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APUSH SEMESTER 1 Shays Rebellion: Veteran of the Revolutionary war, Daniel Shay led an uprising of backcountry farmers who

were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They demanded that the state issues paper money, lighten taxes, and suspend property takeovers. Say and his followers were crushed, but their memory lived on and was a direct image of why a new constitution was needed. Treaty of Tordasillas: the line of demarcation, which divided the New World between Portugal and Spain. Spain got the left (larger) side, and Portugal got the right, which is basically Brazil. Spain became the dominant exploring power of the 1500s. Marbury vs. Madison: On president Adams last day in office, he tried to sign in as many judges as he possibly could, therefore the name midnight judges. Adams knew that if he could sign these judges in before he left, his Federalist rule would continue on. -One of these midnight judges was William Marbury, whom Adams named a justice of peace for D.C. James Madison, the new secretary of state, cut Marburys pay and Marbury sued. The decision by Marshall showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions: Resentful Jeffersonians refused to take the Alien and Sedition Laws. Jeffersons Kentucky resolution and Madisons Virginia resolution concluded that the states had the right to refuse (or nullify) laws created by the government. Because no other states followed in the resolution, these resolutions basically became campaign documents designed to crystallize opposition to the Federalist Party. William Henry Harrison/ John Tyler: Harrison was a hero at the Battle of Tippecanoe. He was set on the presidential ballot by the Whigs in the election of 1836, but lost to Van Buren. He ran again in 1840 and won. The Whigs promoted him as poverty-stricken, born in a log cabin, and the drinker of hard cider. He VP candidate was John Tyler, whose popularity in the south drew in more votes. Tippecanoe, and Tyler too. John Tyler and the Whigs: The leaders of the Whigs were Webster and Clay. The Whigs werent particularly happy with Tyler, but he got the needed votes in the South. When Harrison died, Tyler became president and some cabinet members even resigned. Tyler vetoed the proposed new bank of the U.S. and became rejected by his former party. (Democrat in Whig clothes.) Constitutional Convention issues: The convention was called to deal with the issue of commerce and to fix the entire fabric of the Articles of Confederation.

Upon arriving, the 55 delegates decided that they would scrap the Article of Confederation, contradicting Congress instructions. -Virginia proposed the large-state plan. It said that the arrangement in Congress should be based upon a states population. -New Jersey presented the small-state plan. It centered on equal representation in Congress without regards to a states size or population. -The Great Compromise: it called for representation by population in the House of Representative, and equal representation in the Senate. Each state would have 2 senators. The new Constitution also called for a president. Because of the argument over if the slaves would count towards the general population of the state, the 3/5 compromise was create. The new constitution also called for the end of the slave trade by the end of 1807. Texas: The Mexicans won their independence from Spain and granted a huge tract of land to Stephen Austin, with the understanding that he would bring into Texas 300 Catholic American families and develop the land. The stipulations were ignored. Mexicans were against slavery, while the Texans supported it. -Davy Crockett and Jin Bowie- adventurers -In 1835, Santa Anna wiped out all local rights and started to raise an army to suppress the upstart Texans. 1836, Texans declared their independence and named Sam Houston commander in chief. -Colonel Travis was commander at the Alamo. -More Americans came to join the fight and at the Battle of San Jacinto, Houston defeated Santa Anna. Santa Anna signs over Texas because of gun to his head. The U.S. government stays out of it. Texas becomes a country and then asks to be annexed. Slavery is the issue. -We (Tyler) annex Texas because its a buffer state from British. When we annex -British want: Texas we put the 1. To stop American westward expansion British back in 2. To expand their power and flaunt the Monroe Doctrine their place. 3. To get around the Protective Tariff (go through Texas) 4. To disrupt the slavery issue Battle of Tippecanoe: NOT a part of the war of 1812. William Henry Harrison becomes a hero overnight. This battle handles the problem of British supplying the Indians. -Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa (know as the Prophet to Non-Indians): unified as many Indian tribes as possible in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British. - William Henry Harrison: governor of the Indiana territory; defeated the Shawnee Indians. War of 1812: -Madison decided not to restore the expiring Embargo Act. Instead, Congress passed Macons Bill No. 2. It said that if either France or Britain

repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the non-repealing nation. -Napoleon manipulated Madison. The French said their decrees would be repealed if Britain did the same. Britain did not revoke and Madison was forced to reestablish the embargo against Britain. - Which he knew ended the period of neutrality. -Orders in Council- Britains effort to close all European ports under French control. -This was a war about respect; the 2nd war for American Independence. -4 main reasons for war: 1. Impressment. 2. Chesapeake incident 3. Indian attacks of the frontier- Indians supplied by British. 4. Pressure of the war hawks (ex: Felix Grundy, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun are Republicans who pressure Madison into war.) -Not one Federalist representative voted for war. Sectionalism. They didnt want their trade to suffer. But the Republicans were dominating everyone but northeast. -New Englands resistance to war: Hartford Convention. - War hawks: On to Canada! They thought that the only way to get rid of the Indians was to wipe out their base. Also, any land gained would be agricultural (not for the federalists). We entered Canada with a poorly conceived plan, and the British and Canadians showed great energy. Oliver Hazard Perry fought at Lake Erie and Thomas Macdonough defended the Union in a desperate battle fought near Plattsburg. - A second British force landed in the Chesapeake Bay area. The burned the Capitol and the White House. They hammered away and bombed Baltimore (Battle of Fort McHenry), but could not capture the city. Francis Scott Key. - A third British blow was aimed at New Orleans. Andrew Jackson led the defense against an overconfident British, who launched a frontal assault. It was an astonishing victory for Jackson and his men. Jackson became a national hero. (This battle actually didnt matter because the treaty at Ghent had been signed 2 weeks earlier Respect. Honor.) -Tsar Alexander I of Russia was feeling pressure and proposed the Treaty of Ghent, which was essentially an armistice. Both sides simply agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered land. ***The Hartford resolutions were the death dirge of the Federalist Party. When the war ends, Feds. are seen as traitors. End of party. George Washington: set a precedent (2 terms), unanimously elected, incredible character, non-partisan. He established the cabinet. Washingtons Administration:

-The bill of Rights: drafted by James Madison and drafted especially to please the anti-federalists. -Judiciary Act of 1789: This act organized the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and 5 associates, as well as federal district and circuit courts. John Jay became the first chief justice. -Washington signed the national bank measure into law. (See national bank) o -The creation of 2 political parties (Jeffersonian DemocraticRepublicans and Hamiltonian Federalists) -Whiskey Rebellion: in Pennsylvania in 1794 was lead by distillers who strongly opposed the 1791 excise tax on whiskey. The rebellion was ended when Pres. Washington sent in federal troops. -French Revolution: Jeffersonians regretted the bloodshed, but said it was a cheap price to pay for human freedom. Federalists supported the revolution at first, but that view suddenly changed when the attitude of the revolution changed! -Remembering the Franco-American alliance of 1778: Jeffersonian Demo-Republicans favored honoring the alliance But Pres. Washington was not swayed by the clamor of the crowd. Backed by Hamilton, he believed that war had to be avoided at all costs. -Neutrality Proclamation in 1793: -strategy of delay! - Proclaimed the governments official neutrality in the widening conflict -Pro-French Jeffersonians were enraged. -Pro-British Federalists were heartened. -Jays Treaty: in an attempt to avoid war with the British (still have posts in America and are selling weapons to Indians) Washington sent (Federalist) Chief Justice John Jay to London in 1794 to negotiate. British promised to evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay for the damages to American ships. Did not pledge anything about supplying arms to Indians, and Americans needed to continue paying debts owed to the British. -Jays Treaty caused Spain, which feared an Anglo-American alliance, to strike a deal with the U.S. -Pinckneys Treaty of 1795: Spain granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the large disputed territory north of Florida. -In his Farewell Address to the nation, Washington urged against permanent alliance. He left office in 1797. John Adams: -Hamilton had become unpopular because of his financial policies, so the Federalist Party rallied behind Washingtons VP, John Adams. -Democratic-Republicans rallied behind their master organizer: Thomas Jefferson. -Adams wins; Jefferson becomes VP. -Hamilton, who was the head of the Federalist Party, hated Adams. Adams had a conspiracy rather than a cabinet on his hands. Adams had also inherited a violent quarrel with France.

-French were infuriated by Jays Treaty and began to seize defenseless American ships. Adams sent 3 envoys to try to meet Talleyrand, the crafty French foreign minister. -XYZ Affair: 3 go-betweens approached Adams 3 envoys. The French demanded a $250,000 bribe to speak with Talleyrand. Negotiations quickly broke down and John Marshall was hailed a hero. -War preparations against the French moved along quickly. - Adams goes against his party (who wanted war) and the Convention of 1800 was signed. It annulled the peace treaty between America and France. -In order to decrease the # of pro-Jeffersonians, the Federalist Congress passed a series of oppressive laws aimed at aliens, or foreigners who came to America and supported Jefferson. -Alien Laws: Raised the residence requirements for aliens who desired to become citizens from 5 years to 14 years. They also stated that the President could deport of jail foreigners in times of peace or hostilities. -Sedition Act: stated that anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed its officials would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment. -The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions: (see above) -Midnight Judges (Marshall) Thomas Jefferson: -Jefferson quickly pardoned the prisoners of the Sedition Acts. The Naturalization Law of 1802 reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence back to the previous 5 years. He also did away with the excise tax. -Albert Gallatin: Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson; believed that a national debt wasnt a blessing; he reduced the national debt with a strict economy. -Jefferson preferred to make the military smaller, but was forced to use military against Tripoli (mosquito fleet) -Napoleon Bonaparte and France got New Orleans and Louisiana from Spain. That was more dangerous than Spain being in control. Jefferson sent James Monroe and Robert Livingston. They were to buy New Orleans and surrounding area for 10 million. But Napoleon decided on other dreams and gave Livingston all Louisiana for 15 million. -Sent Lewis and Clark to explore. -Burr (firs-term VP) joined a group of extremist Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York. Hamilton uncovered the plot and Burr dueled and shot him. -General James Wilkinson: corrupt military governor of Louisiana who made an allegiance with Burr to separate the west from east. He betrays Burr and Burr flees to Europe. France had the power of land, and England had the power of the seas. England issues the Orders in Council in 1806: They closed the European ports

T.J: The day that France takes possession of New Orleans, we must marry ourselves to Britain.

under French control to foreign shipping. The French ordered the seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports. Embargo Act: Banned the exportation of any goods to any countries. Jefferson planned to force France and Britain to respect America. The embargo was hated by Americans and hurt U.S. merchants. Repealed in 1809. Non-Intercourse Act: Opened up trade to every country buy France and Britain. The embargos fail because we are more dependent than France and Britain. James Madison: -Became president in 1809 -Democratic-Republican -Congressed issued Macons Bill No. 2 -Macons Bill No. 2 led to the War of 1812. -Democratic-Republicans supported the war; Federalists opposed. -Mr. Madisons War -Treaty of Ghent 1814 -Protective Tariff Tariff of 1816 -American System -Vetoed Nationally-Funded Roads James Monroe: Democratic-Republican elected in 1816. -Time during his administration was the Era of Good Feelings. -Panic of 1819: first financial panic since Washington. Over speculation. -Lots of westward expansion (cheap land) -Tallmadge Amendment: called for no more slaves to be brought into Missouri and called for the gradual emancipation of children born to slave parents already there. The amendment was later defeated by the slave states in Congress. -Missouri Compromise: Henry Clay. Missouri becomes a slave state, Maine becomes a free state. The Compromise also forbade slavery in the remaining territories in the Louisiana Territory north of the line of 36*30, except for Missouri. Judicial Nationalism (John Marshall) -General Andrew Jackson went into Florida. The Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819, Spain ceded Florida as well as Spanish claims to Oregon. -Monroe Doctrine: (with help from Adams) -George Canning asked the American minister if the U.S. would band together with the British in a joint declaration. -We went ahead. -2 main features were: non-colonization and non-intervention. John Quincy Adams:

-Corrupt Bargain: Election went to House of Representatives and Clay convinces the House to elect JQA. Clay becomes Secretary of State. -Minority president -Strong nationalist -Democrat, opposed slavery -Supported the building of nationally-funded roads and canals (and even an astronomical observatory) Andrew Jackson: -Beats Adams to win the election of 1828. The majority of his support was from the south -First president nominated at a formal party convention -Inaugural Brawl, King Mob -Spoils system -Nullification Crisis in South Carolina. Henry Clay calms things down with the Compromise Tariff of 1833. o Similar to VA and Kent. Resolutions o Bloody Bill/Force Bill: president can use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties. -Trail of Tears (John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.) -Bank War: o Bank doesnt get a re-charter (veto by Jackson) o Nicholas Biddle o Biddles Panic- trying to recall loans from pet banks o Wild cat banks o Species Circular- metallic money o Panic of 1837 Martin Van Buren: was the vice president under Jackson and a democrat. Was shown extreme support by Jackson in the presidential election of 1836, and Van Buren promised to tread carefully in the footsteps of his predecessor. First president to be born under the American flag. -Jacksonian finance, over speculation, and a basic get-rich scheme cause the panic of 1837. -Van Buren proposed the Divorce Bill. Not passed by Congress, it called for the dividing of the government and banking altogether. -The Independent Treasury Bill was passed in 1840. An independent treasury would be established and government funds would be locked in vaults. -Was president during the struggle between Texas and Santa Anna. Denominated by Democrats in 1840, but beat out by the Whigs and William Henry Harrison. Jacksons Removal Policy: Jacksons democrats were committed to western expansion, but such expansion necessarily meant confrontation with the current

inhabitants of the lands. For their efforts in assimilating, the Five Civilized Tribes was: the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles. In 828, the Georgia legislature declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal and tried to move them. The Cherokees appealed this to the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court upheld the rights of the Indians. -Jackson refused to recognize the Courts decision and did not help the court protect the Indians. Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it. -Trail of Tears: the forced uprooting of more than 100,000 Indians. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, providing for the transplanting of all Indian tribes east of the Mississippi. Colonial History: Roake Jamestown (Virginia Co.) Plymouth and Mass. Bay Co. Dominion of New England Glorious Revolution First Africans in Virginia (1619) Bacons Rebellion Great Awakening First Navigational Laws 7 Years War Proclamation of 1763 Stamp Act Boston Massacre Intolerable Acts Lexington and Concord Revolution Dominion of New England: Created by London to promote administration of the Navigation Laws The head was Sir Edmund Andros o Cut town meetings, heavy restrictions on the courts Revoked all land titles Suppressed smuggling Collapsed with the Glorious Revolution Actual Representation: Represented in Parliament by physicality Virtual Representation: what the colonists were given; represented because they are citizens. Spanish Armada: beaten by England in 1588; the great Spanish naval fleet

British Taxes: imposed by Grenville and Parliament Navigational Laws Sugar act Quartering Act Stamp Act o Stamp Act Congress o Sons and Daughter of Liberty o Non importation o Repealed Declaratory Act Townsend Acts Federalists: Wanted a strong federal government George Washington, Ben Franklin People who lived in settled areas, wealthy, more educated These people were the ones who controlled the press Pro- Constitution and big government Anti-Federalists: Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee States rights devotees, backcountry dwellers, poor Needed the Bill of Rights Opposed a strong federal government Halfway Covenant: unconverted children of existing members were admitted to baptism but not to full communion, increased church attendance, exactly what the churches need. -Weakened the gap between the elect and the others Salem Witch Trials: a group of girls claimed to be bewitched by other women in the community, killed 20 women, and ended when the governor of Massachusetts prohibited further convictions Established churches: tax supported churches, Anglican and Congregational. Great Awakening: in all the colonial churches religion was less fervid. -Ignited by Jonathan Edwards, salvation through faith alone, not good works; Sinners in a Hand of an Angry God; revitalized American religion -Increased the number and competitiveness of American churches -led to the founding of colleges; Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, and Dartmouth.

Old Lights/New Lights: Old Lights: Orthodox clergymen who were skeptical of the new way of preaching during the enlightenment. New Lights: defended the Awakening for its role in revitalizing American Religion (Whitefield) -Passion, emotion, radical. Separatists/Puritans: -Puritans: believed in Predestination, more moderate and tried to reform the Church of England from within. In 1629 they secured a royal charter to form the Massachusetts Bay colony. During the Great Migration about 70 thousand refugees left England. -Separatist /Pilgrims: radical group of Puritans, who vowed to break away entirely from the Church of England. They departed for Holland in 1608, but were distressed by the dutchification of their children. They got a contract with the Virginia Company and sailed on the Mayflower. They settled at Plymouth Bay and drew up the Mayflower Compact: a simple agreement to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulation agreed upon. -William Bradford: self-taught scholar who was chosen the governor of Plymouth Bay 30 times. -Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691. John Marshall: was a key figure in the upsurge of judicial nationalism. Some of his key cases were: McCulloch vs. Maryland, Cohens vs. Virginia, Gibbons vs. Ogden, Fletcher vs. Peck, and Dartmouth College vs. Woodward. -He declared the U.S. bank constitutional; he strengthened federal authority and slapped at state infringements. He denied the states rights to be able to tax a federal bank. -He ruled that federal courts have the right to review state courts -Daniel Webster: Expounding Father. He served in both the House and the Senate. He was the mouthpiece of the Supreme Court. Protective Tariff: Advocated by Clay Part of American System Placed a 20-25% tax on the value of dutiable imports Also called the Tariff of Abominations Discriminated against the South South Carolina attempts to nullify American System: by Henry Clay -3 Main Parts: A strong banking system; to provide easy and abundant credit

A protective tariff, behind which eastern manufacturing would flourish A network of roads and canals

Nullification Theory: Happened twice. First time was in VA and Kentucky Resolutions. Then in South Carolina. Both times it failed because no one joined the cause. Polk and Manifest Destiny: Polk the Purposeful Lowed the tariff Wanted to acquire CA and the Oregon Territory (54*40 and 49*) American Blood on American Soil Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo o 1/3 of Mexico Massachusetts Colony: Formed by the Puritans when they received a royal charter from the Massachusetts Bay Company. -Absorbed other smaller colonies -Only visible saints were allowed to be church members. -Strong work ethic. -John Winthrop: colonys first governor; felt he had a calling from God; helped Massachusetts prosper; we shall be as a city upon a hill. Rhode Island: the sewer. Found by Roger Williams. Sheltered Anne Hutchinson and outcasts. It even held Jews and Catholics. Connecticut River Colony: -Fundamental Orders: one of the first modern constitutions. It established a regime democratically controlled by the substantial citizens. Features of it were borrowed for its colonial charter and ultimately for its state constitution. Chesapeake Bay Colonies: Massachusetts, Maryland, Delaware. -Difficult life, trouble repopulating Maryland Colony: 4th English Colony Founded by Lord Baltimore- Catholic family Tobacco, indentured servants Act of Toleration New York Colony: A royal colony founded by the Dutch and named after the Duke of York. Held the Hudson River.

Salutary Neglect: -The period of time when the colonies got a taste for independence. Parliament wasnt paying attention to the colonies and Navigation Laws werent enforced. -This time period ended after the French /Indian War. Era of Good Feelings: -One party. Republicans -Monroes administration -Emerging nationalism -No wars -American Arts -Interrupted by Panic of 1819 and Missouri Compromise Aroostook War: The British tried to build a westward road in disputed Maine/Canada. A small war broke out until Lord Ashburton came to a compromise. Americans got more land, but the British got the land needed to build the road. Birth of Political Parties: -Split over the idea of the bank -Founding Fathers did not know this was coming Federalist (Hamiltonian) : Powerful central government Loose interpretation of the Constitution Pro-Protective Tariff Pro-British Powerful central bank Strong navy Wealth; national debt is a blessing Democratic-Republican (Jeffersonian): Weak central government States rights Strict interpretation of the constitution Agriculture Pro-French State banks; no national debt Minimal navy Colonial Government: Power of purse: withholding governors salary Stamp Act Congress Colonial Assemblies

Continental Congress Town Hall Association

Mexican/American War: Polk orders Zachary Taylor to move his army between the 2 rivers in Texas Mexico sees this as an invasion American blood has been shed on American soil Spot Resolution-Lincoln Many Americans (including Thoreau) are upset with Polk War is from 1846-1848 Ends with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Americans get 1/3 on Mexican land 13,000 Americans dead. Wow. This is a war started by a president. Wilmot Proviso: Any land taken from Mexico will not have slavery Popular Sovereignty: This idea came from Lewis Cass, but Stephen introduced it in 1854 in the Kansas/Nebraska Act. The idea was to let the people decide. Manifest Destiny: this idea comes from John L. OSullivan. It was included in the topic of westward expansion and was concentrated in the 1840s. Manifest destiny said that is was Gods will and our inevitable right for our culture to spread. -Ethnocentrism: Americans have a superior culture. Arrogance.