Anthony J Russo
ajrakr@q.com
A physical model of an electron has been conceived in terms of new postulated particles
called charglets. A description and definition of these particles is given and used to
describe the structure of an electron (or positron). Quantitative agreement with the
experimental electron charge, mass, fields, magnetic moment and spin is obtained from
this model. Some discussion of the relevance of these particles to other parts of physics,
including the Bohr atom, is also included.
1. Introduction
Although the electron is at the heart of much
modern technology and chemistry, actual
knowledge of the nature of the particle is still
incomplete and it remains an enigma in many
respects. Questions about why charge of one sign
should stay together rather than disperse despite
enormous forces that tend to do so, and how a
magnetic moment much larger than the motion of
its known charge could produce, even moving at
the speed of light, have never been convincingly
answered. Many attempts have been made to
answer these questions with classical models but
as far as I know none have been completely
satisfactory from both a quantitative and
philosophical perspective, or have been able to
provide an intuitive physical picture that could
enable further development.
1,2
This paper aims at
overcoming those deficiencies.
1.1 Some Basics
It is known that electrons and positrons can be
formed in the presence of high intensity
electromagnetic fields and this serves as a clue to
their nature. If we look at solutions to the
Helmholtz equation that produce such fields we
immediately see that cylindrically symmetric
fields, such as those produce by a collapsing
magnetic field or radially inward focused waves
have values that increase in intensity as some
negative power of r, and are described by functions
like cylindrical or spherical Bessel functions of the
second kind. As the radius approaches zero the
value of the functions approach infinity, but from
symmetry the electric field must be zero at the
origin, so this contradiction must be resolved.
Nature does this by a field disruption as shown in
Figure 1, where
Figure 1. Generation of charglets
a field line is shown to break apart with a charglet
at each end. The nature of these postulated
charglets is essential to the subject of this paper.
Each charglet has a positive or negative charge e,
which moves at the speed of light in the direction of
the field which gave birth to it. Not close to the
speed of light, but at it, just as the field line itself
was moving at the speed of light. Since the
charglet always moves at the speed of light it
cannot be accelerated or decelerated in its direction
of motion, but only in a direction transverse to the
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direction of motion.
Perhaps the best way to think of a charglet is that
it is like a charged photon. A photon is sn
uncharged particle that moves only at the speed of
light and has an energy and mass that depends
only on the frequency of the electromagnetic
fields associated with it. A charglet on the other
hand is a charged particle that moves only at the
speed of light and has an energy and mass that
depend only on the angular momentum of its
charge.
There are three types of charglets that will be
considered in this paper. They differ only in the
spatial distribution of their charge and its
direction of motion at the velocity of light. The
first type is that of a compact spheroid of charge
moving linearly. Linear motion includes curved
paths or circular orbits. Obviously if all parts of a
charglet move at the speed of light any curved
path must involve some internal velocities in the
transverse direction of main motion of the
charglet such as rotation or vibration. The second
type of charglet is a radially expanding or
exploding shell of charge. The charge density in
the shell must then decrease as the square of the
radius of the charglet. The third type of charglet
is one that can rotate and expand simultaneously.
That type of charglet is a transitional one, and it
will turn into an expanding one of the second
kind.
Consider a pair of charglets born in a circular
orbit that have been given a small radial velocity
in the inward and outward direction as shown in
figure 2.
Figure 2, Motion of charglets
Even though the charglets move at the same
velocity, c, they have different angular velocities, as
is apparent, and they will have different
characteristics, as will be shown.
First consider an inward moving charglet with a
small radial motion compared to its circular
tangential velocity. If c is the magnitude of the
velocity of light, r that of the orbital radius, is
the angular frequency of the charglet motion, and v
the radial 6 component of velocity:
c
2
=( r)
2
+v
2
dc
2
dt
=0=r
2
r+r
2
+v v
v=r
2
r
2
/ vr
2
c
2
(
ln())/ v
for small values of the velocity v .
or
r+
c
2
r
=c
2
(ln())/ v (1a)
The term on the right side of the last equation has a
numerator which is always of opposite sign of the
denominator and so the term is always has some
positive average value. A solution of that equation
therefore can be found for which
r=r
0
+6sin(t ) with being some perturbation
amplitude to a circular orbit of radius r
0
, which
will be determined by the force applied to the
charglet which keeps it in orbit. If one rewrites
Equation 1a in non dimensional form with right
side changed to a positive form one obtains.
(d
2
R)
(d
2
)
=
1
R
+(2R) (1b)
where R=r /r
e
and f=t c/r
e
with r
e
being the classical electron radius
The right hand side of equation (1b) was given that
form since the right hand side of equation (1a) is
always positive and as the vibrational amplitude
and velocity approach zero it must reduce to
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c
2
/r , or 1, in nondimensional form. For
greater or equal to 1 that form of equation (1b)
satisfies those conditions.
This equation has a natural frequency dependent
on the magnitude of
and with 6 equal to
1.0000016 the frequency is 0.0073 of the orbital
frequency, which is the ratio of the deBroglie
frequency to the presumed electron spin
frequency.
1.2 Outgoing charglets
Charglets that are generated in a circular orbit but
are ejected for some reason can also only
accelerate laterally, but their angular velocities
take on a different form. Figure 3 shows such a
charglet segment moving outward from
position r
0.
Figure 3 An outgoing charglet.
The radius vector from the rotation center to the
charglet makes an angle theta with the original
position so that 0=Acos (r
0
/r ) and
u=
0=
(r
0
v)
(r
2
.
1(r
0
/r)
2
)
(2)
so that as the radius increases u goes toward 0
and the velocity, v, becomes equal to c. This can
describe a spherically expanding charglet the
characteristics of which will be discussed later.
2. The fields of a charglet.
2.1 Linearly moving charglets
The classical electric field of a moving charge is
given by the sum of a convection term and a
radiation term as in Equation (3)
3
4
c
0
e
E=
1
s
3
(
rr
u
c
)
(1
u
2
c
2
)
+
(
1
(c
2
s
3
)
(
r ((rr
u
c
)
u)
)
)
(3)
where u is the velocity of the charge, e, which in
the case of a chaglet would be c, and r is magnitude
of the radius vector from the centroid of the charge
to the observation point. Unfortunately Equation 3
is singular when u equals c. The quantity
s=rru/ c goes to zero in the denominator
of both terms and results in infinite radiation in the
forward direction. Since a charglet moving at the
speed of light cannot radiate at all in the forward
direction, Equation (3) is not applicable to a
charglet. It is here postulated that the electric and
magnetic fields of a charglet are given by a
convection term alone, without the (1(u/c)
2
) factor
and only in a rear facing cone. Thus:
E=
e
(4c
0
s
3
)
(
rr
u
c
)
and (4)
B=
e
(4c
0
s
3
c
2
)
( ur )
for
r
r
(
c
c
)
.2
2
and 0 everywhere else.
2.2 Radially expanding charglets.
Since a radially expanding charge moving at any
speed has no magnetic field anywhere, that is also
true for charglets of the second type. Because
charglets are moving at light speed they cannot
project any field in the outward direction so the
electric field is zero esternal to the charglet. Inside
the charglet fields can propagate but by symmetry
the electric field cancels as in any charged sphere,
so a charglet of the second type has no fields
associated with it even though it has charge and
local direction.
2.3 Rotating and expanding charglets
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Charglets that are born spinning have both electric
and magnetic fields associated with them which
disappear as the charglet transitions to a pure
radial motion. Each element of the spinning shell
produces a field in accordance with its linear
motion as in equation (4) at any time, and I know
of no simple expression to accurately express the
resultant electric field of the whole charglet.
3. Proposed Electron Structure
An electron (or positron) is thought to be
composed of three orbiting charglets as shown in
Figure 4.
Both negative charglets move in the same
direction and as indicated by the trailing wake
lines they never orbit directly in each others
fields, so their only interaction with each other is
through an expanding wake which is an outward
force much weaker than the inward force
produced by the wake of the positive charglet
encountered twice per cycle. The positive charglet
moves in the opposite direction and does not see
the negative charglets till they pass each other.
While they are In the wake of each other they
experience and inward force directed toward a
future position of the oppositely charged charglet.
The positive charglet encounters a negative one
four times per cycle. The magnetic fields
produced by all three charglets are in the same
direction and average to zero near the orbital axis
as would be expected for any circular current. The
field outside
Figure 4. Electron Structure
the orbit is in a direction which can keep the
charglets accelerating inward when the electric
field goes to zero. It will be shown that there is an
additional magnetic field produced by expanding
and rotating charglets which produces an inward
force. This magnetic force can provide the restoring
force to a departure from the orbital radius and is
what motivated the form of the right side of the non
dimensional equation 1.
3.1 More about fields
Equations 4 describe a convection field that
radiates from a charglet in a trailing cone of half
angle 45 degrees, If a charglet is moving in a
straight line an observer in the trailing cone would
see the field of Equations 4 while an observer
outside the cone would see nothing till the charglet
moved to distance far enough to expand the cone to
enclose the observer. If on the other hand the
charglet moves in a circular path an observer at the
center of the circle would lie outside the cone but
the expanding cone will quickly envelope the
observer and the field will appear to be emanating
from a virtual charglet moving in a straight line
tangent to the circle as shown in figure 5 even
though the actual charglet is still in orbit
1
.
Figure 5. Field of a virtual charglet
The distance of the virtual chaglet to the observer is
the
(
rr
u
c
)
factor of Equation 4. The virtual
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charglet will orbit the observer just as the actual
one does so that all points within and on the
orbital area are influenced by the electromagnetic
fields. At the orbital center the electric field
constantly changes direction and its average is
zero. As the observed location moves toward the
orbital radius the average value of the electric
field seen by each charglet takes on a value that
produces a net inward force.
Assuming the charglet has a spherical shape it is
useful to calculate what are the fields near its
surface and the energy flow E X H.
Figure 6. Field near a moving charglet
Referring to Figure 6 and Equation 4, the
magnitude of the electric field near the surface of
a charglet can be written as:
E=
q
(4c
0
)
(2cos(o))
(a
2
(1cos(0))
3
)

and that of the magnetic field is:
B=
q
(4c
0
)
(2sin(0))
(c a
2
(1cos(0))
3
)

so that:
EH=(
q
(4c
0
)
)
2
(2cos(o) sin(0)cos(0))
(c
0
a
4
(1cos(0))
6
)

(5)
is the value of the energy flux in the direction of
the velocity vector. Integrating Eq. 5 over a rear
facing surface gives:
=(
q
(4c
0
)
)
2
4
a
4
.
c
0
(/2)
(2 cos(o)sin
2
(0)cos(0))
(1cos (0))
6
d 0

(6)
The value of the integral in Equation 6 is 0.069775
and in terms of the charglet radius a , the value of
EH is 1.5358E21/ a
4
. For a value of
a=0.279 R
e
, where R
e
is the classical electron
radius, EH = 2.5347E19 watts/m
2
. If we
divide this number by c, we obtain the energy
density of the field, and multiplying that by the
volume of a spherical charglet we obtain 2.7294e
14 Joules. Dividing that by c we obtain the
momentum of a charglet as 9.104E23, and
repeating gives a mass of 3.03672E31 kg, 1/3 the
electron rest mass. So the triplet of charglets has a
mass equal to the electron mass and invoking the
uncertainty principle and dividing Plank's constant,
h, by the total energy of 8.1882E14 J, we obtain a
minimum distinguishable time of 8.0923eE21 s,
and dividing that by the orbital period of 5.9087E
23 we obtain 137.02, the ubiquitous fine structure
constant, which can be interpreted as the number of
revolutions of a triplet of charglets make in a
minimum distinguishable time, from a quantum
mechanical point of view. Multiplying that number
by the electron charge and the rotational frequency
of the charglets gives the electron magnetic
moment of 9.2847E24 J/T, which might tempt one
to believe that this moment is the result of some
quantum time integration of indistinguishable
orbits. The author has resisted that temptation
however because it is believed that the magnetic
moment is due to charge rotating in real time as
will be subsequently discussed.
The average Electric field of the charglets outside
the orbital radius is complex to calculate but for an
observer in the equatorial plane, and assuming that
the radial fields of the positive charglet and one of
the negative charglets cancel on average, the far
radial field will be due to one charglet and,
referring to Figure 7, can be expressed as:
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E
r
=(
q
(4c
0
R
e
2
)
)
(3/4)
(5/4)
(2cos (o)sin(o))
(I((r / R
e
)
2
+2(1+r/ R
e
)))
 d 0
(7)
where I=(1cos ())(1cos(0))
3
and where =0/ 2 and o=(0)/ 2
Figure 7 External Electric field calculation.
When Eq. 7 is evaluated for large values of r, it
asymptotes toward a value a little less than 2/3 of
the classical electron field of
q
(4c
0
r
2
)
.
A similar result is found along the polar axis.
3.2 Transition Charglets
The remaining field is believed to be from
spherical charglets generated by the fields of the
orbiting ones. While it is true that a purely radial
field with a 1/ r
2
variation is divergence free
except at the origin, that is not true for a general
vector field with a r / r
3
distribution which is
the form of the trailing charglet field. That field
has a divergence of:
E=
q
( 4
0
)
r
r
3
=
q
(4
0
)
3
r
2
(1/ r1)=
0
(8)
Evaluating the expression in Equation. (8) for p
at the classical electron radius and charge gives a
spherical shell thickness of about 10
16
m, which
would be the charglet birth thickness. These
generated charglets start out with a rotational
velocity opposite that of the generating charglet
(because that is the direction of the external field)
but quickly transition to a radially outward velocity
because of the repulsion of the orbiting charglets
and the self magnetic field of these spinning
charges. The magnetic moment of the spinning
charglets is much greater than that of the orbiting
ones because a number of them can be temporarily
trapped before they expand and because of the
larger area enclosed during the transition.
Assuming this transition takes place with a radial
velocity
(2c
2
exp(t / )c
2
exp(2t / ))
R
2

(1/2)
where R is the expanding charglet radius and u
is its angular frequency with all times (t and f )
normalized to the orbital period R/c. If the
magnetic moment of a spinning expanding charglet
is
h ), where
h
is the normalized Planck constant, for the same
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value of f=2.2 .
The far radial electric field of an expanding
spherical charglet will be similar to that of its
parent, given by equation 7 except that as it
undergoes an additional radial integration its
intensity will be reduced by a factor v
/c since
only the tangential velocity contributes to the
electric field, and the viewed charge density
decreases as the charglet expands, and is
increased by a factor of
.2 because its effect
will be constant rather than periodic. When that
integration is done the value of the far radial
electric field produced by the expanding charglet
is 0.334 of the classical field for the same value of
f=2.2 , which agrees with the comments made
previously about the far field being made up of
contributions from the rotational inner and outer
charglets.
Assuming a circular orbit, a numerical force
balance has been done over the trajectory of the
inner charglets in which the electromagnetic
interactions between the charglets and the force
due to the magnetic field of the expanding
charlets is balanced against the outward inertial
force of the rotational charglets. It was found that
the magnetic field of the expansion charglets
needed to be 3.97E13 T to achieve that balance
and that value is consistent with the magnetic
moment of 9.3e24 J/T acting on an area slightly
larger than that of the orbital radius. This justifies
the stability of the electron structure that has been
previously described.
Radially expanding charglets, moving at light
velocity, have no external fields, either electric or
magnetic. Within the sphere there are no magnetic
fields, due to symmetry, and the electric fields
essentially cancel each other in a time average
sense because of the presence of charglets of
opposite polarity, so they have no observable
mass or energy. The role they play in the electron
structure occurs while they are in transition from
having rotating to radially expanding velocities,
as described above. In that regard they provide
both the spin and magnetic moments of the
electron, and the magnetic field that they produce,
which is opposite that produced by the three
revolving charglets, serves as an additional
confining force to keep the interior charglets in
orbit when the time varying electric field is
insufficient to do so. That is the motivation for the
form of Eq. (1b). They also provide a
supplementary external electric field (while in
transition) to bring the field to that observed for an
electron. It is well known that the calculated
dynamic electromagnetic mass calculated from the
back EMF of the external field is too high by a
factor of 4/3. The negative 1/3 of mass is usually
assumed to be due to internal forces that keep the
electron together. The charglet model suggests that
it is due to part of the back EMF being dissipated
on the expanding charglets which decouple
themselves from their source and provide the
missing negative one third of mass.
Finally these charglets serve as reflective shields
for any outward radiation of energy due to the
tangential electric fields of the orbiting charglets. It
has been pointed out that since the velocity of all
chaglets is always c, they cannot be accelerated or
decelerated in their direction of motion, so the
effective force on a charglet due to external electric
fields may be written as q/ c
2
c(
Ec) , so the
local charge can be displaced normal to their
direction of motion and the resulting current can
cancel any transverse electric wave as any
conductor would.
4. A moving Electron
The electron model described in section 3 is just A
model, not a unique one. As an electron encounters
electric or magnetic fields its shape must change to
accommodate a new force balance. In particular in
order for an electron to move in space it must
deform because charglets only move at the velocity
of light and cannot speed up or slow down,
therefore the circular orbits shown in the previous
figures must become spiral or cycloid shaped
trajectories as shown in figure 8 for a positive and
negative charglet. .
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As an electron speeds up the effective area of the
rotating charglets (shown dot shaded in figure 8)
will decrease and assuming the magnetic flux in
that area remains trapped (as in a superconducting
coil) the volume integral of
B
H over the
region will increase. Since that quantity Is the
magnetic field energy, which is related to the
electron mass, the mass will increase with
velocity. Relativity theory and experiment
indicate that this increase is proportional to the
Lorenz factor ,
1/ 1u
2
/ c
2
where u is the
electron velocity. Once the magnetic energy
increases there is no way for it to decrease
without interacting with some external fields so
the distorted shape (cycloidal trajectory) and
velocity will be maintained. That is why an object
in motion remains in motion. It should also be
noted that though charglets have no far radiation
field the moving assembly produces a
displacement current that is equivalent to a charge
moving below light velocity that will have such a
field and all the equations of classical
electromagnetics will apply.
Figure 8. Some charglet trajectories in a moving
electron.
It should also be noted that there is an uncertainty
in the position of moving electron proportional to
2u/c . This factor will appear later in an
expression for the Planck constant.
5. The Bohr atom revisited
The simple planetary model of a hydrogen atom
proposed by Bohr was a leap forward for quantum
mechanics because it explained the radiation
spectrum of hydrogen. That model equates the
kinetic energy of orbital rotation to the electric
potential energy of the singly charged nucleus of
the atom. This results in an equation with two
unknowns, the orbital velocity and radius. Bohr
obtained a second equation by assuming that there
is a minimum electron orbital momentum equal to
h/ 2 and that other orbits had momenta that
were multiples of that.
Such an assumption need not be made since it is
evident from charglet theory that there must be a
minimum orbital radius and momentum. An
electron itself is composed of orbiting charglets, as
it enters a gradient electric field the circular
charglet motion will change to a cycloidal motion
in the direction of E , even if the electron
had no initial orbital velocity. Thus the orbital
motion of the electron is tied to the the circular
cyclodal motion of its charglets. Because the
electric field gradient gets stronger as 1/ r
3
, the
orbital radius cannot go to zero without the
velocity going to infinity or the electron
disintegrating.
To see why this minimum radius has to take on the
value that it does, we have to go back to the
previous section and note that for a circular orbital
cycloidal motion the negative charglets would have
an angular frequency of
c/ r
e
+u/ r
o
where r
o
is
the orbital radius, and the positive charglet angular
frequency would be

c/ r
e
+u/ r
o
since they are
rotating in opposite directions in the electron. The
sum in cycles per second is
4 u/ r
o
and in non
dimensional form is
4 (r
e
/r
o
)(u/ c)
. while
that expression is the driving frequency it is not the
response frequency of the charglets. Assuming the
bracketed quantities are small and denoting u/ c
by f , and 2 f by u , we may
approximate the expression as:
2sin(r
e
/r
o
)sin()+11
. Approximating the 1
by a product of cosines of the same two arguments
and using a trigonometric identity we obtain
1+cos(r
e
/r
o
)
(9)
This expression has the same form as 6 in (1b).
Solving for r
o
from the force or energy balance
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equations in terms of u/ c or f and substituting
into the cosine argument we obtain an expression
in only the unknown u/ c . The strategy will be
to vary the driving frequency in equation (1b) and
look for a resonance, at which point the driving
frequency and response frequency will be equal
and an equation in f can be solved. Some near
field radiation at that frequency will be generated.
Some of that radiation would reflect off the
nucleus and interact with the charglets that are
rotating in the electron. To see the effect of that
we can go back to Equation 1b and give a
very small periodic variation, so that (1)
remains positive and let =1+A+bAsin( )
. A plot of the log of the amplitude fluctuation in
R with A=0.0000169 =
2
/
, b=0.25 and the
dimensionless frequency / 2 varying is
shown in figure 9.
It is seen that at a dimensionless frequency equal
to the fine structure constant, o , 0.0073 (a finer
grid and b=0.1175 yields 0.007297) the amplitude
fluctuation changes by about four orders of
magnitude. This clearly cannot happen because if
the vibrational amplitude became larger than the
radius of the electron its structure could not be
maintained. The dimensionless value of u/ c
is also o at that value.
I believe what happens is that at that radius the
structure of the electron changes so that most of
the cloud of spherically expanding transition
charglets is ejected and the three core charglets
with six of the continuously generated transition
ones, rotate around the nucleus. The total electron
magnetic moment and angular momentum of the
new assembly remain the same because while the
orbital radius is increased by 1/ the effective
current and mass is reduced by.
In this new
configuration the electron will no longer radiate
for the same reason it did not radiate by itself. The
circular charglet motion has no far field radiation
term, and the current looks like a direct current in
a circular loop, which does not radiate. Any
integral divisor, n, of the ground state orbital
frequency will generate harmonics at that
frequency and produce a reconfiguration of the
electron at radii that are multiples of n
2
r
o
. Thus
charglet theory predicts the characteristics of a
hydrogen atom without any assumptions or
contradictions.
The energy acquired by the charglets as they fall
into a potential well must be immediately
dissipated by radiation because the charglets cannot
change velocity magnitude and have no way of
storing it. Vibrational motions can radiate energy
and the total energy radiated will be equal to the
power radiated, P, times the transition time, t
t
from one level to another. It will also be equal to
the energy radiated per cycle of vibration, E
c
times
vibration frequency f. The power radiated from a
small radiator can be written as the impedance of
free space, 1/
o
c , times half the current e ,
squared, times the ratio of an effective radiation
length, i
e
to the wavelength, squared.
4
Estimating the transition time to be
l
e
/ c
, and
combining these relations we obtain the expression:
E
c
=(2)
2
(l
e
/)
3 e
2
2
o
c
. But the Planck
constant can be written as: h=1/
e
2
2
o
c
so that
if we identify 1/ with the quantity
(2)
2
(l
e
/)
3
charglet theory then identifies both
the fine structure constant and Planck's constant as
the radiationlength to wavelength ratio, and
Energy radiated per charglet vibration times its
period, respectively. The radiation length of a
charglet vibration is related to its amplitude and a
characteristic of equation (1b) is that the amplitude
wavelength ratio is nearly constant over a wide
range, though that equation is only an
approximation. It takes a ratio of 1.514 to give
correct values for
(1+a
2
) Ei (a
2
/(1+a
2
)) where a is the
All rights reserved 9
amplitude of the charglet vibration and Ei is the
complete elliptical integral of the second kind.
The value of a from this expression that gives the
right ratio is 0.03396. The values of the
wavelength and effective radiation length
calculated from equation (1b) during the early
transition bracket the correct values for the fine
structure and Planck constants.
Figure 9. Fluctuation of the radius of a rotating
charglet with a varying dimensionless driver
frequency.
6. Relation to gravity
Another interesting feature of spherically
expanding charglets is their possible interaction
with orbiting charglets in other electrons or atoms.
Figure 10. shows such an interaction of a positive
expanding charglet with a positive orbiting
charglet.
Figure 10. Charglet interaction with matter
The expanding charglet will have the strongest
interaction with charglets moving in the same
direction as it is because it sees them for the
longest time. The magnetic field of the orbiting
charglet is upward out of the paper as indicated by
the dots on the interior of the orbit and the force on
a local element of charge in its wake will oppose
that produced by the electric field. But unless the
motions of the charglets is exactly coplanar the
electric force will be larger and deflect the part of
the expanding charglet slightly as indicated by the
dashed trajectory. This small local current transverse
to the main direction of the expanding charglet will
interact with the magnetic field so as to resist that
deflection and straighten the trajectory, so the
atomic charglet will have essentially no effect on the
expanding one. The reaction force however on the
atomic charglets will always be in the direction from
which the expanding charglet came. This suggests a
physical explanation of the 1/r
2
gravity field.
Consider two protons one meter apart. The force
due to gravity is
F
g
=y
m
2
r
2
=6.67E11(1.67E27)
2
/1.010
64
the force due to the charglet interaction is:
F
c
=n(e
d
2
(4r
2
)
) c Bd sin(0)=10
14
(10
50
)
10
8
10
10
10
15
sin(0)10
33
sin(0)
where n is the number of charglets per meter, e the
electronic charge, d the particle diameter, and 0
is the local charglet deflection angle. So
010
31
and it takes only a tiny deflection to
account for gravitational attraction. That is also
interesting because if the electromagnetic fields of
matter can deflect charglets then the fields of a light
wave should be able to do so too, and a slight
increase in the index of refraction should result.
Taking the form of the index of refraction , n, near
the sun as n=1+aM/R, with M and R being the
mass and radius of the Sun, the deflection angle of
the light beam passing near the Sun due to
diffraction would be aMc/R
2
. Setting that
expression equal to the deflection calculated by
relativity of 8.49E6 radians and solving for a
yields a=6,8E27 m
2
/kg. This value is too small to
be noticed under ordinary circumstances, though
some experimenters claim to have observed
variations of gravity due to a strong laser.
5
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5. Summary and Discussion
A model of an electron has been proposed which
consists of three charglets ( one positive and two
negative) revolving around each other at the speed
of light and generating a series of radially
expanding charglets which interact with the
generating structure only during their transition
from rotation to radial expansion. These charglets
produce the magnetic moment and angular
momentum of an electron and contribute to its
electric field while in transition, and if they are
the building blocks of all matter, may be
responsible for the phenomena of gravitational
attraction. The known properties of electrons
such as charge, mass, electric and magnetic fields,
moments and momentum are accounted for
quantitatively and rational explanations for their
existence are given. This theory has been used to
successfully model the hydrogen atom behavior
without the usual assumptions and contradictions
of the Bohr atom, however it should be noted that
the equation used for the charglet orbits is an
approximation, and is very stiff, so more rigorous
calculations should be done to extend the
theory. \\
The non classical feature required is the
introduction of charglets moving at light speed
and the quantitative description of their fields.
The reader may have noted that although the
charglets are postulated to move at light speed no
reference to relativistic formulas or ideas was
used in this paper. That is because charglet theory
assumes that space and time are universal
absolutes and all relativistic effects can be
accounted for by variations of matter with velocity.
Since charglets move only at the speed of light their
orbits must deform during any translational motion
and any elementary particles that are composed of
such charglets must must also deform. Because all
rulers and clocks are composed of particles they
must be affected by velocity as both relativity and
charglet theory predict and as has been observed
experimentally.
References
1. D. L. Bergman, Spinning Charge Ring Model of
Elementary Particles, Galilean Electrodynamics,
vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 3032 (March/April 1991).
2. Pearle, Philip. 1982. Classical Electron
Models. Pp. 211 295 in Electromagnetism: Paths
to Research. Edited by Doris Teplitz. New York:
Plenum Press.
3. Panofsky W.K.H. and Phillips M. Classical
Electricity and Magnetism, Addison Wesley,
Reading, MA , 1955, p300.
4. Schelkunuff S. A. and Friis H.T., Antennas
Theory and practice, John Wiley & Sons, INC.
NY, 1952. p309.
5. Dezso SarkadiTeleki, Debrecen, HajduBihar,
The Effect of Light on Gravity: Gravitational
Telecommunication by Dynamic Gravity,
http://www.scribd.com/doc/102631517/EffectofLight
onGravity
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