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Melissa Hoch Math1040 Term Project Written Report

Cereal: Calories vs. Price Purpose of the study
The purpose of our study is to find the answer to our research question: “For boxed cereal, is price per serving related to calories?”

Study Design
The group decided that the best way to collect the data for our topic would be to randomly choose a grocery store and choose from all the brands available using simple random sampling. One of the group members chose a Smith’s grocery store and collected the name brands and price of all cereals in the cereal aisle at the store, including the price. After creating a numbered list of all the cereal, I then used a random number generator to create a sample list of cereal. We then collected the data from each cereal on the sample list, which included the serving size and calories per serving. After collecting all the data, I then computed the price per serving in order to compare the price to the calories.

The Data, Statistics and Graphs
1. The table of all the data collected: Cereal brand, calories per serving, retail price, servings per package and price per serving.
BRAND Post Post Post Post Post Post Post Post Post Post Post Post Kroger Post Sesame Street Fruity Pebbles Cocoa Pebbles Honey Comb Golden Crisp Fruity Pebbles Cocoa Pebbles Cranberry Vanilla Fit Grape Nuts Grape Nuts Great Grains Cranberry Almond Shredded Wheat (big) Honey Bunches of Oats Honey Crisp Medley with almonds Honey Bunches of Oats with almonds PRICE $3.99 $2.97 $2.97 $2.99 $3.79 $3.19 $3.19 $3.49 $4.29 $3.38 $3.74 $3.17 $2.49 $3.17 Servings Per Box 11 12 11 11 12 16 15 9 12 8 9 17 13 16 CALORIES 110.00 110.00 120.00 130.00 100.00 110.00 108.00 220.00 210.00 180.00 157.00 120.00 130.00 130.00 Price Per Serving $0.36 $0.26 $0.28 $0.27 $0.33 $0.20 $0.22 $0.37 $0.37 $0.41 $0.40 $0.19 $0.19 $0.20

Post Kroger Post Post Post Post Post Kroger Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kroger Kroger Kroger Kellogs Kroger Kroger Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs

Honey Bunches of oats with strawberries Bite Size Shredded Wheat Great Grains Raisins, Dates & Pecans Great Grains Protein Honey, Oats & Seeds Great Grains Protein Cinnamon Hazelnut Raisin Bran Honey Bunches of Oats Granola Muesli Nutty Nuggets Special K Chocolatey Strawberry Special K Chocolately Delight Special K Oats and Honey Special K Multi-Grain Special K Fruit & Yogurt Special K Original Special K Original Special K Fruit & Yogurt Special K Vanilla Almond Special K Protein Special K Cinnamon Pecan Special K low Fat Granola Touch of Honey Crispix Bite Size Frosted Shredded Wheat Vanilla Flavored Flakes with Almonds Toasted Flakes with Strawberries Corn Flakes Corn Flakes Bite Size Blueberry Frosted Shredded Wheat Bite Size Strawberry Cream Frosted Shredded Wheat Smart Start All Bran Original Mini Wheat Crunch Brown

$4.29 $2.49 $3.38 $3.38 $3.38 $3.44 $3.59 $2.67 $2.67 $3.57 $3.57 $3.39 $3.57 $4.87 $4.87 $3.57 $3.57 $3.57 $3.57 $3.57 $3.57 $3.44 $2.67 $2.67 $2.67 $3.39 $1.99 $2.67 $2.67 $4.59 $4.57 $4.07

12 9 8 8 7 12 5 5 12 11 12 13 11 15 16 11 11 12 11 12 6 12 10 13 11 18 16 8 8 10 17 7

126.00 170.00 210.00 220.00 230.00 190.00 250.00 289.00 220.00 110.00 120.00 100.00 100.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 110.00 120.00 120.00 190.00 110.00 170.00 120.00 110.00 100.00 130.00 190.00 190.00 180.00 80.00 190.00

$0.36 $0.28 $0.41 $0.44 $0.46 $0.29 $0.66 $0.52 $0.23 $0.33 $0.29 $0.25 $0.31 $0.33 $0.30 $0.33 $0.32 $0.30 $0.32 $0.30 $0.58 $0.29 $0.26 $0.20 $0.24 $0.19 $0.12 $0.32 $0.32 $0.46 $0.27 $0.56

Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kroger Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kroger Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs Kellogs General Mills General Mills General Mills Kroger General Mills

Sugar Scooby-Doo Frosted Mini Wheats Strawberry Frosted Mini Wheats Frosted Mini Wheats Chocolate Rice Krispies Raisin Bran Crispy Rice Raisin Bran Raisin Bran Crunch Crunchy Raisin Bran Raisin Bran Crunch Raisin Bran Omega 3 Bran Flakes Krave Double Chocolate Krave Chocolate Froot Loops Strawberry Froot Loops Fruit Rings Froot Loops Froot Loops with Marshmallows Cinnamon Jacks Cocoa Crispy Rice Cocoa Rice Krispies Frosted krispies Rice Krispies Corn Pops Corn Pops Apple Jacks Apple Jacks Chocolate Frosted Flakes Frosted Flakes Frosted Flakes Lucky Charms Lucky Charms Lucky Charms Frosted Toasted Oats with Marshmallows Cinnamon Toast Crunch

$4.49 $4.07 $3.97 $4.07 $3.19 $1.99 $1.99 $3.89 $3.43 $2.49 $5.89 $3.59 $2.49 $4.59 $4.59 $3.39 $3.69 $1.99 $3.39 $3.39 $3.39 $1.99 $3.67 $3.19 $3.79 $3.69 $3.44 $3.39 $3.69 $3.39 $3.89 $5.29 $5.69 $4.48 $3.28 $1.99 $5.89

16 8 12 8 10 10 10 11 10 10 13 8 13 10 10 10 17 12 12 12 11 14 11 12 15 16 12 12 17 18 18 24 22 17 12 11 19

120.00 190.00 200.00 200.00 130.00 190.00 170.00 190.00 188.00 190.00 190.00 180.00 80.00 120.00 120.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 120.00 110.00 120.00 150.00 110.00 130.00 120.00 120.00 110.00 110.00 120.00 110.00 120.00 110.00 110.00 110.00 120.00 130.00

$0.28 $0.52 $0.33 $0.53 $0.31 $0.21 $0.20 $0.34 $0.35 $0.26 $0.44 $0.47 $0.19 $0.44 $0.44 $0.34 $0.22 $0.17 $0.28 $0.28 $0.31 $0.15 $0.33 $0.27 $0.25 $0.23 $0.29 $0.27 $0.21 $0.19 $0.22 $0.22 $0.26 $0.27 $0.27 $0.18 $0.32

General Mills Kroger General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills Kroger General Mills General Mills General Mills Kroger General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills Kroger General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills Nature Valley Nature Valley Sweet Home Farm Sweet Home Farm Quaker

Cinnamon Toast Crunch Cinnamon Swirls Cocoa Puffs Hershey's Cookies'n'Crème Peanut Butter Toast Crunch Trix Trix Swirls Cookie Crisp Reese's Puffs Cocoa & Peanut Butter Puffed Cereal Reese's Puffs Golden Grahams Honey Nut Cheerios Medley Crunch Chocolate Toasted Oats Chocolate Cheerios Apple Cinnamon Cheerios Honey Nut Cheerios Honey Nut Cheerios Cheerios Multigrain Cheerios Toasted Oats Fiber One Nutty Clusters & Almonds Fiber One 80 Cals Chocolate Fiber One Original Fiber One Honey Clusters Basic 4 Raisin Nut Bran Oatmeal Crisp Total Protein Cruncy Granola Oats 'n' Dark Chocolate Protein Crunchy Granola Oats 'n' Honey Granola French Vanilla Granola Honey Nut Natural Granola

$4.19 $2.49 $3.44 $3.39 $3.99 $3.44 $3.89 $3.44 $3.44 $2.49 $3.89 $3.44 $3.44 $1.99 $3.44 $3.44 $5.39 $3.07 $3.14 $3.97 $1.99 $4.79 $4.79 $4.79 $4.79 $4.24 $4.47 $4.24 $3.67 $4.49 $4.49 $5.99 $5.99

15 12 14 11 11 9 13 12 13 14 18 11 12 12 12 12 22 12 9 13 15 8 11 15 8 8 10 8 10 8 15 5 12

130.00 130.00 100.00 110.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 100.00 120.00 100.00 120.00 120.00 120.00 100.00 100.00 120.00 110.00 110.00 100.00 110.00 100.00 190.00 80.00 60.00 170.00 200.00 180.00 230.00 100.00 190.00 90.00 250.00 230.00

$0.27 $0.21 $0.25 $0.30 $0.35 $0.39 $0.30 $0.28 $0.27 $0.18 $0.22 $0.31 $0.29 $0.17 $0.29 $0.28 $0.25 $0.25 $0.35 $0.32 $0.13 $0.58 $0.43 $0.31 $0.62 $0.51 $0.45 $0.53 $0.37 $0.58 $0.30 $1.11 $0.48 $0.36

$5.64

16

210.00

Quaker Kroger General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills General Mills Kroger Kroger Kroger Kroger General Mills General Mills Quaker General Mills General Mills Kroger Quaker Quaker Quaker Kroger Kroger Kroger Kroger Kroger Kroger Kroger Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal

Life Living Well Vanilla Chex Chocolate Chex Apple Cinnamon Chex Wheat Chex Cinnamon Chex Wheaties Honey Nut Chex Honey Nut Bitz Multi-grain Toasted Oats Rice Bitz Corn Bitz Peanut Butter Crunch Cap'n Crunch King Vitamin Cap'n Crunch Cinnamon Roll Crunch Cap'n Crunch Crunch Berries Oat Squares Oatmeal Squares Oatmeal Squares Cinnamon Life Cinnamon Wheat Puffs (bag) Fruit Rings Crisp Berry Crunch Fruity Crisp Rice Frosted Toasted Oats with Marshmallows Cocoa Puffs Frosted Flakes Frosted Mini Spooners Tootie Fruities Marshmallow Mateys Fruity Dyno-Bites Honey Nut Scooters Golden Puffs Frosted Flakes Frosted Mini Spooners Cocoa Dyno-Bites

$3.47 $2.49 $2.99 $2.99 $2.99 $2.99 $2.99 $4.24 $3.79 $2.49 $2.49 $2.49 $2.49 $2.87 $2.87 $3.79 $2.87 $2.87 $2.49 $3.87 $3.87 $3.47 $0.99 $2.99 $2.99 $2.99 $2.99 $3.39 $3.39 $5.37 $4.99 $6.59 $6.99 $6.59 $5.89 $5.29 $2.99 $2.99

12 13 13 13 13 8 13 16 12 12 13 15 13 13 15 9 11 14 14 7 7 12 47 27 26 28 26 29 26 19 27 36 44 37 39 34 19 22

120.00 120.00 120.00 130.00 130.00 160.00 120.00 100.00 120.00 120.00 110.00 100.00 120.00 120.00 110.00 120.00 110.00 110.00 120.00 210.00 210.00 120.00 60.00 110.00 120.00 110.00 120.00 100.00 120.00 190.00 130.00 120.00 110.00 110.00 100.00 120.00 190.00 120.00

$0.30 $0.19 $0.23 $0.24 $0.24 $0.35 $0.23 $0.26 $0.31 $0.20 $0.20 $0.17 $0.19 $0.22 $0.20 $0.41 $0.27 $0.20 $0.18 $0.53 $0.53 $0.30 $0.02 $0.11 $0.11 $0.11 $0.11 $0.12 $0.13 $0.29 $0.19 $0.18 $0.16 $0.18 $0.15 $0.16 $0.16 $0.14

Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal Malt-o-Meal

Marshmallow Mateys Cinnamon Toasters Golden PUffs Honey Nut Scooters Oat Blenders with Honey & Almonds Total: 160 cereal boxes

$4.49 $5.57 $4.49 $4.49 $5.49

22 31 34 22 34

120.00 130.00 100.00 120.00 120.00

$0.21 $0.18 $0.13 $0.20 $0.16

2. Quantitative Variable 1 Statistics a. Mean=136 b. Standard Deviation: 41.48 c. 5-Number Summary i. Min: 60 ii. Q1: 110 iii. Median: 120 iv. Q3: 162.5 v. Max: 289 d. Range: 229 e. Modes: 60, 80, 90, 100, 108, 110, 120, 126, 130, 150, 157, 160, 170, 180, 188, 190, 200, 210, 220, 230, 250, 289 f. Outliers i. IQR: 52.5 ii. Low: 31.25 iii. High: 241.25 iv. Outliers: 250, 289

3. Quantitative Variable 1 Histogram

Quantitative Variable 1 Histogram
70 60 50 Frequency 40 30 20 10 0 40 65 90 115 140 165 190 215 240 265 290 Calories (kcal)

4. Quantitative Variable 1 Box plot

Quantitative Variable 1 Boxplot
Min: 60 Q1: 50 Median: 10 Max: 126.5

20.0

70.0

120.0

170.0 Calories (kcal)

220.0

270.0

Lower fence: 31.250 Upper fence: 241.250

5. Quantitative Variable 2 Statistics a. Mean: 0.29 b. Standard Deviation: 0.13 c. 5-Number Summary i. Min: 0.02 ii. Q1: 0.20 iii. Median: 0.28 iv. Q3: 0.34 v. Max: 1.11 d. Range: 1.09 e. Modes: 0.11, 0.23, 0.29, 0.30, 0.32, 0.53 f. Outliers i. IQR: 0.14 ii. Low: -0.01 iii. High: 0.55 iv. Outliers: 0.56, 0.62, 0.66, 1.1

6. Quantitative Variable 2 Histogram

Quantitative Variable 2 Histogram
70 60 50 Frequency 40 30 20 10 0 0.02 $0.12 $0.22 $0.32 $0.42 $0.52 $0.62 $0.72 $0.82 $0.92 $1.02 $1.12 Price Per Serving

7. Quantitative Variable 2 Box Plot

Quantitative Variable 2 Boxplot
Min: 0.02 Q1: 0.20 Median: 0.28 Max: 1.11

$0.00

$0.20

$0.40

$0.60

$0.80

$1.00 Upper fence: 0.55

$1.20

Price Per Serving

8. The linear correlation coefficient for variable 1 and variable 2 is: r= 0.6435.

9. Scatterplot with the line of regression

Scatterplot
$1.20 $1.00 $0.80 $0.60

y = 0.0021x + 0.0125

Price Per Serving

Linear (Scatterplot) $0.40 $0.20 $0.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 Calories 250.00 300.00 350.00

Difficulties/Surprises Encountered
There were a few difficulties that I came across in this project. The first one was with the data collection and trying to figure out how to use Excel to create a random number from our list of cereals to create a random sample list and then to compute the statistics of the data we collected. I don’t have a lot of experience with Excel, so I had to do quite a lot of research to figure out how to use the formulas. I also made a mistake in my calculations, which made a big difference when I recalculated all of the statistics, especially in the scatter plot. However, I learned my lesson and could see how big a difference what seemed like a minor miscalculation can be. I was surprised by the results of the correlation coefficient. I really expected it to be a closer relationship than the scatter plot shows. I expected outliers, because brands differ in how they price their cereal, but even with the outliers the data is more spread out in the scatter plot than I had expected.

Analysis
The distributions for both variables are shown to be slightly skewed right. The first quantitative variable, calories, shows the majority of cereal between 100 and 130 calories, with a couple of outliers in the higher end. These are the granola cereals, which are usually higher in calories. The second quantitative, price per serving, shows the majority of the cereal between 20 cents and 30 cents per serving, with 7 outliers also on the higher end. The outliers are name brand cereals, which are usually higher in price. The two variables show a moderate positive linear relationship with a correlation coefficient of r= 0.6435. Because of the large sample size, there was no need to compare our r-value to the critical value to determine its significance.

Interpretation and Conclusions
Comparing the two variables, calories and price per serving of boxed cereal, we found a moderate positive linear relationship, with an r-value of 0.6435. I believe we collected enough data from the samples of boxed cereal from the grocery store to make the correlation coefficient true. I am glad that we decided to go with a large sample size. If we had gone with a smaller sample size, I think our result could have looked a lot different, maybe even showing a stronger relationship than there actually is. We did have several outliers, but even without the outliers, the linear relationship would still only be moderate. Because our data only shows a moderate linear relationship between the two variables, we were not able to fully answer our research question. I think if we had been more specific in our research question, our outcome may have been stronger. Comparing cereals labeled as healthy to price per serving, is one possibility, or even the number of ingredients compared to the price. If I were to do this project again, I would have tried to be more specific in the research question. I think our research question ended up being a little too broad and there was a lot of data to deal with. For our research question, we can only conclude that there is a moderate linear relationship between calories and the price per serving of boxed cereal.