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November 26, 2007

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Suppose that a monopolist is faced by a linear demand curve XD = A − bPX and has a constant marginal cost of C. (a) To ﬁnd the monopolists proﬁt-maximizing price and output, we ﬁrst form the proﬁt function π = XD Px − CXD . Since price and quantity change together, in order to diﬀerentiate this to ﬁnd the maximum we must either substitute in the inverse demand curve to eliminate PX and then diﬀerentiate with respect to XD , or substitute in the demand curve to eliminate XD and diﬀerentiate with respect to PX . Both methods, if applied correctly, should give the same answer for the proﬁt-maximizing price and output. We will here eliminate XD , since we will be diﬀerentiating with respect to quantity shortly when we ﬁnd M RX , and diﬀerentiating with respect to price is good practice as it is necessary when you have a monopolist who operates in two markets and must set the same price in both (it is necessary to analyse this situation when considering the eﬀect of third degree price discrimination, as you will see in the vacation work). Substituting the expression for the demand curve into the proﬁt function gives us: π = (A − bPX )Px − C (A − bPX ) = APX − ∂π = A − 2bPX + bC . Setting bPX 2 − AC + bPX C . Diﬀerentiating this yields: ∂p X A+bC A ∗ +C for the proﬁtthis equal to 0 and rearranging yields PX = 2b = 2 b 2 maximizing price. Plugging this into the expression for the demand curve A yields: XD = A − b 2 +C =A − bC . These results have a straightforward b 2 2 2 intuitive interpretation. With a linear demand curve and constant marginal costs, the marginal revenue curve comes down at precisely twice the slope of the demand curve and thus hits the horizontal marginal cost curve half way between the y-axis and the point where the demand curve hits the horizontal marginal cost curve. This implies that the monopolist jacks the price up half way from the marginal cost to the maximum reservation price where the demand curve hits the y-axis at A , and produces half the competitive output b A − bC . 1

we generally diﬀerentiate with respect to quantity. the deadweight loss is proportional to the square of the output distortion (this will be approximately true even in the general case with non-linear demand and supply curves). plugging in XD = A simpliﬁes to give X = −b b XDb = 1 − X 2 D can be seen to give X = −1. This would also be the Pareto-eﬃcient price. because any further increase in quantity causes a proportionally greater reduction in price. with suitable side payments. In this case. (g) The deadweight loss is the sum (integral) of the diﬀerence between reservation prices and marginal cost over the output distortion. Not only that. Hence the b 2 1 A bC 2 area of the triangle simpliﬁes to give 2b 2 − 2 . in this case it is equal to the area of the triangle − bC ) and height equal to the with base equal to the output distortion ( A 2 2 A C A excess of the monopoly price over C ( 2b + 2 − C = 2 −C ). This is where the revenue rectangle under the demand curve is maximized. Now. To ﬁnd b marginal revenue. this would also decrease its costs. since only at this price is there no deadweight loss. At the maximum itself. since it tells us how much revenue increases by when output increases by 1 unit. This establishes algebraically =A b b D D the result that the MR curve has the same y-intercept as the demand curve but comes down at twice the slope. makes everybody better oﬀ. This shows that the point of unit elasticity is reached half way along a linear demand curve. Since the marginal cost is constant. A − XD 2 . MR is equal to 0 when XD = A 2 D PX (c) Price elasticity of demand is given by X = dX . and the presence of a deadweight loss always indicates that there can potentially be a reallocation of resources that. DiﬀerIn this case revenue RX = XD PX = XD A b b b D dRX entiating this yields M RX = dX −2 X . it cannot possibly cross the MR curve where that has gone negative). So. − XbD = A XD − 1 X 2 . Hence the monopolist can never be maximizing its proﬁts on the inelastic part of the demand curve (another way to see this is that since MC is always positive. since otherwise it would be possible for other ﬁrms to enter the market and undercut its price at a proﬁt. in the above (d) For any output greater than the point of unit elasticity ( A 2 example) elasticity is less than 1 in absolute value and marginal revenue is negative. (e) (f) A competitive ﬁrm would have to charge PX C = C and sell XDC = A−bC . This means that the monopolist can increase its revenue by decreasing its quantity sold. a marginal change in price causes a precisely proportional marginal change in output.(b) The inverse demand curve is given by the expression A − XbD . this dPX XD A .

Therefore.e. i. Substi−γ tuting in the expression for the demand curve yields: πX = PX APX − −γ 1− γ −γ C APX = APX − ACPX . (b) We will now derive the monopoly mark-up above marginal cost. Factorizing this so that we can ﬁnd the roots gives us −γ −1 APX (1 − γ ) + γCPX = 0. Only the part in brackets can equal 0. D PX (a) The price elasticity of demand is given by X = dX . oil) are particularly harmful. If. more negative than. the monopolist is able to increase the price very far above marginal cost because consumers will still buy the good. if γ were less than 1. into the elasticity expression and simplifying yields a constant elasticity of −γ . -1). Substituting this expression.2 See week 7 notes. As D −→ −1 (always. Diﬀentiating with respect to price and −γ dπ = (1 − γ )APX + setting equal to 0 to ﬁnd the maximum yields: dP X −γ −1 γACPX = 0. (1−γ ) 1− γ + −γ − 1− γ 1− γ P∗ 3 . the demand function would be inelastic at every point. In this case. and ∗ PX γ C = 0. the mark-up goes to inﬁnity. Now. As D −→ −∞. and has a constant marginal cost of production C. staying less than. we can see that C = 1 − 1+ . demand becomes inﬁnitely elastic and the mark-up goes to 1. demand is very inelastic. This clearly would not make sense. The monopolist’s proﬁt function will be given by πX = PX XD − CXD . on the other hand. γ D This is the mark-up. The intuition for these results is that if demand is very elastic. This would result in the monopolist driving the price up to inﬁnity and selling an inﬁnitely small amount for an inﬁnitely high revenue. 3 Suppose that a monopolist is faced by a constant elasticity demand curve −γ XD = APX . remember. since −γ = D . along with that for the dPX demand curve. monopolies over goods with very inelastic demand (e.g. Thus. the monopolist has very little market power because it rapidly loses sales if it puts the price up. Rearranging yields: C = − 1− = this occurs when (1 − γ ) + γ P γ X 1 1 X = 1 − 1− . food. dPX XD dXD −γ −1 = −γAP . where γ > 1.

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