of other sportsman. which . Murray. from five to Men . as who are sober and steady soon become masters. family of . Our iiost. who employ shepherds all . might lay a foundation of comparative wealth. value to lambs as well as sheep. he made us heartily welcome. a large portion of those who remain servants being the idle in and worthless. we feasted upon roast and tea. Being a at present amuse- ment shooting swans and geese. punijikins. boiled meat. and fire Our arrival in seemed to have revived the of youth the spirit of the good old man .INCREASE OF SHEEP. Idleness and drunkenness are the bane of too many. and careful shepherds cannot be ob- tained in the country for any wages. bread. will 71 take good is care of his flock. although seventy years of long in the country all : age.
would soon become a deep and rapid current. furnish serviceable contributions both to bed and board. which must swim along over. but at that time they were : not allowed to be killed. the wing. especially when on fish. but as will soon as the soldiers are disbanded. It contains twenty leagues . with a tropilla of twenty horses — a gallant cavalcade. however. is This river abounds with good and so full of nutrias that they allowed us to approach nutria is them very closely. cattle The then easily crossed. there are ferry-boats for passengers. and the skins were shipped in quantities for Europe . the profit of killing nutrias for their skins was falling into the hands of foreigners until the trade was prohibited . flamingoes —a bird of singular beauty. the trade opened. we saddled our horses and Crossing the river Salado. its We continued some time enjoying the sight of numbers of swans and geese. be Crossing a estancia little stream. we met a company of river. after a breakfast of roast mutton and tea. at a few well-known places. we passed close to the to Cameron.72 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. ducks and widgeon also banks for . belonging the well-known family of Anchorena. The skin of the used by hatters. under a severe penally the natives having been compelled to join the militia and carried off to the wars. Next morning departed. at the Paso five travellers Venado. del at an early hour.
we announced for the ourselves to be travellers. stood gazing at for a moment. reflecting the rays of a strong sun. Soon afterwards we passed another lake.BLACK SWANS AND FLAMINGOES. square. politely Don M. yet. dotted with wild fowl the their : surface the graceful movements of the beautiful black swans riveted our attention. its Presently we came to a large lake. and asked customary accomgranted modation. but the population on this immense being not sufficient to keep the cattle on the rodeos. and seeing a house at some distance having a small plantation near it. the beasts have become quite wild. which was cheerfully by the owner. who came out himself The house which was situated beside a lake. contrasting with dark plumage golden red wings of the flamingo. and has at least forty thousand 73 head of estate cattle. embraces an area of forty miles. could reach before sunset. to invite us in. It though they did not deserve to be called was then time for us to look out for our nijiht's abode. which we we turned calculated we in that direc- On our arrival. looked like a sheet of flame. when several were sitting abreast. the lands around which were the highest I had seen as hills. and ran from us as timidly and quickly as the deer : only a few us calves. which latter. a native gentleman. as usual. Martinez. unconscious of danger. and the estancia. tion. includes several .
some of salt. is The church a small mud-built erection. we saw carhost .74 lakes. and as free from vice as any Arabian. as the ruins of gar- dens and houses are very considerable. on a Before we set out host showed us a tropilla of cream-coloured horses. followed by good tea. Don Martinez insisted on next morning our my occupying his own bed. at the We were : most agreeably surprised which accompanied our sat English comforts host's hearty welcome we down to a supper of roast beef. with a refreshing breeze. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. The morning was fine. not large enough for one-tenth of the population. About noon we approached the village of Dolores. he himself sleeping table. preserves. which contains about two thousand inhabitants. and brandy punch. but enjoyed the morning meal on horse- back. eating biscuits and dried fruits as we rode along. the most docile and beautiful animals I had seen . with the acces- sories of bread. birds. They prove treatin what may be done here with horses by gentle ment : generally cattle are cruelly used these plains. and taking a drink of water. casses of beef in abundance laying about. and was once in a prosperous state. Having a long day's we would not wait for a meat breakfast. others of fresh water. salt. to be devoured by dogs and journey before us. A division of the army . when we parted from our hospitable and intelligent and as we passed the house.
in the distance the plains looked covered with stunted heath. three Irish . and his sister. their huts. we resolved to rest The occupants were a bachelor they had our own. Several British subjects reside here last four years. We altered our course and steered by compass until a rancho. which was a league and a-half square.VILLAGE OF DOLORES. about three hundred and number. surgeons have settled in the surrounding country. and for several miles after leaving we continued making a gradual but perceptible ascent. is 75 quartered near the place fifty in . invited us to enter. and all desired us to make Our host and hostess were the owners of the estancia. espying a good-looking residence on a rising ground. who. and yielding a very agreeable odour as if . as usual. there for the night. situated on very it low ground. instead of south-south-west. The entire country was covered with a small plant like southernwood. car-track indistinct which we were to follow but it it. where we passed near as to the cor- we were confirmed Dolores is rectness of our route. We were now so far from . are built of cane reeds. Upon that asking our way we were shown a . in Early the afternoon. and within the both the sides and roof covered with bulrushes. was so we insensibly lost sight of : and travelled at last for some time out of our course sulted our when we con- compass we found ourselves going due west. and well stocked with cattle and sheep.
on which sticks were lashed with raw hide . Horse-flesh their favourite meat. to be killed unless by special The Indians bring . and upon these were placed an ox hide. necessary to keep one of them near the house. which they gather along the saline lakes also ponchos. about two slips of feet high. if and mares they nor get very cheap. but was. allowing or four inches . which served as our bed. government allow mares license. and great surprise to my round counted twelve large dogs belonging to the house. &c. As soon as our baggage was stowed away. in I walked out before sunset. particularly natives would not be seen will the they be old. to whom found the be one of a company of Tapalqueen is who had come from buy mares for direction food.76 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. but the ends were open. the fire them to project about three was fed with sticks. mounted upon them salt. house sunk in the ground. for the . bones. dried Along one side of the weeds. the place where we had bought our to horses that we it thought there was no danger of their returning home. if we allowed them go unfettered . tied by one leg to a long rope. into the cook- house. Our host desired us to bring our saddles. In the centre of the floor a space about four feet square was enclosed with sheeps' trotters sunk in the ground. I To my I met with an Indian. leaving the winds a free passage. and posts were fat. the sides of which were plastered. . however.
the ground obliquely over the each bearing the side of a sheep. homewards fifty with about two hundred and old. mares young and by walking after Having some ride. where I found the mistress preparing our supper. and the halves placed on edge in the ashes afterwards they were nicely baked . so that four of us could easily reach spit salt. When all was ready. These men had finished their traffic and were returning. we drew out our knives. A pumpkin was with cut in . one a little water was put into a cow's horn with sprinkled over the meat . who . own manuFor a bag of salt weighing from twenty-five to thirty pounds. One person after another a dropped in. 77 and other of their facture. they obtain one mare. ing supper. and stuck out of the pumpkin with an ground each spit in the at opposite corners of the fire-place. filled hot cinders and the mistress then cleaned the ashes iron spoon. two. I stretched is my limbs for time. which was in and a candle placed a bottle lighted the entertainment. — RUSTIC articles SUPPER. but for a poncho they will per- haps get fifteen or twenty mares. which they barter. . with the servants made round the fire company of eight we sat on low blocks of wood about five or and watched the progress of cookvery large six inches high. and .mares' flesh bridle-reins. which most refreshing a long returned to the cook-house. There were leaning two spits stuck in fire.
" Oft in the stilly night. for cats. and squealing of the my waking meditations were agreeably soothed by Moore's plaintive song. and we. . Jose and I took possession of the hide bed- stead. posses- sion of our dormitory most fortunately the cold of fleas. When passing a flock of sheep in a solitary place. while Don Pepe selected a spot upon the with his feet towards the fire. Dogs. approaching winter saved us from the animals disturbed our sleep. politely wishing us a good night's rest. who were we close to us in a tent. or cook-house. We then partook of mate. were battling the whole night . the labourers went to sleep in a shed at the end of the house. consisting of two rooms with one window. retired for the night to another house.78 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. we found . But though the barking. and rats. Our host and hostess. . No doubt the Indians. we were attacked by two huge dogs round expecting one within some miles of us : I looked to see a house. despatched one of their horses just as speedily. banquet-hall." which kept haunting me. finding ourselves the tenants of the refectory. yelping. Don floor. but there was not on inquiry. which is as necessary to these people as tea to the English. attacked the sheep vigorously the pumpkin also soon disappeared. and with as much gusto as disposed of the sheep. the reader may choose to call also sought repose . whichever it.
a distance of about seventy leagues. store well supplied and also keeps a with goods. and was accompanied by a tropilla of twenty-six horses. named Methvin. and had a look of cleanliness and comfort. the cattle were very tame. in spent two days very agreeably with a Scotch family. so efficacious. where everything was The sheep had good working order. which he sends to town for sale. until they beef. Methvin buys the producof the country. for the most part . Methvin rode in a carriage drawn by four horses. the re- mainder of the tropilla were driven along by the men. pastoral occupations. tions In addition to his Mr. We for five or now experienced the discomfort of rain and six hours we rode through a country . Mrs. and five men. : This journey was accomplished in six days Mrs. fine wool. Methvin had just arrived from Buenos Ayres.DOGS REARED WITH SHEEP. would I become more general. and most of the work-people and servants were British subjects. enough to on The good was told of these canine shepherds are did not believe if all highly lauded . Four horses being always in harness. covered with water — our horses. who become them so attached to in their protectors as to live with will the amity : nor dogs ever leave the flock. is The mode of pups suck the are strong qualities : rearing dogs with sheep teats of the to let the ewes feed in milk. that in 79 dogs some places it was the custora to rear along with the sheep. but I that I as the plan.
roasting beef. our rugs were dry. exclaiming. we halted at some huts called the Bizcachera. were of the shown into a cook-house. particularly regarding the division of time into days. and very desirous to get information.80 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the wind was on the end of the house. being up to their fetlocks in water. and had no door but. empty. enlivening our spirits. hours. dawn we found it black with ants. The sun shone out brightly. With our saddles for a bed. We then aroused Don Pepe. . daybreak. Don Jose appeared very restless ! and soon after he got up. we lay down to pillows. and minutes. A little before . . were as wet as a long day's rain could make them. on asking entertainment. of our companions appeared to be of a better having clean cotton . at which some herds- men were shirts. " I have been sleeping upon an ant's nest " When the afforded light enough to examine his coverlet. where was a fire bones and skull of an ox. In of the way. luckily. but our ponchos. Two class. We speedily retired to a little hut close by. and expressing themselves correctly they seemed about seventeen years of age. saddled our horses. and. and some sticks for sleep . which form the most important part of the covering by night. which was : appropriated large for for our sleeping-room it was not was quite enough a one-horse stable. the evening. and departed.
fatigued. 81 and drying our ponchos inconvenience. we knocked them down with our whips o . During the day we continued grounds towards Tandil. TANDIL. and re- we amused ourselves occasionally in chasing and killing armadilloes. I lay Being After a down on the grass. and forgetting the night's hills we merrily rode along. I toil : felt it as if this was to be the last day of my felt was the only day on which we had . where we changed horses and divided some bread the water we got from a little pool was full of large insects. to ascend the At noon we halted on the side of a hill. Our way through an immense extent of long grass. finding the sight of lofty hills exceedingly grateful. . and inquire our high way.. compelled to reach a pulperia. that VOL. the of lay Tandil appearing in the distance. but we had . Tandil being the most distant point of this journey. and thought that we had found the right course. rest we continued our journey. and the partridges were so tame and abundant. and the hot rays of the sun soon dissolved little me in sleep. Twice we turned back. and we soon lost sight of the car-track that was our only guide. previously discovered that brandy kills them. after riding three hundred miles over monotonous plains. I. These make a very good past. the pangs of hunger but the weather was fine. but our compass showed us we were wrong and finally we were .
resque.: 82 SO THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Before fourteen we were able to make a delicious meal. a gentleman well : known with and highly esteemed he kindly favoured me a paper upon the subject. The village of Tandil . several were empty. Having been for some time passing through a had made and managefulness of the variety of estancias of great magnitude. being at the base of a range of rocky which run from near Cape Corrientis. About twelve or fourteen houses by persons engaged in trade in adoccupied are dition to their land occupation . for about two hundred miles to the north-west. where they are lost in the plains. There is not a mechanic of any craft in the place . we arrived in Tandil. a North American gentleman. I many inquiries as to their formation ment. is about seventy leagues is from Buenos Ayres its situation rather pictuhills. Swasey. to become an inmate of lage. sunset. and gratefully accepted his hospitality there being no public accommodation of any description for travellers. had received a kind invitation from Mr. his house during my stay in this vil. the results of which are given at the end of the volume. after a ride of leagues. For the accuracy and information I am indebted to the valuable assistance of Don Patricio Lynch. which forms the ground- work of the I details respecting the establishment and regulation of estancias.
or any other mural memento. only one to to 83 skill man can be found who clothes. The graveyard where the at the foot of an adjoining absence of a fence. it was total alleged. should is keep it in repair. this has enough cut out and he does not know how . and another painting. and Captain Fitzroy its height to be 3. and the dead are buried without any religious ceremony in : only once or twice the year a priest visits the place to celebrate offices is mass. who visited it in 1832 is : —" This mounvisible tain" (the Sierra de la Yentana) " from the anchorage calculates at Bahia Blanca. since. but it is now without old a roof. distant. and administer marriage. thus described by Mr. but this was refused on the : grounds of the quoad sacra character of the building those who erected and owned the church. No clergyman resides here. and utterly ruined by mildew from the dampness of the place. a done by the women. the naturalist. the altar-piece. a hilly range to the is southward. indicates the primitive habits of the population. Application was recently for made to the government some aid towards re- pairing the church. Nearly ten years church was built by voluntary contributions.500 feet — an altitude very . being stowed away in a guard-house.A DESERTED VILLAGE. Charles Darwin. sew them together part of the work is. the of baptism and The nearest church twenty leagues The Sierra de la Ventana. therefore. hill.
this continent. very few of the goldiers at Bahia Blanca it : knew anything about coal. its is rock — : it well deserves name of Hurtado. and of forests. extremely of rugged and broken. that we actually could not find a to stretch out skewer our meat over the fire of thistle-stalks. indeed. plain. supposed we were already at a considerable elevation. desolate. was in the morning frozen. which the early part of the night wet the saddle-cloths under which we slept. I from the sharpness of the cold. but likewise separates the colour. The uniformity of ing gives also an extreme quietness to the view the whitish gray of the quartz rock. being unin The dew. tain is The its strange aspect of this made moun- contrasted by the sea-like plain which not steep. only abuts against the parallel ranges. although to the eye the plain appeared horizontal. think nature ever made a more solitary. remarkable on the eastern side of I am not aware that any had ascended this foreigner. When we much do not discovered I reached the foot of the main ridge. of which inflamed my curiosity. previous to . only to be disappointed. my visit. all gold and silver. and so trees entirely destitute and bushes. and the light brown of the withered grass of the relieved by any brighter tint. of hence we heard of beds of of caves. mountain and.84 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. we had difficulty in finding any water : at last we some by looking pile of close to the mountain. or separated the mountain steep. In the morn- .
I was." Tandil having been originally intended for a frontier post. when plain. . . but flat-bottomed. and place of defence against the Indians. I got there with extreme was therefore obliged. but peak by two difficulty. and near the mountain a guanaco. The danger. gullies. plain that abuts against the Sierra is traversed by some curious feet wide. as deep as the in two. that what was gained five in first minutes was often I lost within the next at last. On our way we saw great numbers of deer. which he thought would lead to the four me peaks crowning the summit. to the top of the second Having ascended o'clock. was novel makes it the more relished. disappointed with this ascent even the view was insignificant but without its a plain like the sea. from excessive fatigue. 85 ing (9th September). This valley very narrow. which cut the chain transversely and is separated me from the four points. has a fort mounting four small guns the frontier. to give up the two higher peaks. The scene. reached the ridge. . my disappointment was extreme in finding a precipitous valley. of which one was about twenty deep .. however. the guide told rae to ascend the nearest ridge. Climbing the sides the : up such rough rocks was very fatiguing were so indented. . like salt with meat. and at least thirty we were there- fore obliged to make a considerable circuit before we could find a pass. : SIERRA DE LA VENTANA. on the whole. beautiful colour and defined a little outline.
at the present rate of exchange. both to the south and west. a Mr. These sheep are of the commonest description. being no more than eightecnpence fertile per English acre. valuable neighbourhood. and has subsided into a place of trade for the surrounding population. Horned cattle. is . at their wool. with strict orders for their detention . thousand dollars exciiange for a league square which. at the of threepence each dollar. but as to maybe so improved by attention for become. A very industrious Irishman. at sell at fifteen dollars each. in this Hanley. very thin. gives 450/. as far as Bahia Blanca population. grass lands. as they run. sterling. Land high in this about eighteen . however. and sheep from one shilling and sixpence to three shillings per dozen. hoping to augment the population by neighbourhood sells at that means. however. hunting- grounds. for the most ready for the plough. and sent them towards this frontier. that Tandil has ceased to have any value as a military outpost. for forty leagues westward and similar the Christian establishments will soon reach along the shores of the Atlantic. four copper rials is — which. was lately who six- bought eight thousand sheep pence per dozen one shilling and — that is. in two or three years. has been so rapidly extended. all A few years ago in General Rosas seized the women Buenos Ayres of a doubtful character. no more than . tancias Es- already encroach on the Indian .86 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. good and bad.
producing sensations more I allied to that of sublimity than that of beauty. but the absence of human tations gave the scene a character of desolation and solitude. rocks. and were covered with countless herds of cattle. tliree-halfpence each : 87 this is somewhat cheaper than less eggs. they are therefore considered of value . The view from plains the summit was impressive : grassy and fertile valleys extended on every side to the horizon. is and the circumference of the thickest part one hundred feet. with a spoon and salt beside them it We set out one morning. on the highest peak of a . it slanting position. to visit a celebrated this rocking stone in neighbourhood : occupies a lofty hill. amused myself in .A liOCKING STONK. while eagles were startled from their habi- eyries at our feet. The entire hill is formed of granite . twenty-four feet high. for just now than threepence. little while domestic fowl require more care and attention than their owners are willing to bestow upon them until : indeed. lest the slightest breeze should canse It is their death by its fall. either in winter or summer. I cannot ohtain an egg for Sheep increase and multiply with- out giving their owners any trouble. eggs are likely to remain scarce deposit the hens are taught to them ready ! boiled. tossed into a thousand shapes at its base are some of the largest detached rocks I ever saw. seeming to overhang the precipice and is so delicately poised that the timid its would shrink from shadow.
larvae. . about the Mulita found only as far south as the Sierra Tapalqueen. the rest of nearly inflexible itself into . is The Apar. roots. used They also killed an armadillo. alone. namely the Pichi/. and the Mulita.88 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. while the others wander by day over the open plains. it has also the power of rolling is a perfect sphere. and even small snakes. the naturalist. the Peludo. Don hill Jose and Don Pepe made abundant descended to the base of the and preparations for our supper: in a very short time they snared a score of partridges. with no other implement than a long cane-reed is having a noose of horse-hair at the end. the Apar. and in this state perfectly safe from the attack of dogs and other . four species have nearly similar habits. Whilst I was occupied in this way. Mr. which ten degrees further than any other kind is . requiring only a fragment of rock or a tree to from which suspend their delicate tendrils and aerial flowers. which for this purpose. commonly its called remarkable for having only three movetesselated covering being able bands. feeding on beetles. examining the endless variety of rock plants and my attention was particularly attracted by one of and derive no nutriment from the those fairy-like air-plants which live upon the at- mosphere earth . but the is The Peludo nocturnal. Darwin. informs us that there are four species of armadillo. Mataco. The first is being found as far south as latitude 50°.
: they are most delicious food. I think. was a hundred yards. that I fell might join the exploring party. Arana. sceptical its yet as it. and natives joining in the sport skilful. and though existence. and suggested we should form a party to go to see it on the following morning. we amused ourselves in rifle shoot- ing. I was it. glad of an opportunity of viewing resolved to defer I and therefore in my journey for another day. and the distance. and could describe I could not longer withhold credence. Americans. we were all . perceiving that I was interested in exploring the country. at first its a long account of the crater of position as to and extent the fact of . British subjects. As I had never heard of this geological feature of the Pampas. Swasey Mr. but more de- After supper. Next morning. this gentleman.ARMADILLOES. told me that there was an that extinct volcano not far off. animals : 89 itself to indeed I think it would allow be kicked about as a football without unrolling. : the Americans proving to be the most The mark was a silver dollar. son to the Minister for Foreign Affairs at Buenos Ayres. with a man who gave me the volcano. to Being introduced by Mr. The in mode their of cooking armadilloes is to roast them own armour and tender. somewhat similar licate to the sucking-pig. many persons had seen. at the time appointed. although familiar with most published works on the country.
and when collecting sticks for fire. although he tied four The woman who had herself seen . informed us that a man had so. This strengthened to turn my . the but here again the man : of the house. also. but could not do lazoes together. and well supplied with lines to fathom the depth of the crater : we waited for some time expecting our guide. Another woman. her husband had shown her the gloomy mouth of the cavern. but she was afraid to go near the edge. unfortunately. incredulity. was from wife. home his however. who was considered second hut with the object of our search. but in his stead we received a message. saying he was busy for the political festival making pastry of the 25th of May. who repeated the popular existence of this crater . told us she knew a man who went down with a lighted candle and some one else . then proceeded to the foot of the lived where a herdsman was at but on entering who was familiar with the his hut we learned that he to a troop of horses : some distance attending to his family.90 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. tried to reach the bottom. to com- memorate the independence of the Argentine Provinces. and I felt more disposed my face towards Buenos Ayres than towards the mountain but politeness forbade. ready mounted. directed us to another herdsbe equally familiar man. however. We spot . assured us he knew the place well. On reaching this four or five belief in we were encouraged by women. hill.
was the cavern but she had forgotten Strong in our belief of the woman's credi- we set out. me to the crater of this extinct volcano in the village its and as every one had heard of its existence. sift I sought out the herdsman whom 1 had seen before but his he knew that the fearful cavern was there. Meantime fell I sent for the man whom if I had first in with. as if when I he could find the exact at a distance. examined without ration and then the more distant one . without having to ascertain seen anything like a volcano. saw a boy who knew a man who knew the place and could not come. I then offered a reward of thirty dollars to any one who would conduct . the place promised that 91 went by her directions. and he promised that she should accom- .: AN IMAGINARY CRATER. : asserting that in one of them which. then pointed out two hills. if we proceeded alone. he had only seen it then . and knew whereabouts. it. he doubted spot. pressed him. Resolved to the matter. though he never had the curiosity to go and see it . wife did. Anxious the facts of the case. bility. and on reaching the nearest : hill. but success and after a few hours' explo- we returned to the village. but on inquiry I found that he was thatching a house. : and offered payment he would be my I guide yet although he had described the place with graphic minuteness the night before. I made sure of soon having a host of applicants. and we should be successful she .
we went to the house of the commandant. to the sundry other refreshments were served. and more resembling the genial cheerfulness and freedom of a family party. and influential all the and respectable people in the neigh- bourhood being present. at supper. Arana. he excused himself by saying he should be on guard next day. and kept up until towards morning. Mate. although in one of the most secluded villages in the province. were etiquette of air marked by the courteous grace and Almack's. passed the night most cheerfully and agreeably one or two magistrates. a soldier of the militia While we were came in and was . were danced to the music of violins and guitars. sweetmeats. when we had tea and separated. waltzes. combined with a universal gaiety and of enjoyment rarely seen in the select assemblies of European capitals. and some dances peculiar country. eloquent in his description of the place offering but on my him a reward It if he would be our guide. to the spot next pany us morning. Mr. The manners and bearing of the guests at this little festivity. . and Minuets. Having been invited to partake of the festivities commemorative of the independence of the country.92 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. was evident that the extinct volcano : existed only in idea yet with what minute details of seeming facts had this fabulous crater been described. and . polkas.
—A happy old woman —The com- mandant of the Indian Having now reached of the extreme southerly point my . their rest. and his treaty with them — Burning grass on the Pampas — Cheerfulness a Christian virtue— Indian huts frontier. I turned ray face towards Buenos Ayres but in doing so I proposed to keep along the Indian frontier. comfort— Residence and family of of want of labourers Influence of pastoral life on the mind Effects of night dews on horses Earnings of Irish labourers. 93 CHAPTER A chimney the indication of Don Ramon Gomez — Disadvantages IV. The day was fine and our horses. fresh from moved under us with spirit and speed. which rendered it . journey. at times quite impossible to perceive the car-track but with the aid of our compass. with the intention of acquiring information regarding the aborigines of the country. and making good . Our way lay through deep grass. and market for labour Supper-party in a cook-house Standard of good — — — — housewifery — The reality of civilization — Asul. .— INDIAN FRONTIER. of Arcadian life —The fork a test the boundary of Indian territory Expedition of Rosas against the Indians.
invariably build this quiet fire-places in their Around dwelling was a small plantation. cattle Herds of very wild. Having waited Don Pepe for a very long time. while I went a short distance to the south. Don Pepe along the bank northward. I soon gave up the search. in at- tempting to ford the stream. pleasantly. and I resolved to stop there for the night. in their houses but the rising generation. observations. we journeyed onwards very although we knew nothing of the road. and proposed to go in search of him. and those desirous of cultivating European habits of in-door houses. his horse might have . We feared that. Don Jose exfelt. to find a fording-place. which I had also that some accident might have happened. no population. observing the movements the return of a fox near his hole. — and numbers of deer. pressed the apprehension. and wild fowl but there were no sheep. if we could but started manage to cross the river. Early in the afternoon we reached a small river. tame .94 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and. one or two ranches excepted. and lay down on a grassy bank by of the river's side. were everywhere seen — some others comparatively ostriches. trees : where some of the family were pruning the whole aspect of the place was most in- viting. which latter is a never-failing evidence of internal fires all comfort. the Chapaleofu. Natives of the old class never have . life. on the opposite side of which stood a very nice-looking brick house with a chimney .
RESIDENCE OF DON RAMON GOMEZ. in the porch of the cottage . wore a cap the first I had seen during my visit to the country. a native gentleman of great intelli- His lady. then proposed to drive over the tropilla. believing that. which. when I learned from Don Pepe I that the late rains had so swollen the stream that he could not find a safe spot to cross. house. and neatness. The sun was I rapidly sinking favourite horse. in we saw a house snugly nestled where we might stop. children. we finally reached the which direction in a large plantation. from the narrowness of the stream. . must have been a fine-looking woman. sunk in the 95 mud. from simplicity. to the horizon when mounted my and went in pursuit of our companions but I had not gone a mile before I was relieved from my anxiety by seeing them returning . We were received with truly acceptable. but we finally resolved to traverse the south course of the river. gence. asked for entertainment. a politeness and cordiality place. as usual. for the as the ladies rarely wear any covering head within-doors but their luxuriant hair. who when young . dwellinoj Close to the out-oflices . by the proprietor of this Don Ramon Gomez. and as a passage of this proved impracticable. in case the river could not be made. there could not be much danger . and. would be looked on as a charming retreat for a poet or philosopher. surrounded by a large family of was seated its size. was a coach-house and other . Donna Gomez.
roast and boiled meats. and glasses. bright knives and forks. shaded walks of willows led down to the river along which were planted fragrant trees and flowers. which we had of an abun- been accustomed We partook dant and luxurious repast. all their time in The apartment in . spoons. cattle. reflected the rays of the setting In this delightful climate. 96 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. presented a brilliant feasts to contrast to the more homely latterly. the family spend nearly the opeh air. to and some of the children were running them. A large flock of sheep were coming into the fold. as if meet dis- they were their playmates. hills In the tance the eye rested on the rocky of Tandil which just then sun. remarking that the . and covered with bitterly but has very few sheep all : the lamented that industry was im- for the want of people. The owner peded ing. which supper was laid was low. pumpkins.. consisting of soup. potatoes. estancia is twelve square leagues in extent. and showed me various attempts at improvement in building. and in such a sweet spot. wines and fruits. side. and the grate was so bright that it would not soil a silk handkerchief with its The appearance of the supper-table. and had no ceiling but the timber of the roof and the thatch were free from dust and cobwebs. set out in European fashion. which he had been obliged to for abandon want of labourers . plant- and gardening.
we trusted chiefly to our compass. one of which he presented to not often found. They are said to hills . towards which we turned. and having put us on the car-track. the eldest son of our host very kindly came to show us the ford over the to which we crossed close a little cascade . H . as they are not dreaded by the population. Don Gomez showed me a stuffed lizard about three-quarters of a yard long. but here I heard of cattle having been destroyed by them. and amongst the they cannot. numerous). is the de- Upon river. Our conversation turning upon reptiles and beasts of prey. as a specimen pf those that are found in the neighbourhood (which are not. were tame. 97 industrious shepherds so soon accumulated the price of a flock of sheep for themselves. that no one could calculate upon a regular supply of labour.REPTILES AND BEASTS OF PREY. During my journey I had not hitherto heard of or seen lions or tigers. find shelter in the high grass. VOL. however. a general remark I may add that wherever the cattle . I. and also some skins of the tiger-cat. taking our departure. raisins. and seated on the bank enjoyed our usual breakfast of bread. nor is it me : this animal is dangerous. and ostriches were so too and About noon we saw a quiet little lake on our right. the deer vice versa. We passed As more deer on : this day's journey than upon any previous one least fifty in I counted at one herd. and water. be very numerous. nor struction of cattle very frequent. however.
life.98 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. reached another dwelling. or any other possibly experience similarly circumstanced. and transport. perfectly cool before the night for if dews begin horses were this precaution be neglected. and then sleep in the sunshine and dream of those delightful : we love. may be the reason to frequently condescended why the Deity so commune with the of their senses. could those feelings which are described by the terms rapture. is most as it recalls poetic ideas of pastoral . Our . night might overtake us before we a thinly-peopled where to stop for the night. and insensible those exquisite emotions which the cultivation of the intellect alone can awaken. After a morning's ride of a few miles. and the obtuseness of man's sensations. so we is are passing through to know when and we approach a house at two or three o'clock in the afternoon. rest. we know that it is too soon to halt but were we to journey onwards. this I doubt very much whether the people of country. It is absolutely neces- sary to halt early. The dulness of the mind. ecstacy. If . pictured by Milton and Shakspeare but in reality to the mind would become torpid. in a primitive state. so as to give the horses time to become to fall . we saddled and continued our journey. their backs immediately become sore. long as country. patriarchs through the medium After enjoying a most delightful fresh horses. One of our difficulties. to rest and breakfast by the side of a stream.
from their general condition and the likely to tenderness of their backs. these hard-working therefore. . If ten or fifteen thousand of scattered the starving population of Ireland were over this country they would be find plenty of all welcomed. and can save at least from thirty to forty shillings a week. so that he could not keep to leave up with . and work at good wages. with we saw some Irishmen I had a long converthat this description of : making a in is whom which the I learned labour most profitable these men were earning. although they have plenty of meat. and we house were compelled him behind although we to a made every merciful effort to drive at him which we saw some distance. Towards the close of this day's ride one of the horses tired became us." as the gauchos say. pigs. get whatever they ask. On sation. we were be left "without feet. and vultures. 99 beginning to suffer from the long journey. would maintain double the population.. : WAGES OF LABOURERS. reaching the house ditch. according to their own calculation. ten to twelve shillings a day. life The is facility of obtaining tiie necessaries of here very great in this the quantity of beef and mutton wasted country. and yet they were complaining . as food for dogs. and I feared that. is be- cause few of their class come and the almost never take a spade in their hands fellows. The reason thev natives will receive such enormous wages so far south.
or plastering of any kind. where The cook- we ate and slept. When sit. To each of us was given one or two cobs . and across it were slanted two spits laden with beef. my Instead of sitting like the natives on low seats consisting of blocks of wood. and an Indian woman. and sat on the floor by side. a soldier on a journey three young men. who had a very dejected appearance. that in a few minutes I was obliged either to stand up. or a small log of natives I wood about found six inches high. woman and her daughter. Our fire was. or else to cross-legged like a Turk. grass. We stopped for house. : After sunset all the inmates began to assemble the party consisted of a very old the mistress of the house. members of the family. was a framework of timber interlaced with cane-reeds. I found recline it easier to on the ground. seated on the skull of a horse.100 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. who were playing cards. or coil myself into a small compass on the floor. bones. . and tallow. but without mud. as usual. and bulrushes. two Irishmen . and my legs and knees so cramped. A soldier's bayonet stuck : in first served as a candlestick life it was the time in my that I had seen a bayonet applied to any useful purpose. the night at this hut. and pumpkins garnished the corner. as the my loins ache. and lean sit my arm on the block of wood. who were making mate . while over it hung a pot the floor with mutton boiling. sticks.
us all. arranged my bed so as have them lying at my feet to keep them warm.waggon although the of whelps night was very cold. I had by time become quite indifferent as to where . STANDARD OF GOOD HOUSEWIFERY. having had nothing since our frugal breakfast. provided the ground was swept to think that the cleanliness clean though I began and comfort of bed-rooms and kitchens were the most accurate standard by which to judge of the civilization of a people. she retired. but in so doing I found myself in the draft between two openings intended for doors . so close to the fire that it was no trouble to reach When we round to had finished our meal. floor we found so there was not space to accommodate air. that I began to eat. in to Observing a I litter one corner of the place. a rag was handed wipe our fingers —a luxury greater On than a table napkin at home . or ears of maize which but. two sons of our hostess and an Irishman their beds to the at once removed open . I slept. labourers. and we made preclearing the paration for passing the night. for she sat rolled up in a little heap it. then thanking our hostess for her hospitality. hunger became so urgent. The Indian woman next : to me managed hers very well she kept it con- tinually turned. I therefore changed one sound my position and placed myself by the and soon we were this side of all of the asleep. before 101 we roasted in the ashes mine was half done.. or the neatness and notability . under the shelter of a large bullock.
and perhaps : more unerring test of civilization the fork. is another. . and so long the case. and fork. but the reality is ditferent. the sleeping accommodation shall serve as a test of the good qualities of the lady of the house. it may be in a therefore a table must be had. To sleep on the ground. is unfavourable to poetic sensibilities. with a plate. and necessitate the adoption of other domestic habits which are also considered troublesome: a knife and fork require a plate. in a beautiful garden on a bank of umbrageous trees. while we ourselves are reclining on downy cushions loves to dwell in a spacious saloon filled with those elegancies and works of art on which the eye . and by no means There so comfortable as resting between clean sheets on a good bed. . It is very pleasant to talk of Arcadian simplicity. life and pastoral beneath and to picture our first parents reposing violets. would be too ludicrous and inconvenient even for this para- doxical people. amongst the poorer classes a fork as such is never used. because it would occasion trouble.102 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. is In this country. The use of a fork is avoided. I defy the people to give any evidence of improvement. however amusing pic-nic party . knife. of the mistress and wherever I travel in future. : This want creates another a table involves the necessity . which needs to be placed on a table for to sit on the floor. whether under a roof or out of doors.
of obedience. dangers .FORKS A TEST OF CIVILIZATION. school I am it . . and he and his family live in a state of affluence place. which resumed my journey towards inter- the political . hold. yet. of a chair . not one of the silver-fork — far from but had I the power once I wielded by General Rosas. In the morning the Asul." and establish the bedstead as a family throne : I would cause the church to canon that no baptized child should be suffered to sleep (except by chance) on the ground all . it would be necessary : to take precautionary measures of safety I in this country. would issue a decree to proclaim the domestic dynasty of " Don Prong. and suppose in all others thinly inhabited. boundary of course with the Indians and were I to believe all the reports of the dangers of travelling along this line. all house and garden might the food and comfort that any reasonable person could desire. 103 and thus the consequences resulting from the use of forks involve a complete revolution in the household. from the appearance of the and the mode of living adopted by the housemight fancy the owner was not worth . unless the husband provided a sufficient number of knives and forks for the house- My contain worthy host being the proprietor of about his two leagues of land. however. publish a the Fork. and another canon should release wives from their vow hold. a stranger twentyshillings The I is fork would change all that.
and never to cross the frontier. and the Indians along the frontier have always kept the inhabitants of Asul in a state of continued alarm. After a few hours' ride we entered the Asul. there and a flour-mill worked by several brick mules. is a is guard-house with a few pieces of also a small church. or enter the province of Buenos Ayres. The only real check the Indians received was from General Rosas. gene- rally disappear is when they are approached. and found that there were many fifteen tradesmen at work . who commanded year 1833. fear. which a town of recent origin. This was the object to their triumphant enemy sought accomplish . and magnified by rumour. begged for peace. some of them British. since having first reduced them to a state of trembling apprehension by the terror of his name. . which an expedition against them in the achieved such signal success that. I observed houses in pro- gress of erection. he the more readily made peace with them on his own terms. The population about hundred . others is from the Continent." This war would have been one of extermination. but the Indians.104 imagined by THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. despairing of maintaining their position. on his return. The conditions of this treaty were very simple. The Indians bound themselves to live within the range of their own territory. he was popularly styled " The Hero of the Desert. than an assemblage of ranchos. and at present little more In the centre artillery .
the They also undertook to render Governor military service whenever called upon. and the whole cost to the State being only about six paper dollars per month. For this concession on their parts. and although robwhich. The number of mounted about lancers from the Indian tribes attached to the can- tonments around the Asul and Tapalqueen. they are frequently encouraged by deserters from the army). each cacique now receives from the Government a sufficient quantity of mares. according to the number of his followers. in time of peace fifteen . The administration of this highly important treaty was committed to the care of Don Pedro Rosas y Belgrano. for food. as none can cross the border without a pass. The number of mares is supplied to them for food. and perhaps murders. and this economical way. peace with those then predatory and nomadic tribes is purchased. under a severe penalty beries. and a small allowance of salt : yerba. natives. or colts. and in war about at present dollars. and to act as quiet citizens and loyal subjects. tobacco. somewhat in less than two thousand per month . — The entire province is now free from the presence of an Indian. for each Indian. considering the great extent of boundary along which the Indian claims to roam. who was very popular amongst all classes Indians. and foreigners. may be occasionally (to committed along the frontier by Indians however. 105 without permission. yet such acts are very rare.ROSAs' TREATY WITH THE INDIANS. is . .
" but not remained receiving the usual response " Sinpecado concebida" (conceived without sin). through : setting fire to the coarse grass of the country as happens during the heat of summer. possessed by the Spanish yet such is their stupidity. they only followed their masters. three thousand but if needful. After exploring the town a little.looking house. which on inquiry we found had been often accidentally burned. we reached a ruinous. some desirable Resuming my journey early in the evening. who entertained exalted ideas of the power and greatness of General Rosas. for We some time opposite the door. Few things can more strikingly illustrate the superiority of one race over another than this fact although these Indians still possess a is territory much greater in extent than that which race. and asked for accommodation. on presenting Don Pedro Rosas my passport was y Belgrano. I on the commandante. Don Pepe She rode over to a woman whom a nig-ht's we saw at a distance.: 106 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. . and furnished with information. they would soon be called equally rich in flocks and herds. that they receive as paupers a monthly allowance if of horse-flesh for food the example of . and very courteously received by him. at once hastened to . calling out the usual salutation " Ave Maria . whereas. double that amount could be obtained by applying to the caciques in the interior.
Johnson that. it God than the in- gloomy and discontented. A Christian who is always looking to heaven as the only depository is of his joys. on the subject of happiness. the house. seated around the half of a fat sheep well It is related of Dr. Doctor. ugly. although very old. neither rich nor handsome." said she. the Christian. certainly they show more gratitude St. who was happy ." Therefore you cant be happy. Of course temperaments differ but the real or assumed gloominess of some Christians is injurious to their cause. in the course of a conversation ancient dame. seemed perfectly she was very cheerful. sure. kindled a fire." as if were an active duty of . an in opposition to the sage's opinion. not happy to par- and has not yet learned gratefully take of the blessings bestowed upon men. I believe. persons. and enjoy the boundless sources of harmless delight with which God has filled the world. Peter Pindar has versified the doctor's churlish reply. . 107 and in a very short time we were roasted. plainly intimates that he here. though they may think it is promoted by a stern gravity.— " Madam. are always practically Cheerful happy to .CAREFULNESS A CHRISTIAN VIRTUE. I am But this old woman of the Pampas. old and poor. instanced herself as a proof that happiness might be enjoyed on earth : — " I am happy. culcates '' Paul frequently rejoicing. you're foolish.
gladly accepted guest. Chance at once introduced me to Col. and with Don Jose entered the village. He his at once pressed me to take my abode at house. to the whom I presented my pass- port as a matter of etiquette. therefore his and became . . its owner standing in the one end being stuck ground. us were the toldos or huts of the Indians having the fighting-lance of close to his dwelling.108 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. regarding This invitation afforded for 1 me great satisfaction had a longing desire to visit the aborigines and compare them with their Christian brethren . Echavaria. started for Tapalqueen. his invitation. about noon. and expressed a desire to make some up inquiries. and there to to learn remain so long as I had anything the Indians. Commandant. Next morning we route lay through Our round each tall. and from the colonel's long residence I amongst them. coarse grass. Upon reaching the cantonment. I left Don Pepe with the tropilla on the plains. give knew he was well qualified to me the most minute and authentic information I regarding their habits and religion. and all .
— TAPALQUEEN. and amusements. and his methods of cure — Forms of wooing and wedding— Polygamy — Servile condition of the wives — Mode of rearing infantsFood and drink —Feasts. and partly by engaged as soldiers and traders. It all designed to be a commercial depot for the various tribes of Indians that wander over the sur- . or government caciques — Crimes and punishments — and mode of warfare — The manchi or medicine-man. 109 CHAPTER — — V. dances. partly occupied the Spanish race. IVIilitary For the first time in my life I was now in free intercourse with the heathen. and had an opportunity of observing their habits and manners. Tapalqueen— Traffic of the Pampas Indians— Filthy state of their huts— Influence of Colonel Echavaria over the Indians Native method of vreaving Indian women Sun worship and sacrifices— Government of the Indian tribes Their physiognomy and modes of painting the face Robust health and — — — youthful aspect of the spirit— Funeral tives men —Clothing of in men and women a good and an evil rela- Their toldos or huts of hide— Belief rites and ceremonies— Lasting grief of state — Divi—Traditionary ideas of a past and future sion of the years into months — Celestial portents — Chiefs. Tapalqueen is an assemblage of houses and ran- ches. is by the Indians.
women Their huts are seldom cleaned but when they become insufferably filthy they are pulled down and erected upon a clean spot. part of the animal eaten is that which is fat : the legs and other the poorer animals fleshy parts being thrown away they do not I kill. in my rides amongst filth them. but the . who : exercised the most kind and pater- nal care over them. a mare being worth about are studded half-a-crown. The men sometimes work on never. The only . for trinkets. In one hut . The plains all around with Indian huts. territory. edge-tools. where they barter their produce for mares . estancias. the being passed through the warp by the fingers. Here they come to exchange their produce. sale of spirits off. At several huts the women were weaving thread it is a most tedious process. and. is The prohibited but alcohol is obtained not far and drunk to excess by both sexes. Upon obtaining a license. other hardwares.. I was struck with their extreme nastiness : and the carcasses of horses were lying about in various states of putrefaction. ortoldos. the men pro- ceed to the interior of the province. and whenever we dismounted speak to the women or children they appeared much devoted to the colonel. and thus a month is spent in producing a garment that would be woven in Yorkshire in an hour. was accompanied in my rides by Colonel Echato varia. 110 rounding THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. consisting of the skins of animals and and garments made of wool.
that Ill we entered. was the differ whom . I was then Pampas tribe but they do not much the in their habits from the surrounding- tribes. a good-looking young woman took Sheepskins pains to show us how she used her loom. lie with their faces towards the east. In times of sickness. amongst rambling. it usually dark and long grease. suckling her child . which they look upon as the source of all : a superstition probably derived from the Peruvians. they fear some evil will come upon them bury their dead traditionary in a similar position. or divided into two plaits is mare's-grease always used in anointing and beautifying the hair. . their hair. they anoint either with mare'stheir and let it hang loosely over : shoulders. and well-proportioned chil- dren are suckled for two or three years. Another reclined on the ground her skin was very fair. gious festivals or forms of worship but they have a superstitious dread of an evil spirit. round. and her : limbs small. they should When they sleep they if. and in a drunken they also fall asleep in any other position. In their notions of religion they vary a Pampas Indians things entertaining a religious reverence for the sun. This tribe of Indians.PAMPAS INDIANS. nor any . fit. or any other calamity. the women engage . whom they are desirous to propitiate. They have no reli- knowledge of a Sabbath. war. drought. little . girls Young which is take great pains with . were their beds.
dance in in a religious honour of the sun . as an act of atonement. The entire tribe governed by two great and influential caciques. of this region consist of four distinct . and then. and more disposed is to peace than war. are I the most in- tribe and to habits this tribe refer chiefly. They have no tradition respecting their origin. though their are generally I In investigating this subject have been aided by my kind host. Colonel Echavaria.112 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. yerba. or throw the heart into some lake or of the tribes in this part of the Republic . They or calf take the heart of some animal —a sheep. similar. have had any Christian instruction any written language. have also con- sulted the writings of Cruz. speaking different languages but in their physiognomy and corporeal appearance they present a strong family likeness to each other. have taken much pains to ascertain the accuracy . fluential The Peguenches . and stretching a long distance both north and south. tobacco. colt. perhaps. propitiation. occupying the territory extending as far as the Andes. The Indians tribes. other than that their ancestors I were born in this country. — and stuff None it with flesh. river. and they tribes also retain a custom which shows that the originally offered up sacrifices to some deity. for who I has resided amongst them supplied many years. whose well-known work me with valuable information. or. nor have they They are very docile.
others only the nose. a is little lamb-suet is then added. I. they paint the face with different colours face entirely with a : some covfer the band of black . . and white. The features of all the tribes who wander regions are regular . The or her fancy. paint. leaving only the ears and throat free others paint a streak two fingers in breadth across the eyes ears.INDIAN FACE PAINTING. The black " is procured from a peculiar stone called yama. and imitate : mouseach tachios a few the neck and eyelids directs. and the result a soft. stature than the but not taller or more athletic than the English or Germans. red. from which they suspend a heavy ring of metal. but I am well assured they are have conversed with several persons of intelligence who resided amongst them . paint the eyebrows. who purchase the colours from the Peguenches and Guilliches." which is ground by is friction against another until a very fine powder produced. unctuous. hues preferred are black. I . blue. and I VOL. one. paints the face in fine. and nose to the some colour only the cheeks. white being merely employed in marking lines to define the edges of the other colours. as whim according to his The custom of wearing ear-rings and colouring the face is most common amongst the male and female Indians of the Pampas. besides boring their ears. 113 of the reports which give to the Patagonians a gigantic stature fabulous. and by whom they are represented as being of greater other Indians. many . in these but.
and Their clothing : chiefly consists of two cloaks. 114 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. grow gray before they have attained sixty years nor do they wrinkle or become bald until very old. . extent of two-thirds call a " chamal. Their hair the eyes are dark and piercing flat. even. for beauty. being of strong constitutions.. their heads covered with hair. and strong. stone ." . but with greater natural to the sex. but becomes somewhat darker from is exposure to the sun and weather. The red colour is extracted from a stone called " colo . their teeth being perfect." and the white from the "palan" procured in a similar manner. There are many octogenarians amongst them who still have a youthful look. as to those of the men. ." and length this garment they reaches to the calf of the leg. Their limbs are muscular and well formed the feet and hands being small. but their teeth are white. The features of the women bear a great similarity softness." the blue from a stone called "codiu. called a " mancorna. to the end of which attached a running knot. yellow is The natural complexion of these Indians generally inclines to red. the men seldom . ing. very lustrous pigment. These people from cares or fatigue and. is It is fastened by a wide sash. None that I saw were remarkable girls though some few live free were good-look. thus disposed is one folded lengthways rolled its it round the waist to the . black the nose is generally the mouth large and not well formed.
and they are thus prepared the sinews. with their legs and feet bare . Some go greater num- ber wear strong boots made from the leg-skin of oxen : and horses. The . covering the horse from the shoulders to the flank. but seldom wear it. called a " poncho. stones. wheeling about. sew large the : The chamal only is usually worn by men . under the saddle." in the centre. as before described hock joint serves covers the foot. the curve at the and the lower part are used instead of The nerves thread for stitching. very gracefully in the saddle. for a heel. as if hackled like flax .: DRESS OF THE INDIANS. 115 composed of two round cloak. racing. and when almost dry the until the filaments women to a masticate them it become disunited. when reduced pulp they spin to and produce a thread strong enough sacks with. and performing other evolutions with expertness and address. and covered with horse-skin. and of beautiful texture. bridles and har- ness are like those of the Spaniards but the Indians place "sudadores" (literally "sweaters") woven. and are extremely dexterous and active in the manege . being drawn out. . except on horseback. other parts of the body being covered with skins sometimes they carry the poncho. sit They are much attached to horses. the folds covering the whole body. are exposed to the sun. The other is has an opening half-a- yard long through which the head but the passed. weighing about two pounds.
" Hound the throat are worn necklaces. this last ornament prized very highly. On the arms they wear bracelets plaits of the same. being The females back in the habit of taking their to the markets. ." over the shoulders . which of the walk." to which tinkles as they attached a small bell. fastened by a bodkin. called is " tapagne. called the " quedeto/' is fastened upon the shoulders with pins. waist they wear a ribbon of about a palm or different coloured beads.116 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. called less in width. or " quichiques. of beads similar to those upon the wrists forming a coif. which might be used for ." For the head they work . down to Round the the heels. From the centre tapagne strings of beads hang on each side. and of different coloured " llancatus. it is named an " iquilla. and upon the front they embroider a cross of different is colours. and likewise round the legs anklets. in the shape of a tortoise or turtle shell. or square piece. In addition they wear another cloak. commodities on horse- They likewise wear two cloaks. called a "quepique." or beads." secured by a buckle. entire figure and covers the leaving only the arms bare. either of deep blue or red colour one. are excellent equestrians also. sometimes consisting of more than twenty strings of" comos. the head of which circle is formed of a of silver termed a " tupo." in the form of rosaries. They use brushes of roots. made of "comos :" this is one of the ornaments which they take most pride in displaying.
also hung over the shoul- slightest is movement causing a frequently than tinkling sound this considered beautiful. and twisting the strings of beads from the top. fix- ing pieces of cane or top. stooping. which very inconvenient inter- when ders. 117 brooms. they tie the hair with them.DRESS AND DWELLINGS OF THE WOMEN. Their beds are composed of three is sheepskins. bad wea- Divisions to or compartments are made. some- times they leave an opening in the roof a quarter of a yard wide for the smoke to escape. called toldos. and they conseis quently sary. in proportion the number of women who may reside in these toldos. to arrange their hair. move much more neces- From the ears they suspend pieces of silver from two to three inches square. thus forming a kind of is tail reaching to the waist. the skins are . which they part with their fingers. Another string of beads. then putting on the tapagne. bells. they two pieces of six or eight skins each. and the covering or llycas composed all of the skins of other animals . in through which the rain and cold penetrate ther. The habitations of these Indians are huts or tents. In erecting them the women place forked poles in the ground. by suspending a horseskin from the roof. and they wear several rings upon their fingers. formed of horse-hides sewn together consist of with thread made of sinews. is mingled with small the . wood horizontally across the upon which they stretch the hides .
parts of sometimes upon the beds and their clothes. created and governs all to whom the following pages have especial reference. an evil. near which are always the haciendas. are usually erected in six. or eight together . and that therefore it is unnecessary to use supplication or prayer. They are generally pitched on the margins of rivers or brooks. ill. and. nor use any outward form of religion justifying themselves by arguing that the Deity should supply their wants as a father . is regarded as the all their author of all tunes . or toldos. to putrefy. where it is left In fine. and insuftcrably The appearance disgustingly presented by these habitations ugly in the extreme. filthy and their interior is also and disordered.118 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. believe in a deity. evil spirit. The tents. they consider themselves abandoned by Guecumbu. how- . and when suffering any him. They do not offer any . they live in a state of abomination scarcely possible to describe or conceive. fetid. or farm lands. sacrifice. and the cause of sorcerers misfor- witches and are viewed as his to agents. who things. is smeared with horse-grease. meat all being thrown with wasteful negligence about the hut . and poisonous herbs are supposed be created by him. consider that the actions of They man are free. groups of three. The Peguenche tribe. being the dwell- ings of the cacique and his young men.
and that the soul after death goes to the other side of the sea. dressed in best clothes the friends and rela- assemble and lament most piteously over the recounting deceased. to prevent the pressure of the earth. spurs. The tent following morning the body taken out of the deceased it and laid across the best horse of the then. laid the and knife of the deceased. cannot be offensive to God. .. the body only being corruptible and . upon which the bed and the corpse are bridle. and upon finally this is placed a horseskin. ever bad. On another horse are placed a bed.. When tives an Indian its dies. 119 They use in and place much credence is dreams the howling of dogs observed as being peculiarly ominous. all the aniin mals and productions there existing. food and Another platform then erected over the body. celebrating his bravery. When is the opened. which are common. also is being placed close to the hands. They believe themselves to be formed of body and soul. the whole being covered with earth. pitchers of water. where it enjoys eternal life. the corpse . SUPERSTITIONS AND FUNERAL RITES. a platform of wood made. The last ceremony is to . followed by a large assemblage of people. vigil is kept during the whole is night. and a At the close of the day a feast held. bolas. saddle. is led to the grave of his ancestors. is placed on the bed. divinations. and the various articles which are sepulchre to is be deposited in the grave. and all his is good deeds.
she comrelates all that passed mences a lamentation.120 kill THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and animals are killed. and lamenting. they are followed by men carrying liquor and food. . the mourners continu- ing their lamentations during these preparations. the mourners then separate. and lament the loss sustained by the tribe . and also by droves of cows. and at the burial of her husband. The girls. sufficient to feast all who are present. drinking. When served the food first. the interred with great solemnity. she had not seen since the occur- a person whom rence should call at the hut of the widow. singing. sheep. called is voyquecaquiri . procession is headed by the old to women and whose part is howl and cry with loud voices. On fire is the procession reaching the grave. In this way. is ready the most honoured are each one before eating saying to the corpse. rich. the horses that have brought the body and to the bedding grave . is committed to The grief of the relatives of the deceased is sufficiently great to last a long time if : even at the end of one or two years. after which the corpse the grave. while they extol the bravery and virtues of the departed. as already described. one or two days and nights are spent in eating. and during the illness. and horses." at the close of which. after Should the deceased person have been the first night's vigil the body body is removed outside the *' tent. a large kindled. and a feast is held. "yaca pai!" at the same time throwing it a piece of meat.
counting by moons. Hot month.. and there continue in con- They say appear that the spirits of their relain tives or friends dreams. for old women. . May June July August October . .First time of the black sky. .. . . .. Time of pine seed (or acorns). as the water did not reach them. 121 The married nubial bliss. Time to lop or hew Time of necessity. . These articles : of belief. fossil sea-shells and other marine substances are found. . twelve cuyenes. and some few old made men and women who have wisdom to give counsel and advice. but that the hills increased in height also. . to predict what is to iiappen to . trees. and characterizing each month thus January February . Ynee-curiguenu. but these spiritual visitations are none but the ulmenes.Fenquen Guta-paquin Bad time . couples expect to be reunited in a future state of existence.— MONTHS OF THE YEAR. . and their forefathers thus escaped. Atenquij'en . Llaque-cuye ..... : Gualenquiyen . . . . Second time of the black sky. who had no They interest in teaching them falsehood.. it is impossible to make them doubt they declare them- selves to be guided by the sayings of their ancestors.. Ynamquiyen Time in which the herb continues.. In many places.Guequilqueyen.. November . . Y namquiyen . Uneranimi . . Second hot time.. or divide the year into months.Ynan-curiquenuTime of vegetation. Time of the partridge herb. December Villa-quiyea .. and they state that their ancestors told them that the sea once inundated all their lands. Increased vegetation. September. . March April .
" and consider them wars when inclining towards inclining to another direction. but it is An adulteress forfeits her life necessary to obtain the consent of her relatives prior to her execution ." denote that some Spaniard of great authority shall die." as is the stock of grain or other provision then usually consumed. adultery. and are thought called " layante" (the sun to prognosticate the speedy death of some great man called " lay- of their country. Whoever to the commits a murder must pay compensation relatives of the deceased. Should the son of a is looked upon as title is and in such a case the of cacique is inherited by another Indian. one who most robust are homi- and brave. which are con- more brilliant if the ancestors of the hero were also thus distinguished. wisest. and witchcraft. of. robbery.122 This last THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. put to death by them. quiyan. he himself put to death. but if they are not taken notice Eclipses of the sun are dead). The crimes considered most heinous cide. month is called " time of necessity. The oldest. cacique not be courageous he despicable . . or is . Those of the moon. Comets they their countries call " cherube. and bravest amongst : them are sidered styled caciques or guilmenes a title gained by acts of personal bravery. richest. is to prognosticate great . and if the husband should is kill his wife without such consent.
the relatives of the deceased open plain. is seize her at daylight. kindle a fire in the if she refuses to declare her accomplices. is believed to be caused by some evil After the funeral of a great personage. such the caciques a and makes known council is to them his complaints war then summoned. Witches and sorcerers are burned relatives of the bewitched : to death by the this is of frequent occur- rence. ulmenes or guilmenes states the when the oldest of the wrong suffered by one of the tribe. exaggerating the injury by using the strongest expressions. is more is rational than the Some offence or injury usually the motive for taking up arms. showing the satisfaction . as death influence. towards whom they act in the same way. The military government of the Indians civil. This extreme severity. 123 A do thief is obliged to pay back the value of what he has stolen. a is soothsayer consulted. sum to denounce the witch who caused the death is and when she and named. the sufferer reimburses himself from the pro- perty of the delinquent's nearest relative. however. who receives a considerable .CIVIL AND MILITARY LAWS. unless they have a considerable portion of goods to satisfy the covetousness of the family. she pile. the To escape from this wretched woman may be induced to name other parties. occasions the aggrieved party visits all Upon . but should he not have sufficient means to so. placed on the burning torture. is confined to the Peguencha tribe.
. being carried off as booty to the victors. the common property of the tribe but each warrior claims the right of retaining that which he has acquired by his own valour. and if the majority should is decide for fighting. without being obliged to pay any ransom . that office devolves The Indians usually approach the village of their enemies about day-break. necessary to compensate and concluding by exAfter this horting his countrymen to take up arms. The arms long knives. they fall at the entrances of the upon if their unsuspecting victims. all speak freely. the command . in turn. who are put to death they offer resistance the women. otherwise he has the privilege of selling her to another. and cattle. children. when upon the caciques. The plunder thus acquired does not become . and seizing the lances which are always stuck up huts. and in the mean- time she becomes his slave. and arras. The aggrieved person then takes unless it be a national war. when the warriors are expected to assemble each one duly supplied.124 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. with victuals. painted over with hor- . hardened ox-hide covered with hide reaching to^ and a cloak of the knee. used by the Peguenchas are lances and The warriors wear helmets made of tin. The all tribe is summoned again for the next day. at his horses. war at once determined upon. it. : The women form if the chief object of their desire a woman pleases her captor she becomes his wife. own expense. .
the side opened. the in a circle round the trees. causes him weak and and ends by his feigning . he thus provides necessaries for his future state of existence. placed with vessels of chichala (a fermented liquor) trees close to The invalid is carried out and laid on the sunny side of the and the manchi or medicine-man. OR MEDICINE-MEN. which and instances are known of the victim surviving this barbarous treatment. under the impression that. Each warrior selects his best horses and most valuable trappings. which are then trees. liberally. but various : barbarous practices are employed as remedies positively asserted that if a patient suffers it is from inis is ternal pain which cannot be relieved. who are skilled in the use of herbs . and then proceeds to suck the diseased part with such force and perseverance exertion. is formed by killing a sheep and a under a hut. intended to strike terror into their enemies. the animals. liver. commence dancing tracted dance. Their doctors are the manchis. are resorted to. mysterious ceremonies. or medicine-men.MANCHIS. If a succession of remedies be found ineffectual. At the close of a pro- manchi three times fumigates both the animals and the patient. and the patient. 125 rible-looking figures. and a piece cut out of the given the patient to eat . called Moloiuntum and cupiguelem. feel as to draw blood very fatigued. This to on the part of the manchi. Marper- Molviuntum colt. with the women. if killed.
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. The ceremony left. Dancing is again commenced. to him after . heaves the remainder towards the sun. being killed. The and heart of the colt is then taken out it and brought agitation . and the other the head and in this position . hides. and around them formed an having an is arbour composed of branches of entrance to the west. trees. prepared for the occasion. and fully collected every morsel being carethey and hung up on the : trees. of the horse in his hand. laid down. the remains being con- The marcupiguelem is as follows : — Two poles are is stuck in the ground. then the concluded by the people eating the animals bones. One man the whole then takes the tail . patient is The then anointed all over with the blood colt. is . are then tied by their hands to the backs of the old women . old women standing on either and two old men at the head and feet. Into this arbour the patient brought and side. he receives with great sucking a mouthful of the blood.126 madness. in which the in- of the valid joins. he being sustained by others to enable him to make some effort. the girls are anointed with his blood. lest should be touched by dogs sidered sacred. and a horse. the entrails being carefully coiled round the necks of the old women. and the figure of a cross is formed upon the forehead with the blood of the heart. Six young girls. in their richest attire. The same ceremony is performed with the sheep.
bride replies his recounting also To this the father of the by commending the good qualities of then refers daughter. he communi- cates his wishes to his relatives. as this part of the affair is brought to a one of the deputation returns to the bridegroom. which . When a young man desires to obtain a wife. After a extracted from the horse. The marriage ceremony is similar to that which practised is by many barbarous races. being regarded as sacred. party in 127 commence dancing. much eloquence eulogize the bridegroom the deeds of his ancestors. blood. is and laughing which sports the patient little exhorted to join. while.. MARRIAGE CEREMONY. the friends of the place appointed. gifts to : The mother's consent be presented in being obtained. upon the morning of the wedding. in order to obtain their assistance in collecting the amount necessary of the bride. and send young man assemble at a some of their number to entering the hut. and to them for a final decision her mother. So soon close. its and the patient are anointed with rites. desiring him and his companions to advance with the gifts . to satisfy the parents and friends Before daybreak. for her friends must receive a portion of the presents. the exchange for the girl are arranged this point is all sometimes one of great difficulty. at Upon once announce their mission. the heart is is singing. they the hut of the bride. At the conclusion of the the remains of the carcass hung upon trees. and with .
She is then introduced to the friends of her future husband. wearing -apparel. the heart and chest of which are parboiled and eaten by the assembly. inquiring for the bride.128 usually THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. which she presents to him. and takes her seat upon the seat of cloaks. but. and horse-trappings. none but the . consist of cattle. but should lovers anticipate the opposition of their parents. the bride is conducted to the hut of the bridegroom. as . such occasions a a marriage-feast easily effected then celebrated. At the close of this repast. with whom she lives in concealment for some days. married by mutual consent. He finds her holding in her right hand a plate. is then killed. where feasting and dancing are continued during the day. Such is the usual marriage ceremony . Eight or ten cloaks are then and the father of the bridegroom enters the tent. spurs. having upon it a green stone called llanca. formed into a seat. Polygamy permitted . and adequate gifts are presented to the parents and friends of the is bride. and asking and declaring the parties already pardon for the violence employed. reconciliation is is On . Afterwards. An animal. the relatives of the man proceed to demand her from her parents presents. making upon the former occasion. in consequence of the expense attendant upon marriage. the girl is frequently carried off by the friends of the young man. pleading excessive love as its cause. either a horse or an ox.
rich can avail themselves of this privilege. K . and prepares chicha to feast her friends in celebration A small . and governs the establishment. 129 When married an Indian has is tvro or three wives. ligatures being bound round its feet and arms. and children . and then returns of the occasion. and is the wife whose turn is to receive her hysband obliged to provide him with food and drink for the time. even This laborious easy. however. their spin for them- husbands. which the husband regards is The husband obliged to pass two nights successively with each wife. placed in VOL. grow strong and muscular. a custom of great antiquity. in consequence of the perfect indifference with their quarrels. attend to bridles domestic clean the men's and saddles and. with the view of causing is them to I. but it Jealousy often rages amongst the soon subsides. in fact. and which admits of no deviation it . The women selves. to her domestic occupations. the first endowed with the greatest authority. a female makes child-bearing is moment delivered of a child she goes to the river. bathes herself and the infant. being compelled the to perform every kind of labour. affection and respect. rolled in flannel. box is then made and lined with sheepskins and the infant. carry on their all shoulders water and firewood operations . most toilsome. for the life.. POLYGAMY. wives. are the abject slaves of the men. and to treat him with the greatest and weave garments .
or rather is warm the meat . which the mother obliged to carry on her back in foot or all her daily occupations. The lungs and filled is heart are then extracted. but they also eat the flesh of such other animals as abound is The general mode of cooking to roast. entrails with the nails. are eaten raw a great delicacy. cut. he encourages his ferocity. saying that these feelings are promises of future greatness. of which animals they have large numbers in the country. are eaten : removed . from the hands. mind. The only education exploits the child receives. with recitals of the and valour of his ancestors. the kidney-fat. and thus eaten throat the blood being used to smear over the face and When in the animal is young. which sometimes parboiled. is that of a hunter or warrior. and being : with coagulated blood. this is considered Corn. horses. if a boy. which . At the time of slaughterraw the fat is ing the animal.130 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. mounted. if any. is the box. in order to and to impress upon him the dignity of always speaking and acting create in him a like spirit. whether on until the child is able to walk. and the untimely offspring. Chastisement is considered as tending to therefore never resorted debilitate the to. When a parent observes his child to be arrogant orcruel. with haughtiness. its is and held such a way as to bleed internally. and is The usual food of these Indians is the flesh of .
but dance apart. fire. the male dancers kirtle naked. Caudles are never used the only artificial light fires. sound of which they dance. and ostrich feathers stuck in their heads . and placed in jars to ferment. before dark. but the festivity is . being that emitted from their Their great feasts consist of various meats and chicha. tions. fre- quently passing several days in the most brutal debauchery. are At the festivals. though ordinarily water-drinkers. is eaten. legs. The women never mingle the dance with men. but a liquor is at their made from corn masticated. midday. considered much grander when wine cation is obtained and. . evening. and body. bells are hung The dancers form and move their feet with little making a variety of bodily contorlast for These dances frequently three days in in succession.— FEASTS AND FESTIVALS. Their musical instruments are limited to a pipe made of cane. being painted with various colours. is Water drunk the ordinary feasts beverage . and a sort of drum or tambourine. they are strongly addicted to intoxi- when fermented drink is procurable. to the similar to that used by the manchis. while strings of upon the neck and shoulders. 131 always procured from the Spanish prepared in different ways. with exception of a of leather their faces. frontier. a circle round a great rapidity. and . decked in their . They usually eat three regular meals at morning.
which they practise in precisely the same way -as a hurling-match is played in Ireland. .132 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Horse-racing is richest attire. amusement but their . they are also fond of card-playing most general and favourite sport is hurling. another favourite .
impressed had called on him a stranger. Dick — Value of land — Tidings of a tiger— Troops of wild horses. Kindness of Colonel Echavaria— Store for supplying IndiansMethods of threshing corn A flat and dreary waste Low a cow for supper — Keen —Bivouac on the plains — Mode of roasting beef on the Pampas — Sleeping in the open air Vague directions for travellers on the plains —A night's "lodging on the cold ground" — Estancia of Dr. I LEFT the house of Colonel Echavaria.— . Handy. and at the time of a political crisis his yet he at once litate made house my own. accompanied me in all . COLONEL ECHAVARIA. but none for a traveller to ride — Military exactions and arbitrary — —Deadening influence — of vast plains upon the dwellers scent in them— Lazoing of carrion birds tyranny— Negro rats hospitality and kindness— Sleeping among and family of the widow Burns— Horses beat to a stand-still— A generous herdsman Plains covered with sheep— Mr. and to faci- my object of obtaining authentic information respecting the Indian tribes. without with a lively sense of the services he had rendered me. I total introduction. 133 CHAPTER tone of sexual morality VI. an Irish flock-owner Buying sheep Feeding pigs with mutton— Crossat three-halfpence each — ]?stancia — — — ing a swollen river— Review of the journey.
well filled with every description of goods suited to the population. and he having had many years of intercourse with them. are then driven in. and also wheat . to keep off the cattle. If the time wasted by the watchmen were employed in making a ditch.my departure. were all mounted but sometimes two The Indians women. until the grains of wheat are trampled out . Around inside this circle is constructed which the sheaves of corn are thrown young active horses. rides my amongst the toldos . The sheaves are placed on a hide. and kept gathered gallopping round. . I enjoyed every advantage that could be desired in this respect. I reached a chacara or farmhouse. from which the surface is removed to a depth of twelve or fourteen inches. then the straw is . The eastern mode of threshing corn — treading it out by cattle this — is adopted throughout the interior of pro- vince. . want offences it is necessary to watch the fields day and night. they would soon have a good fence. and drawn along the ground by a horse to the threshing-floor. Maize is planted here.134 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and during the whole evening. we stopped Our host kept a store. unshod. a circular spot of hard ground. In the afternoon of the day of . as in a circus. the Indians were to a late hour at coming in to beg. spirits being in great demand. or barter . buy. and but for the occasionally even three. up night. but horses are employed instead of oxen. where for the night. a temporary fence. rode on one horse.
The se- Commandante veral leagues. at a rancho to obtain a fresh horse for our It was inha- bited by a good-looking Indian man. and as soon as we thought ourselves free from the visits of the Indians. polygamy is universal amongst the too Indians. Being covered tigers it with ally coarse grass. and their practice of buying wives leads to dissolute habits : unhappily their example is frequently followed by their Christian neighbours. and . 135 for make room more We had an armadillo for supper. and occasionis take shelter here especially as full of wild cattle. A troop of about thirty waggons belonging to govern- . lions . Before entering: on this waste we called guide. Along the frontier. therefore. girl As we stopped . with the intention of travelling very slowly. we swept the floor of the store. and the grain removed to sheaves. up. and be unsaleable. and we were concerned at finding one of our horses lame. the tone of sexual is morality low . of so value as to tall. Next morning was foggy. and made our beds. our pack-horse very tired we started. which saved our taking a circuitous course of Our way is lay across a neck of land is which little in winter covered with water. and a native take mate. had most kindly ordered us a guide. to woman. a young Indian joined us she had a very mild and interesting countenance. and would have been considered pretty even in England.DISSOLUTE HABITS.
be either poets or patriots they are not surrounded with any of the elements that kindle the fancy of the one. But such delightful associations can only be awakened by the varied beauties of bounteous nature where such and attractions . not hill nor a tree. alternated with sent to the and valley. are either alto- gether absent or " few and far between. us. nymphs and naiads while cultivated fields and hill verdant meadows. and laden with stores for the Indian settlement. to the imagination peopled with fawns and of streams and fountains suggest ideas . and no miles. ment passed drawn by bullocks. dreary level. especially as in . of course. I was a particularly struck with its desolate solitude. varied the dead. and do not exist. the ground was soft from the rain therefore our horses were very much fatigued." We found it difficult at times to make our way some places through the tall grass. The race inhabitants of a plain may love each other. Woods and groves may appear fairies. I human habitation was visible for do not think the inhabitants of vast plains can . the mind and the feelings lack the food which nourish poetic fancy patriotic fervour. neither rock nor river.136 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. or inspire the feelings of the other. but they cannot love with ardour that country where those beauties that enliven the fancy and warm the soul. pre- mind charming pictures of rural bliss. After travelling for some time through this wild. and towards the . and feel themselves linked with the human .
l< o o J^ i^ <!^ >^ .01 i^'^ v.
of our companions soon got ready their and one mounting his horse. until they were out of sight.LAZOINO A COW FOR SUPPER. the pack-horse being 137 unable to travel. while their pursuer with difiiculty gained upon them by reason of the tall grass . at length his horse gradually neared some of the stragglers. One-half the herd continued their onward course. Partridges there were none. No habitato pass tion being in sight. This manoeuvre rendered the chase very exciting. and we might waste day- searching for an armadillo in such long grass the usual expedient in such cases at once itself. rode at full speed towards a large herd of cattle about half a league distant. which he passed. our find to eat. and we observed the wholeherd in motion. and dashed into the middle of the herd. while the others : took a sweep in our direction we watched lively every move- ment of the horseman with interest. thought all was what we should ing drink fast that We were very hungry. we transferred his load to another. with the design of turning them. The cattle were alarmed. day and I had only eaten a morsel of bread. mate being stimulating but not nourish: none of us but myself had broken our . the night on the open plain and not being prefirst pared for such an adventure. Two lazoes. Don . we made up our minds . suggested and accordingly we prepared to procure some beef for our supper by lazoing a cow. afternoon. as they always avoid light swampy grounds in : .
leaving the first horseman in the far behind her but Don Pepe having joined chase at a later . period. he singled out one animal as his victim. and the struggles of the animal quickly ceased. or unable is to obtain other food. "Yes. that the morality of the deed . where the long grass hid her from our view. until he got the beast within its when he threw the fatal noose with a sure aim . its We saw him preparing the horse to the top and spurring his of speed onward he motion of range. at and meeting the herd coming down a furious pace. and with a fresh horse. had the advantage and luckily he was obliquely. which ran in a straight line for some distance. he his drew knife. and very fleet. which was at once brought to the ground." in ''Then honest if she belongs to some one speech. this Pepe had by time reached the hunting-ground. Such acts. My first inquiry was touching the ownership of the beast: "Has she a mark?" . his horse halted to resist the shock of the struggling captive. in a position to cross her path fatal coil. are liable to a severe penalty. spot. flew. prosecuted. Presently the other horseman reached the when. flinging himself from the saddle." the frontier. This was a young black cow. and : plain. : 138 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. cutting the air with the whirling his lazo. however. are so common on particularly when travellers are benighted. about two years old. we have we stolen a cow for which oSence..
appeared to me that the odours from the carcass must have been borne on the as rapidly as sound travels. that being the colour most used by the natives when they require the hide for equestrian purposes. measured by a very in Britain : 139 different scale to cattle-lifting besides the difference in the value of the animal. however. its . before off. and sticks to kindle a fire and soon. went in search of water. on looking round. pack-horse of his load. its We soon found a little fairy lake. I found. and surface dotted with widgeon and wild ducks here we agreed to encamp for the night. While standing by the the hide was stripped side of the carcass. edge fringed with bulrushes. were these strikingly manifested upon this occasion. we the carcass to the birds. and at such distances that I could not even guess how far the smell must have extended : as far. The rapid diffusion through the atmosphere of exhalations from the blood and animal matter. with the aid of . as well as the keen sense of smelling in these birds. A black cow. the birds might be seen on the wing approaching the feast. and mounting. I was astonished. and other carrion hawks. as the eye could reach. were flocking towards us from all points of the compass. collected bones. Although I could not ascertain the distance it whence air hawks came. Relieving our we . to observe that the caranchias. Having cut left off the tenderest part of the beef. thistles. had been chosen.KEEN SCENT OF CARRION BIRDS.
We then boiled some water. After supper and songs. and finds satisfaction in idle and frivolous vanities. forgetful of his immortal destiny. but the blaze of our fire afforded sufficient light. termed " carneconcuero. everything . is." that food very delicious. for the first time in my life. making the The sun had set long before we finished our repast. from the cow.140 fat THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. we had a fire that would have roasted an ox. laved in the lake. in the land and. warmth of which was very and enjoyed a repast of cold meat and mate. the sun. . social chat. the I us. we were soon night. before we mounted. A sense of inexpressible grandeur and solenmity per- my mind : the earth. reigned around. enlivened with we spread our saddles on a bank of rushes. and in the took mate. the wet ofi" wrappings. was our the steeped in a heavy dew we shook grateful. while our beef was roasting way . closes is his perceptions to all that most sublime around and above him. impressed me with a sense of the eternity of their companionship. rekindled our fire. and the moon. with the skin on which mode retains the juice and gravy. impressed with the glorious majesty of the canopy of heaven above of dreams. awoke during the and beheld moon to shining forth with a softened splendour. On waking in the morning. and I felt humbled to think how often man. while a stillness so absolute that the pulse of nature seemed vaded have ceased to beat.
sired to visit. the natives take very my companions follow leisurely with our tired tropilla." Such was my fate to-day. having inquired the way to an estancia called the Tres Bonetes. I had re- ceived what seemed to be accurate directions. we al- though we went some miles out of our way. but our guide took us a more direct course than could have expected under the circumstances . 14 A dense fog rendered it difficult to find our way. little Generally trouble to put a traveller on the right road. Sec. a Scotch gentleman. fancies he sees the o' way before him.1 VAGUE DIRECTIONS FOR TRAVELLERS. when he gallops off in the direction they point out. commemoration of a in The owner and kind lady set before us an excellent dejeune. coffee. with . served European fashion and we rested here for a short time. but the luckless traveller who. Before resuming our journey." victory. be- longing to Dr. will only follow a " Will the Wisp. Dick. leaving speaking. in About his we reached an estancia called "the 9th of July. I whom I deto mounted my best and favourite horse. but went some leagues out of my way and" many were my inquiries and turnings before I reached the Tres . and (without intending it I believe) they are just as likely to direct him wrong as right : they think it quite enough to point is with their hand. and as often did I fear that the grassy . Bonetes. or describe a tree by which he to pass. noon. and rode rapidly forward. Frequently I looked wistfully towards the setting sun.
I 142 plain as is THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. that . everything was so wet with : the heavy dew that nothing would burn their bivouac was therefore most unpleasant. Tres Bonetes. and meide a great effort to reach darkness at length overtook them. before sunset. was impossible travel speedily and though they got sight of the house it. covers an extent of eighteen leagues square. at last. would be my bed for the night its : sublime is the starry vault of heaven. they did not halt in time. only a night. canopy too vast to afford a comfortable shelter for a solitary traveller. pected to find Here I fully ex- my companions . fire . However. were soon asleep. nor did they arrive until the next morning. and Dr. though suffering from cold. and it was computed to contain twenty- . and before they could collect materials for their fire. Their journey. and again they had to sleep on the grass. thirst and awoke refreshed. they and nothing were also without all but being extremely fatigued. well watered. after a most vexatious ride — vexatious. and the grass so to and strong. Unfortunately. of prime land. Dick. Dick's estancia. because make his my poor horse was hardly grass which able to way through was sometimes higher than the skirts of my saddle — reached the house of Dr. had proved a troublesome adventure tall : their horses were so it tired. also. Having little of the cold beef saved from the previous to drink. but they were not there.
for the want of herdsmen. tions Preparatiger. did not suc- ceed in discovering his haunt. I was content twenty shillings for the skin of the wild beast he were captured : the hunters. one of Dr. rence took place close to the spot where Don Jose and Don Pepe had were I at so recently rested for the night they had had a narrow escape. and be- tween two and three thousand mares and potros (unbroken horses) but. both cattle and horses are so wild that. in collecting when any them to- gether and delivering them to the purchaser. once made to give chase to the to join. equal to price. adjoining frontier. While we were at breakfast. indeed. amounts to twelve or fifteen per cent.000 value of land in this neighbourhood dollars about per league square.000 £50 sterling. the expenses direct and in- amount to as much more. large sales Along the of government land which is have been made at the public dollars per league. on their first cost. .: VALUE OF LAND. is The 20. being exactly two-pence per Engsimple of land within : acre. however. 4. Dick's herdsmen announced that a tiger had killed a cow the night before and we discovered that the occurdirect . are sold. besides sheep. . five 143 thousand head of cattle. for the fee fifty leagues of Buenos Ayres but before the purchaser can be put in possession. at three- pence exchange lish . but not in which fit was anxious having a to offer if horse for such a purpose. the charge for wages.
however. unless might the owners of some of the estancias around here boast that they that had several thousand wild pigeons. and when a few were caught they would have a pie for dinner.144 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. I found it impossible to procure a tropilla. Having now hundred I miles. because they are considered munitions of war. the horses were quite disabled and as intended to continue along the frontier for two hundred miles northward. with directions to take whatever are required. for for Here was surrounded by troops of horses running wild. became absolutely necessary to obtain Although the plains were covered with mares and potros. the government requires horses is Whenever commanddif- for an army. my As purpose well . These exactions have been so frequent . and the ant of the district sends a few soldiers to the ferent estancias. travelled nearly five . After making inquiries in all directions. almost left to Trained or broken-in horses are scarce. notice given to the local authorities. I was. when none of them were available for any purpose. another it tropilla. and was therefore very reluctantly compelled to abandon my design and turn my face I more directly towards Buenos Ayres. as to boast of having so many thousand horses. and obliged to turn back want of one or two waste in to pursue my journey is : thus want of labour the bounty of nature this country. unable to obtain any sufficiently tame for at a great sacrifice of time.
but this a less grievous exaction. General Rosas was not aware of the extent of injustice thus inflicted on the people by this mode of taxation. fearing they may be only doing so for the service of government. as. that few owners will trouble and expense of taming horses 145 at the now be . L . This barbarous : mode is^ of taxation cannot be abolished too soon course. desire and take as many men as they from their employments. destructive of industry. fountain of national industry dried up at ajid the most prosperous establishment may be paralyzed by a quiring feed an is any moment visit from the Commandahte re- men and army horses. that some never contribute any portion. whenever auxilias are required. both native and foreign . loudly complained of it of by all residents. and when well-founded complaints were made of partial levies. while others are heavily oppressed. and unjustly levied . VOL. being not only tyrannical.IMPRESSMENT FOR THE ARMY. he can tax his friends Commandante is so whom : he pleases. of late years. he invariably granted redress to . evil arising out The cises of this practice is also aug- mented by the power which the government exerof pressing men for the army . The cattle necessary to are obtained in like manner . is Thus the very . but it is usually thought more prudent submit in silence. the officers visit the different establishments. I. but for the power exercised by the arbitrary. and spare so altogether hence the levies are unequal.
That system. with broth the latter we sipped spoons made from the ends of cow's horns — simple if and serviceable. were our horses but to we had no alternative. even by short and slow journeys. Dick's estancia it seemed doubtfifty we should reach Buenos Ayres. leagues distant.146 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. trusting to be able to get city sufficiently on towards the near to buy or hire fresh horses to finish the journey. Indians along the frontier sometimes take care of . we halted at the hut of one of her herdsmen. make the attempt. belonging to Mrs. they removed their share into a separate room. how- ever. Hungry as I was. a morsel until we had and then. however. as in con- sidering themselves unworthy to eat our presence. so jaded . and their host of subordinates. It was occupied by a negro man and a mulatto at once. than incur the displeasure of the local authorities. prepared us a supper of roust lamb and . This was the first negro I had seen on an estancia. intending to stop for the night at the Toldos estancia. We therefore proceeded leisurely. must be vicious and ruinous which commits the and irresponsible power of an inferior happiness or prosperity of the citizen to the arbitrary will magistrate. Miller . woman. I did not enjoy this repast. for these good creatures would not touch finished . but finding that the house was a league out of our wa}'. who and in the kindest manner out of possible. boiled mutton. On ful if leaving Dr.
sheep 147 — an am employment that suits their lazy habits fit but I tic told that the : industry it matters not women are not how well for domes- they may be treated. KINDNESS OF WOMAN. of the fact that kindness the predo- minant feeling in woman's nature. through which to breathe to leave for I feared lest it even the tip of at. After supper we swept desire the floor with a broom of ostrich feathers. I attempted to cover my head. in addition to many is had experienced. I declined spreading them upon a floor of mud. and before I had time to adjust the covering of cloaks. they soon commenced walk- ing over me. my nose exposed. astonished no doubt at such a strange bedfellow. them off". I unfortunately arranged my sleeping place over a burrow of scuffling rats. for I felt grateful for her care and attention. which was ill swept: 1 would not shock her feelings by assigning the reason. I amused myself for a while with kicking Jose. Don up who was snoring in an opposite and when tired of this pastime. leaving only the smallest : space open. I soon forgot the . This was that I another instance. hostess. not unwilling that some of them should go over to corner .. I heard them squealing and under me and . to minister to Our our comfort. in her and then made our beds. . they prefer the unrestrained freedom of their native wilds. pressed me to use a clean pair of sheets but there being no bed or mattrass. should be nibbled However.
been too feeble to carry a saddle for some days. It . unable to proceed. and on awaking found early on the road. I had not furnished them with the smallest meal. and a widow. one of we completed which had my riding-horses. and every evi- dence of care and industry. Burns. to ability and application she manages the whole establishment herself. In this prethe grass to hold a coun- dicament we sat down on . is an English woman. the hostess sent one of her herdsmen to show us a ford across a stream. also came to a stand-still. man at once predicted that our pack-horse would be knocked up before the end of the day but we went on hoping against hope. Next morning we were breakfast. nephews. to be seen substantial out. and about noon reached an estancia where we had an excellent Mrs. the proprietor. and dependents. until his prediction was verified within still. for the poor beast literally stood step. sound sleep. and in- Around her dwelling were She has a large family. we placed the horse under Before and continued our journey.buildings. and employs a proper person instruct all her children. unable to move another driving cattle his protection.. an hour. seemed inevitable that we must abandon him but seeing approaching a man to water. Our This horses being rested. 148 rats in a THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. and now by her creases her possessions. nieces. and an honour to her sex and country. half a league. She has acquired a large property by thrift and industry.
took charge of our two disabled horses. I Upon coming up —" When : went home my rancho. I thought of you . where we were hospitably enter- the ladies offering us mate and other refresh- ments. fresh horse. morever. and the luxury of an excellent bed.TIMELY ACT OF GENEROSITY. Burns had sent with us to us. 149 to Indian fashion . sent to Next morning a guide was ford over a little show us the stream . but before we had come who proved he said any conclusion we heard the tramp of horses' us. by the flocks of sheep which every hour appeared . but we trusted to in our compass. that your horses would tire and I told I . feet. my I who had sorrow for you. fog now became so dense. We tained . unexpected and spontaneous act of generosity was a welcome relief. nothing but thanks in return and. that for to were uncertain as perceiving that The many hours we our way. and kept on the right direction . which were followed by an abundant and delicate supper." With these few and simple words. such precautions being necessary in consequence of the late rains. and it enabled us at once to continue our journey. The herdsman would accept . we were approaching the town. morning. I knew wife. Then horse said would follow you with my own and here This most he is. cil. stopped for the night at the estancia of a native gentleman. and be the saw a man coming towards the guide to in whom to Mrs. he pre- sented us with a strong.
until. we were Flint. crossed the the tropilla to his home while Don Jose. an American gentleman. being known to fame by various at other sometimes he is plain Mr. did appear to extraordinary and suggestive fact. Upon going round his grounds to see the improvements. and myself. chiefly devoted to sheep. we reached the plains For twenty leagues estancias. me an Pepe. and this within forty miles of the city of Buenos Ayres. Joseph Mears. the or cattle farms. Our travelling party here broke up. as my journey. Handy. subjects. The idea of a family feasting upon a fat sheep costing only threepence. who satility titles : from the south of Ireland. more numerous. and whose kindness friend plains with much indebted. finally. I feel . where gladly welcomed. continued city. Handy. . to Don who had to contributed so much well as to the complete success of my comfort. is M. ought rather to be called sheep The majority of the owners are British Early in the evening we reached the house of my friend Mr. my we Mr.150 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. an onward direction towards the On our way stopped for the night at the house of Mr. We had one roasted for dinner. around the farms. which was both fat and sweet. and has ac- quired celebrity amongst his countrymen by the verof his talents. city of Buenos Ay res. we were shown a flock of sheep which he had lately purchased in the south at three shillings per dozen.
my statement was received with a murmur of scepti- cism . where the remainder of the sheep were then feeding. who have a tutor to instruct them." facetious. but He is not only good-tempered and an intelligent and prosperous the possessor of a splendid sheep-farm. little where. was accomplished in lost thirty days . His homeward during journey of about two hundred miles. with his purchase. a handsome wife. he obtained eight dozen! thousand rials at eighteenpence per — four copper each. could he be otherwise than contented He had lately been in the south buying sheep. by good management and a patience. which he consumed and the sheep killed on the way less than a hundred of that enormous flock. times Irish Mike. but accompany the incredulous to the pastures. and with the mutton he fed a herd of swine. sold the fleeces at shillings and threepence per dozen. an Irish Roman Catholic priest. and in . when I offered to Buenos Ayres. became fattened on his As soon as own lands. At the house of Mr. Surrounded by such elements of ? happiness. Fahy.SWINE FED UPON MUTTON. of Leinster. Mr. Handy I met with the Rev. fact to a large party of Mentioning this Europeans in at the dinner- table of Lord Howden. and not unfrequently the " 151 Duke man . and a fine family of children. he five about a thousand. with a good house surrounded by plantations. who was on one of his pastoral visitations .
would only be increased by the to proceed. The morning when we prepared wet. but gives his flock the full benefit of his experience and advice in temporal matters. the offer would have been regarded as an the peasantry. nevertheless. and between swimming and plunging. dashed in and when he was safe on the other side. myself got safely over. as the Boca River would be dan- gerous to cross. the whole of the low lands being now covered with water . and our kind friends to start was very pressed us to remain another day..total stranger — having pur- . Don papers Jose. 152 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. insult. even by the poorest among I was a. was so swollen that did indeed look formidable. feelings of thankful- from danger were mingled with a grateful sense of the kindness and hospitality so spontaneously and generously afforded me throughout. first . we resolved it When we it reached the river. In reviewing the incidents and adventures of ness for preservation this journey of 600 or 700 miles. my horse and In a few hours we reached Buenos Ayres. Fahy indispensable to his countrymen here not only does he affectionately discharge his ministerial duties. The entertainment and accommodahad not cost of payment tion to our party me a single dollar indeed. society is whose we passed an agreeable evening. : Mr. I secured my around my body to keep them safe and dry. but since that danger rain.
. and . single letter of — and a foreigner. and the consequent waste of property and absence of im- provement. to the Commandante and it the wealthy Feeling a duty to express publicly my grateful sense of the hospitality is shown me though mine. for emigrants.— I HOSPITALITY TO TRAVELLERS. and also calling attention the peaceful prosperity of the British settlers. ledging to not a singular case — addressed a letter to the British Packet. known and only to one or two residents I had been plains for many weeks journeying over vast peopled districts. posely avoided taking introduction 153 more than a yet. acknow- my obligations . of course. thinly- and had met with nothing but all classes kindness at the hands of and races. as well and the favourable prospects as to the want of labour in the country. estanciero. from the most wretched Indian and the poorest native herdsman.
— Good teeth indispensable— Inconve—Fuel an expensive luxury of —The Bizcacha. being understood to local habitation. during this journey. or peasant. but lives a mean a person who has nomadic I life . The term Gaucho no in is one offensive to the mass of the people. CHAPTER Results of observation VII. his contrast character and habits of life— Two classes of land-owners. possesses feelings and . —The Gaucbo. therefore speaking of the poorer classes avoid that term. And first of the inhabitants of the Buenos Ayres provinces. and the state of law and society. The native Peon. or labourer. civilized and uncivilized —A —Transition state of national habits from want tion — Absence of a middle class — Evils arising of labourers — Fertile country and scanty popula- Inconveniences of travelling habits of the people — Superabundance of animals valueless to the owners — Cleanliness impossible—Dirty police its nience of a late breakfast System toads ostriches —The Becho Colorado. Peon.— 154 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the country and natural productions. and habits— Owls and — Habits of the ostrich — Venomous spiders and to I MAY here be permitted its sum up the results of my observations of the people and their habits.
He has a great dread of aquatic . and mode of cooking. supported on four stakes driven into the ground laid. re- pair his house. on this sheep-skins are : covering being a blanket or quilt some- times a very clean coverlet may be seen. to plough. stakes. or attend to the various occupations of a cottager. have already been described sleeping apartment : — the the latter contains perhaps two . within a limited period of time he has no idea of the value he counts by days. reap. He will ditches. The native peasant lives in a hut or rancho. OE PEASANT. boards.THE GAUCHO. PEON. . to horses and the herding of : and such as are pursued on horseback he will not do anything on foot. It usually contains two apartments one called the cookother used for house — the furniture of which. with mud. and also dislikes mechanic arts and neither fishing nor shooting have any attractions for him. or hides. much . cannot be depended on to do anything . as already stated. hide-ropes. employments. never by hours. His employments are limited cattle. never even attempt make keep a garden. avoiding investigation into the causes of his present state. built. habits which have 155 grown upon him owing to the state of the country. and a bedstead or catre but the poorer class are content with a platform of sticks. and I confine my view of him solely to his capabilities for industry and domestic happiness — the foundations of national wealth and virtue it is . the . and thatch. He . as sufficient for my purpose to state facts. or three chairs.
with the addition of broth. drying hides. or perhaps a pumpkin. and bread or biscuit are luxuries rarely enjoyed. which consists of meat. air quite as agreeable as he finds sleep in the open in the house : except in winter. visits his when he again mounts his horse and charge. and the life of a procrastinator is : an everlasting to-morrow. he is either sipping mate or smoking in The poor women washing the clothes is are . he is a procrastinator.: 166 less THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. mutton. When cigars. is card-playing. and one day's existence like another. Their chief amusement gamblers. At sunset his work is over. and when travelling. rally speaking they dislike vegetables. active por- tion of his life spent on horseback foot it and if occa- sionally employed on is in killing animals. and he Gene- returns to supper. or repairing his horse-gear. roasted for breakfast. is The . At sunrise the husband . and they are confirmed Owners of land may be divided into two classes . employed cooking and but they do nothing more than absolutely necessary to maintain existence. by minutes . Their mode is of life varies but little. when he returns home his wife has beef. idle. or lamb. takes mate and smokes cigars then mounts his horse and remains out with the cattle until ten or eleven . after which he loiters about the house and takes a siesta till the afternoon. His habits are migratory tality of the wherever he goes the hospi- country feeds him.
have —are such as from choice. come in contact with foreigners at They return to the country with life. and the floor far was our visited table. His cosunder tume was that of the Gaucho. a desire to improve their properties. hung round table of our food consisted of beef. " lived in a it and truly natural was. the walls . in habit and feeling a counterpart of his is herdsman has more the only striking difference to that one mounted than the other. biscuit or vege- any sort. but was desirous of being civilized and we were refreshed by the appearance of a clean.land-owners: a contrast. the other. and other equestrian equipments. bed a favourite game-cock was The bedroom had . . he same manner as the labourer does although may be the owner of one or more leagues is . those desirous of adopting 157 European habits. and those who prefer their own. as far as practicable. I another native who was not wealthier than . adopt the comforts of civilized To illustrate a rich natural state this. spurs. without either bread. he might be at hand to amuse his master stirrups. not been cleaned for perhaps half a year tied my by the leg. well- . Those desirous of becoming European in their habits and they form a large and inis money gamble. and better — creasing section dent. Not from this man's residence. of silver. that . and. I man who. beef only. water was our drink." to may mention that I once visited use his own phrase. or acci- Buenos Ayres. and salt. The latter class live precisely : in the the master of land.
worn by a at once indicates the change No respectable foreigner should ever think of as. There is as yet no middle class . state of and lived in a comparative barbarism. confined his wants to those of nature. the European costume is becoming very general. This man adopted Euro. . with liberal outlay. there are four clearly defined stages through which ively to pass . in his ideas. next that of pastoral industry. herdsmen and shep- herds form another to but immigrants are beginning class of small flock-holders. It will thus sition state. be seen that the country is in a tran- and that native usages must eventually Already give place to those of a superior character. the better class of suming the native costume natives do not take as a compliment his doing so quite the contrary. In the progress of society. and lastly of commerce. it solely conducted by foreigners.: 158 THE ABGENTINE PROVINCES. good wines. pean industry. it it is seen in the plains. dinners nicely served. their . men appear success- the first is that of hunters. the owners of land feeding immense flocks and herds form one class. fruits. and wherever native. form an intermediate answering to our English yeomen. then of agriculture. furnished house. and other luxuries. and became rich the other retained primitive habits of idleness. The Spanish Americans of these prothe River Plate is vinces are in the second stage. for although the commerce of is very considerable.
the other from the increase of the flock. there being no labourers to enable an enterprising capitalist to carry out a continuous plan of operations on a large scale. so as to preserve the increase. or cattle farm. and the lambs perish. two sources of profit are open to him . LABOURERS 'WANTED. the wool. is The managealso attended ment of an with very considerable loss and annoyance. Some have no greater numnow than they had three years ago have improved the wool so much that a shearing worth only twopence per pound formerly. : from the want of shepherds. and the soil The climate is so so fertile. is now worth tenpence per pound. both sheep and cattle increase amazingly but as the labouring population does not keep pace with the demand for labour. require particularly if the owner be anxious . The other source of revenue it is from A sheep farmer. Should a man one buy land for a sheep farm and obtain flocks of sheep. extremely mild. Sheep. while the . above all other animals. this is often impossible hence. derived from the wool. in conse- quence of the want of herdsmen. finding impossible to attend to the lambs and ewes. (as owners must be) to have his flocks increase but. estancia.. attention all . the sheep scatter. that fast . There is 159 for industry not at present much motive in these provinces. in bad weather. takes care of the flock : which may be done without much ber of sheep but they labour. it is but little satisfaction to a ca- pitalist to know that his flocks are fruitful.
There are no except at hills. from the northern provinces and its price is enhanced not by the cost of land-carriage several hundred miles. and then crossed over west- ward to the Indian frontier. exercise but the impossibility of preserving per- . provided the traveller possesses bodily strength endure the fatigue of continuous and violent . Tandil : nor is there any stream that : deserves to be called a river stone to be met with.160 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. or obtained . I visited families whose cows might be counted by hundreds or even thousands. horses . left to lambs are in number. when they run In this journey I traversed a circle of between six . cattle. perish . neither are trees or The trees first business of a settler his dwelling : is to build. and has no greater population than perhaps one soul to every square league. but a tame one was not to be had. yet they had neither milk nor butter. yet flour is either imported from the United States. they possessed horses innumerable. is made a cirThe entire area and of that circle thinly covered with sheep. and plant round when these grow. The soil is good for agriculture. I and northward to the boundary of Santa Fe. or that his herds increase wild. he may begin other improvements. about but had I kept along the shores of the Atlantic until I reached the southern es- Quequeen. The inconveniences of such a journey to are great. cuit of should have about two thousand miles. and seven hundred miles tancias.
made for such I felt com- even amongst the wealthy. my gums were so sore with the severe duty of masticating tough beef. to almost ashamed ask for water to wash I in the morning absolute and when amongst the poor. and the fact away the tender and and as beef fleshy such parts as are tough. DIRTY HABITS sonal cleanliness is TOUGH BEEF. the grease from was in misery. sufficient quantity of Though my teeth are sound and good. not to vinces . I 161 a great annoyance. owing custom of roasting beef is immediately after the animal that the natives throw parts. unless he carries a with him. is Bathing almost unknown: no preparation forts. for. this point. M . Upon sive. weeds. British subjects in is the campo might take a gentle hint. or house-thatch. any one who has not bread or biscuit strong teeth must often suffer from hunger. that I could not venture to touch their " matambres" or " asados . as soap not expendiflBculty. preferring only killed. I. I was asre- tonished beyond measure when saw that spectable families seldom indulged themselves by is washing their hands and faces. an VOL." and unless I obtained a partridge. using grass. and glad to have an opportunity of scraping my hands with a knife . and water can be procured without I would seriously warn any person with bad attempt a journey through the Proto the teeth. yet at the end of a month. their .. to complete the cleansing. meat is anything but edible is almost the only food in the Pampas.
a resi- the province during the winter would be fire. who were implicated in the violation of the established laws of the country were sure to suffer the extreme . owing to the system of police established all. and I was par- ticularly struck with the confidence with which the dealers lived in isolated dwellings. means of breaking being made for. bones. some lamb. the traveller must start without food. Were dence in it not that the climate is so mild. at the mercy of robbers or marauders. taking only a cup of mate. passed over tolerably well fat. are at best disagreeable. and the cartage on cold fuel of : any description renders although the it an expensive luxury is but the short period of extreme . I have been assured that such was not the case before the ascendancy of General Rosas . no charge whatever is for native hospitality. impracticable for want of there being no timber . seem . under his government. whether rich or poor. and other substitutes for coals and wood. Another privation the morning : the want of breakfast in till as the family fast about eleven o'clock. The lives and property of the keepers of to be unprotected stores. is armadillo. in places far remote from other dwellings. or public-houses. but it being well known that.162 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the guest ex- pected to conform to the established usages. or I must have often re- mained supperless. and trust to chance for the his fast .
. I have frequently watched them. otherwise the legs of his horse may be broken in their holes. an animal with long bushy somewhat resembling a squirrel. The bizcacha. this . food . and their flesh when cooked is tender. although they are clean-feeding creatures. I bone for what purpose in am conjecture. thistle-stalk. cially as they do not wander I have not heard white and of their being eaten. and twice the of a rabbit. stick. quietly watching me. as they are very tame. but protection. and burrow the same manner as rabbits they seldom appear during the day. larly city. but at sunset come out to feed. particu- within that the a range of twenty leagues of the frequency of their burrows compels the traveller to be on his guard at night. or mouth of unable to whether . robbery and outrage are almost unknown. the rubbish being placed over the mouth of the burrow. size so exceedingly numerous.: THE BIZCACHA. Grass appears is to be their only indeed. These animals are gregarious in in their habits. it no way serving : for cannot be for defence doubtless. it be a stone. is tail. none other within their reach. espefar. as. These animals have one very singular around habit: whatever hard substance they find their feeding-ground. perhaps with as much curiosity as I watched them. 163 penalty of their crimes. and not conscious of danger they raised themselves on their haunches. they carry to the their burrows.
Small and pretty owls. roots. Ostriches are numerous.164 instinct THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. tail : bills appear to be in a line if it it the neck seems as it moved on a and they twist round as if were a matter of indifference whether their eyes looked before or behind them. they a short distance. become alarmed. was implanted in the creature for some useful purpose. customary to move in a circular form. and other : vegetable growths whether there be any truth in the wonderful power of digestion ascribed to them I know not. and when within proper distance throw the bolas at their legs. are the inseparable companions of the bizcachas . if disturbed. and during the day. but more especially close to the towards the afternoon. They usually feed on grass. or to some neighbouring burrow. although I have not been able to discover it. that when they look backwards their with their swivel. gradually closing in upon the birds until they flight . and so bring them to the ground. they are to be seen perched on the ground only fly to burrow . but very shy as well as fleet. remarkable for their tameness. and seek for safety in the hunters then give chase. it is When a hunting-party formed. Hunting ostriches is is a favourite sport. The movement peculiarly of : the birds when they first start is awkward . These birds have the power of turning their heads so completely round.
The only parts of the ostrich eaten are the wings. As regards venomous reptiles. . and the cry of the young extremely melancholy. upon which the chickens feed during the first few days. the fifty : number act of I varying from twenty to I have found as many as forty-five eggs in one nest. liis head. but of have not been able to judge. Some eggs allowed to remain outside the nest. but found the province comparatively free . am disposed to think that the solitary egg so freis quently met with on the plains. and the fat on the back. They make be heard is a deep-toned. hissing noise.HABITS OF THE OSTRICH. in order to attract the flies. for they have escaped from us in every direction. and the In the spring months the male bird takes under his care his from four to eight hens. they prefer running against the wind I . The incubation is chiefly performed by the male. hens deposit their eggs in the same nest. which at may is some distance . deposited by are hens not permanently domiciled. The male size of distinguished from the female by the darkness of his colour. and these are broken by the parent when the young are hatched. I have made much inquiry. they appear to use their wings in the 165 that It is way men said this use their arms in pedestrian exercises. who depend upon ability to preserve courage and them from the All the encroachments of his competitors.
producing a very trouble- some irritation and swelling. . but very rarely any and generally speaking bites of there no great cause for alarm from the creatures. known if to wound be neglected. a minute The it is Becho red insect. and penetrates the skin. a venomous if the species of toad. black spider. visible to the naked eye. is The exceedingly venomous. its bite is fatal an antidote be not immediately applied. Besides these there sting will fatal is is a variety of insects whose produce inflammation. There are snakes. has been prove fatal. consequences . is terribly annoying generated in the grass during the heat of summer. generally speaking. and its bite. scarcely . has not had a case of a dangerous character from the venom of either insects or reptiles in this province. however. The escuerzo. are sure to suffer from attacks. I know who for venomous a medical gentleman the last seven years in extensive practice. Colorado. unless. Ladies walking its in the grass in summer. is also dangerous . their bite only produces a high degree of inflammation. perhaps. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.166 from them . but. in the south.
— Landing at the port — The city — Plaza de la Victoria — Churches and mansions — Arrangement and furniture of houses — Market and prices of edibles — Buenos Ayres an Muralla. or sea-wall —Aspect of the expensive place to live in —The Alameda. convent.carts and their drivers — Hickman's public grounds —Residence of General Rosas — The Retiro and Pro- testant cemetery — Striking —The Recolota church. The voyager. through which the muddy waters of the Rio de la Plata discharge themselves into the sea. Buenos Ayres. and his . 167 CHAPTER Distant view of Buenos Ayres VIII. captivated by the graceful outlines formed by the towers and cupolas of immense churches. breaks the monoflat tony of the coast. as seen from the outer The city of roads. and cemetery the poor — Funeral rites and burials of — Bathing by lamplight.— DISTANT VIEW OF BUENOS AY RES. a distance of seven miles : from the shore. having sailed about a is hundred and twenty miles up the River Plate. or panoramic view promenade pleasure- Bullock. appears beautiful and attractive but "'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view." Its site being somewhat elevated.
over one of the finest rivers in world : a pier for landing passengers also formed part of design. the and dilapidated . designed to extend from the fort north. filthy the improvement of the city. and It glittering in the first is. sun. which is brought to land in large wheeled 1847. this This is a gigantic undertaking. if completed and planted. the and . a glorious landmark. indeed. early in commenced building the " muralla. carts. towering alone high above the early mist. crowded docks with navy-yards and ship- But here the rocks and the water. General Rosas. wrights. however. obliged to Passengers are disembark in boats which cannot reach the shore. will form a magnificent tlie esplanade. are just as sands. The appearance is anything but prepossessing. and equal in extent to is more the outlet of a country that of the United States of North America. soil we naturally expect to find busy quays. rivetted on the beautiful and snow-white dome gleams of the rising of the cathedral. nature formed them man has done nothing to improve the port." or great sea-wall. will be a lasting monument of its founder's desire for of Buenos Ayres on landing. but are stranded with their living freight.168 gaze is THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. On approaching the beach of a seaport which has for a period of been the scene of commerce than three centuries. and when the feuds of party and the war of politics are forgotten. ward the whole lengtli of the city and which.
deep and dangerous. are so numerous. for the most part flagged with lozenge-shaped pieces of black and white marble. facility but the footpaths are inconveniently of the principal streets are paved . They are wide enough with to admit two broad-axled carriages to pass . There are several spacious beyond the plazas. are so neglected as to be impaspantanos. a stillness prevails like that of an English country- town. or squares which.. There : is but little appearance of trade or business instead of the bustle of a great city. however. A few and kept extremely clean sable: some of the less fre- quented. or mud-holes. On its south sides are beautiful piazzas. . however. recommend them large space they enclose. is occupied with the cabildo or municioffices of the police and public department Grecian and on the north side stands the unfinished portico of the cathedral. CITY OF BUENOS AYRE8. The Plaza de and east la Victoria is the handsomest. have nothing to to particular notice. and at equal distances. and combines several objects of interest. the plan of the city aptly compared to a chessboard. The streets crossing each other at right is angles. which are only a single story high. narrow. tempts one to inquire whether they have owners or occupiers. and under the well-formed arches are shops tastefully ornamented. The west side of the plaza pality. . that a knowledge of the safe streets is indispensable. 169 look of the houses.
Although many symptoms of declining prosperity offend the eye. containing the bedchambers court. They is are usually double fronting the street a large massive gate. includes no provision for a passage leading to all apart- . The flat roofs. called azoteas. " dies daily. 170 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. yet the stranger is impressed with this a lively idea of the whilom grandeur of South American capital . this is which are the kitchen. the purple clusters of grapes depending overhead. which admits into an open courtyard called the patio. when the rooms are oppressively the This style of house-building. are usually : ments.." Some edifices . which. as Lord Byron said of Venice. around which are the principal apartments. summer. a flanked by a third spacious archway leads to a second quadrangle. sometimes or the whole may be shaded by a trellis covered with the foliage of an outspreading vine. of the better class of residences are beautiful but the effect of them streets. orna- mented with choice plants and flowers an orange-tree occupies the centre . however. and servants' apartThese patios. which are on a scale of great magnitude but their outward aspect indicates utter neglect. only public buildings worthy of note are the The churches. in . or courts. form a most delightful retreat in the evenings of hot. is lost from the nar- rowness of the houses . and strikingly contrasts with the gorgeous mag- nificence and massive grandeur of the interior.
PRIVATE RESIDENCES— THE MARKETS. the ladies is The taste of evident in arranging the bedchambers. all the intervening is This defect fatal to The in respectable classes exhibit a love of splendour their houses. that it is all nations. kind are descended from a common . the couch is the counterpane . which display costly and elegant furniture they evince also a laudable desire to adopt every improvement of the age. meats . 171 in order to go from the front to the rear of a house. or cross the courts. edged with embroidered The most which is lively and busy scene the market. with deep fringes the bolsters and pillows are covered with rich lace. or your chamber. : which are also used as boudoirs adorned with the richest hangings is . so confound the difficult to describe the effect. The first is impression of a stranger upon visiting the that of market wonder . distances. from the saloon to the kitchen. the varieties of complexion and costume. of crimson silk damask. the comfort of a dwellina*. with roofed sheds placed at equal occupied by butchers and dealers in fruit and vegetables. including specimens of the human race from almost every country in the world. and the Babel of tongues from senses. nomy is so great that one might doubt all if manstock. you must pass through rooms. Surely no other city in the world could present such a motley assemblage and the diversity of physiog. filled held in a large quadrangle. . is satin.
fowls. a great variety. and ruddy Englishman. all the vegetables of an English garden. for a family. different classes enhance the con- Large unwieldy bullock-carts are laden with of which there is fish. while the more delicate kinds. dead wild fowl. Flocks of turkeys. and looks black and dirty. such as peaches. are in abundance. ducks. very cheap. are piled heaps . with the addition of pumpkins and batatas (or sweet potatoes). and fruits are placed on the ground. are intermingled with Indian. Jewish. as the exchange varies so much sell but by law butchers are obliged to beef at three dollars . and Negro physiognomies . and beaming with : beauty. A prime fish. It is sold by the piece. is The it appearance of the meat not agreeable : is brought into town from the slaughtering-ground. and often extremely delicate. sufficient . and geese. not to by the pound payment. money. contrast with others dark as night the air and costume of fusion. figs. are arranged on benches. Melons and other grapes. : some butchers contracting supply a family with sufficient meat for a fixed monthly It is not easy to quote prices in sterling . increase the clamour . Tartar.172 THE ARGENTINE PBOVINCES. man. including partridges in and plovers. sallow French- The olive-complexioned Spaniard. and quantities are frequently thrown away. may be had for sixpence as what- ever remains unsold by a certain hour must be re- moved. while women fair as the lily.
industrious. are dearer than in London . owing to the want of a suburban population.PRICES OF EDIBLES. and servants are highly paid. If the suburban lanes vice. and a pound of Vegetables. is the result of the civic and energy of their brethren. though unmanageable. foreshadowing what may be expected in the villages city. Buenos Ayres in: is an expensive place to reside Hotels and boarding- rents are enormous. which prevent disputes as to quality. turkeys. 173 (valued at an average of threepence) for an arrohay weighing twenty-five pounds. it intelligence cleanly. . than one-half the price of domestic nearly the size of a . partridges pheasant cost ninepence each wild ducks. and well-conducted. per pair. one shilling and ninepence each. A ramble through the outskirts of Buenos Ayres. usually because has made them such if the people are happy. . and and are it the haunts of ignorance. houses are numerous several are kept by English and Americans. is . the city crime. butter will usually cost in the town as much as a sheep would cost in the country : butter occasionally has reached five shillings per pound. The environs of a large city are a pretty faithful indication of the place itself: a sort of introduction or table of contents. the same price . The wild fowl are always to be had fowls for less . would : give beef at ninepence for twenty-five pounds it but to is usual to give a few dollars more.
Proceeding down a steep street. who frequent this pleasant and exchange salutations. Equestrians. The Recoleta church and cemetery look down from their com- . throw some light upon the condition of the I reached . or the latest news and gossip. well come in mounted. up Alameda filled equipages were compara- Laundrywomen covered linen clothes . Passing the guard-house. where the stretches along the beach tively few. and forms the foreground or base of a lofty terrace of elegant houses. the green sward with the whiteness of the linen present- ing a striking contrast to the women. which A row of an agreeable shade to hundreds of natives and foreigners. all who are nearly negresses. the extreme distance northward. the Alameda.174 will THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. well planted with trees and shrubs. would wash it all A striking and expansive view now opens upon is the sight: on one side the river. male and female. stretches away into the distance. retreat. you to a battery of ten brass guns. and wall good order. ill-clad negro stands sentinel. where a barefooted. city itself. fosse . that a high wind with a flood -tide away. the public walk of Buenos Ayres which was then trees afforded in process of extension. on the other a graceful slope. . chiefly occupied by foreigners. but protected is by neither nor and the earth so loosely thrown up.
others and one or two per- haps dying of fatigue and hunger. bullocks loosed from their traces straying about. halting after a journey of nearly a thousand miles . but at night dangerous The nor : wild and fierce aspect of the a feeling bullock-drivers in excites is of apprehension calculated to strangers . Here the beach expands into an immense breadth of green sward. resting. To their narrow intel- the inquiring habits of Europeans are beyond their comprehension. co- vered with short sweet grass. In contrast with these groups of South American . to their class. requiring only the of trees to render them an attractive feature in the landscape. left afterwards becomes not only to equestrians.a SCENE ON THE BEACH. comprising hundreds of acres. some glazing. con- They prepare gipsies steel their food in the simple tribes . and they regard with aversion in and suspicion any attempt to engage them versation. devoured by dogs while fresh The it hides are is stripped off those that die. and the carcass to be . offensive. their manner inspire confidence they receive a visitor coldly — custom peculiar lect. mode adopted by with a flint and other nomadic and and a few sticks they soon kindle a fire. 175 addition manding position. at which they cook their beef in the usual fashion. the interior rendesvouz here : Bnllock-carts from I have seen a train the of twenty carts just arrived from the north.
and birds of varied and beautiful plumage were seen .176 Arabs. Various improvements were . lemons. hawk. being made. promenading. greeted the eye. naturally expecting to find all surrounded by woods. with plantations of canes. as to defeat any attempt at ostriches picturesque landscape gardening. colours of the fruits and flowers. and plantations were then springing up but the situation is so flat. recently opened by Mr. and the accesto see little sories of a country-house. the scene in the public pleasure-grounds . residence of General Rosas was pointed out to me when. Hickman between which intervals. and every direction trees laden with peaches. and the mental vision glows with the and oranges. several family groups were seen either reclining under the shade of the trees. lawns. with a young plan- tation along the river. and a foreground of mud huts. The it late private . while the horned plover. and a waste covered with gigantic thistles. Ascending a spacious walk. leading to the high ground. Tame and lamas wandered amongst the trees in a field fronting the house. In such a place. . vehicles run at stated Upon entering. are . or dancing to a guitar. and the city. we moved to happiness and joy our spirits become more ethereal. is THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. figs. par- taking of fruits and refreshments. a the harbour is commanding view of in obtained . pomegranates. I : was surprised nothing of the sort here else the view was then than an extended plain.
in " consecrated ground. and other birds of prey. : but formerly devoted to bull-fights this favourite amusement of the Spanish aristocracy been suppressed in Buenos Ayres." Passing the cemetery. heavily laden with golden fruit glow- ing in the sunlight from out the deep green of the foliage. I. subscribed dents : by Protestant of.. The panorama spread out before the eye presents the most startling points of contrast VOL. cordant notes. filled 177 the air with their dis- Passing down Peru-street. however. unless extraordinary influ- ence (bribery included) was exerted to obtain inter- ment scene. however. a large square. which is well paved is and occupied by wealthy inhabitants. A this little beyond the Retiro first is the old Protestant cemetery — the spot that was ever set ^part in " winter-house" country as the of deceased Protestants — which not was constructed use in 1821. family who had all professed reformed the bodies of such " schismatics" being usually buried by the high road. which leads from the Retiro to the river.: PROTESTANT CEMETERY. the Retiro approached. resiits it is now made Prior to formation. the public cemeteries of the country were closed against any member the of the human faith . at an expense of 800/. flanked on side the river by a spacious building now used as a barrack. N . we approached a beautiful made more lovely by groves of orange and lemon trees. has.
The poverty of the country induced General . the only native cemetery attached is to the city. the exterior wears an aspect of desolation the roof and interior of the church. and shrive the dying. a branch of the Franciscan friars. had abandoned the suburbs. Occasionally a neat residence met the appearance of comfort and elegance but : it is most likely the property of some foreigner it indeed. as consent. the suburbs were the residences of the wealthy and respectable villas At no very remote more classes but now their . beautifully situated on a lofty built bank of the river. like try. adjoin miserable mud-built huts at one moment -a the air is is laden with balmy perfumes. that offend the senses in every direction. and pleasure-grounds are is fast going to ruin. with. The Recolitans are it is whose duty to take care of the dead. are well kept. and gardens. showing signs of wealth and . period. to all and it is painful to contemplate the filth decay and neglect. however. 178 here a villas THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. there a barren waste taste. Such repulsive incongruities are common the suburbs . fertile tract of land. it is all similar structures in the coun: fast crumbling to decay . The church was on a scale of great magnitude. but. judging from the aspect of the place. if might be by common The Recolita. the and squalor. supposed that the inhabitants.. wearing . presently sibkened by the effluvia frpm putrid the'sense carcass.
ment of the poor. which . the direction walked in taken by the grave-diggers. a mass for the repose of the soul is by a friar. shaded with lemon and orange being I numerous as the funereal cypress. the coflBn borne into a small chapel. and the grave-diggers a mulatto — one a negro. excepting only a crape band. and the body is then deposited in the vault or grave. When a hearse reaches is the gate of a cemetery. The cemetery trees . While was viewing the scene. I amongst the tombs. and disappeared Desirous of seeing the interas well as the rich. where candles burn on a very unas- suming said altar . met them returning with the empty on reaching the extreme end of the cemetery. the other the shells out of — unceremoniously lifting — poverty seldom has the cart. intersected with walks. patriots. or bracelet on the arm. it contained two in each of which was a dead body covered with ragged woollen garments. according to the sex : mourning habiliments being considered beyond the means of the population. There were no attendant mourners any . The names of many illustrious dead — poets. a mule drove up at a rapid pace shells without lids. a cart drawn by . 179 Rosas to publish a decree that not more than two mourning coaches should follow a corpse to the cemetery and the custom of wearing mourning was . and shells . subsequently dispensed with. placed them on barrows.FUNERAL RITES. is and warriors — are as here recorded.
enlivened by the bathers. appeared to mingle in joyous sport. and robing them. from the dim light emitted by numberless lamps used by the bathers. all classes. from the water. bathing there another group. While enjoying an evening walk on the Alameda. coffin. me on their return many of the bathers passed the women wearing flowing around long locks. without any religious ceremony. nettles was overgrown with and rank weeds. is observed. " their raven's wing. : women. had been thrown into a large pit. without any and covered only by an old woollen garment. Hundreds of were bathing men. into which the poor are flung. however.180 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. searching for their garments amongst the rocks or on the sands. The greatest decorum. and permitting their hair to fall loosely their shoulders. enjoying the brilliant moonlight and the soft balmy air of evening. . and of all ages. as the eye glanced along the agitated surface of the water. The scene was most dresses peculiar : here a family group were eelves fresh in undressing. floating in the gentle breeze. black as the robes. the beach assumed an unearthly appearance. I observed that the bodies. and children. While sitting under a tree." . always kept open.
such as Chuquisca Bolivia . Bueoos Ayres (good a and certainly this province remark- able for an equable mildness of temperature. and the salubrity of the atmosphere. IX. of Buenos Ayres — Terrific storms — The — Winter comfortless for want of warm dwellings — Inundations of plains and neglect of roads —Meteorological table — Showers of of winter — Invigorating Autumn and spring delightful — Gradual change in the temperature of the seasons — Miasma and fevers unknown.— CLIMATE OF BUENOS AYRES.•. In mildness of temperature. Pampero" ice effect its government and members versal practice — Anointing with grease a uni- — Races composing the inhabitants of Buenos Ayres. but contagious diseases prevalent — The medical profession. and other provinces the Argentine Provinces —Numbers of the population of — British emigrants. it is not equal to Chile. yet it may of fairly vie with them in salubrity. on the west coast . The geological formation of the province . air) implies is The name fine climate of . or Lima. 181 CHAPTER Climate and so " . nor even to some parts eastward of the in Andes.
are hot. the country a flat and unbroken level. bracing " Pampero. as the desired signs of an approaching tempest. is Buenos Ayres soil is for an alluvial deposit. the atmosphere of as becoming stagnant and much complained heavy. January. and February. of northerly winds. The storm lasts perhaps an hour or two. The unmixed the most part with pebbles and . and occasionally very oppressive. and light- To an unaccustomed and sublime in the terrific extreme. beholder.182 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the scene is . though the storm generally pre- ceded by a hurricane of dust. The months of December. and the cold. During the prevalence. rolling and reverberating without intermission nings blaze almost incessantly. " Darkness which may be felt" soon covers the earth as with a pall. increase till they fall in continuous streams : a deluge of rain pouring down. keen and vivid light- nings making that darkness visible. while heavy drops of rain." or fresh breeze of . when force. precursors of the tempest. however. Doors and windows are immediately secured. Clouds are then eagerly looked for in the west. and the traveller hastens to a shelter. extending from the wide-spread spurs of the Andes to the sea. which surcharge the is air with moisture. and the incessant mutterings of is distant thun- der are welcomed. the elements appear to have exhausted their Doors and windows are again opened. The thunder-peals are awful.
at winter is least to . without a ledged that fire. and renewing the materials for fresh electric explosions : it often reaches to the regions of Rio Janeiro. floors. purifying the dwellings from their hot and suffocating air . all however. so anxiously looked for. thus rendering a journey immensely labo- . built with houses. upwards of a thousand miles distant. . is laid under water owing to the flatness of the sur- face.have been recently introduced into new are houses. rushes in at every aperture. must be acknow- fires. Winter those is by no means disagreeable.. nature seems newed vigour. 183 the Pampas. they not considered necessaries. During winter. who know what arises in England and much The brick of the inconvenience felt during the winter months from other than atmospheric causes. and the sun now smiling to rejoice in its reits upon the scene. driving before dense masses of cloud. and many natives prefer passing the winter wrapped It if in their shawls and cloaks. SUMMER STORMS AND WINTER COLD. The pampero then continues it course northward. the country for miles round. greatly predispose to colds and catarrhs. But though these improvements constitute comforts. and stoves into many old ones. ill mud-plastered walls and moisture the absorb and retain much of and the general absence chilly fire-places in : rooms renders them and comfortless grates. especially the room be small and much heated.
are very bad . it is In some streets the rains have washed away the the footpath. occupy two months ing a distance which in in a few days. The thermometer seldom falls below 43 or 44 degrees. but in the unpaved portion. and it frequently happens coming from some of the smaller in towns during the winter. and other streets are so neglected as to absolutely useless for wheeled vehicles of any description. on the great road the south. which includes the greater part of the exceedingly difficult.184 rious. no suflBcient justification of the and inattention to all approaches to the city. soil six or seven feet below parts making those dangerous at be night . THE AHGENTINE PROVINCES. the communication is times sufficiently easy. not more than four or five miles that troops of carts. The roadways of the city. yet there shameful neglect. although the distance . along at all those which are paved. it is The to second bridge. which crosses a very deep and broad stream. may be taken The fol- . streets. also. as called. reach- summer may be accomplished in Although the want of stone or sand the country is is some excuse for bad roads. has been left in a ruined state it : there is not a square yard in any part of safe for the traveller. Before the road to San Jose de Flores was repaired to do honour to General Quiroga on his entry into the city. and the average temperature during the winter months at 52 degrees. it often occupied eight days for carts to is make the journey.
lowing table shows the result of meteorological observations in
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
two or three inches long and some were the
others resembled thick rings, the inner edge being
studded with crystal spikes
of a St. Michael's orange, but a shower of ice
the form of the pieces being
circular, with a hole in the centre, as already de-
some weighing from three
individuals were killed, as also birds, calves,
and deer innumerable.
In the country, or campo, usually termed "the
camp" by country
times even severe.
people, slight frosts
frequent, and the cold in winter
often sharp, some-
thus be seen that an
warmer region will find a climate changes somewhat resembles his own,
and that the difference
not so great as to create
any apprehension of a violent
on the constitu-
and revives the frame, and
compensates for any enervating
by the heats of summer.
may, however, be
stated as a general rule, that the climate relaxes the
invigorates those ad-
the spring and
speak with too
autumn it is impossible to much praise. The breeze sweeping
over a boundless plain covered with flowers,
both evening and morning with the most fragrant
are mild, cool, and elastic, and
succeeded by nights of cloudless serenity, which can
CLIMATE IN SPRING AND AUTUMN.
not be surpassed for repose and beauty.
can desire either in equality of climate, light-
ness of atmosphere, splendour of sunshine, softness
of temperature, effulgence of moonlight, and the
of the starry
heavens, unite to
render the country at these seasons peculiarly delightful. Its
long and gratefully remembered by invalids from
generally find the relief they the climate of Brazil
by a brief sojourn here.
natives as well
not be out of place to record the ob-
on the change that
taking place in the seasons.
remarked that the summers were decidedly
and the winters much colder twenty years
and as a particular
firming this assertion,
of the Recoleta
stated that at the festival
held on the 12tb of October,
every one formerly was compelled by the heat to
put on light clothing
not the case
Moreover, the older writers speak of heat,
which proves that either they were
thin-skinned, or these plagues
much more much more violent
than the present generation finds them.
Notwithstanding the dampness of the atmosphere
some seasons of the
and the vast sheets of
in the winter, followed
water that cover the
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
by the heats of summer, miasma
no ague, typhus, or infectious fever of any kind
with truth be generally asserted, that
not for intemperance, epidemic disease would
be almost unknown.
does not extend to contagious diseases, such as
measles, small-pox, and scarlatina
these have re-
peatedly appeared, in their most violent and fatal
" tribunal de medicina"
charged with the
that appertains to
general inspection and care of
the medical profession and to the public health.
formed on the French model, and has the power
of licensing medical practitioners, apothecaries, dentists,
Medicine and surgery are
cluded in the same license
the absurdity of sepa-
rating these two branches of the healing art being
very liberal to foreignhis
any gentleman exhibiting proofs of
medical education being admitted to prac-
an examination in the language of the
practitioners has very
The number of native
increased of late years,
much many young men having
turned their attention to the study of medicine
were greatly needed, not only
are, in general,
but throughout the
a superior class of men, and
maintain the dignity of their profession.
however, no medical periodical as yet published, and
sometimes obliged to record very
remarkable cases in the public papers
frequently the gratitude of
to return thanks
through the same channel
cure performed by a practitioner.
Fees are small,
to the present depression of the
ten paper dollars (or about 25.) a
eighty dollars (or I65.) for a consultation.
charge for which was formerly extrava-
gantly high, owing to the scarcity of
there are no opportunities for medical
now more moderately remunerated. Though men acquirlarge fortunes, there are many good openings
for practitioners in the interior,
guay, the Band a Oriental, and
remedy of the
the sabo, or grease.
of every grade
supposed to be a cure for
acquired from the Indians,
difference exists between the in-
habitants of these provinces and those of a colder
in the greater
nervous and vas;
cular susceptibility of the
too fatally evident in the frequency of aneurisms
of the heart, and the number of sudden deaths that
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
occur during an unusually hot summer.
years, also, the terror arising from political convul-
sions has frequently produced sudden death.
of these particulars
William Mackenna, who has also
by other valuable contri-
butions of his pen.
population of the city and province of Buenos
Ayres has undergone a
last fifty years, as
change within the
regards the different races, or
which formerly composed the inhabitants.
In the reports made to the Spanish government at
the close of the last century, the population was re-
presented as consisting of
— pure Spaniards
the offspring of the Indian
mulattoes, the offspring of Spaniards and negroes
be divided into two great
The former comprehends
Spaniards, and the Creoles or mulattoes
immigrants and their offspring.
The pure Indians have withdrawn beyond
with the .exception of such as are attached
and the negroes, since the
have gradually disappeared, and must soon
contains a very large share of Indian and negro
but these mixed races are giving place to the
but not in any considerable numbers. a large mixture of negro blood but it is not so traceable beyond the banks of those rapidly extinct. Parana. and is becoming spoken In the provinces of Corrientes and is Santiago. In the capital cities and the towns of different provinces.RACES FORMING THE POPULATION. It may not be out of place to take a passing glance at the different races that people the whole of this part of Spanish America. Along the shores of the is rivers Plate. than to yield to any further encroachments on the part of the Iberian race. Spanish the language in use. I travelled through a large district in the north of the province of Santa Fe. 191 pure Spanish. Since the independence of those provinces. and. there . Throughout the great mass of the population. rivers. and Paraguay. Indian blood preponderates. pure Spanish families are to be found . judging from present appear- ances. they are much more likely to regain portions of their former territory. yet the slightest inquiry will show that they form an extremely small portion of the inhabitants. the Indian language chiefly . together with other races from the continent of Europe. although retaining is the greatest portion of Indian blood. Although is it is generally understood that the country peopled by the Spanish race. but in all the other provinces. pure Indian tribes have become much than they were prior more hostile to the Spaniards to that epoch. which was at one period .
were more disposed to conceal to their numbers than make a true return . that it from the belief was the forerunner of some exaction on the part of the mother-country. therefore. together with the evils resulting war. all the provinces. densely peopled.192 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. the Spanish viceroys. owing defenceless state. During the government of any attempt to take a census arising was looked upon with alarm. to the form a correct estimate as extent of population. to their Buenos Ayres excepted. but which has now become deso- late in consequence of the increasing power of the Indians . It is difficult to a matter of some doubt. world to an extremely feeble condi- and the ability of the mixed races to maintain themselves against any continued hostility on the is part of the pure Indians. in statistics to The subject has been closely investigated the valuable work of Sir Woodbine Parish. — correct data He states the population of the . but that author laboured under the same disadvantage with which all other writers on the same subject have to contend not being available. and of late years. The people. have. and since the independence of the country was proclaimed. have reduced the Spanish-speaking portion of this part of the tion . the protraction of civil strife has occasioned this interesting branch of be neglected. hostile feeling The jealous and from civil unhappily existing between the pro- vinces. suffered very exposed and the wild in- much by roads of the less civilized Indians.
Azara estimated province. about 80. and the country 12. spread over a territory equal in extent to the United States of North America.000.000. at about half a million of souls. has checked the natural in- I estimate the entire population of the Argentine Republic. and the slave-trade has also been pro- VOL. being the sources for augSince the country became menting their numbers. the population appears to have mainstrength . will probably contain a hundred millions of an English-speaking population.205 souls. during although his cal- made which period from eight in to ten thousand foreigners have settled the ceaseless thirty the city. o . negro slaves from Africa. a feeling of jealousy has been manifested towards the Spaniards from the continent of Europe. the city at 40. for presuming that Azara was correct half a century has elapsed since he culation. within Both conti- nents were discovered at the same time. I. So long as Spanish tained this part of America was under rule.POPULATION. to be 24. and 34. In 1800. its territory twenty millions of people and before the close of the present century. its numerical settlers from the mother-country. and halfcivilized Indian tribes.925. independent. yet drain years of destructive civil wars for nearly crease. city of 193 Buenos Ayres. yet the latter country has now . in 1778. in round numbers.688 for the The present population of the city is .
000 32.000 22.000 50. I discovered that the population was greatly over-rated. have not only obstructed the inits crease of the population. with civil war.000 45.000 LaRioja San Luis 20.000 This estimate given . . The following is the estimated population of the : several provinces in 1848 Province of Buenos Ayres „ „ „ 200.000 45. Independent tribes of Indians are. in proportion to such as came under my own scrutiny. and have accordingly I did reduced the estimate of those provinces which not visit. not included.000 Santa Fe Entre Rios Corrientes 22.000 „ „ Mendoza San Juan 35.000 18. combined decrease.000 65.000 596.000 17. but caused Probably the present population does not greatly exceed that of the year 1800.000 „ „ Cordova Santiago „ Tucuman Salta „ „ „ Catamarca 25. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. These altered circumstances. however. is much below that which is usually but from personal investigation in the pro- vinces which I visited.— 194 hibited.
BRITISH SETTLERS. who. South America has never been preferred by emigrants from the United Kingdom. and the emigration ceased. 195 The population of and Europeans. These numbers do not include foreigners and emigrants .000. period several hundred Scotch and English settlers and mechanics arrived in the country. who . are not very numerous. estimated . 1825. Parish. According to the estimate . where they had been previously settled and since then a few have occasionally come direct from Ireland. But although the English and Scotch population Irish have not emigrants increased. saved money. however. in 1836. of has set The first arrivals came in 1825 from North America. an unexpected tide in. At of the emigrants are from the County Westmeath. special About the year to encouragement was given British subjects by the Government of Rivadavia* with the and at that view of inducing them to colonize the banks of the River Plate . disappointed hopes of their founders.000 which I believe to be the extreme amount. All these undertakthe however. Sir the Banda Oriental may be estimated to be 100. ings. Paraguay to be about 250. one-half being Brazilians W. and sent least three-fourths home for their friends. chiefly under the patronage of minins: or land associations. The num- bers of British residents are not at present greater than they were in 1825.
was about 3. of late years. but by the great mass of the native population Irish. and the many reasons. . is rapidly passing the hands of Italians and. There are so is no country where the labouring rewarded as in classes well the province field of for the Buenos Ayres. The navigation into of the rivers . subjects are preferred. of One lamentable fact is the deficiency women' three-fourths of the immigrants being single men. including ages and sexes. not only by the authorities. the Eeverend Mr. for . prior to the Anglo-French intervenall tion. Fahy. which opens a boundless British laborious and enterprising. they are eagerly sought and happy : is the swain upon whom the fair one smiles the Irish seldom or never intermarry with the natives.196 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. of their excellent pastor. When after. are particularly acceptable. females do arrive. French mechanics have out-numbered the English. their number.500.
appear to be a well-watered country. —The four great — Small proportion of wet days in the year— Canals impossible — Surface water only available — Course of the principal rivers favourable for commercial intercommunication — The Rio de la Plata.— DEFICIENCY OF WATER. probably have been struck with admiration at the as intersecting: number of rivers indicated the Argentine Provinces. which fact is. 197 CHAPTER The Argentine Provinces rivers X. the Paraguay. the Parana — Importance of great rivers — Extent of inland navigation — Mode of communication between Buenos Ayrcs and Salta — The two high roads through the Provinces deficient in water — Causes of the want of water —Bullock-carts the only means of carriage Duration of long journeys for merchandize — Numbers of cattle and drivers employed in a troop— Difficulties of the route habits of the drivers — Expenses of carriage —Food and —Water coma munication wholly disregarded. . The reader wlio may have will consulted map of South America. but the that mpst of these are shallow water-courses. whose sluggish streams are almost dried up in summer.
and the found in the Parana. or prairie the greater part of which appears a dead level to the eye. The whole tion. one vast grassy plain.a 198 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. become similar influences. is extent of territory. The majestic Andes. and become evaporated by the soil. rains. which form the western boundary. and are eventually lost in some level country . spread themselves over the plains without forming any very decided course. with a small excep. though they become swollen by winter and soon overflow their banks. or the great rivers. pour down their everlasting waters upon these plains. and whose may ultimately reach the Atlantic. however. The cause of this deficiency is nature of the country. to this Streams which form exceptions waters remark. in a multitude of streams and of rivers. From the borders of Patagonia to the bounds of Salta — distance of perhaps fifteen hundred veller's solitary miles— the tra- way may never be cheered or varied by the welcome sight of hills. the Gualaguay. the Uruguay. on reach- ing the base of the mountains. or ab- sorbed by the So it is with the waters from the hills around Tandil. their course considerably diminished by In some instances they continue between well-defined banks. and also those from the mountains in the province of Cordova. are the only rivers worthy of the name. The Plata. air. which. and inundate the plains. where they .
CAUSES OF WANT OF WATER. consequently without For the same reason. much from falls the rain which being very insufficient. " Where is the The causes that prevent the formation of con- siderable rivers also forbid the existence of many lund-springs. there are no permanent lakes : the ground having no declivity to conduct it rain-water onwards in streams or rivers. A traveller of.. either 199 form a shallow lake. Esq. which are formed by a conjunction of subterranean waters brought together by the irregularity of the earth through which they percolate . or creep lazily on. in which often becomes dried up deficiency of water summer. and springs. number of days on which rain fell in Buenos . spreads over the level surface until spot. therefore. : scarcely seeming to move. which in summer are nearly dried up. Wilde. kept by J. or a languid flow of water so insignifi- cant that he river ?" is tempted to ask. will hear the streams and rivers much spoken but on reaching them he will find a watercourse dried up. The a inhabitants. it reaches some lower where it forms a shallow lake (or laguna). or exist as a stream in winter. usually suffer . The of the following record. but in this part of the world is the earth forms almost a plane. some rivers are swollen into rapid streams.
average of only 73^ days in each year January .— 200 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. shows an : Ay res. . . during a period of seven years. .
partly for the formation of canals. run like arteries through the heart of the territory. affording an unbroken channel of communication. Paraguay. can exchange the excess of the mineral districts of Bolivia of that while the whole the back-ground unknown world forming of Brazil.GREAT RIVERS. as water. Neither can water-mills. But. their productions with . uninhabitable. the if to atone for this general deficiency of magnificent rivers La Plata. to a very considerable extent. the country would be. were it not that water is generally parts found near the surface. far distant parts of the ter- ritory into Pampas. Parana. had not the discretion first to ascertain the practicability of carrying out their plans. are ready to pour all . These mighty to bring rivers are so situated make all the resources of the country available. In short. for many thousand as to miles. depth supply abundance of water thus forcing the subsoil being of such a nature as to resist the filtration of water through it. and reaching on towards the sources of the Amazon and Oronoco. extending The rich pastures of the away towards Cape Horn. ever be general. and virtually some of the most proximity. the country In almost in all of — some districts the northern profeet in vinces excepted — wells of a few . between the fertile regions of this vast continent. and Uruguay. or other machinery worked by water-power. 201 a loan of a million sterling in England. it to remain on the surface.
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
country as yet without any roads beyond the track
are destined to be the great channels
commerce, and the means of communicating
present engaged in purstate
must gradually concentrate
as has been
the case on the banks of the Mis-
first river, in
and, from the quantity of fresh water
pours into the Atlantic,
one of the wonders of the earth
long before the
mariner conies within sight of land, he
and a hundred
miles out at sea,
mouth, between Maldonado and Cape
Antonio, the width
higher up, the distance from Santa Lucia to
Laspeidras on the opposite shore,
double the distance from Dover to Calais.
a vessel can anchor in
the roadstead of Buenos
than one hundred and
miles of fresh water.
RIVERS PLATA AND PARAGUAY.
the Rio de la
Plata receives the waters of the Parana and the
The River Paraguay takes
south latitude, and passes through the rich Braterritories
of Motto Grozzo and
eastward, where they
many tributaries from the may hereafter afford a comit
munication with the valuable gold and diamond
province of Paraguay, which
water for a distance of nearly
Parana near Corrientes.
measuring the extent of inland navigation formed
by the Parana and the Paraguay, we find a
and open water-course from Jauru,
in latitude 16°,
mouth of the River Plate
degrees of latitude, measuring the straight distance
north and south, through the whole of which there
not a rock or rapid to impede the navigation.
The most important tributaries of the Paraguay Pilcomayo and the Vermejo, which fall into it near Assumption both of them taking their
the rich mineral districts of
has never been accurately determined
and Cornijo estimate
at at least three yards, whilst
Soria and Descalse reduce
to twenty or twenty-
river a free
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
might be opened with the province of
north-west of Rio de
Janeiro, in latitude 21° south.
nearly two hundred miles, broken by
reaches the Jesuit missions of Guarani
suddenly becomes reduced from a width of nearly
three miles, to a rocky gorge of not
more than a
hundred yards wide, over which
sixty feet high.
force and volume, forming a splendid cataract of
afterwards, and as far as the
For a hundred miles mouth of the Curitaba,
only a succession of
reaching Candilaria, once the chief town of the
turns westward, and flowing onward in
an uninterrupted course, joins the Paraguay
already stated) near Corrientes.
the confluence of the
Parana and Para-
at Corrientes, the
combined waters of these
a turbid and rapid
and Entre Rios, from those
Buenos Ayres; and
of the year
the Plata at
the rains in the tropics swell
and the melting of the snow on the Andes has
the same effect in
the heaviest floods are
during the summer months, beginning with December,
increases from eighteen to twenty-four
CHANNELS OF INTERCOMMUNICATION.
feet in depth.
The Paraguay, owing
channel, and the loftiness of
In taking a comprehensive view of the capabilities
of any country, as regards the elements of either
national or commercial greatness, facility of inter-
course between distant provinces must necessarily
be one of the
objects of inquiry.
adequately to appreciate the value and importSt.
ance of the Mississippi, the
Lawrence, the Rhine,
Danube, to those countries through which they
they are the great arteries through
which the life-blood of commerce
which plains now the scenes of industry and
man, would have remained the abodes of desolaand haunts
for wild beasts.
The Argentine Provinces cannot boast
miles of inland navigation, which,
either directly or
under their own
necessity that exists for
duction of steam upon these rivers
are competent to express an
opinion upon the matter are aware that the country
sensible progress in
wealth, without the agency of steam communication.
In describins: the
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
intercourse between the province of Salta, and the
The communication between
points should undoubtedly be by water rather than
sede the tedious, clumsy, and costly
high roads traverse the Argentine territory
commercial communications of
Buenos Ayres with the provinces of San
doza, and the Republic of Chile
those which Buenos Ayres keeps up with Cordoba,
also to the provinces of
in length to
and extends 104 leagues thence to Santiago de Chile, by the dangerous pass of Uspallata in the Cordillera
the latter embraces an extent of 528 leagues to
which, in this direction, forms the point
of contact between the Argentine and the Bolivian
Republic. This last distance
subdivided as follows
From Buenos Ayres
„ „ Santiago to
Cordoba to Santiago del Estero
Salta to Jujuy
TRAFFIC BY BULLOCK-CARTS.
leaving Jujny for Peru, twenty-nine leagues
before arriving at Laquiaca,
according to Corness, twenty-two leagues
from the confluence of the
Jujuy with that
of Tarissa, at which point the two rivers, under the name of " Bermejo," first become navigable.
The Argentine Provinces have no means of
which there are considerable workshops
Notwithstanding the good quality of the
timber used in
kind of vehicles, and the
of their construction, they do not last
above two years, on account of the roughness of
and the alternate action of both sun
which they are incessantly exposed.
a cart can
judged of from the
four journeys from
may be make only
or, in the
to Salta within
two going and two returning
the year, however,
language of the country, two round
not available for
although no weather absolutely
during which the rivers
The carters prefer month of April or May, and swamps are shallow
August, September, and October,
on account of
great scarcity of water and pasturage
period considered best for
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
loading in Buenos Ayres,
April to the middle of November.
These expeditions are usually made
about thirty-five hundredweight,
or troops of fourteen carts, each of which, holding
oxen, and also requires to have three spare yoke of
the troop, therefore, requires 336 oxen to
complete the journey, the whole being under the care
of about thirty drivers.
reach Buenos Ayres
Salta, a distance of
450 leagues, takes about
three months; the return journey occupies some-
are very great.
Rains, hurricanes, and dust-storms,
and both men and beasts
suflfer much from want of water and shelThey are compelled to wade through innumerable swamps and inundations, some of which
cannot be passed in a day
and thus the animals
to their bellies in
to pass the
whole night up
chief difficulties are the
over which there are no bridges
necessary to unload the whole of their cargoes, and
swim the bullocks
over, while the
and ferry the goods across
in pelotas, or rafts
they wait for days and weeks by the river
But even when the most prosperous, the waggons must be
unloaded twice in the province of Santiago, and a
third time in
and very few trains arrive
an occasional upset,
besides carts needing repair, with a thousand other
the journey, the food of the
and grassy, plains
they halt and recruit the animals.
resemble sailors in character and habits
they are reckless, good-natured, and jolly.
the conductor brings his
Somefamily with him
in a separate
and when two troops meet
on a journey, they halt
are all fond of dancing, and are never
without a guitar
some are good improvisator!,
pleasures and adventures
their journeys to each other, as in the Bucolics of
and thus they pass away many a moonmerrily dancing and singing.
Buenos Ayres, gambling
The expenses attending the transmission of goods this mode of conveyance, including the duties
to 201. per ton
payable in the different provinces through which
the waggons pass,
articles of great
in proportion to their value,
the carriage alone must absorb forty or
scarcely credit the fact, that this long
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
overland journey, of three months' duration, and of
more than a thousand
through a country without roads or bridges, along a
track running parallel with
steam-vessels upon the Parana and the Paraguay
would not only enable the Argentine Provinces
bring their products readily to market, but
induce adventurous traders to penetrate into the very
and Peru. For much solid information on the
roads and rivers, I
Angelis, the author of several important volumes on
the history of this country.
salting and drying hides. A. Cattle constitute one of the most important articles of production in these provinces. the flesh salted and dried. W. 211 CHAPTER XL Saladeros.— 8ALADER0S. Fahy. Brown and Rev. or cattle-steaming establishments — Mode of killing the beasts. and the hides prepared for exportation. and brokerage of the barracero Monetary matters Bank of Buenos Ayres drained of its specie by Government The Casada Moneda and its operations The Savings Bank under official management Fluctuating value of the paper currency of Buenos Ayres Table of exchange Mercantile operations based on barter Working of the system Currency of the other provinces Circulating medium of Monte Video Influence of British merchants Prosperity of British settlers Letters from Rev. . on the prospects of immi- — — — — — — — — — — — — grants. Dr. D. coring the flesh. and extracting tallow Saladero — Price from the carcass Cost of establishing a and purchase of cattle Loss attending the — — driving of cattle to the city — Barracas or warehouses of Buenos Ayres. and there are iu Buenos Ayres several very large establishments called Saladeros. the tallow extracted. where the beasts are slaughtered.
and piled open air. and covered by a large shed. from November to March. under flay the carcass. by which means the animal with its is head close to a block . except for the hide only.212 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. consisting of alternate salt. and the third day. the spinal falls drawn up marrow is then separated. three days' sun will complete the proit cess at other seasons will require eight or ten . the flesh in cut into strips of about half an inch pickle . In summer . and attached to a yoke of oxen. along which is drawn by hand. The mode of it killing the . which runs on a tramway. and there : being most sun for drying the flesh cattle are seldom killed in winter. the cattle being then in the best condition. and generally piled in the evening about an hour before sunset. and put into tubs of these strips are afterwards placed in piles. in the is washed in pickle. Summer. is the season when these establishments do most business. layers of beef and On if the next day it is turned it over. animal is by lazoing in the corral a rope is then passed over the horns through a pulley. six each about yards square. thickness. In a few days afterwards the rails strips are hung across every morning to dry in the sun. and cut it up for This laid for is a simple process: is when the carcass has an hour. This tramway is usually about forty yards long. and the beast on a moveable it platform. time be an object. which the men curing.
SALTING BEEF AND HIDES. make its it long and narrow ness. the meat being so placed may penetrate through the whole the vat is The bottom of first covered with large bones. Hides for England and Antwerp are . The hides are manner they are : also first prepared in a very simple steeped in brine. and in winter perhaps twenty. then washed and state piled in layers of hides and salt . The ner : carcasses of oxen are steamed in this manis as soon as the animal is slaughtered. better in quality than ordinary. heavier than any others and those for Spain are usually ten per cent. 213 is This called "jerked beef. as twenty-four or twenty -six stakes As many are used to fasten down the two extremities to the ground. . by which it best attains thickre- Those intended thin leather. for Spain. so that the hide dries thicker. in such a manner that the bones of the . is a tedious operation requiring care and attention. generally twenty per cent. it cut up and stowed away that the steam pile. Those required for the German market are stretched length- wise only. or any country quiring it are staked so as to longitudinally as extend as both laterally and much possible. twelve montlis. Drying the English or however. to stretching the hide from head to tail. in vats." and is prepared only for shipment to the Brazils and the Havanna. in which they will keep safely for hides. days. then alternate layers of meat and bone are placed.
received in tubs. each capable of steaming two hundred head of cattle daily. Mr. where it is allowed to cool down. The carcasses must be in a perfectly sweet state when placed in the vats. The large vat on Mr. into a large wrought-iron tank. the tallow is conveyed. Jonathan Downs. 214 fore THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Dowdall's establishment fifty will contain the carcasses of two hundred and oxen the steaming occupies from sixty to seventy hours. that gentleman. which liquid. am indebted for my information on this subject. and its value greatly lessened. and the steam turned on. It is afterwards drawn off into casks. the liquid . and prepared for shipment. and hind quarters shall overlap. Dowdall has also two other boilers. They are steamed so long as any fat pours out but when water only flows. as well as to I To Mr. according to the is of the vat. The doors of the vat are then secured. leaving a space for the steam to penetrate and saturate the pile. it is rapidly conveyed to a large cast-iron it where undergoes a purifying process. from which boiler.: . From the boiler. comes and forth in a greasy being allowed to go to waste. At the end of twelve hours or size more. established about the year Saladeros were 1815. drawn off by means of a large brass tap first the con- densed steam. is Gradually liquid tallow begins to flow. through a shoot. then the operation is complete. first when it was thought a rare matter to slaughter . otherwise the smell of the tallow will be injured.
From the low prices of beef in this country. for preserving beef far has proved satisfactory. The cost of an establishment capable is of slaughtering a thousand head per week. In purchasing cattle for these establish- ments. whether direct from an estanciero or through an agent. if the Saladero. Two mutton enterprising Englishmen have and the result so lately comand menced an establishment in tin cases . be anticipated that a time will may reasonably come when England it and her colonies world. all risk in conveying animals into the . where the carcass of a fat ox can be obtained for six or eight shillings. commenced about twenty years ago which time the process has been continually im- proved. Cattle are always paid for in cash price is . Steaming the bones of oxen grease was since for the sake of the . the Brazils.COST OF A SALADERO. the present delivered in about three silver dollars each. in the 215 same establishment a hundred animals per there are about twenty such establishin existence. during the season. town rests with the purchaser the responsibility of the seller ceasing when he has conveyed them . and other parts of the supplied with beef from Buenos Ayres. will be . day . and the trade has been annually increasing. about two thousand pounds their . although several have cost : owners much more the steaming apparatus alone will require about one thousand pounds. now ments each slaughtering from two to four hundred head per day.
with five or six drovers. beyond the bounds of but latterly. travelling by moonlight is it also in summer. thirty to in a hundred head out of a large drove instances some has one hundred and been left fifty to two hundred it head have on the way. happened that a whole herd has been custom pasture is . and lost. they are driven at the rate of twenty-five to thirty miles per day. vicious is and attacks the in which case is lazoed. and scamper off miles. according to the uncommon to lose from . will usually take charge of about six hundred animals. one of these men. the whole herd may motion. Their payment is from five to fifteen paper dollars each head of distance.216 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. many of the influential estancieros sold their cattle deliverable at the Saladero. whose business is it to convey cattle from the lands of the seller. in every direction for several If cattle be in good condition. The . his estancia. The good to stop for the night. It is not cattle. where there is and the drovers are employed cattle : in riding round the on stormy nights. Another leading branch of or industry is the management of barracas. There are men called Capatases. to the purchaser. warehouses. Sometimes an animal drovers . and a piece of partly over the skin of the head cut so as to hang the eye. nearly obscuring the sight. extremely difficult to keep the animals together and when get into they begin to scatter. it is .
to also cus- tomary employ a broker. a broker it afterwards deposited in consisting barracas. and it is gratifying to state that the Irish population are money-lenders . The to proprietor rent. and makes the shipment cent. articles a barracero required. produce of the country in is 2l7 usually offered for sale the or public plazas. Discounting monopolized by well-known money-lenders. . When a mercantile house is wishes to export. where hydraulic presses are used packing. when borrowed. the buying and shipping prois duce reduced to a simple and uniform practice. effects the whole transaction cent. sell derives his income from warehouse or store and . of whom about one-half are foreigners . his charge being one and a half per In this way. per for is although the rate of interest in the discount of bills from eighteen fixed pro- annum. pays generally bills is chiefly one per cent. yet perty yields no more than from six to nine per cent. per month. who . . who buys the packs the bales. Gold.BARRACAS AND BROKERS. employed. sixty depots. per annum. The accumulation of capital Buenos Ayres must be very considerable to twenty -four per cent. There are altogether about in native and dealers produce. his brokerage being one per it is In the shipment of salted hides. either is by the owner himof self. in the city of . stores for extensive establishments and sheds. his is brokerage also often when employed a dealer in buy or he produce.
seventeen notes.000 shares of 1.500 dollars. amount indeed . in 1. having the exclusive right of issuing notes in that province for twenty years. and Provincial in poverty. or gold ounce. of one dollar each.000 dollars each. their business alone : would be an important item to a broker in the yet they arrived country strangers. a character was changed: it instead of being Provincial Bank. for the purpose of circulating notes through the field profits. and yielded : the shareholders its shares were at directors one time worth 2. The Bank of Buenos Ayres was esta- blished by charter in 1823. not in any way connected with its government. The notes issued for circulation were payable in specie on demand . dred dollars each seven shares of the National Bank vincial lion being exchanged for one share of the Pro- Bank. being is exchangeable for what loon. Government subscribed three and the public the remainder. and during brief existence aflforded accommodation a fair profit to to the commercial world. commonly called a doub- According to the practice of .218 to a large THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. of and augmenting National in shares of its The capital of the Bank was two hun- five million Spanish dollars. with a capital of one million Spanish dollars. British its The and chief proprietors were and other foreign merchants. mil- dollars. all its the provinces. become a its National Bank. In 1825. thereby increasing operations. . It was a private the undertaking.
therefore. . 219 the Provincial Bank. only a select few derive any benefit from this privilege. was divided. the State thus becoming however. the government extent . a debtor to the shareholders. to their stock. Moneda" The issued by the in Casa de Moneda professed be payable . and a legal tender. amount at one per cent. have been taken is it to fund or consolidate the debt nor recognized as a debt in any of the public reports. and was called the " Casa de in (money house). proprietors had the privilege of overdrawing their accounts.BANK OF BUENOS AYRE8. when four per cent. This establishment offers to receive gold and silver on deposit. in a ratio proportionate In the exercise of this right. it and viewing the bank as a national gradually absorbed nearly all insti- the capital. out paying interest few. and about the same time relieved the bank from the necessity of cash payments . In that year the character of the bank was again changed . take advantage It also of the accommodation. per month. per month is but although the rate of discount in the market from one and a half to two per cent. No steps. first overdrew its credit to the full then. certain discounts bills to a . . under the alleged pressure of national necessity. or paper to first other words the Mint. tution. 1836. but with. last The in annual dividend paid to the shareholders was February. specie —although it never really was but it now simply is represents so many dollars currency. indeed it its functions as a bank entirely ceased.
Exchange on England from the compiled from the news. . it began to languish. as its official guardian. then took charge of the funds its but no report of fore the public.. Bank was instituted under government patronage in 1822. operations has lately come be- The Curkent Rates of years 1823 to 1847 inclusive PAPERS OF Buenos Atres. and went on prosperously until but about that period the military revolution disarranged everything. The government. A Savings 1828 . and for want of attention. 220 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
menced. blockades. the exchange was at forty-five in January 1827. In January 1826. the exchange . than 1847 . 1828 and ruin upon at twenty pence. The Anglo-French vernment intervention compelled the go- very large amount of paper but were peace established. began to decline ciated currency. The rates of exchange are not brought down to a later period doubtless begin to advance.. at twelve pence: all thus bringing in those who were engaged com- merce. unstable so governments. is no easy matter to conduct mercantile operations to any extent. of course. blockades and civil war have so un- . and in January 1829. the fluc- tuating value of the paper currency will be seen. down the period of the late blockade. the value of the currency. bank from cash payment. the exchanges would The balance of trade is greatly in favour of the country. 221 By From a reference to the foregoing table. when war with Brazil compence . the moment that government exonerated the and with a very depreIn any country . have it depreciated its value that cannot fall much the lower. the exchange would present moment have shown to issue a a steady increase. continued to improve and there is no doubt that at the had peace continued. From to the removal of the French blockade. rapidly and revolutions. such a currency must be always below par here civil but war. it . FLUCTUATIONS OF PAPER CURRENCY.
. like all other mercantile opera- tions. operations upon the principle of barter selling and as in goods he cannot foresee at what price he bills may be able to obtain of exchange. that operates to enhance the value of the currency. commerce. a question of supply and demand. in the rate of is The value in of the currency very little influenced. owing to the fluctuations of the currency. then the value of the dollar must increase : unless in the this mean time there be an issue equivalent to increased demand. and is thus enabled to form an accurate idea of the exchange which a remittance in produce would yield. which. after resolves into itself. its value is determined chiefly by the demand all. In unsettled times. necessity to make returns in produce especially if any sudden depreciation takes place exchange. in the long run. every merchant is obliged to base his . as to render the exchanges more accidental than natural. he compares the price of produce in Europe with that in his own market. therefore. 222 settled THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. nor is its value very much influenced by rumours respecting the stability or instability of government: . by the ordinary political agitation the country . is principally an increase in the . fifteen millions are required. Local business transactions during any given period may but require ten if for millions to facilitate exchanges another similar period of time. The cause. Many are in this way compelled by .
is circulating medium of Monte Video is gold. likely. All contracts made in specie are is payable by law in currency. at- Buenos Ayres excepted. necessarily enter into is The export of the precious metals in bullion or coin . a Corrientes its . therefore. The silver. great numbers must also be look- ing for currency to pay for such produce. . for within six months which pur- pose permits are granted at the custom-house to the importer : these documents are negotiable. all The currency of tempt at the provinces is metallic. was without guarantee. and of course at a considerable discount is : a return to specie. great numbers are seeking produce.. however. and one - sixteenth pieces : namely. which must be paid for currency when. and copper. hence the proximate cause of its increased value. however be re-exported after importation. forbidden. . made an issue paper currency. one- eighth. one-fourth. 223 demand in for native produce. . the value of which determined by the brokers therefore. and subdivided into one-half. pure gold coins. however. whether they can. The stamped gold doubloon sixteen value for is patacones or hard dollars. neither gold nor silver. Many but this transactions are is made payable in specie the result of mutual agreement and convenience. circulation. first its being guaranteed by wealthy citizens second issue. CURRENCY OF THE PROVINCES.
Video was a Spanish colony. Spanish »» dollar equal to 3 vintens or 60 5 » >» o *2 „ „ 120 i> i i 240 480 960 „ „ „ : „ „ „ is 24 48 „ „ „ dollar The Brazilian patacone is also in circulation. . the circulating medium re- mained as fixed by the Brazilians. thus the lowest the I I Brazilian patacon. five : patacones were value for six Spanish dollars all accounts. an independent republic but there being neither national coin.. and the mode of keeping accounts continued as under the Spanish government. continued to be kept as they had been previously. equal to 8 vintens or 160 reis.. silver coins the lowest -f^ Of the is the reis. » . the consisted of Spanish coins . in circulation what which is is called Monte Video currency dollar of equal value with Spanish dollars. it was decided that the Brazilian be current at twenty per cent. medium but on Portuguese getting possession they sought to assimilate the currency to their own. this To simplify operation. patacone should higher value than the Spanish dollar thus. nor mint.— 224 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. . therefore. „ 16 „ 320 640 „ „ „ cir- I » „ 32 48 „ „ „ patacon 960 When Monte culating the. with. out columns also the French and North Ame- . There the is now. however. the country became . Afterwards.
in 225 There are likewise circulation (being twenty per cent. more valuable than those already named) the Spanish dollars with columns. and the prospect of reward to British capital and industry is most favourable. In stating this I do not rely on VOL. and a salutary check on their opposites. the dollars of the Spanish the American Republics.. and patacones. immigrants are well received. is quoted. my own observa- Q . AND CLERKS. I. it has reference to the currency British merchants form a very influential portion of the most respectable class of the community their honourable principles and enlightened views incentives to being those who appreciate the value of high mercantile character. and at present they form but a fractional part of the circulating medium the rate of merchants are therefore found keeping their accounts in a fictitious currency. When exchange dollar. BRITISH MERCHANTS rican dollars. British settlers are prosperous. A superior class of young land as men have lately come out from Engclerks. Buenos Whether as merchants or estancieros. Both in the city and in the province of Ayres. who must eventually become valumercantile interest of the able auxiliaries to the country. as artisans or as la- bourers. Brazilian and Portuguese the The dollars denominated Monte Video currency have nearly disappeared.
Brown. and the cir- cumstances in which most of those composing it came to this warrants their case to be taken as an ditition of example of the con- emigrants in general.D. Dr. I . but under special engagements.226 tion THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. not to be looked for by such own account. in order to satisfy myself on addressed letters to the Rev. their arrival. fields to the viz. and experience only this head. and facilities forming settlements. D. W. 1848. and at their own This province presents two separate enterprise and industry of labourers. the minister of the Scotch Church. The clergyman of the English Church in the having only recently arrived not apply to him. A. — My experience has reference country perhaps scarcely almost exclusively to the Scotch community. and Rev. from Roman whom 1 received the follow- ing replies. the occu- pation of the country. Dear Sir. as. Brown. In reference to the former territorial extent it must be kept in view that the of the . country. I did Letter from the Rev.. chaplain to the Irish Catholics. to W. They came not in the character of mere adventurers. Buenos Ayres. D. 2nd February. and consequently enjoyed comforts in and advantages on as emigrate on their risk. Fahy. and the pursuits of handicraft in the city.
and the habits of the natives. and the scantiness of the native population. a preference in most rural employments. Comparatively few hands suffice performance of pastoral work. number of perhaps limited. affords ample scope for foreign activity and The is principal way. WM. in which our cpuntry- uien can exercise their industry to most advantage.LETTER OP DR. 227 province. in the management and occupancy of dairy and sheep farms. secures an easy and abundant maintenance. A small amount of savings expended is in the purchase of stock. give them. Agriculture in is still very limited and very rude it . and ample remuneration to good . and. and the economical terms on which their services can be procured. easily Steady families of good character can procure situations of this description. for artisans is in a great measure the to the city. however. are not the measure of the demand for foreign for the labour. though land every day becoming more diffiit cult to procure in the neighbourhood of the city. and skill. generally speaking. BROWN. may always be The demand confined all rented on comparatively moderate terms at a greater distance. and is nations already here. But from within the limits set by the population necessarily taste —a spirit limit and rapidly widening natives — the and of the always guarantee abundant employment workmen. therefore. the districts where is protected.
artisans and farmers have been ex- empted from all demands on their time or property to. these facts prominently appear cal :— Amidst the politi- convulsions which have occurred in the course of that period. There is no law against the acquisition and holding of heritable property by foreigners. All fiscal and municipal regulations have equal natives reference to trial and foreigners. what naturally springs from and the nature and the its number of wants.228 There is THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. to All indus- pursuits are open natives and foreigners alike. Difference of religious belief opposes no impedi- ment to the exercise of industry in any branch of business. in reference to the con- dition of the labouring class of British residents. during which I in this country. Many who in the condition of me- . such as natives have been subjected and have without been enabled to prosecute their calling any other interruption than inevitably and naturally resulted from the landed here casual circumstances of society. except state of society. and British subjects besides have the right secured testament. no restriction on the exercise of foreign industry. Reviewing the have resided twenty years. as they to them by treaty of dispos- ing of their property of every description by will or may judge last fit. either in town or country.
1st February.LETTER OF REV. and living in the enjoy- ment of competence and independence. I may add it — what I consider a very decisive proof of the natural abundance of this country. dear sir. yours very Wm. Esq. is the extent to which this exercise of charity re- quired truly. and children of parents necessitous circumstances. are now moving in spheres of influence and usefulness. — I am. Fahy. of the scope fort affords for labour. D. A. D. have acquired considerable property. Wm. Dear Sir. Brown. A. farm-servants. Mac Cann. — I have been favoured with your in letter of the 28th ultimo. two-thirds of whom . 229 and labourers. and that though we have now of the made a congregational arrangement for the relief the gratuitous education in of poverty. which you this state that you have been travelling through joining provinces with and the adsolid a view of acquiring . and of the general com- and prosperity of our countrymen — that till very recently the necessity of a regular provision for the destitute was not felt. information regarding these countries and that were while on your journey you frequently came in contact with British subjects. chanics. FAHY. Letter from the Rev. is very limited. Buenos Ayres. 1848.
the resources of if this province will begin to be developed. where there are no stones. have often known poor men to make one hundred pounds a year each. and travelling through this province. begin to surround their houses with chacras and In addition to this. find and also laws in they enjoy the propersons tection suits. . and sober I and industrious labourers could be introduced. in making ditches alone. . In a country like this. also will give The hefding to a of sheep employment large number of hands.230 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. labourers that In fact. When once peace is established. is where the slauffhterinff of cattle I carried on to such an suppose there are upwards of two million every year in the province head of cattle killed of Buenos Ayres alone. from Ireland you now wish classes if to know from me employment and pur- whether the labouring in this province. I have never met a man that could not find employment. have been in. unless during a portion of the blockade. of the their In reply to these questions I beg leave to for the five years that I state. consider the vast number extent. there is such a scarcity of risen wages have often from I five shillings to seven and sixpence per day. that will be required in saladeros. especially when the estancieros will quintas. a large number of labourers must always find employment at work of that kind.
These assertions may appear strange in England. mative. that the respect which British subjects pay to the govern- ment and laws of the country. As you have travelled through this as well as many of the other provinces of the Argentine Confederation. with regard to the state of this country the heat of party feeling shall subside. will I hope your testimony of its real state remove many of the misrepresentations which parties interested have taken so much trouble to . have no doubt that in a A. and for which the government can be no more responsible than the Lord Lieutenant for the crimes that are committed in distant parts of Ireland. when sure I am my evidence will be supported by every impartial mind. I I answer distinctly in the affir- have never met any British subject that to the was not most grateful Ayres at a distance government of Buenos for the protection they enjoyed. makes them more acceptable to the natives than those of any other country. 231 few years this province would become a perfect paradise. from the seat of government many crimes will be committed which the most vigilant eye cannot detect. Of course.LETTER OF REV. D. also. FAHY. but where there has been so much misrepresentation . I the must add. whether British subjects enjoy the protection of the laws in their persons and pursuits. In answer to your second question.
Esq. safe return to Europe. Wishing you a sir. Wm. Calle Cann. . dear your obedient servant. de la Universadad. Chaplain to the Irish Anthony D..232 circulate. Roman Catholics. Mac 12. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Fahy. I am.
in Thursday — Preparations on the following days for Holy —Exhibition of images of Christ.. and the — Public pulpits for the —Procession streets laity on Friday night by lamp. Catholics of the Roman church beggared by the temporal power — A state — Government the priests paid head of the Church in South America — Parish by the College in State.light— Striking scene on Saturday at noon to conimemorate the Ascension— Burning of Judas — Indulgences offered for attending pro— Mendicant monks — Polite behaviour and good humour of the people — Costly preparations of the ladies for costumes to wear on Holy Thursday — High mass the cathedral — Display before the altar— The ladies and their dresses — Contrast of South American and English beauty Iscariot in effigy cessions at Procession of the bishop and clergy. the Virgin. on — — — Monday saints. the Virgin.— RELIGIOUS ESTABLISHMENTS. &c. 233 CHAPTER Religious establishments XII. Thr religious establishments of the in the city of Roman Catholic Church Buenos Ayres were originally . and by fees and gifts— Friars and nuns Established religion of the country — Decay of the Jesuit — Low but improving state of education — Schools Buenos Ayres kept by foreigners on sufferance Cathedral of Buenos Ayres Holy week as celebrated by the ecclesiastics Public procession of images of Christ.
on which depended for support. and must have covered at least thirty English acres .. The was name alone was heard of. have become absorbed by the demands expensive wars. unlike most Catholic countries. into ruin. into jealous for the introduction of Papal power the new world. and the traveller Ayres is for carrying visiting on Buenos astonished at beholding magnificent churches. struction people and Julius II. his authority spiritual absolute. and no foreign : power was allowed to intervene even Papal Bulls were not . strikingly exhibited in the Argentine Provinces for. and other ecclesiastical edifices. confirmed by the Pope. The Spanish monarch to thus became his head of the American Catholic Church. utterly netilected and falling. The is spectacle of a state church beggared by the it temporal power. but the re- venues of the Church. the South American colonies of Spain were excluded from the government of the Holy See. and nomination of ecclesiastics as a vacant benefices was. like those of the State. 234 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. on a scale of great magnitude. obtained from Pope Alexander VI. soon afterwards conferred on the sovereign of Spain the absolute the disposal of all ecclesiastical benefices in new world. matter king's of course. Ferdinand. on condition of the Crown making of the provision for the religious in. in a grant to all the crown of Spain of the tithes newly discovered countries.
CHURCH OF SPANISH AMERICA.
adinitted, until they
had been approved of by the
council of the Indies
any bull should be
introduced and circulated in America without obtaining that approbation, ecclesiastics were required
not only to prevent
but to seize
the copies and deliver them to the civil authority.
Such was the
upon which the Church was
Spanish American colonies.
part of the ecclesiastics were what are
termed the regular clergy (monks and
to stimulate their pious zeal, the
missionaries of the four mendicant orders to accept of
parochial charges, to perform
to receive the tithes
and other emoluments of
the benefice, without depending on the jurisdiction
of the bishop of the diocese, or being subject to his
these countries proclaimed their indepen-
Church patronage of the Crown was transthe local governments of the various proat last
and thus General Rosas
head of the Argentine Catholic Church. In the earliest
legislative acts of the
House of Assembly, we
not only because
can discover that a strong desire was manifested to
lessen the influence of the clergy
of the irregular lives of the friars but because the
hierarchy were loyal to the Crown, and
General Assembly met
January 1813, and on the 24th
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
of March, a decree was issued abolishing the Inquisition in all the provinces.
provinces were declared independent of
and the Pope's nuncio
have no authority
the 28th of June, a vicar-general
was appointed, and
direction of ecclesiastical affairs.
these and other laws of a similar
tendency, has prevailed until
the framework of the Church.
ment of Rivadaria,
orders of friars were
but they were restored to their ecclesiastical
standing by the government of Rosas, and have
some small portions of
At present the government pays each
of public worship
a small and insufficient stipend for the celebration
the clergy, whether regular or
secular, being plainly indebted for their maintenance,
and other voluntary offerings of the
for educating a priesthood.
Candidates for holy orders are taught Latin and
moral philosophy by some of the
friars in their cells
a poor apology for education.
of the priesthood
from old Spain.
in the early part of
his career patronized the Jesuits, intending that they
education the field of their labours;
but they subsequently came under the censure of
the authorities, and by a decree dated 22nd March,
1843, they were expelled, upon eight days' notice,
from the province of Buenos Ayres.
period the other provinces have followed the example,
Jesuits were expelled
but one bishop in the entire republic.
The Franciscan and Dominican friars in the city of Buenos Ayres number about one hundred and twenty each, and from amongst them probably
who have charge
of the hospitals
branch of the Franciscans), are
number, and derive
prayers they offer for the repose of souls.
There are two nunneries, one the order of
Catherine, or the Dominicanesses, which
when once a nun takes
the vows, her
intercourse with the world
to their building
tained by public charity.
to be in
and when they happen
the pious and faithful
hasten to supply their need.
of public spiritual exercises",
also a " house
where the pious may
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
take up a temporary residence, and submit themselves
voluntary mortifications and penances.
ecclesiastical censure are also received
and a course of sermons
candidates for admission to which are re-
quired to present a certificate from their parish
political institutions of the
have appropriated much of the property of the
not to be
inferred that the people
or the government are estranged from the
In a country of such immense
and with so scanty a population, the people
vision; and there are multitudes who have no op-
portunity of uniting in public worship, unless they
But even amongst
the most solitary and isolated
people I seldom entered a house without observing
an image of their patron saint
a glass case, and more or
usually enclosed in
according to the wealth of the owner.
"When the country was under the Spanish monarchy,
the Jesuits had the charge of education, and they
maintained a church and collegiate institution in the
heart of the city which could accommodate a thou-
of this institution must
be dated from the
of the Jesuits
Although the church
yet in good preservation,
STATE OF EDUCATION.
the college and other buildings are rapidly falling
The government has made no
provision for nalittle
the university having
than a merely nominal existence
two professors, under
duate for law and medicine.
The Buenos Ayrcans
however, alive to the necessity and importance
and, from inquiries, I
learn that the
educated than the previous; for
though the higher branches of study are not much
class at present derives greater
advantage from the influence of education, than
young women of the upper
classes in society,
was formerly so limited as
of mental culture
tion of the rising generation of the female sex in-
of knowledge than foris
mainly owing to the
seminaries in Buenos Ayres.
ing and day schools, conducted by European ladies
these establishments, however, exist
only by the sufferance of the government, and are
In the college formerly belonging to the Jesuits,
has been revived.
THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
government has granted the use of the building,
provided the sons of certain officers in the army
are educated gratis.
character and general
a large cruciform brick building,
the front, facing
the Plaza Victoria, consists of a
modern-built Corinthian portico of twelve columns,
supporting a well-proportioned pediment
crowned with a large dome, which looks
poor and naked
consequence of the smallness
of the mouldings.
of the interior
contrast with the outside.
paved with black and white marble, and
the arched roof
supported by massive square
from the nave.
having light and elegant canopies
are attached to the piers east of the
entrance to them being by means of
beautifully carved, gorgeously painted
and gilded, and adorned with paintings. On a raised
throne, and on the
the chair for the governor.
when the whole At the end
of the nave
particular pageant and ceremonies while religious shows are met with Passing down one of the streets on Monday even- ing during the last week of Lent. Holy Week : is observed with especial sanctity in its Buenos Ayrcs on every side.CEREMONIES OF HOLY WEEK. nearly as large as life. every day has . elevated on platforms. and a book in the other. I observed some people assembling near Merced church. his friends. on which shepherdess is the figure flocks. up with and the priests' vestments and the consecrated vessels are rich and costly. The number of which the side-chapels or altars is thirteen . the basin being protected by a pierced covering of about two feet high. and entering it I beheld three figures. and chapter-house. are handsomely marble tables . whether living or dead. The lavatory. near the altar was the VOL. R . a richly-carved marble is font for holy water and near the door the bap- tismal font. having doors kept locked according to the practice of the middle ages. holding a chalice in one hand. of six are privately endowed. altar 241 is called the Divine Shepherdess. the chaplain being family and sacristy. of a surrounded by her On either side . . in the centre of the nave was a figure of Christ being scourged I. and surmounted by canopies adorned with tinsel and artificial flowers. One near the door represented the Virgin in white robes. fitted paid an annual stipend for celebrating masses for souls of the donor.
if busily and attendant boys. and the procession advanced up the nave to the west door . Along the saint. others with beads but all gaged in devotion : the object that most attracted their attention being the figure of Christ. In conse- quence of a few drops of rain. the usual streets were not perambulated. reclining of the were kneeling on slips of carpet. the procession halted. were played. and paraded the at intervals. some en- with prayer-books. At stated intervals the music ceased. image of a female nave. with violins and other instruments. monks and other ecclesiastics. moved about. entered from a door near the followed by in their richest robes. mostly of the poorer or sides class. Two or more attendants. on entering the street it was city. received the offerings of the faithful. two bands of music playing the figures were Around men and boys carrying lighted candles and burning lamps fastened to lofty poles. novitiate nuns. . Tuesday and Wednesday were days observed in . as employed. and monks appointed for the purpose chanted with loud but harmonious voices. The people then raised the violins the images on their shoulders. joined by an officer's guard. each carrying a large crucifix. now altar.242 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. which were chiefly copper coins of small value. the church Musicians. and the procession returned to the church. women. Monks.
repeating aves or telling and children. on pedestals four or high around them were men.CEREMONIES OP HOLY WEEK. canopies. were decorated and placed five feet open air. their knees. excited awe and reverence suited to the occasion. all 243 tbe churches. while monks. while devoutly prayers. in the silently sober garb of their order. gaged Nearly in various ceremonies . Priests with their attendants were busily occupied in preparing platforms. The Fran: ciscan church presented an impressive scene building. and bent the knee. Before retiring. kissing . with lofty the dome and massive gloomy pillars. the worshippers ap- proached the figure. is At this festival there much latter rivalry among the ecclesiastics in ornamenting their ciiurches and images. as neither carts nor horsemen dare appear church bells were not in the streets. On Holy less. Thursday the city was perfectly noiseall the police having given orders that business should cease from Wednesday night had to Saturday to morning. Even the tolled. Families. therefore. previously supply themselves with necessaries. Priests at the high altar in the distance were enaround. on their beads. women. all moved the worshippers were women. About twenty of the in the . spacious nave and long and feelings of aisles. produced an unearthly sound. and all the accessories necessary to an imposing display of Roman its Catholic ceremonials. whose repeating their subdued accents.
244 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. side of the street was a raised painted black. In the vestibule of the college church. .. probably meant for Saint At night * the town to was all alive : streams of people . and bearing a cross on his shoulders the Virgin wearing a tiara of tinsel. lace. dressed in a jacket and petticoats. although each person coppers. wearing: a crimson robe and crown of . was the image of a saint. were passing Some of and from the churches the images represent the early pictures of the Virgin Mary her with a dark complexion. girdle. and a ladder by its side. tassel some hanging from the robes . were two figures of Christ and the Virgin Christ being represented with emaciated coun- tenance. silver lace and trinkets. with ropes of worsted hanging from the top. and on the opposite cross. and flowering shrubs. may give only a few Under the portico of the Cabildo.* decked with gold and attired in white robes. which was decorated with drapery. and occa- sionally men and boys were : heard begging money for their favourite saint they collected considerable sums. hold- ing in her arms a white baby. In another street was the figure of a negress. carpeting. ten feet high. a muslin shawl. was another image of Christ similarly arrayed . and black velvet cloak trimmed with broad gold Near the Jesuits' church. thorns. with a small violin or kit hanging from her Cecilia.
had a very effect. in some parts of the town. air. Christ was represented as ascending from the tomb. officer's guard of foot soldiers lighted candles. The city. the Plaza of Victoria. in the before. for the purpose of reading aloud passages from the Missal for the edification of the assemblage. in 245 the open air were lighted up with lamps and candles. under a richly-ornamented canopy. and the vesper striking hymn chanted by monks. when pressed. an agreeable odour while incense from burning censers sent forth clouds of fragrant perfumes. which a mofireworks ment before was rejoicing : silent as death. bearing wax and open of The light of numerous lamps instrumental the rounds of music. bells rang forth merry peals . attended procession by a large being in dis- concourse tinguished people. a long procession slowly advanced from the front of the Merced church. . into which the piously disposed might enter. and surrounded with groups of devout Pulpits had women and been erected children on their knees. On Saturday at noon. Upon another occasion a procession moved round the Franciscan church. the the by image of a female deep mourning. borne on men's shoulders. and followed by a military band and an lamps. CEREMONIES OF HOLY WEEK. the people.. as tapers. with images the streets being thickly covered with wild fennel. On across Friday night. which emits. resounded with .
while rockets illumined the scene and amused the shout- ing crowd. Negroes and mulattoes were generally employed in attendance at these ceremonies. Others were taken to the houses of wealthy inhabitants. proall mised ten indulgences for forty days to who would take a part in the public services : a hand- some bribe certainly for carrying lighted candles in a procession Miniature images of wax. The respectable classes did not seem to take much interest in them . the streets were all the people life amused themselves by burnand. frequently visited the churches. in small glass cases. Handbills posted on the churches. were borne through solicited the streets. and the donor of a few copper was per- mitted to kiss the image." It must have been a fatiguing time 1 for the clergy. exploded. in the Alameda. from time to time. burning around the efiigy was filled with fire works. which. from which hung a erected. to receive their offerings for the support of" Holy Mother Church. by those who alms from the faithful on behalf of the rials saint . exploded. and observed that .! 246 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. with tar barrels . colossal figure of the betrayer. a large gallows was ing effigies At night some places and gaiety : in of Judas Iscariot . although some of the processions were numerously attended. and private and public bands of music struck up in every quarter.
as to being continually changed so eyes of gazers. attract the and all the churches were open from an early hour at night. pay at least five pounds per British manufactures tions of the ladies' ture. reading-desks. tables. 247 . and I am bounds in calculating that each adult must. scene 1 The posing.: CEREMONIES OF HOLY WEEK. candlesticks. The expensive walks of life dresses of those in the humbler within astonished me . dress. The ladies are extremely fond of and so absorbed were they with preparations. chairs. and all the church furniture. the cathedral was most entered by a door that opened into the . else that little was talked of for weeks previ- ously but the splendour with which they intended to appear at the celebration of the coming festival several sent to fifty Europe in for dresses that cost from im- to one hundred pounds each. they were always engaged in some fresh display the curtains around the altar. on an average. : annum for the more substantial por- dresses were of English tex- but the fanciful and ornamental fabrics were French. in the morning to a late hour Nothing could exceed the good order and : pleasing demeanour of the entire population no assemblages of people could be more completely imderthe influence of politeness and good humour: from the humblest negro grandee the same kindly to the spirit haughty Spanish all pervaded ranks and classes.
as to be seen distinctly altar. followed by attendants bearing richly-fringed carpets . they selected a place and motioned to their attendants. From the capitals of the massive pillars depended tattered ensigns. who spread . richly On this a . projected some tance in front of the grand altar. upon reaching the centre of the nave. hung from from the the ceiling. or some unoccupied spot. The way floor was carpeted. and those of the attend ex officio^ mili- who are obliged to were of pro- seated on chairs along the nave. tempo- decorated. upon which the rary rites and ceremonies were performed. All the tary civil authorities. and the mistress and maid offered their . and a double row of chairs extended along the sides of the nave the entire to the altar. The floor the cathedral appeared to be the common perty of all classes : there was no distinction of rank commingled with ease and decorum the humble negro knelt by the side of the proud patrician. and the side-altars were ornamented with images of the saints richly bedecked. The ladies slowly and gracefully entered by the spacious doorway. trophies of victory. like a stage. separating it high altar. all devotions side by side. curtain with a red cross in was erected a black the centre. Appropriate paintings were judiciously placed around the walls. A raised dis- platform.: 248 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. a few feet in height. so by all. west end of the nave.
silver. dresses of black blonde. there a want of character in their style of beauty. are extremely they and move with bewitching ease and elegance. or admiring some of the finest women : of the country assembled attire. with few exceptions. or blonde. from is the admixture races. the carpeting on which they knelt . Bonnets never being worn. over a violetpetticoat. trimmed with gold and seemed had to prevail some wore coloured effect. here in their most gorgeous mantillas The costumes were magnificent dresses of the finest lace were worn over the head and shoulders . Their figures.: FEMALE AND OTHER WORSHIPPERS. The nave soon be- came filled with worshippers. Of its much can- not be -said for in this climate youth soon loses of different bloom. the . 249 then having crossed themselves devoutly. however. tions When their devo- were concluded they resumed a reclining position. care being taken so to adjust their dress that a pretty foot and ankle might not peep from beneath folds of drapery. and. graceful. The men. satin. but loitered about looking on merely as spectators. they enjoyed the refreshing influence of the fan. of velvet. confined to the wealthy few. satin which a beautiful Diamonds and ornaments of jewellery were the personal charms of the ladies . were not devoutly disposed. and around the side-altars. and gradually the increasing numbers spread themselves throughout the aisles.
symmetry of form and loveliness of feature. through which were faintly seen the priests and acolytes engaged . are Perto haps in the north of Europe seen those be specimens of female beauty where youthful bloom and freshness. priests The and their attendants were dressed in white robes ornamented with gold and silver lace. Up to a certain age the charms of the fea- maidens are enhanced by gentle and delicate tures. and an expression of calm susceptibility in their artless countenances. the clouds of fragrant incense. to some of the family groups were from sixteen tions . The dim and fitful light of burning lamps.— 250 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. while recognizing their friends. some with uncovered heads. while the fascinating influence of is and manner felt by the most stern spectator. which was exceedingly attractive. elicit combine to charm In the eye and the homage of the heart. nor is the lofty beauty and dignified reserve to of English womanhood perfect be found here. The term however applied to that magic word which comprehends the whole of woman's captivating powers — cannot be alone. or pacing along the aisles. eye takes in the tournure of the head and the whole figure their air . while others wore mitreshaped caps. them . be seen girls to is twenty possessing a delicacy many in attrac- there of outline their rounded yet slender figures. feelings of youth. illumined with the sunny gaiety and joyous loveliness.
amidst the waving of censers and of a funeral the chanting requiem. round the church. followed by the clergy and as . Well-dressed youths of the better classes moved through the assembly. and returned through the to the when the civil and military authorities retired in and walked procession city. lighted torches preceded a priest hold- Boys bearing ing erect a massive silver crucifix. wearing the mitre. all carrying lighted tapers a large silver crucifix being borne aloft in the midst. 251 gave to the scene around the altar a mysterious character. while acoin lytes white robes swung censers of incense. accompanied by chanting of the instrumental choir. and holding his silver. visiting several churches where mass was being celebrated. a procession was formed. crozier . then came a priest bearing a white flag. bishop next appeared. each bearing a box filled with lighted candles. impressive to the senses of the multitude. ecclesiastical Thus terminated the ceremonies of . many The laity as chose. There.SCENE IN THE CATHEDRAL. from which any so disposed took one and carried it towards the altar. The music procession. a silken ' canopy with poles of burning being borne over him by priests. supported on each side by acolytes with lighted wax tapers in silver candlesticks . throwing a fragrant cloud around the vene- rable ecclesiastic. in these rites. and the moved altar.
however much the enlightened Christian of a Protestant church at the spectacle of may be shocked image-worship in its most gross and theatrical aspect. therefore. and lament the state of igno- rance and credulity which admits of such a parade of idolatrous ceremonies. it is impossible to deny that the beholders. . . Holy Week and. be reasonably hoped that the growth of intelligence and the spread of education will prepare the people of these Provinces to receive the sublime truths of the Gospel. especially the lower classes and females of the upper class.252 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. were reverentially impressed. and the pure doctrines and simple worship of the reformed religion of Christianity. It may.
to supply which absorbs the energies both of mind and body. civilization seems to have created an endless variety of wants. Having from my youth upwards burned with a desire to see man in his native condition. it might. Brainerd. the missionary in Africa — Nature of religious influence — Spiritual destitution of emigrants Their value as aids to missionaries. 253 CHAPTER XIII. At all a first glance.— CHARACTERISTICS OF SAVAGES. appear a reasonable inference that to . with the most lively feelings of interest. and other missionAntagonism of strong and weak aries in North America — Ultimate — extinction of the heathen — Effect of Christian missions — MoflFatt. scattered throughout the extensive plains bordering the Argentine Republic. REMARKS ON CHRISTIAN MISSIONS TO THE HEATHEN. I visited the untutored heathen population. free from the deformities as well as the elegances of civilized life. Characteristics of savages —Aboriginal races becoming extinct Jesuits in — Probable — races effect of slave emancipation — The Paraguay Labours of Elliot. therefore.
power upon the understanding habits of civilized life and that when the were presented to them they could not to adopt fail to admit their superiority. Of the common have no doubt . however. crease the tion We recommend them to innumber of their wants while the perfecof independent manhood. whose immediate origin is lost in re- antiquity. iu their estimation. which had long cherished and defended. Many mote races. have outlived nearly every possessing only craft and allied to instinct than to more cunning reason. and speedily I them. and purely the artificial abolish luxury wants. To comprehend a single idea is the extent of their intellectual power a complex idea is to them a mystery. We value ourselves when utility governs our habits.254 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. is . during this journey. while for these very reasons savages despise us. undergone a radical change. must. it would exercise a convincing . origin of the entire human race I yet time and circumstances have proin the different duced such extraordinary contrasts races of man all that it requires an effort to believe that we have sprung from the same parent stock. As regards more barbarous races. appear to . I now confess that these opinions. would enable us to pass our days in tranquillity and repose. . have. I had hitherto believed that were truth in its purity pre- sented to their minds. and the mind is expanded by the acquivestige of mental vitality — qualities : sition of knowledge .
their wealth consisting in flocks family institutions permitting a plurality of . religion idea. all ideas good spirit. or slaves . 255 our desires is. of beasts their . the state of society recorded in the Old Testament seems Their religion is that which nature has suggested tions : to their crude percep- they reverence the sun. or patriarchs . and have some unde- fined veneration for a evil one.THE SAVAGE STATE. wives and the spoils of war consisting of cattle and female captives. the fewness ot those wants. as savages their how slow must be ! progress towards civilization patiate is in vain to ex- as an abstract principle. revealed to man by other their language has never been written. entertain such notions. : upon the value and importance of truth. and living in a manner dwelling . of religion unless nor do they know anything by traditions. self-inflicted torture. The Divine the Scriptures has never reached these savages the glad tidings . their wives. We gratify So long It by a life of labour . whether of philosophy or they seem unable to conceive any abstract Wandering primitive as a race of men in what we may conceive to be their natural state. and dread of an But in the progress of time they have lost of the Deity as transmitted to his posterity as he is by Noah. in tents made of the skins and herds . concubines. which have faded by the lapse of revelation of : years. but that labour in their opinion. who become realized.
and in looking around me at the present plains of the moment through the wide Argentine Republic. shoft. to look for the native races that once inhabited Van Diemen's Land. The native races that possessed the territory now called the United States. and along the shores of the Atlantic into Mexico from thence through the whole of North America — I again inquire. all become out the whole continent of Australasia. we find that they have extinct. and in the South Seas. such — and the remainder are rapidly passing away:" is the only answer which can be returned. The same fate awaits their brethren throughThe next half of this century will probably witness the rapid extinction of the native races of New Zealand . When race. the same destiny must ultimately close the history of those interesting islanders. designated the was peopled by a numerous heathen . are disappearing so fast that one could almost fix the period unit in the series shall be no more.256 of the THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. that portion of the globe called the it new world was discovered. when the last The aborigines . it In needs no prophetic power to predict that a . Gospel have not been proclaimed to them. of the if West Indies are absolutely forgotten and we cast our eyes upon the southern hemisphere. Where are ? the aborigines Passing in fancy through the Brazils. Where are the aborigines ? " The greater part have become extinct. I ask.
There is something sublime and mys- terious in the contemplation of such a v. VOL. I. will and another century they have altogether appeared. 257 day will come. At the Cape of Good Hope. Scandinavian and Celtic races. The rapid extinction of new world suggests the similar how far causes (without staying to inquire what for these causes are) must produce similar effects in the old hemisphere. and their shall their name and language be forgotten. now actually taking place before our eyes : but who can doubt that the designs of Providence are being fulfilled. ever disappeared. while the northern races have flourished. that lived in the which we designate the new world. when the hundreds of races.ast change. with hemisphere have for their millions of people. as to the probable effect of slave emancipation states in upon the negroes of the have free : North America. and of the British colonies part of since in this the world they their gradually within dis- decreased emancipation. s .EXTINCTION OF FEEBLE RACES. resting question arises. and that the boundless riches of the earth be developed and applied to benefit the family shall thus great human which has sprung from the the feeble races of the consideration. instance — the only part of that continent where coloby British subjects for nization has been attempted any lengthened period similar results : — we perceive the evidence of And here an inte- the natives have withered.
the discovery of the Upon of new world. finally established a most elaborate scheme for the conversion of the heathen. They succeeded to a great extent in preserving the natives from the baneful influence of the Spaniards and other Europeans. selves. withered away and only evidences of the failure of that great experi- . than the frame-work of civiliza- began to dissolve. So long as the mind of all the strong race was present to guide them. the Church Rome. with the most laudable zeal. The Indians. : protected estancias. . left to them. or to inefficient pastors. sought to of Christianity extend the humanizing influence its amongst and inhabitants : she nobly advocated their cause against the cruel laws of the Spanish monarch. herded by their converts even European mechanics were excluded. but no sooner were the Jesuits expelled the colony in 1768. They had by their their own towns and villages. as the Jesuits themselves taught the mechanic arts cultivated.258 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Paraguay for as the centre and there centuries they pursued their missions results more than two with what : we know. The control of that scheme was confided of their operations to the Jesuits. and wandering savages were located and the first made familiar with step in civilization. and eventually the fine arts were These inferior races were thus preserved from the contamination of bad example. went on well tion . who selected the delightful country of . own guards and their own .
at Concepcion and else- where.— LABOURS OF ELLIOT AND BRAINERD. the claims of the native have not been neglected by Missionaries. on a scale of great magnificence that once accommodated the Indian race. and churches —some. towns. raent are 259 now to be found in the ruins of villages. the. history of the life of Brainerd : but a counter- part to that of for years Elliot he toiled and laboured all amongst tribes of which have since disappeared. From down tribes the time that the Pilgrim Fathers sought to establish a theocratic government in New England to the present period. published a grammar believe translated and I language. vernments have all in aided by their political influence but vain : good has resulted. history of Elliot. but at the present moment all there not a vestige to be found of the tribes amongst whom The he laboured : they have become is extinct. Had the object of these eminent civilize men been exclusively to the tribes. philanthropists have sought them by means of education no permanent social . early in the 17th century. At a later we have the missionary native in period. who reduced the the Scriptures into that is language to order. extinction their by engrafting them upon the mission would have equally civilized races. Christians has had its Each denomination of to reach own missionary organization. . and save them from failed. and the go. Protestant North America.
260 Cases THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. than before Christheir little tianity reached them but. but I am convinced from observation . and nomadic politic and are not engrafted upon the body I of states. upon good States. authority. . and in this way become one people? Before I visited the heathen I was under the impres- sion that amalgamation would follow the reception of Christianity. as citizens. its own disBetween the stronger and feebler races there appear to exist elements of repulsion. may occur where some tribes have become less ferocious. and more . It may be inquired whether the diflferent races do not amalgamate. they are better than savages still : they continue to maintain their distinctive character as aboriginal tribes. that such is not the case its since each race. as they cannot be engrafted upon tianity The Divine power shown in its purifying has been humanity. of so subtle and incom- . of Chrisinfluence upon the morals of savages terminate : but here it seems to social progression has not followed upon conversion of the heathen. because they are incapable of intellectual advancement in any high sense of the term. compared with neighbours of European extraction. docile. am also informed. and principles of antagonism. whether before or after conversion. that a majority of the most enlightened and evangelical Christians of the United rapid extinction civilized look upon their heathen neighbours as doomed to . maintains tinctive character.
as shown in the extended and strenuous efforts made to promote . judging from the history of Christianity during eighteen hundred years. combined with the high moral tone and lofty aim of the earlier settlers in New England. 261 prebensible a nature. Nothing. becoming peopled by emigrants of Christian Of the many movements human in modern times ac- tuated by a desire to promote the welfare and happiness of the race. this feeble. and degenerate race. and. the countries they inhabit races. To maintain vantage ground as a pure and powerful people they must adhere to the same wise precautions. even while it may be highly expedient to avoid intercourse with them in the more intimate relations of life. that it it is not too in human progress much to say will be accomplished. The final extinction irresistible of one is absolutely certain beneath the weight and force of the other. but by their gradual if not total extinction . and from the nature of during the present century. that to amalgamate by marriage seems to be impossible.CHRISTIANIZATION OF MANKIND. This powerful instinct. saved the United States from being peopled by a mixed. not the conversion of the heathen upon any large scale. Probably mankind will be Christianized in a way neither desired nor expected by man. can justify any people in enslaving a portion of their fellow-men. however. the philanthropic spirit that has of late years prevailed in Great Britain and the United States of North America.
it Strange. and finally the stronger race come? and takes possession . and to instruct in the elements of social so that they may become a part of the civilized world. in New Zealand. Christianity introduced civilization order and industry produced birth to property . The primary aim of them the missionary to Christianize the races amongst whom he labours. But is to a devout and intelligent mind a survey of the heathen There in the but one refuge from the saddening and gloomy contemplations which it produces. the Christianity first heathen has been. world. In all human probability the aborigines of New . in may of appear. wisdom and goodness of a beneficent Creator. life. result has This singular and unexpected of been shown at the Cape Good Hope. missionary. these give commerce . and that is. and the South Sea Islands and may be discovered in other places. free from selfish aims. however. In the history of modern missions. Zealand might have continued for ages to enjoy possession of their fertile country had they not been visited by the British . forbids sanguine expectations. fields it is not less some important conversion the of Christian races to abour. as true that. one singular fact must arrest the attention of the commonest obis server. though undesignedly. the step to their rapid extinction.262 THE ARGENTINB PROVINCES. as becomes labourers in so holy a cause. Christian missions to the heathen. stands out pre- eminently great and noble .
the latter became alarmed sanguinary for their herds and pastures. or the adventurous emigrant.THE MISSIONARY MOFFATT. entirely isolated. who visited those islands. He is placed in the interior of Africa. if now have an existence for those who bow to his influence will do so with such feelings as Manco Capac was and and a priest revered in Peru. humanized the wandering and produced the influence tranquillity along the frontier. nothing can then save the aborigines from first final extinction. This success attracted the French. 263 of the soil. British-born subjects extended their borders. theocracy. and a close with result. was the But a is totally different aspect of missionary labour to about develope itself in the missionary field occupied by Moff'att. The Africa. strife. will The power his position of Moffatt be that of a king : amongst his African converts . missionary penetrated into South Caffres. and encroached upon the Caffres. The South Sea Islands were brought prominently before the Christian world by ihe success which attended the Protestant missionaries. and cut off from the contaminating influence of the mercenary trader. seeking a means of extending their own influence. The could career of this laborious and eminent man such will be the history of a modern . which can only the triumph of the stronger race. Under of this peace. final and in doing so diffused the elements of British decay amongst the aborigines.
. industry and commerce will follow. and not maintain him by suitable and necessary auxiliaries. and civil institutions will then be first in- required. both will create wealth . or sent out from objection to the latter course to is. I though am sensible of my temerity in dealing with that subject. their heathen neighbours to protect the fron. are the soldier will make fresh conquests. an army must be raised and the Christian extended. These Christian settlements will then to tier become an object of plunder . unless he assume the same With God's blessing on the labours of Moffatt. and therefore an attempt may be made to It may therefore attempting to do find a substitute in native piety. Christianity will take root in the interior of Africa . be his talents. alone will be most potential . name for his suc- cessor can never gain the same influence. How African neophytes to be supplied with Christian pastors ? To plant Moffatt there. that the it becomes a most important inquiry. to invesin tigate the possibility of such a so.2G4 THB ARGENTINE PROVINCES. would be absurd. be church members. therefore. whatever may name. in the stance at least. England. the officers of which must. territory is Assuming. it One that would incur too great an expense be borne by the churches at home . be well for a moment scheme . The expansive maintained : principle of the enterprise must be assistant pastors and teachers must be trained from amongst the converts.
265 of in None can define the mode by which the Spirit God operates on the human character we see it : its results. Such are my conscientious convictions. misapprehension is upon by such Upon exists. lest I : should give rise to misapprehenthe duty of every earnest but it is man declare his opinions in a matter of such imI entertain portance. though I do so with some hesitation. A teacher whose mind un- cultivated cannot extend the range of his mental acquirements except by study supply the want of education tian can . for religion cannot : an ignorant Chrisa religious topic no more do full justice to thanjbe can to any mere intellectual theme. limited range of influence over those whose the capacities are limited will : a man whose mind is naturally shallow . this point I fear that much what and that the results of termed conversion are too frequently over-rated. faculties are acted al- though the original Divine influence. and I feel bound sion to to express them . but that is all. Religion has necessarily but a or misunderstood.NATURE OF RELIGIOUS INFLUENCE. It gives the existing facul- ties of the mind a new direction. and confines the . no hope of any plan having its object the raising up of a native minis- since the mental capacity of the negro can- . desires or passions within pure and hallowed bounds but it does not implant any new mental power. for try . be shallow in his religious views man is with mental defects will exhibit those defects in his religious character.
Fifty years hence. all For myself. at a later period of history. unusual activity is displayed. as will tend to It must. to the destruction of " pure and undefiled religion in this way early teachers. fit of Christian ethics. even in the days of the apostles. The zeal of . they appear destined to exert a powerful and abiding influence upon the social condition of the entire human family. . be dreaded is The great evil to the liability of such :" teachers to blend heathen and Christian dogmas. prove a most valuable experiment it in the Christian church. for the show what can be done under such benighted Africans I it an organization. light. apart from the direct guidance of the Divine will. however. not extend beyond a very limited range fore disqualified for he is there- becoming the efficient expounder useful. The energetic races of northern Europe appear determined to go forth and possess the earth. In whatever the labours of is Moffatt regarded. therefore." continued. " if stand in doubt. his ultimate mission beset with may be many and great impediments. Their vigour stamped a character upon Europe at the fall of the Roman empire . In these latter days. which can most him for some very subordinate department. although he may be made at under a system of training. and now. fell into lamentable errors. both in the Christian churches and in the world of commerce. the evils of a is likely to mould itself into modern theocracy.266 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
must energies. while the necessities and energies of the industrious have given birth to Emigration. must be for a considerable time impossible. not easy to conceive of any merely savage race more worthy the sympathy of the Christian churches than those hitherto neglected or forgotten emigrants. unable to erect a place of worship and pastoral oversight. but are located where they form a . to provide food and raiment. Some may perchance be village. More than one hundred thousand human beings annually leave the shores of the United for Kingdom. and powerful be called into kingdoms of a new organization existence : will even now the foundations of a new and being widely and firmly laid in vast empire are Australia. first instance absorb For them to make It is suitable provision for spiritual instruction. Under diffe- the influence of these two mighty movements. 267 modern Christians has revived the classes spirit of Missions. or altogether neglected children re- main without baptism. deferred. Our the solicitude may well be awakened for the spiritual well-being of so interesting a portion of human family. peaceful revolutions must take place amongst the rent nations and languages of men . is there unknown : the marriage ceremony . perhaps valued and cherished at is home.SPIRITUAL DESTITUTION OF EMIGRANTS. and parents without public . most of whom are destined to suffer some years probably all their many in hardships the .
It is a recorded fact that considerably more than 300. by their example and labours. the Chris- tian world should be deeply impressed with the duty of influencing and instructing the thousands emigrate. the influence of both might be so combined as to work in perfect har- mony. by their zeal for the religion of Christ.268 worship. with schools. they would rative duty to encourage pious feel it their an impe- and intelligent men to go out and strengthen. All this spiritual destitution may be the lot of our fellow countrymen" even in a land where we supply the heathen with Bibles. some might exert upon the native But if more correct views were enter- tained of the moral agency which the missionary and the emigrant together could exert. and thus become active auxiliaries in the field of missionary labour. and with missionaries ! Hitherto emigrants have been regarded by the missionary with alarm — not altogether without cause. the feeble and infant congregations planted both in our colonies and other distant lands : many would be induced. THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. perhaps — in consequence of the demoralizing influence which converts. Were pastors and teachers fully to estimate the in power of the mighty engine thus placed hands by Providence. sterling are annually raised by voluntary . in this who way. to swell the tide of emigration. and that might.000Z. To accomplish this desirable end. promote rather than obstruct the spread of Christianity.
with a missionary and his auxiliaries make it incum- bent on them to embrace within the range of their operations the heathen that frequent their neigh- bourhood in their . I could wish it were much greater mode of its application. In readjusting the operations. becomes a question of immense magnitude and importance. and its posiand opportunities for exercising influence over tion other races.. the fertilize stream of emigration might and refresh the heathen desert. instead of inducing them to continue own isolated position. Let us suppose that a colony : becomes located in South Africa supply that colony . If the emigrant were to ally of the missionary. are points deserving more consideration become the Without than they have hitherto received in relation to missionary efforts. missions would thus most effectually implant the truths of the Gospel in distant lands by simultaneously influencing European settlers. losing sight of the native races. them into the usages of their Christian neighbours . it mode of conducting missionary in would appear to be more accordance with the general tendency of events. to follow the emigrant and the trader. gradually induct . The power and permanency of the race. contributions in the United 269 Kingdom for the purpose as of converting the heathen to Christianity. whose existence may be ephemeral. and the exigencies of the case. and to make the land of their abode the centre of Christian operations. and. however. Large the the sum appears. EMIGRANT AID IN MISSIONARY LABOURS.
possible. perhaps. that while such a . following the emigrant with the Gospel. be From sions the preceding remarks must not understood as entertaining views of Christian mis- unworthy of : their Divine origin and tencontains no dency they apply exclusively to social aspects and Christianity : influences. Christian churches a double duty. results to No ferred doubt it is a wise ordination of Providence that while immediate and spiritual good is con- upon the weaker races who embrace the the general to extinction. and at the same time soliciting the heathen to benefit by I its maxims. enough for us to know. element it of weakness or of discord peace and good will on the contrary. upon some plan of would discharge this kind. they are not exempted from law which dooms them and to give place to races of a superior order of mind with the which races they come into contact. ultimately blend them with the In acting general civilization of modern times. gospel. it which follow becomes the occasion which reference —not the cause— of those has been made. and more civilized life especially on account of the usages of in its train.270 and thus. it is. if THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. Although ambitious aims and selfish policy of the stronger may precipitate the ultimate result. yet from it nature of the human agency by which cessarily is introduced amongst savages. breathes the ne- towards men .
have been exerted upon the very races eventually doomed to be swept away from the face of the earth. process is 271 that shall going forward. influences outlast the revolutions of time.ULTIMATE RESULTS. .
OR CATTLE-FARM. The land of this province very generally . Buenos Ayres the cold in is favourable for breeding sheep so intense as winter never being to require the sheep to be housed. It not necessary at any season to in take them off the land in search of food. to . I am indebted to Mr. of Buenos AjTes estancia. 272 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. ON BREEDING SHEEP IN BUENOS AYRES. nor are they subject to any neglect is loss by except from or mismanagement. [For the information contained in the following pages. AND ON THE MANAGEMENT OF AN ESTANCIA. on the subject of sheep-breeding. John Harratt. Australia storms.. as . CHAPTER XIV. fertile. No nor snow is falls on this side the Cierra del Tandil for the any food required to be provided : sheep in winter they can feed is all the year in the open country.] The climate of . and for that on the management of an Don Patricio Lynch.
or about six it . superior land probably be found a little for sheep-breeding would north of the Cierras. presenting a vast sea of verdure. a league of good land fifty worth from to sixty thousand current dollars (equal to sterling. is the production of carritella. without any necessity of storing food.. T . are the best lands at present occupied by sheep and from which they are driving the horned cattle. at about five hundred pounds thousand acres is twopence of the exchange) for nine square geographical miles. in good seasons it would feed fifty At twenty leagues from the is city to the south. Of its course the value of land varies according to quality and locality. I. ON BREEDING SHEEP. The and objection to land which has been long grazed perhaps over stocked. while the new lands are preferable for the breeding of cattle. for High is lands are indispensable will not sheep . : upon low marshy lands they it thrive although desirable to have some low lands in a sheep farm for summer pasture. to the south. If the country were properly provided with roads and bridges. to the south Salado worth about half that amount. The Pampas between Buenos Ayres and the river Salado. VOL. or removing them from the land during the . A league of land will feed from twelve to fourteen thousand sheep. worst seasons thousand. which extend from Cape Corrientes to Tapalqueen. 273 parts which The have been longest occupied are the best adapted for sheep.
which were divided between the provinces of Buenos Ayres. that one and abundance. where the burr does not grow. and Corrientes. and strictly prohibited their exportation. The flocks then introduced must have been the slight Churra breed of Spain. Santa Fe. and added greatly to their prosperity. to when it becomes necessary draw water in such . frequent disall turbances of that period. during summer. upon the . and may be in a great measure avoided lasts by-keeping the sheep occasionally subject to for the time in low lands. when Nuflo de Chaves brought a few sheep from Peru these probably perished during the to Paraguay . mixture of Spain was always jealous of her merinos. into to fulfil an obligation entered by his father-in-law. Juan Ortiz de Tarate. man can draw sufficient for a flock of two thousand sheep in an hour. The country which is droughts during summer. so detrimental to the wool the sheep feed and fatten upon it. although sel- This plant dom more than two or three months. with a a better one. brought four thousand sheep from the Charces. by Juan Torres de Vera and Arragon. who. The stock from which the sheep of this province have descended. even to her own colonies . . is found so near the surface. or small burr.274 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. probably mestizos. was in- troduced in the year 1590. The introduction of sheep into this part of America appears to have been in the year 1548.
lank-bodied. are sionally be purchased. from one shilling -and one shilling and eightpence per pound. without any mixture of merino. resembling very much for from which they have descended. no sheep of this quality amongst the common flocks how much they will degenerate when left to themselves. which of all colours. being very coarse . they are also ill-shaped. 275 the same five restrictive principle she also prohibited cultivation of the vine there. common sheep of the wool brought in England. the country are very in- the quality and quantity of their wool. a few sheep with fine wool were found amongst the the country . But sheep of this quality can be of no value to the owner. proving There are now. . the They much common breed purposes of . much larger. they are a degenerate race. the wool not being worth the expense of cartage to Buenos Ayres tricts . long-legged. So lately as tveenty- or thirty years ago. more hardy superior to . and meat in those dis- being absolutely valueless. and very diffi- cult to fatten : in a word. in sixpence 1820 and to 1822. and which some years is since might occathe Churras. however.DIFFERENT BREEDS OF SHEEP. of sheep found amongst the The breed Pampas and Indians. This breed may be purchased one hundred leagues south of at Buenos Ayres one current dollar each. the consequence of total neglect. stronger. The common sheep of ferior is .
some of which were The proprietor abandoned the enterprise . in was at that time strictly prohibited in consequence of which he had to smuggle them across the frontier into Portugal. and they increased rapidly so much so that in 1819 the flock amounted to four hundred head. to from thence. rams . Unfortunately in that year this enterprising individual lost the well-earned fruit of and the country a valuable race of fire : animals. wethers. very favourable. They were era- barked at Lisbon for Rio de Janeiro. Mr. brought with him. into this country took place in the year spirited when a individual. at great expense and considerable difficulty. and forwarded vessel. . his labours. After this unfortunate result . fine improving by crossing them with very few are the province. but now to be found within the limits of The first recorded introduction of merino sheep 1814. by the whole flock was consumed with the exception of thirty-three. the few remaining sheep got into other hands and most of them perished leaving little in the troubles of that period. The proved . trace of their existence in the present flocks of the province. Thomas Lloyd Halsey. The exportation of merino sheep Spain. in a Portuguese Buenos Ay res. the circuitous The enormous expenses caused by route enhanced fifty their value to one hundred and climate Spanish dollars each.276 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. thirty-five head of merinos from Spain.
no attempt was made the to 277 until improve the breed year 1824. and not unfrequently out-numbered the ewes. Harratt. as at present south of the Salado. fell Ramto- into the hands of a native. In January 1826. which chiefly into the hands of Mr. about eighty Southdowns were imfell ported by the government. Terneau of Paris. These some of which were from the celebrated establishment at bouillet. period This class of animals was held in very low estimation . the when the government imported. purchased after. another importation by the government took place. upwards of a hundred merinos. Soon after a few months. This and part of the former. Peter Sheridan. : the dollar then being nearly equal to lot. even by the English and other foreign . Capdevila. by the estancieros of that little care being taken of them. from whom. were pursuccessful attempt to chased by Mr. and no . gether with the late Mr.MERINO SHEEP. attempt made to improve the breed considered an unproductive stock. Harratt. sheep being Rams is of all descriptions were left to run in the flocks. Mr. consist- ing of seventy merinos. them. Thus the first improve the about two breed of sheep was undertaken with hundred head. was ridiculed. through agency of Mr. the case The little idea of improving a breed of animals of so value and so lightly esteemed by every one. averaging in price a hundred dollars each silver.
sale of several parcels of improved wool in Liverpool. rams were sold both better to natives and foreigners but every succeeding year the value of the sheep became known and The appreciated. from North America. . The great . and regarded as a most unprofitable undertaking-. from the public when a few .569 New from Liverpool. outlay during five or six years was very the undertaking having met with no support until the years 1832-3. Leicesters 20 57 2.— 278 estancieros. to and the desire of all classes of the community to become sheep-breeders became so general that it was necessary to resort to fresh im- portations from Europe to meet the demand. 234 680 „ „ „ from France. from Liverpool. at two shillings and two shillings and fourpence per pound. Antonius In the year 1836 the ship brought from Hamburg in eighty animals of the Saxony breed.578 Merinos from Saxony. gave a great impetus the sale of rams . For many years Mr. but had at of selling sheep of the improved breed at high prices. and : 1837 the following were imported 1. and occasioned a cor- respondingly rapid increase in the demand for breeding stock. Harratt had to endure the banter of his friends and acquaintance last the satisfaction . THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.
: 400 25 „ „ „ from the United States. 279 The following were imported in 1838 848 Merinos from Hamburg. via 36 1.309 Monte Video. if it exceed that number the loss in lambs will be very great.— IMPORTATIONS OF MERINOS. Three thousand is the utmost limit which a flock ought to be allowed to reach . with wages of from eighty to one hundred dollars currency per month." in this The is total amount of sheep improved breed. province may be estimated of the at six millions. divided into flocks averag- ing about two thousand head. Natives have generally been employed as shepherds. notwithstanding the great impediments caused by and " interventioners. Each flock is placed under the in. about one-third of which A square league of land will feed from twelve to fourteen thousand sheep. The number of improved sheep " blockaders" is rapidly and steadily increasing. who has a small hut to live and a corral to secure the flock in case of storms. from Spain. which would no doubt have been considerable. care of a shepherd. and gave a great check to sheep-breeding in the province. The blockade of the port of Buenos Ayres pre- vented further importations. .
— 280 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. upon which he placed as stock 3.000 ewes. a remuneration for their annually. under the charge of two persons. In the year 1838. and the following table gives the the number shorn annually. Harratt purchased a piece of land containing something more than a square league. the number of sheep annually : and what they produced. who had a share in the profit of the establishment as services. the accounts being balanced Natives were employed as shepherds. Mr. with the sheep skins and tallow which were sold Date. The extract here given will show the what a farm may be made above system. shearing of 1838 to produce under the after The sheep were taken . the sold. value of the wool. and the place was well managed. 1839 . produced in amount of wool they arrobas.
in houses..— PRODUCE OF A SHEEP-FARM. the establishment plantations. the lambs were shorn . was washed. the wool being of very value. in fact. The final column contains the amount which the which ought during the tations. thirty corrals. valued thousand currency. The expenses of puestos. estancia produced annually to to six be added the improvements made years. plandollars &c. cartage. the last year total . of wool to Buenos Ayres. every : expense connected were as follows 1839 . shearing. and. galpones. at in houses. During the three a little 281 first years. The wool was sold in the grease during the it first five years. house ex- penses of managers. later than the principal shearing this prac- tice was discontinued little after the third year. corrals. with it.
for which they took care of the all A flock of one thou- sand to five hundred sheep was generally committed Other local them. especially those at a distance to give the shepherds an interest in the increase of the from the prin- cipal establishment.433 The number of lambs produced was much than the number marked and with more . were Irish labourers .433 25.000 in six years Numbers of lambs marked 22. arrangements with the medianeros also gave them a greater British interest in the sheep. third of the wool. Original stock 3.282 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES.000 1. to whom flock. with sufiicient land to feed double that number. The majority of subjects among the .152 6.433 Sold for the market 4. The individuals usually se- lected for this purpose.694 25. These contracts were generally for four or five years.587 Consumed in 6^ years Loss from accidents Stock divided in December 1844 13. greater careful shepherds the increase would have been considerably more than appears in the above statement. It was found to be of great advantage flocks. was given one-third of the increase and oneand paid expenses.
. &c. early in They were divided at the end of 1846. men commence an independent establishsoon become valuable members of an example for their and thus a useful and industrious population up in the province. . as rising improvident neighbours. to The number they with is generally wish commence six or one thousand two hundred. the value of to ten dollars good mestizo sheep being from eight each. 1844. and the sheep are equally divided at the expiration of the contract. divided annually. a flock of two thousand ewes was entrusted to two Irishmen. having a flock of sheep good and a sum of money. many men who save their earnings until they have this sufficient to purchase half a flock of sheep facility they do with in two or three years. 283 of them are labouring careful class are Irish .. sand four hundred and they require seven thousand dollars to purchase one-half. with which to ment. when the proprietors . corrals. These society is . houses. brothers finest quality. In this way a labouring man becomes a small proprietor in three or four years. is equally divided. The medianero takes care of The product of the wool is the flock. the sheep were not of the six dollars each. The expense of shearing. the estanciero gives the land. and finds sufficient rams. In February. saved from his share of wool and sheep sold during the contract. and might be worth two years. IRISH LABOURERS. or one thou.
325 dollars 9. worth about seven dollars each. one- half the flock having been sold at eight dollars each.557 „ 173 wethers sold.six had four thousand one hundred and the head: two years' wool produced twenty thousand paper dollars. produced „ 18.380 17. The flock of A produced in wool : In 1846 In 1847 6. The flock of B produced in wool : Inl 846 Inl847 183 wethers sold.487 „ „ produced 1. 1848. having been sold under very favour- able circumstances. 6. two thousand hundred and .488 dollars 10.192 and the five flock counted in fifty.345 and the flocks counted six in March. They then took separate fifty flocks of about fifteen hundred and sheep each. in- cluding lambs and wethers of all ages.— 284 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. March 1848. fifty.300 1. two thousand hundred : they had also increased in value.
1846. 1847. and the lambs fall in spring and autumn those which fall in autumn are consi- . in January. the wool having produced in the two years twelve thousand six hundred dollars. 1848. 285 C commenced rate of in April. were divided two thousand four hundred and seventy head. April.591 and in February. The shearing takes place in October and November the principal lambing season is in March. and May. The rams are generally left in . D had produced two thousand four hundred and eightyall : two sheep of in ages in March. the year.PRODUCE OF FOUR FLOCKS. 19. the flocks all . 1845. with a flock of three thousand sheep.036 In 1846 In 1847 „ 683 wethers sold produced „ 30. the that above ought to be sheep-breeding sufficient to convince a may be made very profitable business in this province. were divided two thousand nine hundred and seventy-two animals. It would be useless to multiply examples all .887 dollars.668 7. the flock wool — 10. for one-half of which he paid at the eight dollars currency each .
to The Entre Rios wool generally shipped England has the netted twenty-one shillings per arroba. the expense In Saxony is 1 dol. exchange in England being threeto sixtyat It has been sold washed. 50 c. wool was sold in Buenos Ayres (generally in the grease) at thirty-eight to forty dollars per arroba pence. — are allowed to lamb six in spring and autumn. the rams are taken the lamhs only to avoid coming during the three months of summer Deand the three cember. per arroba exchange fourpence. the recent During the years preceding blockade. . July. at sixty . Even when it is dered the strongest. In North America. The value following may be considered present the ex- (1848) of sheep in this province. June. out of the flocks. . and February winter months. 6 4 6 2 6 And Australia (not including rent of land) . January. five . . and August. Superior mestizos 5 10 „ „ Fine mestizos Merinos 100 to 150 „ The annual expense of taking be estimated at ten rials care of sheep.— 286 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. : change being twopence per dollar Common sheep 2 to 4 to 8 to 2^ dollars each. may in- currency each animal cluding rent of land one shilling and eightpence each. The flocks .
. to the counof : amongst from . there are instances of as good land being obtained for six or seven hundred dollars. including the dollars per annum. hydatid. for sufficient land to feed a flock of three thousand sheep . The expense of shearing wool. as the value varies with the locality. in many instances. is The average rate for a flock from eight hundred to one thousand fine sheep. 287 Land is frequently rented for sheep. EXPENSE OF A SHEEP-FARM. will purchase of shears and twine. with the idea some proprietors exacting double what others are willing to take. and even one thouof the owner . but is no longer formidable : sheep become lame after a continuance of wet . Before the introduction foreign sheep. and making up the amount to two rials and a half per head : the shearers are paid eighteen to twenty dollars per hundred head. There try is no disease indigenous sheep. and every infectious disease though an animal occasionally died of the importations of 1836 and 1837. the flocks were remarkably healthy free foot-rot. sand two hundred dollars have been paid annually. and in other parts of the country. one thousand. half the sheep going it when first their knees. but no uni- form rate can be named. In Mr. scab. Harratt s neighbourhood. With flocks came upon a few the foot-rot. This disease was very virulent in the attacked. and.
up the they make fleeces. the heat of the as summer drying appearance. A 2^ mestizo sheep of a good quality will give an3. 3^ lb.288 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. A few sheep. their leaving the flock almost free from the disease. is A is puesto a place where a flock of sheep is at a distance from the principal establishment. in : the grease. each) : and of sheep-skins a hundred thousand to one hundred kept and fifty thousand dozens. with broken before shearing. about are seen a little the disease fatal to is fast its August or September: but disappearing. country more than 2 lb. and occasioned considerable alarm amongst the sheep-breeders: this also is dying away insects .^ to nually in wool lb. The amount of wool exported from and grown in this province. The scab (it was also introduced at the above period is thought. and it was never worst stages. may amount to two hundred and fifty thousand arrobas (of 25 lb. sheepskins the both free from the custom-house returns of quantity shipped are by no means correct. and about of washed wool will not give the common sheep of the the grease. which called an estancia. . but the majority of them get well after a week of dry weather very : a flock is kept free from this disease with little attention. if lb. from England). weather. being sheep in Wool and export duty. in and not more than 1^ washed.
others adopt wash- ing by the hand ferred. The most general are el trebol (trefoil). u . These latter are not found in the lands that have been many years grazed by horned little cattle. or in virgin lands where horned cattle have never been. but on the others in a all classes of cattle fatten more quickly and I. el capigni. the latter method is is to be pre- by which the wool more equally and better washed. VOL. the Leicester have tried the breed. Those who have have always after some time given up. and as the endless variety of grasses characterized strong. The most farm is suitable place for is cattle where the ground undulating and well watered by permanent streams. la gramilla. their sheep. SHBEP AND CATTLB FARMS. la cebadilla (or wild barley). There is no estancia in the province with a breed of Leicester sheep. la cola de sorro (or fox tail). and the sheep are not so much an estancia or harassed as by swimming. Strong grasses are most perma- nent during the droughts which so often occur in this country . and which grows a variety of grass. it not prospered. of any value. much greater degree. Some swim . either pure or crossed. but only in those that have been very frequented. 289 thrives in The only English breed of sheep which this country is the South Down .. The major part of the wool is shorn in the grease but the number of sheep which have had the wool washed on the back has increased very much of late years.
290 THE AROENTINB PROVINCES. to shut up the cattle. that a Spanish square league contains about 6. lands in general are divided by suertes de The estancia. puestos which have to prevent no watering-places being only designed the cattle from straying to the neighbouring lands. young and is old).000 English acres. and equally distant from both sides of the estancia. This enclosure generally sixty or seventy yards square. The number of puestos. when is necessary. by a league and a half in length or else by square leagues of 6. a capataz (head man) sent with nine or ten men. depends upon the extent of the land. and the situation of the wateringplaces. secured by a bar of wood drawn across. encircled by strong posts. or stations for the herdsmen. each having 3. and having an entrance of six or seven yards wide.000 varas (yards) of front. In general they are placed on the outer : edges of the land those near the watering-places all should have the corrals to enclose cattle in that classes of neighbourhood .000 varas. in depth: that is. and 9.000 varas in vi^idth. 1. Close to the house is situated the corral.000 head of cattle. male and female. near to — the water. When horned cattle are bought for the purpose of establishing an estancia (for example. which serves. half a league . in It will be borne mind. each provided with four to six horses and several . dwelling-house The most elevated site is generally selected for the some hill or rising ground.
except mate. On them arriving at the estancia to be established. and rest the end of each day's journey. may have to travel. drive the cattle closely together. bones. the cattle . At the close of each day's journey. to accustom new lands — they are allowed to graze . during the day. in order to aquerenciarlas the cattle to the —that is. and the suet and of the animal it which is roasted whole. there is When At the weather is warm. they travel by night. if they should approach an estancia having a is large corral. and the cattle are shut If at the night. CATTLE DRIVING. they kill a calf or fat heifer. in men and cattle. in search of the Upon completing to the purchase. rodoraones 291 (half-tamed horses).. and kindle a fire of dried fat weeds. they then The herdsmen . according to the distance they cattle. under the care of the herdsmen and before sunset they are shut up in the corral. are driven from eight to ten leagues daily intervals with them to feed. during the day. relieving each other during the night. wherever good pastures and water are met with during the day. which they always carry with them. and before sunallow set. These stopping-places are always near order to have water for both rivulets. remain on horseback all night to take care of them they then divide into two parties. la . and moonlight. leave in for asked. with the skin upon : (came con cuero) this is the only aliment desired by the men. the resting-pjace there should be neither estancia nor corral.
or old pasis tures. is There matter a very singular feature in the natural : history of these animals worthy of observation no how large the number of all cattle may be on fifty to the same grounds. where they will remain for some time of their own accord. the cattle will be seen running from all directions towards the rodeo. each point being composed cattle of its own bulls. It is the duty of the herds- men to drive the cattle every tain spot called the rodeo^ where they are accus. and calves.292 this THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. cows. way they are kept for three or six months. as companions. and less distance greater or from their former querenda. that when any of the herds- men gallop shouting through the plains. cattle This unremitting care continued until the become reconciled allowed to to their new pastures. acits cording to the state of the land. When snbmit to be driven to the rodeo. which always keep together. they are considered . of perhaps one fifty. they instinctively subdivide themselves into small herds. tomed to assemble for one or two hours they so soon acquire this habit. and are technically called " points. roam at pleasure day The usual routine in the daily is management of the morning to a cer- estancia very simple. when and they are night." hundred and If thousands of animals should assemble together on the rodeo. they may be observed to gather together in " points" or companies.
where the . and the cow continues to give her milk freely. The number quality prietor. duced by a habit continued state. they usually get permission to domesticate cows for that pur. herdsmen have wives or daughters who to If the know how pose make cheese or butter. and the ability of its pro- In the south of this province. milk is seldom seen in the country. according to the of the land. has been pro. tame . in con- sequence of the general indolence of the people. or withdrawn to flow. eatancia not to Upon a well-managed more than three thousand are allowed assemble on the same rodeo. of horned cattle maintained upon a square league varies considerably.NATURAL HABITS OF CATTLE. in their wild nature supplies milk no longer than for the in purpose of yielding nutriment to their young: this country. the calf first draws the milk few minutes. it is then removed. 293 but if they flee from the approach of njen they are considered wild. who also find the necessary utensils. not allow themselves to The cows do be milked in the same for a manner as in England : at the time of milking. the milk ceases This fact secretion would tend to show that the continued for ages of milk by the cows in Europe. from the cow. the cattle have been so long neglected that they have reverted to their natural habits. if the calf be killed. one half the profit going to their owners. the other half rewarding the woman for her labour : but.
At the time of marking. they never grow large. where the lands are of a superior from two to three thou- quality. and a few tame animals. and from four to In cattle all calculations. saladeros.294 THE ARGENTINE PROVINCES. by the butchers three years old for the The owners of two or fat. but become fat. hundred yards to three to- mounted men are then placed gether upon the rodeo : keep those and two more are sent . have a league square for every 1. so that with 1. is thousand sheep. and are therefore preferred market. when they are only from five to ten months old. however. such as working stationed at about two oxen or milch cows. off. a league maintains sand head of horned cattle. but . the annual increase of homed it estimated at 34 to 35 per cent. in lands are lessened their value by pajonalis^ (coarse sedge grass). cattle. the cattle are collected during daylight upon the rodeo.000 head of in tame 400 calves may be marked the season. for although not so is they are more fleshy. and October usually and they are If the calves marked in March and April. is often 40 per cent. it is generally reputed necessary cattle . September. and the hide heavier. are castrated at the time of marking. in . and banados. from four five to five hun- dred horses. to take care of the tame animals other horsemen. (low lands in- undated by to rain).000 but in the north. prefer those castrated at . the months of August.. The greater part of the calving is in .
is This operation continued until the desired obtained. shut up in the corral all next morning the cattle upon the rodeo are collected. there they and stamp them with the hot left brand.. . being furnished with a copy. I. END OF VOL. owner of any stolen or strayed animal but this very useful pre- caution is at present neglected. the justices of the peace. INCREASE OP CATTLE. and other civil authorities. This concluded. the tame animals serving as guides lazo the calves. the calves are night to rest . 295 groups of three or four. and the calves driven from the corral to re-unite them again. The and owner of every estancia has a mark formerly these marks were kept duly published : for his animals registered. begin to bring out the animals at the speed of their horses. that they might at once discover the . . number has been when they are then driven to the corral.
915^ 111 University of California SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY 305 De Neve Drive - FACILITY LOS Parking Lot 17 • Box 951388 ANGELES. CALIFORNIA 90095-1388 it Return this material to the library from which was borrowed. .
L .UC SOUTHERN Hf GIONAL LIBHARY AGILITY f AA 000 917 585 2 t.
••"'-'•-'•- -^'fe^ipj^pllls-il^^^g.g -iHili-Sa-HsJWiiKJJfMyjfiSSgJ! . .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.