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Introduction All systems that possess mass and elasticity are capable of undergoing free vibration. The main interest of such system is the natural frequency of the vibration.

Natural frequencies are a function of system stiffness and mass. Generally, all real systems have infinite number of natural frequencies. Resonance, large vibration, will occur in a system when the forcing frequency of the system is equal to one of the natural frequencies.

Generally, vibration is a form of wasted energy and normally is undesirable is most cases. It generates noise, instability and will consequently lead to system break down which is a disastrous effect.

During the design process of a certain system, resonance is usually avoided or dampened to achieve dynamic stability. One strategy is vibration isolation, where the operating frequency is significantly higher than the natural frequency of the system. The objective of vibration isolation is to reduce the vibrations in some specific portion of the receiver structure, ultimately to improve efficiency of energy transfer.


Objective The objective of the experiment is: a) To study the characteristics of vibratory motion of a lightly damped system b) To study the phenomenon of resonance and vibration isolation


No. of Scope periods , screen q q x T (cm) 2.00 7.00 2.00 5.60 2.00 3.80 2.00 2.80 2.00 2.50 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.80 2.00 1.70 2.00 1.60 2.00 1.40 Time Base (s/cm) 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

Speed 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

Period, T (s) 0.175 0.140 0.095 0.070 0.063 0.050 0.045 0.043 0.040 0.035

1/T (1/s) 5.71 7.14 10.53 14.29 16.00 20.00 22.22 23.53 25.00 28.57

2pi/T (rad/s) 35.90 44.88 66.14 89.76 100.53 125.66 139.62 147.84 157.08 179.51

(N) 6.64 10.37 22.53 41.49 52.05 81.32 100.40 112.55 127.06 165.96

Table 1 Results for centrifugal force for varying engine speeds

Scope Screen (cm) 2.30 2.40 4.00 2.80 2.70 2.20 1.90 1.80 1.70 1.60 Scope gain (V/cm) 0.20 1.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 Trans Calib. (mm/V) 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 2.79 Total Stiffness (N/mm) 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90 22.90

Volts (V) 0.46 2.40 0.80 0.56 0.54 0.44 0.38 0.36 0.34 0.32

2x (mm) 1.28 6.70 2.23 1.56 1.51 1.23 1.06 1.00 0.95 0.89

X (mm) 0.64 3.35 1.12 0.78 0.75 0.61 0.53 0.50 0.47 0.45

(N) 14.69 76.67 25.56 17.89 17.25 14.06 12.14 11.50 10.86 10.22

Table 2 Results for dynamic response for varying engine speeds


Measurements and Write Up a) Determine the calibration of the displacement transducer (mm/volt), by placing a slip gauge between the stylus of the displacement transducer and the bas plate and observing the voltage change when it is removed (scope on dc mode).

Thickness of gauge = 9.5mm Scope Screen = 3.2cm Scope gain = 1 V/cm Transducer calibration = (9.5mm)/(3.2cm

1V/cm) = 2.79mm/V

b) For a number of rotational speeds below and above resonance determine the amplitude of vibration in mm. (The speed may be determined from the sinusoidal trace on the oscilloscope screen since and the time base setting is known (ms/com)). Volts = Scope gain Scope Screen Amplitude of Vibration, x = Transducer Calibration Sample calculation Based on Engine speed of 4 rev/s, we have: (Scope Screen (Peak-to-peak amplitude)= 2.3cm, Scope gain =0.2 V/cm). Volts = 2.3cm 0.2V/cm = 0.46V Amplitude of Vibration, x = (2.79mm/V


0.46V) / 2 = 0.64mm

The rest of results are displayed in Table 2. c) Try to measure the natural frequency of the motor on its springs by switching off the rotating motor. Give the structure a hit with a soft hammer. This is known in Engineering as the bump test. Observe the waveform on the oscilloscope screen and measure the period and frequency.

No. of periods = 2 Scope Screen = 5.4cm Time base = 50 10-3 s/cm Period, T = (5.4 50 10-3) 2 = 0.135s Frequency, f = 1 / T = 1 / 0.135 = 7.41Hz

d) On the same axes, plot the peak values of both dynamic forces against , i.e. plot dynamic reaction ( ) and also the variation of centrifugal force ( ).

Graph of Dynamic Forces against w

180.00 160.00 140.00 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 0 10 20 30 Rotation speed (w) 40 50 Dynamic Force (N)

Centrifugal Force Dynamic Reaction

e) Note particularly how as increases to large values, the dynamic reaction tends asymptotically towards a constant quite small value, whilst the centrifugal force (the forcing force) increases enormously ( ). The centrifugal force is directly proportional to the square of angular speed, hence when we turn up the frequency of the motor, the shaft connecting the motor to the out-of-balance mass will cause it rotate faster resulting in a higher centrifugal force. Since this is an assumed 1 DOF system in the vertical plane, only one resonant frequency exists. When increases to a value higher than that of the natural frequency, the systems ability to resonate will decrease and hence the dynamic reaction decreases. However, the amplitude of the vibration (dynamic response) will tend towards a constant, at large values, due to practical functions of the mechanical system that will experience some form of dynamic imbalance. f) What is the damping ratio of the system?

( (


0.077 g) If the rotating motor is running at 1000RPM, what is the centrifugal force? 1000RPM = 16.67rev/s Using interpolation from Table 1,


h) Discuss three forms of vibration of importance in Engineering, (e.g. Forced Vibration, Natural Vibrations, Self Excited Vibrations) Give examples of each. Forced Vibration is when a periodically varying force is applied on a system; the system vibrates in accordance to the frequency of applied force. Forced vibration is present in most mechanical systems driven by a motor. The rotating of unbalanced parts, interference in the meshing of gears and friction are the main causes of the excitation force. Natural Vibration is the frequency in which a system not under the influence of external forces will vibrate. When a system is given an initial displacement away from equilibrium, the restoring force will bring it back to the equilibrium position. However, due to the momentum acquired, it will continue to swing past that point causing a vibratory, oscillatory motion. The frequency and period of the vibration is defined by the property parameters in the system such as the mass and spring constant. One example is a swing at a playground. Pulling the swing back gives an initial displacement and when let go, the swing starts to oscillate at a given frequency. Self-excited systems vibrate spontaneously; the amplitude increases until some nonlinear effect limits any further increase. The energy supplying these vibrations is obtained from a constant source of power associated with the system, giving rise to oscillating forces. In some mechanical device steady input may result in vibration of components with natural frequency. For instance acoustic vibration result in steady flow of air, simple flow of air over the violin string results in vibration depending on the string length and teeth impact work results in vibration of mechanical system.


Conclusion From the above experiment, we have been able to understand the characteristic vibratory motion of a forced lightly damped system. We have developed a good understanding of the nature of resonance and it occurs under the condition that the frequency of the excitation force must be equal to that of the natural frequency of the system. By understanding this, we as the engineer, should make appropriate design considerations. One good strategy is vibration isolation where the operating frequency is a lot higher than the natural frequency, thus, we will not experience energy wastage from resonance and this would also not impose any maximum value for the operating frequency.


References 1. A. J. McMillan(1997) Journal of Sound and Vibration 2. Wikipedia Vibrations

3. Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics, Ferdinand Beer, E Russell Johnston Jr and William Clausen, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2004.