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TITLE

Names Section (2 spaces)

INTRODUCTION (2 spaces)

Write it as if you were retelling a story in detail. Do not miss out on details. One page should be enough.

Times New Roman, Size 11, 1.5 spacing. Justify. One page will do. Cite sources (Co, 2011)

Section (space) Two to three pages will do. Cite sources (Co, 2011). DISCUSSION

(3 spaces) Answer the following guide questions. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Incorporate answers to questions in paragraph format. a. The passive voice, past tense, is to be used. Gather as many data as you can using books or published research materials. b. What is the objective of the article? Based on the literature, were there areas of conflicts or agreements among scholars, practitioners, and other stakeholders?

c.

Are the ideas grounded more on theory or more on practice? Which theories?

d.

Can you cite examples of practical application, or problems encountered in practice?

e. f. g.

How were these resolved? Are there issues of governance? Are there issues of regulation or government intervention?

LITERATURE CITED

Please refer to Format Notes below. Jackson, A., 1999. Ophiothrix fragilis. Common brittlestar. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Subprogramme. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. <http://www.marlin.ac.uk/species/Ophiothrixfra gilis.htm> Accessed on 13 Feb 2006

h. i. j.

Are there ethical issues? Is there an emerging practice issue? Do you agree or disagree with certain points?

k. l.

What new ideas do you propose? Is there anything you would have wanted to explore further?

Format Notes

Citations When citing sources within the text of the paper, only the name/s of the author/s and the year of publication have to be included. Use et al. when there are more than two authors of one publication. Separate two cited sources with a semicolon. Acceptable formats are as follows:

Clark and Evans (1954) report that the process is appropriate for studying tree distribution (Clark and Evans 1954, Thompson 1956).

In the Literature Cited section of the paper, sources should be arranged alphabetically, using the primary authors last name. Et al. is not to be used here; all authors must be listed. Formats across source types vary and are shown in the following examples:

Textbook:

Waite S. 2000. Statistical Ecology in Practice: A Guide to Analysing Environmental and Ecological Field Data. Pearson Education Limited, England.

Journal article: Clark PJ, Evans FC. 1954. Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology 35:445-453.

Article within a book: Branch GM. 1985. Competition: Its role in ecology and evolution in intertidal communities. In: Vees ES, editor. Species and Speciation. Transvaal Museum Monograph No. 4, Transvial Museum, Pretoria, pp. 97-104.

Internet article: Beals M, Gross L, Harrell S. 2000 October. Diversity indices: Shannons H and E. http://www.tiem.utk.edu/~gross/bioed/bealsmodules/shannonDI.html. Accessed17 Nov 2004.

Handout: Chan MA. 2001. Bi 162 Environmental Biology (Ecology): A laboratory guide. Biology 162.1 Laboratory Handout. Ateneo de Manila University , Philippines.

What is the objective of the article? b. Based on the literature, were there areas of conflicts or agreements among scholars, practitioners, and other stakeholders? c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. Are the ideas grounded more on theory or more on practice? Which theories? Can you cite examples of practical application, or problems encountered in practice? How were these resolved? Are there issues of governance? Are there issues of regulation or government intervention? Are there ethical issues? Is there an emerging practice issue? Do you agree or disagree with certain points? What new ideas do you propose? Is there anything you would have wanted to explore further?