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In this paper, a new switching table for Direct Torque Control (DTC) of a nine-level Multi Point Clamped
(MPC) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed induction motor drive is proposed. A Nine level inverter has 729 switching states
and there are 217 effective vectors are possible. The proposed multi level inverter drive scheme is capable for enough
degrees of freedom to control both electromagnetic torque and stator flux with very low ripple and high dynamic speed
response. From the simulation results shows that feeding electrical drive with multi level inverter can greatly improves the
drive performance. The performance of this control method has been demonstrated by simulations performed using a
versatile simulation package, Matlab/Simulink.

save

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IJEP Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2012 PP. 7-17 ISSN(online) ISSN(print) www.ij-ep.org

**Modulation and Control of Multilevel Inverter Fed DTC Induction Motor Drive
**

1

O.Chandra sekhar1, k Chandra sekhar2 Dept.EEE,Vignan’s Lara Institute of Technology and Science,Vadlamudi, India 2 Dept. EEE, R.V.R & J.C College of Engineering,Chowdavaram,Guntur, India Emails: 1Sekhar.obbu@gmail.com, 2cskoritala@gmail.com

(Abstract) In this paper, a new switching table for Direct Torque Control (DTC) of a nine-level Multi Point Clamped (MPC) Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) fed induction motor drive is proposed. A Nine level inverter has 729 switching states and there are 217 effective vectors are possible. The proposed multi level inverter drive scheme is capable for enough degrees of freedom to control both electromagnetic torque and stator flux with very low ripple and high dynamic speed response. From the simulation results shows that feeding electrical drive with multi level inverter can greatly improves the drive performance. The performance of this control method has been demonstrated by simulations performed using a versatile simulation package, Matlab/Simulink. Keywords: DTC; nine-level MPC VSI; Switching table; Induction motor; Matlab/Simulink. voltages using some components. Even diode-clamped 1. INTRODUCTION converters belong to this family because the bus between two switches is clamped by a clamping diode. Furthermore, when Multilevel power conversion technology is a very rapid the number of voltage level is odd, the converters are called growing area of power electronics with good potential for Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) because the neutral point is further development. The most attractive application of this clamped, has found wide application in medium-voltage technology are in the medium to high voltage range (2-13kv), high-power applications [6].The main features of the MPC and include induction motor drives, power distribution,power converter include reduced dv/dt and THD in its AC output quality and power conditioning applications [1],[2],[3],[4] .In voltages in comparison to the conventional two level general multilevel power converters can be viewed as converters. The inverter scheme proposed in this paper voltage synthesizers, in which the high output voltage is produces 729 switching states and there are106 effective synthesized from many discrete small voltage levels. The space vectors are possible in this system. This results in a main advantages of this approach is,The voltage capacity of reduction of the switching ripple in the motor electromagnetic the existing devices can be increased many times without the torque waveform. complications of static and dynamic voltage sharing that In principle, DTC method is based on instantaneous space occurring series connected device. It is possible to obtain vector theory. By optimal selection of the space voltage refind voltage wave forms and reduced Total Harmonic vectors in each sampling period, DTC achieves effective Distortion (THD) in voltage with increased number of voltage control of the electromagnetic torque and the stator flux on levels. It is possible to reduce the electromagnetic interference the basis of the errors between theirs references and estimated problem by reducing the switching dv/dt stress. Multilevel values. It is possible to directly control the inverter states wave forms naturally limit the problems of large voltage through a switching table, in order to reduce the torque and transients that occur due to the reflections on cables, which flux errors within the desired bands limits [8].The present can damage the motor windings and cause other problems work is based on the study of the application of DTC to the [5].Multilevel inverters can produce an output voltage wave nine-level MPC VSI, and the advantages that can be obtained form having a large number of steps with low harmonic from using this topology when compared to the seven-level distortion. They can also reduce the stress on the switching and five-level inverter. devices as source with lower levels. These features have made This paper is organized as follows: the multilevel DTC them suitable for application in large and medium induction scheme is discussed in section 2 and operating principal of motor drives. MPC is discussed in section 3.In the sections 4 application of A multilevel system that is capable of realizing a SVPWM DTC to multilevel MPC is presented, and the Matlab design waveform ranging from 2-level to 5-level is described in[9], of case study and simulation results of the proposed method In MPC VSI fed inverter system is so called since in their are exposed in section 5.Finally conclusions are given in the architecture there are several points clamped to specific

IJEP Volume 1, Issue 1 August 2012 PP. 7-16 www.ij-ep.org © Science and Engineering Publishing Company -7-

International Journal of Energy and Power

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last section.

2. DTC PRINCIPAL

Fig.1 shows a simple structure of the conventional DTC for Induction motor drive. In DTC the reference to be applied is directly calculated from the equation of the load, usually an Induction Motor (IM). In the following, a short description of DTC is presented, just to introduce to its extension to multilevel VSI. Considering Park transform of IM equations, it is possible to write in equation (1), where ϕ s is the stator flux, us, is and rs are the stator voltage, current and resistance respectively.

dϕ dt

s

= u s − rs i s

(1)

Ignoring the contribution of the current, which can be considered small in the respect of the stator voltage, the variation of stator flux can be ascribed all to the voltage applied. So, a proportional relationship between flux variation and voltage in a given cycle Tc can be found by discretizing (1) as shown fig.2.

Fig.2.

DTC

Principles:

vector

representation

of

the

stator an rotor fluxes during a sample interval Tc.

∆ϕ s ≅ Tc u s

Te = 3 p M ϕ sϕ r Sin(ν sr ) 2 2 (σLs ) 2

(2)

(3)

Fig.1.The conventional DTC scheme of IM drive Analyzing the equation binding the stator and rotor fluxes ( ϕ s and ϕ r ) to the torque (Te), it is possible to find that an augmentation of the angle between fluxes (ν sr ) means an augmentation of torque, as (3) shows, where M, σ, Ls and p are the mutual inductance, the leakage inductance and number of poles respectively.

The relationship between stator and rotor fluxes it can be assumed that a fast variation of the stator flux angular speed will reflect in an increment of the angle ν sr as Fig.2. Schematically shows. So, imposing a particular stator voltage, it is possible to control either the stator flux amplitude or the torque. The vector ∆ϕ s ≅ Tc u s can be decomposed in the component parallel and perpendicular to the stator flux; the parallel component modifies the stator flux amplitude while the perpendicular component controls the torque The template is used to format your paper and style the text. All margins, column widths, line spaces, and text fonts are prescribed; please do not alter them. You may note peculiarities. For example, the head margin in this template measures proportionately more than is custo- mary. This measurement and others are deliberate, using specifications that anticipate your paper as one part of the entire journals, and not as an independent document. Please do not revise any of the current designations.

**3. OPERATING PRINCIPAL OF MULTI POINT CLAMPED
**

Multi Point Clamped (MPC) is so called since in their architecture there are several points clamped to specific voltages using some components. Even diode-clamped converters belong to this family because the bus between two switches is clamped by a clamping diode. Furthermore, when the number of voltage level is odd, the converters are called Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) because the neutral point is

IJEP Volume 1, Issue 1 August 2012 PP. 7-16 www.ij-ep.org © Science and Engineering Publishing Company -8-

International Journal of Energy and Power

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clamped. As Fig.3 shows, the 5-level leg is completely different: in MPCs the voltages are clamped using couples switch-diode instead of using a simple diode. Anyway, given a number of levels, the number of switches needed by MPC is the same needed by diode-clamped. The control of MPC leg is more complicated in the respect of other topologies. Even this kind of converter allows finding complementary couples of switches.The constrain so introduced is not physiologically necessary, but it is a simple way to simplify the control scheme and the switching table (Table I). Table I. Switching States of A Five-Level Inverter

Switches state

T1 0 0 0 0 0 1

T2 0 0 0 0 1 1

T3 0 0 1 0 1 1

T4 1 1 0 1 0 0

T1’ 1 1 0 0 0 0

T2’ 1 1 0 0 0 0

T3’ 0 0 0 0 1 0

T4’ 0 1 0 0 0 0

VAO -2U0 -U0 0 0 U0 2U0

In Fig.4 (a) all the possible vectors generable by a 5-level converter are depicted as the vertices of the triangular grid. In particular the position of the stator flux is assumed to be given by the vector which is lying in the highlighted hexagon. The control strategy must choose among the vectors nearest to flux the one which cancels torque and flux errors. These vectors are − drawn − − in − red − in Fig.4 (b) and they were given a name: V1 , V2 , V3 , V4 , V5 and . Accordingly to standard DTC technique, the vector minimizing torque contribution (i.e. − − V2 and V 5 ) are not used. The other four vectors can be used exploiting their properties above torque and flux. The vector − the torque; V1 is used − − to increase the flux and to decrease applying V3 −both flux − and torque increase; V4 has opposite effects than V 1 and V6 is used when both flux and torque have to be decreased.

Furthermore, to avoid shortcut, T3 and T4 must be complementary controlled. The same must happens for T′3 and T′4. Table 1is a possible switching table for a 5-level MPC leg; there is an intra-phase redundancy only for the middle level. Anyway, it is better to have T4 turned on in order to limit the reverse voltage drop uponT2.Dependently on the switching table used, the maximum reverse voltage drop over the components changes and a preliminary analysis must be done to choose the suitable component. Moreover, the switches in the middle of the leg must carry twice the voltage of the others.

**4. APPLICATION OF DTC TO MULTI LEVEL MPC VSI
**

4.1. Five level MPC VSI Fed DTC IM Drive.

The DTC algorithm can even be applied to multilevel VSI exploiting more than the eight vectors available in standard DTC.Lots of algorithms have been proposed to extend DTC concept to multilevel converters [9],[10]. The differences among the algorithms concern several aspects of the system, like the voltage selection schemes, the exploitation of the topology implemented, the control regulators, etc. Fig.4.Multilevel DTC. a) Vectors generated by a 5-level converter and reference; b) Zoom of the area near to the reference and the six vectors which can be applied. Fig.5. shows the schematic diagram of MPC five-level VSI. Each phase consists of six switches, each one with its freewheeling diode in series and two other in parallel and two clamping diodes that allow the connection of the phases

Fig.3. 5-level Multi Point Clamped leg

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outputs to the middle point O. Table 1 illustrates the switching states of this inverter for one phase. Since five kinds of switching states exist in each phase, a five-level inverter has 125 switching states and there are 61 effective vectors are possible. According to the magnitude of the voltage vectors, We divide them into nine (9) groups (V0),(V1,V2,V3,V4,V5,V6),(V44,V45,V46,V47,V48,V49),(V26,V27, V28,V29,V30,V31),(V75,V76,V77,V78,V79,V80,V81,V82,V83,V84,V85, V86),(V63,V64,V65,V66,V67,V68),(V118,V119,V120, V121,V122,V123),(V106,V107,V108,V109,V110,V111,V112,V113,V114,V1 15,V116,V117),(V100,V101,V102,V103,V104,V105)

a)Flux Comparator

Fig.5. Schematic diagram of a five-level MPC VSI The flux control is made by classical two-level hysteresis controller, so a high level performance torque control is required, and the torque is controlled by an hysteresis controller built with four lower bounds and four upper known bounds. A combination of the controller's outputs and the sector is then applied to a new optimal switching table (Table II) which will give the appropriate voltage vector to reduce the number of commutation and the level of steady state ripple. The hysteresis blocks are designed as it is shown in fig.6.

b)Torque Comparator Fig.6.Flux and Torque Hysteresis blocks Using the hysteresis comparator outputs flux CF and torque CT and the stator flux sector S, the proper output vector can be chosen to correct the error due to the relation in the switching table. The switching configuration is made step by step. The selection of a voltage vector at each cycle period Te is carried in order to maintain the flux and torque within the limits of two hysteresis bands. Several switching tables for three-level inverter are presented in [10]. Also, a new switching table for the inverter selector has been developed in Table II, to achieve an accurate control. In order to simplify, the mechanical rotor speed will be considered when assigning the voltage vectors needed at each one of those sectors. The speed of the stator flux linkage vector is given by the modulus of the applied voltage vector. Thus, the voltage vectors will be chosen according to the rotor speed [8]. Voltage vectors with low amplitude will be chosen for lower speeds.

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Table II Switching Table

which will give the appropriate voltage vector to reduce the number of commutation and the level of steady state ripple. Table III Switching States of A Seven-Level Inverter

T1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 T2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 T3 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 T4 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 T5 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 T1’ 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 T2’ 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 T3’ 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 T4’ 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 T51 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 V -3U0 -2U0 -U0 0 0 U0 2U0 3U0

**4.3 Nine – level MPC VSI fed DTC IM Drive
**

In nine level MPC VSI each phase consists of ten switches, each one with its freewheeling diode in series and two other in parallel and two clamping diodes that allow the connection of the phases outputs to the middle point O. Table V illustrates the switching states of this inverter for one phase. Table V Switching States of A Nine-Level Inverter

**4.2 Seven – level MPC VSI Fed DTC IM Drive
**

In Seven level MPC VSI each phase consists of eight switches, each one with its freewheeling diode in series and two other in parallel and two clamping diodes that allow the connection of the phases outputs to the middle point O. Table III illustrates the switching states of this inverter for one phase. Since seven kinds of switching states exist in each phase, a seven-level inverter has 343 switching states and there are 79 effective vectors. According to the magnitude of the voltage vectors, we divide them into nine (9) groups: [V0],[V1,V2,V3,V4,V5,V6],[V44,V45,V46,V47,V48,V49], [V63,V64,V65,V66,V67,V68],[V75,V77,V79,V81,V83,V85], [V100,V101,V102,V103,V104,V105,V106,V108,V110,V112,V113, V114,V115,V116,V117,V118,V125],[V205, V206,V207,V208, V209,V210], [V218,V219,V220,V221,V222,V223,V224, V225,V226,V228,V230,V232,V234,V236,V237], [V296, V297,V298,V299,V300,V301,V302,V303,V304,V305,V306, V308,V310,V312,V314,V316]. A combination of the controller's outputs and the sector is then applied to a new optimal switching table (Table IV)

Since nine kinds of switching states exist in each phase, a nine-level inverter has 729 switching states and there are 106 effective vectors. According to the magnitude of the voltage vectors, we divide them into thirteen (13) groups: [V0], [V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6],[V44, V45, V46, V47, V48, V49],[V123, V124, V125, V126, V127, V128], [V135, V137, V139,V141,V143, V145],[V180,V181,V182,V183,V184,V185,V186, V188,V190,V192,V194,V196],[V250,V251,V252,V253,V254,V255,V256,V V307,V308],[V395, 258,V260,V262,V264,V266],[V303,V304,V305,V306, V396, V397, V398, V399, V400],[V488, V489,V490,V491,V492,V493,V494,V495,V496,V498,V500,V502,V504,V50 6],[V588,V589,V590,V591,V592,V593,V594,V595,V596,V598,V600,V602, V604,V606],[V676,V677,V678,V679,V680,V681,V682,V683,V684,V685,V 686],[V686, V688, V690, V692, V694, V696].

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The flux control is made by classical two-level hysteresis controller, so a high level performance torque control is required, and the torque is controlled by an hysteresis controller built with eight lower bounds and eight upper known bounds. A combination of the controller's outputs and the sector is then applied to a new optimal switching table (Table VI) which will give the appropriate voltage vector to reduce the number of commutation and the level of steady state ripple.

**5. MATLAB DESIGN OF CAUSE STUDY AND SIMULATION RESULTS
**

The multilevel DTC strategy has been tested by simulations are shown in fig.7. The induction motor parameters are as follows:Rs=4.85Ω, Rr=3.805Ω, Ls=274mH, Lr=274mH, Lm=258mH, p=2, J=31g.m2, V=220V,power=1.5kW and speed=1420rpm. All simulations have a sample time for the control loop of 100µs, the voltage of the DC bus is 514V. The requested space voltage vector, demanded by the DTC strategy, is assured as shown by the line voltage in Fig.14 Thus, if compared with a three-level DTC strategy [9], the dv/dt applied to the motor terminals is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the electromagnetic torque is also improved. It is possible to reduce pulsation amplitude by approximately a factor of 2 when compared to a seven - level DTC strategy. To show the effectiveness of the DTC with 5-level,7-level and 9-level inverters with SVPWM switching technique a simulation work has been carried out on induction motor. Fig.10. shows the Flux Trajectories of five, seven and nine level inverters fed DTC Induction motor drive. From the simulation results flux trajectories is a circle and answers more quickly in nine- level as compared to five, seven level inverter fed DTC induction motor drive. Fig.11(a),11(b) and 11(c) shows the simulation results good dynamic speed response is obtained from nine -level inverter compared to 5-7 levels DTC induction motor drive. Fig.12(a),12(b) and 12(c) shows that torque response of 5-7-9-levels inverters fed DTC, from simulation results nine level inverter fed DTC has lower ripples as compared to the 5-7 level inverter fed DTC. Fig. 13 (a), 13(b) and 13(c) Stator flux magnitudes of five , Seven and nine-level inverters. Fig. 14 (a) ,14 (b) and 14(c) source voltages of five, seven and nine-level inverters fed DTC induction motor drive.

(A)

(B)

(C) Fig.7. Stator Flux Locus .(a) Five-level DTC (b) Seven-level DTC (c) Nine-level DTC

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**International Journal of Energy and Power
**

150

30 20 10

IJEP

100

50 S p e e d (ra d / s e c )

T o rq u e (N -M )

0 -10 -20 -30

0

-50

-100

-40 -50

-150

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Time (sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

1 Time (Sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

**Fig.8. (a) Speed response of 5-level inverter DTC IM drive
**

150

**Fig.9. (a) Torque response of 5-level inverter fed DTC IM drive
**

50

100

50 s p e e d (ra d / s e c )

0 T o rq u e (N -M ) -50

0

-50

-100

-150

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Time(sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

-100 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 time(sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

**Fig.8. (b) Speed response of 7-level inverter DTC IM drive
**

150

100

50

Fig.9.. (b) Torque response of 7-level inverter fed DTC IM drive

50 Speed(rad/sec)

0

0

-50

Torque(N-M) -50

-100

-150

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Time(sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

**Fig.8. (c) Speed response of 9-level inverter DTC IM drive
**

-100 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Time(sec) 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Fig.9.. (c) Torque response of 9-level inverter fed DTC IM drive

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**International Journal of Energy and Power
**

1.4

IJEP

1.2

S t a t o r f lu x m a g n it u d e ( w b )

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Time(sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

**Fig.10. (a) Stator flux magnitude of 5-level inverter Fed DTC IM drive
**

1.4

Fig.11. (a). Source line voltage of 5-level inverter fed DTC IM drive.

1.2

S t a t o r f lu x m a g n it u d e (W b )

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Time(sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

**Fig.10.(b). Stator flux magnitude of 7-level inverter fed DTC IM drive
**

1.4

Fig.11. (b). Source line voltage of 7-level inverter fed DTC IM drive

1.2

S tator flux m agnitude(w b)

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1 Time(sec)

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

Fig.10 (c) Stator flux magnitude of 9-level inverter fed DTC IM drive

Fig.11. (c). Source line voltage of 9-level inverter fed DTC IM drive

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Besides controlling the electromagnetic torque, DTC also controls the stator flux, whose locus is shown in Fig.10. The trajectory is nearly a circle and answers more quickly. As can be seen in Fig.11, the system behavior is good, even in extreme conditions like the reverse speed reference with nominal load torque applied. Reduction in ripple is observed in both electromagnetic torque and flux is due to the use of hysteresis controllers. Table VII Comparison of Results Between 5-level, 7-Level and 9-Level Inverter Fed DTC IM Drive. DTC using five-level Inverter fed IM Drive 10.85% 1.22 3 ≈1.13 DTC using seven-level inverter fed IM Drive DTC using Nine-level inverter fed IM Drive

level inverter topologies. • As the number of levels increased the %THD in the motor phase voltage decreased,. • The number of level increased the torque ripple is reduced to minimum and the stator flux ripple is also minimized. • For the proposed system has stator flux trajectory response is a circle and answer the response is faster than the 5-level and 7-level inverter fed DTC induction motor drive. The proposed inverter system does not experience neutral-point fluctuations and the DC–link capacitor carry only the ripple current as isolated DC supplies are used for the DC links.

Parameters

REFERENCES

[1] M. F. Escalante, J-C. Vannier and A. Arzandé,Flying Capacitor Multilevel Inverters and DTC Motor Drive Applications, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, (No.4), pp. 809-815, 2002. [2] J. Rodriquez, J-S Lai and F. Z. Peng, Multilevel Inverters: A survey of topologies, controls, and applications, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol. 49, (No.4), 2002. [3] I. Takahashi and T. Nogushi, A new quick-response and high efficiency control strategy of induction motor, IEEE Trans. On. IA, vol. 22, (No.5), pp. 820-827, 1986. [4] G. Buja, D. Casadei and G. Serra,Direct torque control of induction motor drives, Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, vol. 1, pp.TU2-TU8, 1997. [5] P. Vas, Sensor less Vector and Direct Torque Control. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998. [6] D. Casadei, G. Grandi, G. Serra and A. Tani, Switching strategies in direct torque control of induction machines, ICEM 94, Vol. 2, pp. 204-209, 1994. [7] I. Messaïf, E.M. Berkouk, N. Saadia and A. Talha, Application of Direct Torque Control Scheme for Induction Motor, International AMSE Conference MS'05, 2005. [8] I. Messaïf, E.M. Berkouk, N. Saadia, Ripple Reduction in DTC Drives by Using a Three-Level NPC VSI, 14th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, Morocco, ICECS2007. [9] I. Messaïf, E.M. Berkouk, N. Saadia, An Improved DTC strategy for induction machine control fed by a multilevel voltage source inverter, IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, Morocco. [10] B. P. McGrath,D.G. Holmes and T.A. Lipo,Optimised Space Vector Switching Sequences for Multilevel Inverters , IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Volume: 18 Issue:6,pp 1293 – 1301,2003.

Source voltage (T.H.D) Dynamic speed response time(sec) Torque ripple(N-M) Stator flux ripple(web)

7.77% 1.12 1 ≈1

5.97% 1.01 0 1(ripple free)

From the above simulation results we can form the Comparison table VII,the proposed nine level inverter fed DTC drive has good dynamic speed response ,almost torque ripple is zero, stator flux ripple is significantly reduced compared to the five and seven level inverter fed DTC induction motor drive.

6. CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, a new switching table for DTC of the nine- level inverter fed DTC induction motor is proposed after the detailed case study on the characteristic of DTC and output vector of the nine-level inverter. The proposed control strategy is able to provide the required voltage levels by the system. Simulation results have shown the potential advantages of using a multilevel inverter and a DTC strategy. Advantage like flux and torque quality improvements in nine-level was found when compared with the 5-level and 7-level inverter fed DTC induction motor drive. The salient features of this proposed scheme are: • The 9-level inverter offers improved the motor line-to-line voltage with low harmonic distortions than 5-level and 7-

IJEP Volume 1, Issue 1 August 2012 PP. 7-16 www.ij-ep.org © Science and Engineering Publishing Company - 15 -

International Journal of Energy and Power

IJEP

**TABLE IV Switching Table
**

CΦ CЃ -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 1 304 224 104 67 117 5 3 115 65 102 220 298 300 226 101 77 207 48 45 208 67 115 223 313 305 225 105 68 210 49 44 205 76 107 225 303 2 314 234 114 83 209 48 46 207 79 110 228 306 306 221 108 65 116 6 3 117 84 105 235 296 316 236 116 85 113 1 2 114 64 101 219 297 3 305 225 105 68 118 6 4 116 66 103 221 299 301 228 102 79 208 49 46 209 68 117 218 303 300 220 100 63 205 44 45 206 78 109 227 305 4 316 236 116 85 210 49 47 208 81 112 230 308 308 222 110 66 117 1 4 118 86 100 225 297 306 226 106 75 114 2 3 115 65 102 220 298 5 300 220 100 63 113 1 5 117 67 104 222 300 302 230 103 81 209 44 47 210 63 107 219 305 301 221 101 64 206 45 46 207 80 111 229 307 S 6 7 306 301 226 221 106 101 75 64 205 114 44 2 Zero Vector 48 6 209 118 83 68 114 105 232 223 310 301 310 303 223 232 112 104 67 83 118 210 2 45 Zero Vector 5 48 113 205 76 64 101 109 227 220 298 307 308 302 228 222 108 102 77 65 115 207 3 46 Zero Vector 4 47 116 208 66 82 103 113 221 231 299 309 8 308 228 108 77 206 45 49 210 85 116 234 312 312 224 114 68 113 3 6 114 78 102 229 299 310 230 110 79 116 4 5 117 67 104 222 300 9 302 222 102 65 125 3 1 113 63 100 218 296 304 234 105 85 205 46 49 206 65 111 221 309 303 223 103 66 208 47 48 209 84 115 233 311 10 310 230 110 79 207 46 44 205 75 106 224 302 314 225 116 63 114 4 1 115 80 103 231 300 312 232 112 81 117 5 6 118 68 105 223 301 11 303 223 103 66 116 4 2 114 64 101 219 297 305 236 100 75 206 47 44 207 66 113 222 311 304 224 104 67 209 48 49 210 86 117 235 313 12 312 232 112 81 208 47 45 206 77 108 226 304 316 220 106 64 115 5 2 116 82 104 233 301 314 234 114 83 118 6 1 113 63 100 218 296

-1

+1

0

IJEP Volume 1, Issue 1 August 2012 PP. 7-16 www.ij-ep.org © Science and Engineering Publishing Company - 16 -

International Journal of Energy and Power

IJEP

TABLE VI Proposed Switching Table

CΦ

+1

-1

0

CЃ -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 7 8 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8

1 684 594 494 254 184 127 307 5 3 305 125 182 252 490 590 678 696 590 496 251 188 125 397 4 45 397 139 183 262 492 602 681 692 604 506 256 188 139 398 48 47 308 145 186 258 498 600 690

2 694 604 504 264 194 143 399 48 46 397 139 190 260 498 598 686 680 596 491 258 182 139 306 47 3 306 126 192 254 502 593 692 684 595 490 251 182 126 307 6 5 400 123 181 252 491 592 681

3 685 595 495 255 185 128 308 6 4 306 126 183 253 491 591 679 686 591 498 252 190 126 398 5 46 398 141 184 264 493 604 676 694 606 496 258 190 141 399 49 48 303 135 188 260 500 602 692

4 696 606 506 266 196 145 400 49 47 398 141 192 262 500 600 688 681 598 492 260 183 141 307 48 4 307 127 194 255 504 588 682 685 590 491 252 183 127 308 1 6 395 124 182 253 492 593 676

5 680 590 490 250 180 123 303 1 5 307 127 184 254 492 592 680 688 592 500 253 192 127 399 6 47 399 143 185 266 488 594 677 696 596 498 260 192 143 400 44 49 304 137 190 262 502 604 682

S 6 7 686 681 596 591 496 491 256 251 186 181 135 124 395 304 44 2 Zero Vector 48 6 399 308 143 128 194 185 264 255 502 493 602 593 690 681 682 690 600 593 493 502 262 254 184 194 143 128 308 400 49 1 Zero Vector 5 48 308 400 128 145 196 180 250 256 494 489 589 596 684 678 680 686 591 598 492 500 253 262 184 194 128 145 303 395 2 45 Zero Vector 1 44 396 305 125 139 183 192 254 264 493 504 588 594 677 684

8 688 598 498 258 188 137 396 45 49 400 145 196 266 504 604 692 683 602 494 264 185 145 303 44 6 303 123 186 251 496 590 686 681 592 493 254 185 123 304 3 2 397 126 184 255 488 589 678

9 682 592 492 252 182 125 315 3 1 303 123 180 250 488 588 676 692 594 504 255 196 123 395 2 49 395 135 181 258 490 598 679 688 600 502 264 196 135 396 46 45 306 141 194 266 494 596 686

10 690 600 500 260 190 139 397 46 44 395 135 186 256 494 594 682 684 604 495 266 180 135 304 45 1 304 124 188 252 498 591 688 682 593 494 255 180 124 315 4 3 398 127 185 250 489 590 679

11 683 593 493 253 183 126 306 4 2 304 124 181 251 489 589 677 694 595 506 250 186 124 396 3 44 396 137 182 260 491 600 680 690 602 504 266 186 137 397 47 46 307 143 196 256 496 598 688

12 692 602 502 262 192 141 398 47 45 396 137 188 258 496 596 684 685 606 490 256 181 137 315 46 2 305 125 190 253 500 592 690 683 594 495 250 181 125 306 5 4 399 128 180 251 490 591 680

IJEP Volume 1, Issue 1 August 2012 PP. 7-16 www.ij-ep.org © Science and Engineering Publishing Company - 17 -

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