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You are on page 1of 22

Tomography

Many medical imaging systems can only measure projec-

tions through an object with density f(x, y).

Projections must be collected at every angle and dis-

placement r.

Forward projections p

form.

p (r)

x

y

r

Objective: reverse this process to form the original image

f(x, y).

Fourier Slice Theorem is the basis of inverse

Inverse can be computed using convolution back pro-

jection (CBP)

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 2

Medical Imaging Modalities

Anatomical Imaging Modalities

Chest X-ray

Computed Tomography (CT)

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Functional Imaging Modalities

Signal Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT)

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 3

Multislice Helical Scan CT

Multislice CT has a cone-beam structure

X-ray Source

Detector Array

Path of Helical Scan

Plane of Desired

Image Reconstruction

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 4

Example: CT Scan

Gantry rotates under berglass

cover

3D helical/multislice/fan beam

scan

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 5

Photon Attenuation

XRay Source

x

0

Y

Material with density u(x)

T

x

x - depth into material measured in cm

Y

x

- Number of photons at depth x

x

= E[Y

x

]

Number of photons is a Poisson random variable

P{Y

x

= k} =

e

k

x

k!

.

As photons pass through material, they are absorbed.

The rate of absorption is proportional to the number of

photons and the density of the material.

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 6

Differential Equation for Photon Attenuation

XRay Source

x

0

Y

Material with density u(x)

T

x

The attenuation of photons obeys the following equation

d

x

dx

= (x)

x

where (x) is the density in units of cm

1

.

The solution to this equation is given by

x

=

0

e

_

x

0

(t)dt

So we see that

_

x

0

(t)dt = log

_

0

_

log

_

Y

x

0

_

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 7

Estimate of the Projection Integral

XRay Source

x

0

Y

Material with density u(x)

T

x

A commonly used estimate of the projection integral is

_

T

0

(t)dt

= log

_

Y

T

0

_

where:

0

is the dosage

Y

T

is the photon count at the detector

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 8

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

Detector i

Detector i

- detection rate A

ij

- emission rate

j

x

j

x

E[y

i

] =

j

A

ij

x

j

Subject is injected with radio-active tracer

Gamma rays travel in opposite directions

When two detectors detect a photon simultaneously, we

know that an event has occurred along the line connecting

detectors.

A ring of detectors can be used to measure all angles and

displacements

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 9

Example: PET/CT Scan

Generally low space/time resolu-

tion

Little anatomical detail couple

with CT

Can detect disease

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 10

Coordinate Rotation

Dene the counter-clockwise rotation matrix

A

=

_

cos() sin()

sin() cos()

_

Dene the new coordinate system (r, z)

_

x

y

_

= A

_

r

z

_

Geometric interpretation

y

x

r

z

Inverse transformation

_

r

z

_

= A

_

x

y

_

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 11

Integration Along Projections

Consider the function f(x, y).

x

y

f(x,y)

We compute projections by integrating along z for each r.

y

x

r

z

The projection integral for each r and is given by

p

(r) =

_

f

_

A

_

r

z

__

dz

=

_

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 12

The Radon Transform

The Radon transform of the function f(x, y) is dened as

p

(r) =

_

The geometric interpretation is

p (r)

x

y

r

f(x,y)

Notice that the projection corresponding to r = 0 goes

through the point (x, y) = (0, 0).

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 13

The Fourier Slice Theorem

Let

P

() = CTFT {p

(r)}

F(u, v) = CSFT {f(x, y)}

Then

P

() = F( cos(), sin())

P

u

v

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 14

Proof of the Fourier Slice Theorem

By denition

p

(r) =

_

f

_

A

_

r

z

__

dz

The CTFT of p

P

() =

_

(r)e

j2r

dr

=

_

_

_

f

_

A

_

r

z

__

dz

_

e

j2r

dr

=

_

f

_

A

_

r

z

__

e

j2r

dzdr

We next make the change of variables

_

r

z

_

= A

_

x

y

_

.

Notice that the Jacobian is |A

y sin(). This results in

P

() =

_

f (x, y) e

j2[x cos()+y sin()]

dxdy

=

_

f (x, y) e

j2[x cos()+y sin()]

dxdy

= F( cos(), sin())

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 15

Alternative Proof of the Fourier Slice Theorem

First let = 0, then

p

0

(r) =

_

f(r, y) dy

Then

P

0

() =

_

p

0

(r)e

2jr

dr

=

_

_

_

f(r, y) dy

_

e

2jr

dr

=

_

f(r, y)e

2j(r+y0)

dr dy

= F(, 0)

By rotation property of CSFT, it must hold for any .

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 16

Inverse Radon Transform

Physical systems measure p

(r).

From these, we compute P

() = CTFT{p

(r)}.

v

u

at each angle

Transformed Projection

Next we take an inverse CSFT to form f(x, y).

Problem: This requires polar to rectagular conversion.

Solution: Convolution backprojection

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 17

Convolution Back Projection (CBP)

Algorithm

In order to compute the inverse CSFT of F(u, v) in polar

coordinates, we must use the Jacobian of the polar coor-

dinate transformation.

du dv = ||d d

This results in the expression

f(x, y) =

_

F(u, v)e

2j(xu+yv)

dudv

=

_

_

0

P

()e

2j(x cos()+y sin())

||d d

=

_

0

_

_

||P

()e

2j(x cos()+y sin())

d

_

. .

g

(x cos()+y sin())

d

Then g(t) is given by

g

(t) =

_

||P

()e

2jt

d

= CTFT

1

{||P

()}

= h(t) p

(r)

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 18

where h(t) = CTFT

1

{||}, and

f(x, y) =

_

0

g

(x cos() + y sin()) d

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 19

Summary of CBP Algorithm

1. Measure projections p

(r).

2. Filter the projections g

(r) = h(r) p

(r).

3. Back project ltered projections

f(x, y) =

_

0

g

(x cos() + y sin()) d

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 20

A Closer Look at Projection Filter

1. At each angle, projections are ltered.

g

(r) = h(r) p

(r)

2. The frequency response of the lter is given by

H() = ||

3. But real lters must be bandlimited to || f

c

for some

cut-off frequency f

c

.

H( ) = | |

fc fc

So

H() = f

c

[rect (f/(2f

c

)) (f/f

c

)]

h(r) = f

2

c

_

2sinc(t2f

c

) sinc

2

(tf

c

)

A Closer Look at Back Projection

Back Projection function is

f(x, y) =

_

0

b

(x, y) d

where

b

(x, y) = g

(x cos() + y sin())

Consider the set of points (x, y) such that

r = x cos() + y sin()

This set looks like

x

setofpoints

alongasingle

backprojection

q

y

r

Along this line b

(x, y) = g

(r).

C. A. Bouman: Digital Image Processing - January 29, 2013 22

Back Projection Continued

For each angle back projection is constant along lines of

angle and takes on value g

(r).

x

setofpoints

alongasingle

backprojection

q

y

g

(

r

)

q

r

0

r

Complete back projection is formed by integrating (sum-

ming) back projections for angles ranging from 0 to .

f(x, y) =

_

0

b

(x, y) d

M

M1

m=0

b

m

M

(x, y)

Back projection smears values of g(r) back over image,

and then adds smeared images for each angle.

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