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# CS530DL (Spring 2012) – Fault Tolerant Computing

Problem Set Assignment 2 Total: 100 NAME : CSU ID: ▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬▬

A1

A1

B1

B

A2

A2

B2

1.

System 1

2.

System 2

A1

C1

B

A2

C2

3.

System 3

Figure 1. Reliability block diagram of three systems to be used for questions 1-4; The failure rate for sub-units A1 and A2 is , for sub-units B1 and B2 , the failure rate is , for sub-units C1 and C2 , the failure rate is . You can assume independence of failures for sub-units.

1. (20 points) Obtain expressions for a. (10 points) R1 (t) (Reliability of the System 1). b. (5 points) R2 (t) (Reliability of the System 2). c. (5 points) R3 (t) (Reliability of the System 3).

2. (15 points) Find expressions of mean time to failure (MTTF) for a. (5 points) System 1. Page 1 of 3

b. (5 points) System 2 c. (5 points) System 3 3. (15 points) When , give a plot for a. (5 points) R1 (t) for time t = 0 to 1000. (You can use MS-EXCEL or similar tool to draw the plot) b. (5 points) R2 (t) for time t = 0 to 1000. (You can use MS-EXCEL or similar tool to draw the plot) c. (5 points) R3 (t) for time t = 0 to 1000. (You can use MS-EXCEL or similar tool to draw the plot)

4. (5 points) Which system is more reliable – System 1 or System 2? Prove by comparing their reliability expressions algebraically.

5. (10 points) Suppose that a software system is composed of 3 modules A, B, and C. When the system executes, A executes first and after A completes, B and C execute concurrently. A executes for 40% of the total time, while the concurrent execution of B and C takes 60% of the total time. If the failure rates of A, B, and C are λa, λb , λc respectively, what is the mean failure rate of the system λsys ?

6. (15 points) For a project, the number of defects found, the duration for 8 defects and the cumulative duration is given in the table. The time is given in seconds. a. (10 points) Use regression to estimate the parameters of the exponential model. Note: you can copy and paste the table into excel. You can use linest() or logest() function or the excel trendline functionality if you like. b. (5 points) If the target failure intensity is 0.00004/sec, what would be the additional testing time required? 8-fault duration 376 1422 228 2623 1498 3605 8748 18881 20711

defects 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72

cum_time 376 1798 2026 4649 6147 9752 18500 37381 58092 Page 2 of 3

7. (15 points) Test coverage for a program achieved by applying a number of vectors and corresponding number of defects found are given by the figure below. a. (10) Fit a coverage vs defects curve by hand. Find the expected number of defects that will be found if 95% coverage is achievable (5% code is dead-code). b. (5 points) For a plot between test-coverage and defects found, often few defects are found until a certain coverage level (referred to as the knee of the curve) is achieved. This is attributed to the fact that easy-totest defects were already found and removed by preliminary testing. If there was no preliminary testing, how would the plot look like? Give justification. Give two plots to illustrate – one with easy-to-test defects already removed and one without.
60

50

40

Defects

30

20

10

0
20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100

P-Use Cov erage

8. (5 points) Assume that for a module of size 5 KLOC, the estimated module related defect density is

2/KLOC. For the same module, the estimated instruction related defect density is 10/KLOC. For another module of size 2KLOC, the estimated instruction related defect density is 7/KLOC. If we assume composite model of variation of defect density with module size, modules of what size will have the lowest total (module related + instruction related) defect density? What is the value of that minimum defect density?

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