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Stephan Linzner & Daniel Kersting

Diploma Thesis Inaugural Lecture


Who we are
 Stephan Linzner  Daniel Kersting
 Student, fifth year  Student, fifth year
major in computer major in computer
science at University science at University
Tübingen Tübingen

onlythoughtworks@googlemail.com drewenut@googlemail.com

http://twitter.com/onlythoughtwork http://twitter.com/drewenut

Diploma thesis: Sensor-driven indoor-localisation/-navigation with Android OS 2


Lost Indoors

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Lost Indoors…
 Shopping center
 Product search
 CBR (Consumer Based Routing)
 IBR (Interest Based Routing)
 Museums
 Family quiz, navitainment
 Fairs
 i.e. CEBIT
 Car park, airport, subway, concert hall,
sewerages
 Emergency evacuation and guidance service
 Fire, earthquake, terror attacks

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Motivation
 Common outdoor navigation systems
are freely available today.
 GPS is based on satellite networks and
can therefore only be used outdoors.
 Today there is no ubiquitous localization
and navigation system for confined
spaces.
 20 million sensor powered handsets
sold in 2008.

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Key questions
 What are use cases to be handled?

 How to create a data model of confined spaces?

 Which (sensor) data is required?

 Where could that data come from?

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Objectives of our work (1)
 Evaluate methods and practices to
realize a real-time sensor-driven indoor
positioning system (SD-IPS) for mobile
handsets.
 Develop innovative approaches for
mapping the most common
characteristics of outdoor navigation
systems to indoor application scenarios
and expand them by dedicated confined
spaces requirements.

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Objectives of our work (2)
 Create an Android based application
framework to easily build sensor-driven
indoor positioning applications.
 Rely as much as possible on standard handset
hardware and not heavily depend on
environment infrastructure.
 Keep a lightweight design approach for
concepts and the resulting framework.
 Deliver augmented reality end user
experience to make peoples indoor lifes
easier.

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Framework objectives
 Lightweight design
 Portable (iPhone, Symbian OS, RIM)
 Blackboxed
 Focused on data providing
 Data representation
 SD-IPS API
 Not a GUI framework
 No data visualization

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Initial schedule
 June 2009 – dig through sources
 Android
 Kernel
 Drivers
 Libraries (Zxing)
 July/August 2009 – try and research
 Test and evaluate the sensors
 Localization by 2D codes
 Explore possibilities (WLAN, Bluetooth…)
 Build the first prototypes
 September/October 2009 – implement framework
 November 2009 – elaboration

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What is Android?
 Mobile operating system
 Linux kernel version 2.6.x
 Middleware
 Application framework

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Why Android?
 Open
 All applications are created equal
 Breaking down application boundaries
 Fast & easy application development

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Rooted Android Developer Handset

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Android Developer Handset Sensors
 Accelerometer
 Gyroscope
 Compass (Magnetic Field)
 Camera (Imaging, scanning 2D-Barcodes)
 GPS
 Radio Network
 WLAN
 Bluetooth
 Audio (Microphone)

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Inertial Navigation Set (IRBM S3)

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6-axis electronic compass (G1)
Asahi Kasei Microsystems
(AKM) AK8976A

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Technologies vs. Techniques (1)
 Ambient technologies
 WLAN
○ Trilateration
○ Time of arrival (ToA)
○ Received signal strength (RSSI)
 Bluetooth
○ Received signal strength (RSSI)
 Audio
○ Echo

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Technologies vs. Techniques (2)
 Optical technologies
 Camera
○ Visual detection
○ Augmented reality
○ 2D Barcodes
 Data Matrix
 QR-Codes
 Microelectromechanical technologies
 Sensors
○ Accelerometer
○ Gyroscope
○ Magnetic Field

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Localization/Positioning Techniques
 No infrastructure
 No additional hardware needed
 Infrastructure Based
 Environmental hardware needed
 Marker based localization
 Fixed synchronization points
 Inertial navigation
 Dead reckoning
 Continuous localization
 Real-time position tracking

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Localization/Positioning
Techniques (2)
Infrastructure No Infrastructure

Marker based • Wlan • Camera


• Bluetooth
• Audio

Continuous • Wlan • Bluetooth


• Bluetooth
• Audio

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Navigation Techniques
 Inertial Navigation
 Accelerometer
 Gyroscope
 Compass (Magnetic field)
 Dead reckoning (DR)
 Process of estimating one's current position
based upon a previously determined position
 Estimate position by speeds over elapsed time

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Accelerometer
/* x<0 x>0
* ^
* |
* +-----------+--> y>0
* | |
* | |
* | |
* | | / z<0
* | | /
* | | /
* O-----------+/
* |[] [ ] []/
* +----------/+ y<0
* /
* /
* |/ z>0 (toward the sky)
*
* O: Origin (x=0,y=0,z=0)
*/

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Gyroscope Z-Rotation

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Gyroscope X-Rotation

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Gyroscope Y-Rotation

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Responsibilities
 Localization  Navigation
 Framework design  Framework design
 Domain modeling  Platform independency
 Reusability  Portability

Stephan Linzner Daniel Kersting

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Summary
 Comprehensive exploration of the
Android operating system and the SDK.
 Requires solid Java and C knowledge
 Identify indoor localization and
navigation key concepts.
 Implement the most promising solution,
which delivers the best trade of between
accuracy, efficiency and usability, for the
desired scenarios in a conceptual
framework.

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Future Prospects (1)
 Visualization framework
 Augmented reality framework
 Wikitude:

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Future Prospects (2)
 Routing algorithms
 Consumer based routing (CBR)
 Interest based routing (IBR)
 Proximity based applications

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