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1. Public relations (n) 2. Practitioner (n) 3. Acronym (n) 4. Research (n)/(v) 5. Action (program planning) (n) 6. Communication (execution) (n) 7. Evaluation (n) 8. Budget (n) 9. Poll (n) 10. Objective (n) 11. Conceptualize (v) 12. News release (n) 13. Press kit (n) 14. News conference (n) 15. Media interview (n) 16. Brochure (n) 17. Newsletter (n) 18. Blueprint (n) 19. Implementation (n) 20. Motivate (v) 21. Mutual (a) 22. Constitute (v) 23. Perception (n) 24. Checklist (n) 25. Adequately (adv) 26. Primary audience (n) 27. Secondary audience (n) 28. Unforeseen (a) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : quan h cng chung ngi ang thc hanh mt ky nng t vit tt nghin cu hanh ng va k hoach truyn thong anh gia ngn sach s thm do/bo phiu muc tiu khai nim hoa thng cao bao chi/ng tin/phat tin tp t liu dnah cho bao gii cuc hop bao phong vn trn cac phng tin tp sach nho (quang cao) ban tin k hoach chi tit s thc thi (= execution) thuc y ln nhau cu thanh s nhn thc ban lit k nhng muc cn kim tra mt cach thoa ang khan thinh gia c ban/u tin/chu yu khan thinh gia loai hai khng bit trc, bt ng

When the terminology public relations is discussed, various images come to minds of different people. For example, public relations practitioners who never have professional training in colleges may think that public relations is a marketing tactic. In some countries where the concept of public relations is not well developed, the works of public relations are even seen as party planners or tour guides. Public relations is a process that is a series of actions, changes or functions that bring about a result. One popular way to describe the process and to remember its components is to use the RACE acronym, first articulated by John Marston in his book The Nature of Public Relations. Essentially, RACE means that public relations consists of four key elements: Research. What is the problem or situation? Action (Program planning). What is going to be done about it? Communication (Execution). How will the public be told? Evaluation. Was the audience reached and what was the effect? The first step in the process is research. In basic items, research is a form of listening. Broom and Dozier, in their book Using Research in Public Relations, say, Research is the controlled, objective and systematic gathering of information for the purpose of describing and understanding, Before any public relations program can be undertaken, information must be gathered and data must be collected and interpreted. Only by performing this first step can an organization begin to make policy decisions and map out strategies for effective communication programs. Various types of research can be used to accomplish an organizations objectives and meet its need for information. The choice of what type of

research to use really depends on the particular subject and situation. As always, time and budget are major considerations. Consequently, many questions should be asked before formulating a research design: What is the problem? What kind of information is needed? How will the results of research be used? What specific public should be researched? Should the organization do te research in-house or hire an outside cousultant? How will the research data be analyzed, reported, or applied? How soon will the results be needed? How much will the research cost? These questions will help the public relations person determine the extent and nature of the research needed. In some cases, only informal research may be required because of its low cost or the need for intermediate information. In other cases, a random scientific survery may be selected despite its cost and time requirement because political candidate may want to know exactly where he or she stands in the polls. The second step of the public relations process, following research, is program planning. Before any public relations activity can be implemented, it is essential that considerable thought be given to what should be done and in what sequence to accomplish an organizations objectives. A good public relations program should be an effective tool to support an organizations relations program should be an effevtive tool to support an organizations business, marketing, and communications objectives. In other words, public relations should be strategic. As Boom and Dozier say in their text Using Research in Public Relations, Strategic planning is deciding where you want to organizations direction, avoiding drift and routine repetition of activities. A practitioner must think about a situation, analyze what can be done about it, creatively conceptualize the appropriate strategies and tactics, and determine how the results will be measured. Planning also involves the coordination of multiple methods news releases, special events, Web pages, press kits, CD-ROM distribution, news conferences, media interviews, brochures, newsletters, speeches and so on to achieve specific results. Systematic planning prevents haphazard, ineffective communication. Having a blueprint of what is to be done and how it wil be executed makes programs more effective and public relations more valuable to the organization. The third step in the public relations process, after research and planning, is communication. This step, also called execution, is the most visible part of the public relations work. In public relations program, communication is the implementation of a decision, the process and the means by which objectives are achieved. The goals of the communication process are to inform, persuade, motivate or achieve mutual understanding. To be an effective communicator, a person must have basic knowledge of (1) what constitutes communication and how people receive message, (2) how people process information and change their perceptions, and (3) what kinds of media and communication tools are most appropriate for a particular message. The final step of the public relations process is evaluation. It is the process which involves assessing the preparation, implementation and results of a public relations program (Newsom and Turk, 2004). This means that it involves not only determining the results of the program but also assessing the effectiveness of program preparation and implementation. It is noticeable that the public relations process should be examined on a long-term basis. Dont wait until the end of the public relations to determine how it will be evaluated. According to Albert L. Schweitzer at Fleishman-Hillard public relations Evaluating impact/results starts in the planning stage. You break down the problem into measurable goals and objective, then after implementing the program, you measure the results against goals.

Although goals may vary, the following checklist contains the basic evaluation questions that any practitioner should ask: Was the activity or program adequately planned? Did the recipients of the message understand it? How could the program strategy audiences reached? Were all primary and secondary audiences reached? Was the designed organizational objective achieved? What unforeseen circumstances affected the success of the program or activity? Did the program or activity fall within the budget set for it? What steps can be taken to improve the success of similar activities?


Khi thut ng "quan h cng chng" c tho lun, hnh nh khc nhau n tm tr ca ngi khc nhau. V d, cc hc vin quan h cng chng khng bao gi c o to chuyn nghip trong cc trng cao ng c th ngh rng quan h cng chng l mt chin thut tip th. Trong mt s quc gia m cc khi nim v quan h cng chng cng khng phi l pht trin, cc tc phm ca quan h cng chng thm ch cn c coi l nh hoch nh bn hoc hng dn vin. Quan h cng chng l mt qu trnh - l mt lot cc hnh ng, thay i hay chc nng mang li mt kt qu. Mt s cch m t qu trnh v ghi nh thnh phn ca n l s dng cc t vit tt RACE, u khp ni ca John Marston trong cun sch ca ng Bn cht ca cng Relations.Essentially, RACE c ngha l quan h cng chng bao gm bn yu t chnh: Nghin cu. Cc vn hoc tnh hung l g? Hnh ng (Chng trnh lp k hoch). iu g s c thc hin vn? Truyn thng (Thi). Lm th no cng chng s c thng bo? nh gi. L khn gi v nhng g t hiu qu? Bc u tin trong qu trnh l nghin cu. Trong cc mc c bn,nghin cu l mt hnh thc lng nghe. Broom v Dozier, trong cun schca h s dng nghin cu trong quan h cng chng, ni, "Nghin cu l thu thp c kim sot, khch quan v c h thng thng tin cho mc ch m t v hiu bit,"Trc khi bt k chng trnh quan h cng chng c th c thc hin, thng tin phi c thu thp v d liu phi c thu thp v din gii. Ch bng cch thc hin bc u tin mt t chc c th bt u a ra quyt nh chnh sch v bn ra cc chin lc cho cc chng trnh truyn thng hiu qu. Cc loi nghin cu c th c s dng thc hin mc tiu ca t chc v p ng nhu cu ca n bit thng tin. Vic la chn loi nghin cu s dng thc s ph thuc vo cc vn c th tnh hnh. Nh mi khi, thi gian v ngn sch c cn nhc chnh. Do , nhiu cu hi cn c hi trc khi xy dng mt thit k nghin cu: Vn l g? C nhng loi thng tin l cn thit? Lm th no kt qu nghin cu s c s dng? Nhng g c th no cn c nghin cu? Nn t chc lm nghin cu t trong nh, hoc thu mt cousultant bn ngoi? Lm th no cc d liu nghin cu s c phn tch, bo co, hoc p dng khng Lm th no sm kt qu s l cn thit? Bao nhiu chi ph nghin cu?

Nhng cu hi ny s gip cc quan h cng chng ngi xc nh mc v tnh cht ca cc nghin cu cn thit. Trong mt s trng hp,ch c nghin cu chnh thc c th c yu cu v chi ph thp hocnhu cu thng tin trung gian. Trong trng hp khc, mt survery ngu nhin khoa hc c th c la chn mc d gi thnh ca n v yu cu thi gian bi v chnh tr ng c vin c th mun bit chnh xc ni m ngi ng trong cc cuc thm d. Bc th hai ca qu trnh quan h cng chng, sau nghin cu, l "chng trnh quy hoch". Trc khi bt k hot ng quan h cng chng c th c thc hin, iu quan trng l t tng ng c trao cho nhng g nn c thc hin v trong trnh t hon thnh mc tiu ca t chc. Mt tt quan h cng chng chng trnh phi l mt cng c hiu qu h tr cc chng trnh quan h ca mt t chc phi l mt cng c effevtive h tr kinh doanh ca t chc, tip th v truyn thng ca mc tiu. Ni cch khc, quan h cng chng cn c chin lc. Khi Boom v Dozier ni trong vn bn ca h s dng nghin cu trong quan h cng chng, "chin lc quy hoch l vic quyt nh ni bn mun hng ca t chc, trnh " tri dt " v lp li thng xuyn cc hot ng". Mt hc vin phi suy ngh v mt tnh hung, phn tch nhng g c th c thc hin v n, sng to khi nim v cc chin lc thch hp v chin thut, v xc nh kt qu s c o. K hoch cng bao gm s phi hp ca nhiu phng php - pht hnh tin tc, s kin c bit, cc trang Web, cc b dng c bo ch, CD-ROM phn phi, hi ngh tin tc, phng tin truyn thng phng vn, t ri, bn tin, bi pht biu v nh vy t c kt qu c th. H thng lp k hoch ngn nga ln xn, giao tip khng hiu qu. C mt k hoch chi tit v nhng g phi lm v lm th no n c thc thi wil lm cho cc chng trnh hiu qu hn v cng chng c gi tr hn t chc cc mi quan h. Bc th ba trong qu trnh quan h cng chng, sau khi nghin cu v lp k hoch, l truyn thng. Bc ny cng thc hin c gi l, l phn d thy nht ca cng tc quan h cng chng. Trong chng trnh quan h cng chng, truyn thng l vic thc hin cc quyt nh, quy trnh v cc phng tin m mc tiu l t c. Cc mc tiu ca qu trnh giao tip l thng bo, thuyt phc, ng vin hoc t c s hiu bit ln nhau. tr thnh mt ngi giao tip hiu qu, mt ngi phi c kin thc c bn v (1) nhng g to truyn thng v cch mi ngi nhn c tin nhn, (2) cch mi ngi x l thng tin v thay i nhn thc ca h, v (3) nhng loi phng tin truyn thng v cc cng c truyn thng c nht thch hp cho mt tin nhn c bit. Bc cui cng ca qu trnh quan h cng chng c nh gi. " l qu trnh lin quan n vic nh gi vic chun b, thc hin v kt qu ca mt chng trnh quan h cng chng" - (Newsom v Turk, 2004). iu ny c ngha rng n khng ch lin quan n vic xc nh cc kt qu ca chng trnh m cn nh gi hiu qu ca chng trnh chun b v thc hin. ng ch l qu trnh quan h cng chng nn c xem xt trn c s lu di. ng ch i cho n khi kt thc mi quan h cng chng xc nh lm th no n s c nh gi. Theo Albert Schweitzer L. Fleishman-Hillard ti quan h cng chng "nh gi tc ng / kt qu bt u trong giai on lp k hoch. . Bn ph v cc vn thnh cc mc tiu o lng c v khch quan, th sau khi thc hin chng trnh, bn o lng kt qu i vi mc tiu "Mc d mc tiu c th khc nhau, cc danh sch kim tra sau y c cu hi nh gi c bn m bt k hc vin nn hi: L hot ng hoc chng trnh k hoch y ? C nhng ngi nhn ca tin nhn hiu n? Lm th no c th chng trnh khn gi chin lc t? C phi tt c cc khn gi tiu hc v trung hc t? C phi thit k t chc t c mc tiu? Nhng trng hp b nh hng khng lng trc c s thnh cng ca chng trnh, hot ng? C chng trnh, gim hot ng trong phm vi ngn sch thit lp cho n?


Nhng bc c th c thc hin ci thin s thnh cng ca hot ng tng