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Marcus Garvey Jamaica's first National Hero, was born in St. Ann's Bay on August 17, 1887.

In his youth Garvey migrated to Kingston where he worked as a printer and later published a small paper "The Watchman".

Born on August 17, 1887 at 32 Market Street in St. Ann's Bay, St.

Ann, Jamaica.

The son of Marcus Mosiah Garvey Sr., a mason and Sarah Jane Richards a domestic worker and farmer. In 1901 when Garvey was about 14, he left St. Ann for Kingston, where over the next nine years he gained employment in a number of endeavours. In 1907 he was elected Vice President of the Kingston Union. However he was fired in 1908 for participating in a strike by printers. During his time in Kingston, he began the publication of his newspaper the Watchman in 1909 but it only lasted three issues.

During his career Garvey travelled extensively throughout many countries, observing the poor working and living conditions of black people. In 1914 he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), in Jamaica. The UNIA, which grew into an international organisation, encouraged self-government for black people worldwide; self-help economic projects and protest against racial discrimination. In 1916, Garvey went to the USA where he preached his doctrine of freedom to the oppressed blacks throughout the country. However, USA officials disapproved of his activities and he was imprisoned, then deported. Back in Jamaica in 1927, he continued his political activity, forming the People's Political Party in 1929, He was unsuccessful in national elections but won a seat on the Kingston and St. Andrew Corporation (KSAC). But the world of the 1930s was not ready for Garvey's progressive ideas. He left Jamaica again, this time for England where he died in 1940. His body was brought back to Jamaica in 1964 and buried in the National Heroes Park in Kingston. Garvey's legacy can be summed up in the philosophy he taught - race pride, the need for African unity; self-reliance; the need for black people to be organised and for rulers to govern on behalf of the working classes.

Jamaica’s first National Hero. which highlight the importance of his contribution and legacy. . it serves only to highlight his value to world history. ahead of his time. In spite of the fact that honours and tributes are the accoutrements of a prominent historical figure/achiever. self belief. Marcus Garvey devoted his life to the liberation and holistic development of black peoples across the world and the advancement of Africa. a list of achievements and commendations cannot do justice to Marcus Garvey as a person. black person or world citizen for that matter and the responses most likely to be heard are visionary. but neglects to sum up the essence of a man. positive self esteem and self-image. as a century ago. racial equality and the development of Africa. whose teachings and philosophy have transcended time and space and is as relevant today.Mention the name Marcus Mosiah Garvey to any Jamaican. liberation. The recipient of numerous honours and memorials.

and the broadest mass organization in Western black history. and achievement. will render themselves so independent and useful as to be sought out by the other race groups. as a race. a people perish economically. The Negro is perishing because he has no economic system. Saint Ann. Already. blacks were not poor and wretched because whites hated them. For Garvey." and rising "above the prejudice of the world. achievement. To Garvey. from 1917-1923. in many ways. national sovereignty all their own. This vision fueled Garvey's political nationalism. and an Africa-centered. this was the reality. entrepreneur. the largest. journalist." Garvey's firm commitment to his ideal of "separate and equal. a socio-political awakening that encouraged people of African ancestry to strive for authentic and full equality by returning to their ancestral motherland. Garvey declared that he wished for those of African ancestry to re-occupy and "redeem" Africa. the most inane trait displayed by Western blacks was their incessant yearning to be unconditionally accepted and loved by their white fellow Westerners. 1923. for Garvey. In his view. Thus. This movement would eventually inspire other spin-offs. and the Negro would be regarded like anybody else—a man to be respected and admired. The result was an international revival that encouraged blacks to stay the course of achieving economic independence from whites. On the contrary. was a talented publisher. wealth. Garvey wanted his fellow blacks to understand that white people's disdainment of them should not be a surprise. after all. therefore." In a statement issued July 16. Washington. 1887– June 10. Garvey proclaimed: "If black men throughout the world. lynchings. It likewise taught them that genuine racial equality would come about as a result of blacks ascending to the heights of material success and cultural progress. self-respect. no commerce." was. and racial pride. In addition." This message of "Revitalized Africanism" thundered forth at a time when American blacks were prepared for it. it will simply mean that all the problems of the race will be smashed to pieces. "Without commerce and industry. black writers such . by having them establish wealth. to build the first. "Resurrect it!" Garvey proclaimed. culture." Garvey is best remembered as a key proponent of the "Back-To-Africa" movement. West Indian spokesman of black nationalism and economic development. He was born in Saint Ann's Bay. whose gift of appealing to dreams and ideals fired the minds and hearts of millions of blacks. and for the European colonial powers to cease their occupation of it. The intergroup context of hostility. and it compelled him. and it was just fine. and he urged blacks to recapture that lost magnificence of empire. Respectfully dubbed by his admirers as the "Prophet of Africanism. the only program that made any sense at all was one that lifted the black race toward dignity. By enlarging upon the philosophy of Booker T. 1940). Jamaica. thereby winning "the respect and admiration of all. no industry. a reaction to the virulent white racism of his day. He led a thrust to revitalize what he believed to be Africa's glorious past. civilization. and disenfranchisement practiced by the white majority convinced Garvey that whites had no desire whatsoever to be integrated with blacks. ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari Movement. peonage.Marcus Mosiah Garvey (August 17. and the Founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). Garvey became a mass leader. whites hated them because they were poor and wretched.

and by his being trained in the printing business. but he later converted to Roman Catholicism. Washington and Other Leaders Garvey's breakthroughs and achievements." They heeded the clarion call for racial solidarity and economic liberation. upper-class blacks and whites to shun him as a black racist. Twelve days later. integration—within the same national borders.as Langston Hughes. Having arrived in America in 1916. while nowhere close to being a panacea. Claude McKay and others of the Harlem Renaissance were evoking a cultural revitalization. 1887. keep alive his influence." Still. Garvey put great emphasis on blacks not expecting whites to ever desire peaceful coexistence—much less. today. Proof of this was seen in the throngs of blacks who proudly proclaimed themselves "Garveyites. Garvey viewed himself as a Christian. and he had studied closely Washington's success with the growth and outreach of Tuskegee Institute. Despite the fact that he was subsequently imprisoned and finally deported. Washington. along with his own. Wallace Thurman. Unlike Washington. Garvey's message thus fell upon listening ears.B. Marcus published his first newspaper. Garvey's separatist paradigm caused many educated. Garvey was a staunch admirer of Booker T. together with Ms. were evidence that. among American blacks. This attitude was the main reason for Garvey's criticism of the integrationist approach of W. movementbased failures. grounded in their race's heartfelt quest for its African past. was born to Marcus Mosiah Garvey. Du Bois and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). His employment at the printing shop of P.A. ultimately congealed into an anti-Garvey backlash. 1908. was processed by open minds. and Sarah Jane Richards. Biography and Life's Work At Saint Ann's Bay. Garvey determined to take to the next level the momentum sparked by Washington and his Tuskegee leadership model. a mason. Marcus Mosiah Garvey." and he took many opportunities to "… explain the aims and objectives of the Universal Negro Improvement Association … because of a desire to be Christian friends with the white race. Garvey had read Washington's autobiography. Jamaica. The young Garvey's first ten years of life were hallmarked by his developing a passion for learning. studied at Birbeck College in London. the state of the self-help movement was strong. the incarnate messenger of self-help and individual responsibility. Sr. on August 17. Benjamin Manufacturing Company deeply instilled him with a love for writing. emerged a sentiment that prompted the government to investigate the Prophet of Africanism. Over the next six years. however. Garvey's impact inspired a number of offshoot developments that. This and other derisions. Garvey's mother died.E. From this. traveled Central America. under the watchful eye of his godfather. who was a farmer and a domestic worker. Jr. and returned to Jamaica on July 8. visited several European cities. had articles published in three different magazines. and was embraced by prepared hearts. he became the Founder and the first .. just four months after Washington's death. 1914. He had been reared a Methodist. Amy Ashwood (whom he would later make his first wife). internal. Contrasts With Booker T. On March 18. He regularly proclaimed his commitment to "the spiritual brotherhood of man. Up From Slavery.

he was viewed by the establishment black leadership as a threat to the push for integration with whites.E." Garvey's 1914 correspondence with Booker T. he embarked upon a tour of the nation.A. Garvey announced that this organization's purpose was to: "… unify all the world's people of African ancestry into one great body. Driven by his vision of a permanent. in order to ascertain for himself the conditions of black Americans and their leadership across the country. this corporation and its linked businesses employed at least 1. which managed a chain of Harlem businesses.S. in June 1919. To remedy this. entrepreneurial attitude. Within the next two months. black homeland in Africa. a men's and women's garment-manufacturing division. 1920. in 1920.President of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). Later. on August 17. wealth is justice. wealth is real human rights. These devotees came primarily from among the less-educated. to encourage commerce and industry.. alone. Garvey's call for racial solidarity and economic independence caused him to be painted as a black supremacist by both the white and black press of his day. steam laundries. lower-class masses. What Garvey discovered mostly disappointed him. Financed by its shareholders. Despite the unrelenting campaign against him. on March 24. and the Phyllis Wheatley Hotel. Despite the fact that it was finally a business fiasco. visiting 38 states. the Prophet of Africanism maintained that he was not an advocate of black supremacy. Garvey assembled the first National Convention of his Universal Negro Improvement Association. These two events took place 18 months after W. Owing to mismanagement and fraud. He meant it. the ship line failed. Paris. in October 1919. the S. since the latter passed away on November 14. ultimately suffered the same fate. 1915. the Black Star Line Steamship Corporation was established. and drove him to the conclusion that an appalling leadership vacuum existed. it launched its first ship. By the early 1920s. and Panama.B. comprising groceries. From 1917-1923. "Wealth is power. when he said." On August 1. Africa.S. This enterprise also sought to do business in Central America. In 1919. Washington spurred the former to stay on course with his calling as a race leader. Permeated by a strong sense of "self-help. but was an exponent of black race uplift and improvement. to establish a country and absolute government of their own. The next evening. in 1917. the Black Cross Navigation and Trading Company. And Garvey made every possible effort to practice what he preached. he set up. the UNIA published the first issue of its official organ. Jamaica. at Madison Square Garden." The . the New York Chapter of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). These and other ventures were evidence of Garvey's risk-taking. The following year. 1916. In addition. and the West Indies. Yarmouth.000 blacks in the U." they banded together behind the Prophet of Africanism. possibly as many as six million blacks declared themselves UNIA members. Du Bois convened his first Pan-African Congress at the Grand Hotel.S. But Garvey's great dream of meeting Washington was not to be. restaurants. The vessel's maiden voyage was to Cuba. Its successor company. he addressed twenty-five thousand blacks. launched his "Liberia Program. Garvey. four months before Garvey finally made it to the U. he founded the Negro Factories Corporation. the Black Star Line qualifies as a significant achievement. They likewise served as effective instruments of indoctrination and enlistment for Garvey and the UNIA. at Liberty Hall in Harlem. The Negro World. Both the Star Line and the Trading Company were major symbols of black economic potential.

its membership was about 30. a former Episcopal priest. she edited The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey . white preachers with their blond-haired. The union was brief. the ancient church of Africa. The African Orthodox Church Unlike later activists for black self-reliance and recovery of pride. . By repeatedly emphasizing the betrayal and suffering of Jesus. the second volume. Garvey himself broke with the Church over a dispute regarding the location of its headquarters. Volume One. after much opposition from the European powers with interests in Liberia. was consecrated in 1921 by a patriarch of the Syrian Orthodox Church. and he was a master at incorporating its impact into the appeal of his leadership. aiding in the effort to shield him at the time he was shot by George Tyler. and in 1925. introducing images of the black Madonna and child. and had replaced Ashwood as Garvey's companion and personal assistant since 1920. McGuire told his members to 'erase the white man's God' from their hearts. had been with Garvey since 1914. Jr. In October 1919. like sycopants. In July 1922. a bitter relationship blossomed. Garvey was not attracted by white Christianity but by Ethiopian Christianity. He fully grasped the significance of religion to black culture. Christianity was racist and black Christian clergy betrayed their own race by copying. In 1923. After it failed. and Julius Garvey. They had two sons. as she tirelessly supported him and his work. George Alexander McGuire. On Christmas Day of that same year. and she was Co-Founder of the UNIA. by recruiting respectable numbers of black clergymen. Garvey wanted to move the headquarters to the West Indies.. and by inculcating a strong identification with the Cross and the Resurrection of Jesus. Garvey obtained a divorce. whose first bishop. Garvey remained a Christian.Africa for the Africans. Marcus Garvey. A lengthy courtship ensued. wealth-producing drive with a strategic use of religious faith and zeal. in a private Catholic church wedding. as part of a financial base of operations. the Prophet of Africanism wedded Amy Jacques. a Jamaican. had been Ashwood's maid of honor at the 1919 Garvey wedding. born 1931. during the latter's assassination attempt at UNIA's New York offices. also from Jamaica. industrial plants. Malcolm X would be scathingly critical both of white and of black Christianity. the Prophet of Africanism forged a practical theology and a religious relevance that gave UNIA devotees a pervading sense of mission and destiny. blue eyed Jesus. by fine-tuning a messianic idiom and style.intention was to build universities. Garvey married Amy Ashwood. and railroads.000. The contemporary media ridiculed this image but the Church did attract many members. The effort was abandoned in the mid-1920s. By 1934. Garvey combined his pragmatic. Marriage Amy Ashwood. Later that same month. born 1933. He was a co-founder of the African Orthodox Church. who was Amy Ashwood's friend. Archbishop McGuire founded a Theological Seminary. an order of deaconesses. she put her life on the line for Garvey.

To this day. Final years In Jamaica. Georgia. with Ku Klux Klan (KKK) leader Edward Young Clarke. Du Bois and A. Postal Inspector General resulted in charges of mail fraud being brought against Garvey by the Attorney General. and kept a sharp eye on world affairs. Accused of selling stock in the failed Black Star Line enterprise. By appearing to form a common base with white racists. He never again set foot in the United States. Switzerland in 1928. Anglo-Saxon Clubs members. in 1925. and the civil rights establishment. President Warren G.B. Garvey and three of his colleagues were arrested and indicted. where he presented the "Petition of the Negro Race" . He was convicted. Officials of the NAACP. He assembled convocations there and in Canada. efforts continue on the part of his supporters to exonerate him of the charges. His pessimism regarding the possibility of interracial harmony between blacks and whites was already well known. and racist Mississippi Senator Theodore Bilbo. To Garvey. however. While it seems clear that there were serious accounting irregularities related with the enterprise. where a large crowd met him at Orrett's Wharf in Kingston. contrary to representations. Garvey held to his racialist ideology. and a bitterly divisive feud resulted. Harding when the latter spoke out "against miscegenation and against every suggestion of social equality. the corporation did not actually possess the ship pictured in the company's stock brochure. mounted an anti-Garvey campaign. and lie" characteristic of those whites who needed to sustain at least the masquerade of a just society.S. Garvey was deported from New Orleans to Jamaica. The Black Star Line did own and operate several ships over the course of its history and was in the process of negotiating for the disputed ship at the time. press. only Garvey was found guilty of using the mail service to defraud. eventually informing government authorities of alleged illegalities. Since Garvey had been convicted of a felony. such forthrightness was better than the "farce. given a five-year sentence. and that claims made by Garvey in selling Black Star Line stock were misleading. KKK members. Of all those charged in connection with the enterprise. and was not a U. his 1922 meeting. Garvey praised U. Garvey inevitably made several vigorous enemies among the luminaries of the black intelligentsia. and.S. wrote prolifically in his own papers.Other Challenges and controversies An interest in the notion of "racial purity" came to the forefront of Garvey's thinking around 1921." Likewise. Leaders such as W. immigration laws mandated his immediate expulsion as an undesirable alien. His supporters declared the trial iniquitous. in Atlanta. jailed in the Atlanta Federal Prison. He respected the "honesty of purpose" shown by whites like President Harding. Despite the subsequent fiery criticism and the loss of support.S. Garvey's efforts were focused on restructuring the UNIA and struggling to maintain his leadership relevance. along with other prominent blacks. was an opportunity that Garvey took to explain the common ground shared by the UNIA and the KKK. regarding those same issues. He tinkered with local politics. It was revealed that. Philip Randolph heaped upon Garvey the worst type of invective. hypocrisy. His sentence was eventually commuted by President Calvin Coolidge. Mail fraud conviction A subsequent investigation by the U. citizen. Garvey traveled to Geneva. The Prophet of Africanism returned fire. Garvey's ultimate prosecution may have been politically motivated.E. And upon his release from prison in November 1927.

He suggested ways of reforming it. education. for the hope of the race. Following that invasion. and its green. As did Booker T. The UNIA's red. Europe. libraries. never did this. and they seemed to have no desire to encourage the methodology of self-help and entrepreneurship. Washington. a bust of Garvey was unveiled at the Organization of American States' Hall of Heroes. one month prior to his June 10. His final years of fading into ever-increasing obscurity brought him the ultimate indignity of reading his own obituaries.to the League of Nations. where he settled just after the invasion of Ethiopia by Fascist Italy. the Prophet of Africanism left a legacy of using wealth and economic clout to combat racism and prejudice. in the long run. Nevertheless. his public criticism of Haile Selassie's behavior alienated many of Garvey's remaining supporters. he founded the People's Political Party (PPP). Jamaica's first modern political party. His civil rights critics. This statement outlined the abuse of Africans around the world. in Washington. Garvey understood how to balance the pragmatic with the symbolic. Garvey's universal popularity spans the globe. I hope to make it a virtue. Marcus Garvey extolled Capitalism and free enterprise as "necessary to the progress of the world. DC. black. Garvey held no illusions regarding Capitalism. 1940 death. Garvey became the object of the scorn and ridicule of those who were motivated by a civil rights vision of the race problem. black and green flag of UNIA. That memory could be encapsulated in the following statement he once uttered: "The world has made being black a crime. the Caribbean. keeping alive and well his memory. and highways in Africa. when he left Jamaica for London. its red. centered primarily upon workers' rights]]. The flag's black was for the race. for the blood of the race." This teaching and his undying opposition to Communism played major parts in motivating blacks to distrust friendly overtures from the proponents of Socialism and Marxism. and he delivered scorching critiques of what he deemed its negative aspects. he pointed out. He continued his dabbling in regional politics until 1935. to their cause of attaining genuine equality in America and elsewhere around the world. And instead of making it a crime. and green flag has been adopted as the Black Liberation Flag. colleges. At the same time. and the USA have been named after him." That hope is part of the reason that schools. and aid to the poor. Garvey was quick to point out how the lack of focus upon business development among blacks would be excrutiatingly detrimental. Legacy: The UNIA and the Cause of Black Self-Help The Red. and I have felt it in common with men who suffer like me. In September 1929. . In 1980.

both in Jamaica and abroad:             a statue of Garvey erected on the grounds of the St. with its nations ultimately involved as stable. Lenton. Ann's Bay Parish Library. he never actually envisioned the en masse return of blacks from the diaspora. the Marcus Garvey Center. Garvey has been honored in many ways. His vision was of an Africa gradually liberated from the chains of colonial domination. except in a spiritual sense. the tugboat piloted by Maelcum is named The Marcus Garvey. Nottingham. of equal import. Although some of his oratorical bombast seemed to imply it. In November 1964. a major street named for him in Nairobi. he maintained. There was no back-to-Africa movement. his likeness appears on the Jamaican 50 cent coin and 20 dollar coin. a small park named for him in London's Hammersmith. Ralph Ellison used Garvey as the basis for Ras the Exhorter. a bust of Garvey unveiled at Apex Park. a secondary school in Saint Ann named for him. a park named for him in the Tenderloin region of San Francisco. In the book Neuromancer by William Gibson. California. Kenya.While political protests and demands were crucial. the Government of Jamaica had his remains brought to Jamaica. and ceremoniously reinterred at a shrine dedicated to him in National Heroes Park. Garvey had been proclaimed Jamaica's first National Hero. a major highway in Kingston bearing his name. was the generation of independent wealth. Kingston in 1978. always maintained that "the term 'back-to-Africa' was used and promoted by newspapers—Negro newspapers mostly—to ridicule Garvey. a street named for him in New York City's Brooklyn borough. Garvey's body was interred in the Kensal Green Cemetery in London. the West Indian black nationalist demagogue in his novel Invisible Man. There is also a Marcus Garvey Library located inside the Tottenham Green Leisure Centre building in North London. the building housing the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (New Kingston) bears his name. . Amy Jacques Garvey. Memorials to a Jamaican National Hero Following his death." This observation was basically true. UK. By that time. a park with his name in New York City's Harlem neighborhood. dignified partners with the rest of the global community. despite the fact that Africa was pivotal to all of Garvey's doctrine and propaganda.[1][2] Marcus Garvey and the Back-To-Africa Movement Garvey's widow.

Walker. Yet they agitate to oppose anything undertaken by others for the good of the race. They have not. which is at a great risk. whom he claims will be arriving there shortly. Madam C. in which Smith claims to be Garvey. because out of their efforts. We must realize that our greatest enemies are not those on the outside. the NAACP. Because if [whites] did not support the middle." (1930)   . Maggie Walker. Mrs. Quotations From Marcus Garvey  "Anybody can talk and write. the people who take chances. but for the presence of the Universal Negro Improvement Association. to take money out of them… " (1930) "We are now launching out. up to now. These are the people who are constructively building to help the race. Even the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People has had a better time because of my presence in America. That is why certain white people looked upon me as a dangerous man.F. the Negro will be on the right road to the solution of his problems. Women like Mrs. We hope that in ten years. and leaves a message for Haile Selassie. Men like Jesse Binga. employment is being found for the people. the heads of our insurance companies and our banks and corporations. compromises have been struck that would never have been arrived at.Orb features a prank call made by satirist Victor Lewis-Smith to London Weekend Television. R." (1925) "In America. but writing and talking are not going to save the Negro. We are anticipating opposition from the same group of men. The men who are really going to make the race are the businessmen. but those in our midst. that is. and opportunity is being given for them to exist. who do nothing but oppose. brought out any economic solution of our race problem.The spoken word introduction to The Orb's track "Towers of Dub" from the album U. they would have to grapple with the extreme movement of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the uncompromising radicalism of Marcus Garvey. because they were prompted to that belief by my enemies. Many men opposed me because it was profitable to them …. J. because they were able to use my name and UNIA's in approaching white men for their patronage. in keeping with our original objects. This scare brought more money into the coffers of the NAACP than they would have gotten otherwise. Watt Terry. Wright. on the proposition of building factories in the United States…. Annie Malone.R.

After learning the printing trade through an apprenticeship with his uncle he moved to Kingston in 1906. Garvey was born in St. The location is a fitting tribute to Garvey who had a well renowned love of reading. A larger-than-life statue of Marcus Garvey stands outside of the St. . the town's most renowned resident. Ann's Bay Library at the east end of town.Marcus Garvey Statue One of the most famous sites in St. Ann's Bay in 1887. Ann's bay is the statue of the Right Excellent Marcus Garvey.