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2.081J/16.

230J Plates and Shells
Professor Tomasz Wierzbicki

Contents
1 Strain-Displacement Relation for Plates 1.1 1-D Strain Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.1 Engineering Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1.2 Green-Lagrangian Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 3-D Strain Measure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 Derivation of Green-Lagrangian Strain Tensor for Plates 1.2.2 Specification of Strain-Displacement Relation for Plates 2 Derivation of Constitutive Equations for Plates 2.1 Definitions of Bending Moment and Axial Force . 2.2 Bending Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Bending Moment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Bending Energy Density . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Total Bending Energy . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Membrane Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Axial Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Membrane Energy Density . . . . . . . . 2.3.3 Total Membrane Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 10 10 10 10 11 13 14 14 14 16

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3 Development of Equation of Equilibrium and Boundary Conditions Using Variational Approach 3.1 Bending Theory of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Total Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 First Variation of the Total Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Equilibrium Equation and Boundary Conditions . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Specification of Equation for Rectangular Plate . . . . . . . . 3.2 Bending-Membrane Theory of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Total Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i

17 17 17 20 24 24 29 29

3.2.2 3.2.3

First Variation of the Total Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . Equilibrium Equation and Boundary Conditions . . . . . . .

29 31 34 34 34 35 36 40 42 47 47 48 48 51 51 52 54 62 65 71 74 76 77 77 80 84 84 86 87 88 89 89 90 90 93 96 99 100 102

4 General Theories of Plate 4.1 Bending Theory of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Derivation of the Plate Bending Equation . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Reduction to a System of Two Second Order Equations . . . 4.1.3 Exercise 1: Plate Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Exercise 2: Comparison between Plate and Beam Solution . . 4.1.5 Exercise 3: Finite Difference Solution of the Plate Bending Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Membrane Theory of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Plate Membrane Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Plate Equation for the Circular Membrane . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Example: Approximation Solution for the Clamped Membrane 4.3 Buckling Theory of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 General Equation of Plate Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Linearized Buckling Equation of Rectangular Plates . . . . . 4.3.3 Analysis of Rectangular Plates Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Derivation of Raleigh-Ritz Quotient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.5 Ultimate Strength of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.6 Plastic Buckling of Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.7 Exercise 1: Effect of In-Plane Boundary Conditions, δw = 0 . 4.3.8 Exercise 2: Raleigh-Ritz Quotient for Simply Supported Square Plate under Uniaxial Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Buckling of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Transition from Global and Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Local Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Buckling of Cylindrical Shells 5.1 Governing Equation for Buckling of Cylindrical Shells . . . . 5.1.1 Special Case I: Cylinder under Axial Load P , q = 0 . 5.1.2 Special Case II: Cylinder under Lateral Pressure . . . 5.1.3 Special Case III: Hydrostatic Pressure . . . . . . . . . 5.1.4 Special Case IV: Torsion of a Cylinder . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Derivation of the Linearized Buckling Equation . . . . . . . . 5.3 Buckling under Axial Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Formulation for Buckling Stress and Buckling Mode . 5.3.2 Buckling Coefficient and Batdorf Parameter . . . . . . 5.4 Buckling under Lateral Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Buckling under Hydrostatic Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Buckling under Torsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.7 Influence of Imperfection and Comparison with Experiments .

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ii

1 1.1

Strain-Displacement Relation for Plates 1-D Strain Measure
Engineering Strain

1.1.1

Engineering strain ε is defined as the relative displacement: ε= ds − ds0 ds0 (1)

where ds0 is the increment of initial lenght and ds is the increment of current length. 1.1.2 Green-Lagrangian Strain Instead of comparing the length, one can compare the square of lengths: E= ds2 − ds2 0 2ds2 0 ds − ds0 ds + ds0 = ds0 2ds0 (2)

Where ds → ds0 , the second term is Eq. (2) tends to unity, and the Green strain measure and the engineering strain become identical. Equation (2) can be put into an equivalnet form: 2 (3) ds2 − ds2 0 = 2Eds0 which will now be generalized to the 3-D case.

1.2
1.2.1

3-D Strain Measure
Derivation of Green-Lagrangian Strain Tensor for Plates

Let define the following quanties: • a = [ai ]: vector of the initial (material) coordinate system • x = [xi ]: vector of the current (spatial) coordinate system • u = [ui ]: displacement vector where the index i = 1, 2, 3. The relation between those quantities is: xi = ai + ui dxi = dai + dui (4)

1

k dak dui = ∂ak ∂uj duj = dal = uj .du da u dx x a O Now. which leads to Lagrangian descripion. the squares of the initial and the current length increment can be written in terms of ai and ui : (5) ds2 0 = dai daj δ ij ds2 = dxi dxj δ ij = (dai + dui ) (daj + duj ) δ ij where the Kronecker tensor δ ij reads: ¯ ¯ ¯1 0 0¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ δ ij = ¯ ¯0 1 0¯ ¯0 0 1¯ (7) (6) The vector u can be considered as a function of: • the initial (material) coordinate system. u (x).l dal ∂al Let us calculated the difference in the length square: ds2 − ds2 0 = (dai + dui ) (daj + duj ) δ ij − dai daj δ ij 2 (9) (8) . or • the current (spatial) coordinates. the Lagrangian description is preferable: ui = ui (ai ) ∂ui dak = ui . which leads to the Eulerian description In structural mechanics. u (a).

k dak uj . Components of Green-Lagrangian Strain Tensor Let define the following range convention for indices: • Greek letters: α. = 1.k uj .. In the moderately large deflection theory of structures. Eα3 and E3β are out-of-plane 3 .l (daj δ jl ) dai + ui . Eq. 3 j = β. (11) will be used as a starting point in the development of the general theory of plates.i +uk .i ¿ 1).j +ui .Using Eq.l dal ) δ ij = [uj . which can be seen by intechanign the indices i for j and j for i.. the difference in the length square can be transformed into: ds2 − ds2 0 = (duj dai + dui daj + dui duj ) δ ij (10) = (uj .j ) 2 In the case of small displacement gradient (uk . 2 • Roman letters: i. by analogy with the 1-D case.i ) 2 (12) From the defintion. β. .i uk . 2.i +ui .l (dai δ ik ) (daj δ jl )] δ ij = (uj .k uj .k ) dai daj = 2Eij dai daj where.l dal dai + ui . j.k (dai δ ik ) daj + ui . 3 The Lagrangian or Green strain tensor can be expressed: (13) E11 E12 # E13 # Eαβ " Eα 3 # # E3β # " # " E22 # E23 = Eij = E21 " " " # " " E31 E32 # E33 # E33 where Eαβ is the in-plane component of strain tensor. (8) and the definition of δ ij .k dak daj + ui . the strain tensor is symmetric εij = εji . the second nonlinear term can be neglected leading to the defintion of the infinitesimal strain tensor: εij = 1 (ui .j +uj . . the Lagrangian or Green strain tensor Eij is defined: 1 (11) Eij = (ui . the nonlinear terms are important. = 1.j +uj . the Roman letters are also written as: i = α. 3 With this range convention.. Therefore..

h ¿ L. The thickness h is much smaller than the typical plate dimension. 4 .shear components of strain tensor. The magnitude of the transverse deflection is of the same order as the thickness of plate. In practice. The plate is thin. Initial Undeformed Configuration a uα x z x middle surface u u3 η ξ Deformed Configuration Assumptions of the von Karman Theory The von Karman thoery of moderately large deflection of plates assumes: 1. the present theory is still a good engineering approximation for deflections up to ten plate thickness. 2. displacement vector can be divided into two components: u1 u uα ui = u2 = v = " " " u3 w w where uα is the in-plane components of the displacement vector. and u3 = w is the out-of-plane components of the displacement vector and also called as the transverse displacement. and E33 is the through-thickness component of strain tensor. Similarily. |w| = O (h).

α (14) where u◦ α is the displacement of the middle surface.α +w.α w.3 = 0. Eq. and u3 .3.α uk .β are small so that their product or square can be neglected.α +uk .β +u2 .β ) 2 (17) (16) 5 . u3 .β +u3 .α uk . (11).β In the view of the Assumption 3. uα = u◦ α − z u3 . 1.2 Specification of Strain-Displacement Relation for Plates In the theory of moderately large deflections. i.α uγ . the 2-D in-plane components of strain tensor reads: Eαβ = 1 (uα .α uγ .e. the first term in the above equation is zero. In-plane displacements are a linear function of the z −coordiate (3-coordinate).β +uβ .β +u3 .α is the slope which is negative for the "smiling" beam. 4.α u1 .α u2 . z 5. nonlinear term: uk . The out-of-plane displacement is independent of the z −coordiante. Gradients of in-plane displacements uα .α u3 .α u3 . i.β ' 0.β = u1 . u◦ α .β +uβ . Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis is satisfied.e. the 2-D in-plane componets of the strain tensor are: Eαβ = 1 (uα . the strain-displacement relation can be specified for plates.β = uγ .3 = 0. which is independent of z −coordinate.β ) 2 (15) Here. In-Plane Terms of the Strain Tensors From the general expression. Therefore.2. uγ . consider the last.

α w.β 2 ¢ 1¡ ◦ = uα .β + uβ − z w. applying Love-Kirchhoff hypothesis.β . one gets: καβ = −w. one gets: ¡ ◦ ¢ ¤ 1£ (18) Eαβ = (u◦ α − z w. Eq.β 2 2 From the definiton of the curvature. the in-plane displacements are assumed to be zero uα = 0 so that strains are only due to the curvatue: (22) Eαβ = z καβ where καβ In the above equation. κ11 and κ22 are curvatures of the cylindrical bending.α w. (17).β +u◦ β .β 2 2 In the limiting case of small displacements. the second term can be neglected as compared to the first term.α w. (14) into Eq.α −2 z w.αβ +w.α w. In the classical bending theory of plate. (18) can be re-casted in the form: ◦ + z καβ Eαβ = Eαβ (19) (20) ◦ is composed of a linear and a where the strain tensor of the middle surface Eαβ nonlinear term: ¢ 1 1¡ ◦ ◦ = (21) Eαβ uα .α +w.α − z w.β 2 ¢ 1¡ ◦ 1 = uα .where w = u3 . i. Introducing Eq.e.αβ Now.α ) .β +u◦ β . and κ12 is the twist which tells how the slope in the x−direction changes with the y−direction: µ ¶ ∂ ∂w κ12 = ∂y ∂x ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ κ11 κ12 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = − =¯ ¯ κ21 κ22 ¯ ¯ ¯ ∂2w ∂x2 ∂2w ∂x∂y ∂2w ∂x∂y ∂2w ∂y2 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ = −w.αβ + w.β +u◦ β .α + w.αβ ¯ ¯ ¯ (23) for a cylinder κ12 = 0 6 .

and ε12 is the change of angles.2 ) = u2 . shear strain.β +uβ .β ¯ = = (27) 2 2 dx dx 2 dx α=1. i.1 +u1 .2 +u2 .1 = 2 1 = (u2 . ε11 and ε22 are the tensile strain in the two directions. Then. the nonlienar term reads: ¯ µ ¶ ¯ 1 dw 2 1 1 dw dw ¯ w.β Let α = 1 and β = 1.α w.1 ) = u1 .1 ) = 2 2 1 du1 u2 =0 = 2 dy du1 du2 + dy dx (26) ε11 ε12 x y y x u2 ≡ 0 x y ε22 u1 Therefore. Interpretation of the nonlinear term: 1 2 w.2 +u2 .e.Interpretation of the linear terms: be expressed in the followings: ε11 = ε22 1 2 ³ ´ ◦ u◦ Each component can α .α w.β =1 One can also obtain the same quantity by the defintion of 1-D Green-Lagrangian strain: ¡ 2 ¢ µ µ ¶ ¶ ds0 + dw2 − ds2 1 dw 2 1 dw 2 ds2 − ds2 0 0 ' = = (28) E= 2 ds0 2 dx 2ds2 2ds2 0 0 7 .2 = 2 µ ε12 |if 1 1 ε12 = (u1 .α du1 dx du2 dy ¶ (24) (25) 1 (u1 .

Using the general expression for the components of the strain tensor.β 2 (29) Eα3 = 1 (uα . Out-Of-Plane Terms of the Strain Tensors Refering to the definition introduced in Section 1.2 u2 .α u3 .1 −u2 .3 u2 .3 +uk .β +uβ . it can be shown that the application of Assumption 4 and 5 lead to the following expressions: E3β = 1 (u3 .α u2 .2.β +u3 .β −u3 .β ) 2 1 = [u3 . the conclusion is that the nonlinear term 1 2 w.α u3 .α w.α + (−u1 .1.2 ) 2 1 = − w.3 +u3 .β +u2 .1 u1 .β )] 2 1 = (−u3 .γ uγ .1 −u2 .3 )] 2 1 = [−u3 . w ds 2 ds 2 = ds0 + dw2 dw Thus.3 u3 .β ) 2 1 = − w. (11).α u3 .3 u1 .α uk .β )] 2 1 = [u3 .3 uk . Eq.α + (u1 .β + (−u3 .3 ) 2 1 = [uα .β +uβ .1 u1 .γ uγ .dx x ds0 = dx ds0 z.α 2 (30) 8 .α +u3 .3 +u3 .β −u3 . Eα3 and E33 .3 + (u1 .α u3 .α +uk .3 +u2 .β represents the change of length of the plate element due to finite rotations. there are three other componets of the strain tensor: E3β .α u3 .3 +u3 .β −u3 .α u1 .2 )] 2 1 = (−u1 .2 u2 .

3 + (u1 . Therefore.3 ) 2 i 1h = u3 . does not mean that "normal remains normal. In the theory of moderately larege deflection of plates.γ 2 (31) The above are all second order terms which vanish for small deflection theory of plates.3 )2 + (u3 .3 +uk . the incremental work of these strains with the corresponding stresses is negligible: E3β σ 3β . However.γ w. an assumption "plane remains plane.3 )2 + (u2 . Eα3 σ α3 and E33 σ 33 . One can conclude that the elastic strain energy (and even plastic dissipation) is well approximated using the plane strain assumption: Z Z 1 1 σ ij εij dz ' σ αβ εαβ dz (33) 2 h h 2 9 ." The existance of the out-of-plane shear strain means that lines originally normal to the middle surface do not remain normal to the deformed plate." expressed by Eq.3 uk . are small (32) because the corresponding stress σ 3β .2 )2 = 2 1 = w. the out-of-plate shear strains as well as the through-thickness strain is not zero.3 )2 = 2 i 1h (−u3 .3 )2 2 i 1h (u1 . σ α3 and σ 33 are small as compared to the in-plane stress σ αβ . (14).3 +u3 .E33 = 1 (u3 .3 )2 + (u2 .1 )2 + (−u3 .

define the tensor of bending moment: Mαβ ≡ Z h 2 (36) −h 2 σ αβ z dz (37) and the tensor of axial force (membrane force): Nαβ ≡ Z h 2 −h 2 σ αβ dz (38) 2.1 Derivation of Constitutive Equations for Plates Definitions of Bending Moment and Axial Force Hook’s law in plane stress reads: σ αβ = In terms of components: σ xx = E (εxx + ν εyy ) 1 − ν2 E (εyy + ν εxx ) σ yy = 1 − ν2 E εxy σ xy = 1+ν (35) E [(1 − ν ) εαβ + ν εγγ δ αβ ] 1 − ν2 (34) Here. strain tensor can be obtained from the strain-displacement relations: εαβ = ε◦ αβ + z καβ Now.2.2 2.2 2.1 Bending Energy Bending Moment Let us assume that ε◦ αβ = 0. The bending moment Mαβ can be calculated: E Mαβ = 1 − ν2 Z h 2 −h 2 [(1 − ν ) εαβ + ν εγγ δ αβ ] z dz Z h 2 (39) £ ¤ E ◦ = (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ 2 1−ν + = z dz h 2 −h 2 Eh3 [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] 12 (1 − ν 2 ) 10 E [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] 1 − ν2 Z z 2 dz −h 2 .

the bending energy density U Z κ ¯ 11 ¯b = ˆ 11 (κ11 ) dκ11 U M 0 Z κ ¯ 11 κ11 dκ11 =D 0 (44) (45) 1 κ11 )2 = D (¯ 2 ¯b = 1 M11 κ ¯ 11 U 2 (46) M11 D κ11 dκ11 11 .Here. we define the bending rigidity of a plate D as follows: D= Eh3 12 (1 − ν 2 ) (40) Now. ¯ ¯ ¯ M11 M12 ¯ ¯ ¯ =¯ M21 M22 ¯ (41) (42) M11 = D (κ11 + ν κ22 ) M22 = D (κ22 + ν κ11 ) M12 = D (1 − ν ) κ12 2. we use the hat notation for a function of certain argument such as: ˆ 11 (κ11 ) M11 = M = D κ11 ¯b reads : Then.2 Bending Energy Density (43) One -Dimensional Case Here. one gets the moment-curvature relations: Mαβ = D [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] Mαβ where M12 = M21 due to symmetry.2.

Consider a straight loading path: ¯ αβ καβ = η κ ¯ αβ dη dκαβ = κ (48) Mαβ Mαβ η=1 η η=0 καβ καβ ˆ αβ (καβ ) Mαβ = M ˆ αβ (η κ =M ¯ αβ ) ˆ αβ (¯ καβ ) =η M (49) 12 .General Case General definition of the bending energy density reads: I ¯b = Mαβ dκαβ U κ11 κ (47) 0 κ22 Calculate the energy density stored when the curvature reaches a given value κ ¯ αβ .

ˆ αβ (καβ ) is a homogeneous function of degree one.2. where M I ˆ αβ (καβ ) dκαβ ¯ Ub = M Z 1 ˆ αβ (¯ = ηM καβ ) κ ¯ αβ dη 0 Z 1 ˆ = Mαβ (¯ καβ ) κ ¯ αβ η dη 0 (50) 1 ˆ καβ ) κ ¯ αβ = M αβ (¯ 2 1 = Mαβ κ ¯ αβ 2 Now.3 Total Bending Energy (53) The total bending energy is the integral of the bending energy density over the area of plate: Z ¯b dA Ub = (54) U S 13 . the bending energy density reads: ¯b = D [(1 − ν ) κ ¯ αβ + ν κ ¯ γγ δ αβ ] κ ¯αβ U 2 D = [(1 − ν ) κ ¯ αβ κ ¯ αβ + ν κ ¯ γγ κ ¯ αβ δ αβ ] 2 i D h = ¯ αβ + ν (¯ κγγ )2 (1 − ν ) κ ¯ αβ κ 2 (51) The bending energy density expressed in terms of components: ¯b = D U 2 D = 2 D = 2 D = 2 D = 2 i o n h κ12 )2 + (¯ κ22 )2 + ν (¯ ¯ 22 )2 κ11 + κ (52) (1 − ν ) (¯ κ11 )2 + 2 (¯ n h i o (1 − ν ) (¯ κ11 + κ κ11 + κ ¯ 22 )2 − 2 κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ κ12 )2 + ν (¯ ¯ 22 )2 nh i h io (¯ κ11 + κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 )2 − 2 κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ κ12 )2 − ν −2 κ ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ κ12 )2 io n h (¯ κ11 + κ ¯ 22 )2 − 2 κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ κ12 )2 − ν −2 κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ κ12 )2 n io h (¯ κ11 + κ ¯ 22 )2 + 2 (1 − ν ) −κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 + (¯ κ12 )2 io n h ¯b = D (¯ κ11 + κ ¯ 22 )2 − 2 (1 − ν ) κ ¯ 11 κ ¯ 22 − (¯ κ12 )2 U 2 2.

The axial force can be calculated: E Nαβ = 1 − ν2 E = 1 − ν2 h 2 −h 2 h 2 [(1 − ν ) εαβ + ν εγγ δ αβ ] dz £ ¤ ◦ (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ dz [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] z dz Z h 2 (55) −h 2 E + 1 − ν2 Z h 2 −h 2 Here. the extension energy (membrane energy) reads: I ¯m = Nαβ dε◦ (60) U αβ 14 .3 2.3.2 Membrane Energy Density Using the similar definition used in the calculation of the bending energy density.2.3. one gets the membrane force-extension relation: i h ◦ δ (1 − ν ) ε◦ + ν ε γγ αβ αβ Nαβ where N12 = N21 due to symmetry. we define the axial rigidity of a plate C as follows: C= Eh 1 − ν2 E + [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] 1 − ν2 ¤ Eh £ ◦ = (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ 2 1−ν ¤ E £ ◦ = (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ 2 1−ν dz h 2 −h 2 Z z dz −h 2 (56) Now.1 Membrane Energy Axial Force Z Z Assume that καβ = 0. ¯ ¯ ¯ N11 N12 ¯ ¯ ¯ =¯ N21 N22 ¯ (ε◦ 22 + ν ε◦ 11 ) ◦ − ν ) ε11 Nαβ = C (57) (58) ◦ N11 = C (ε◦ 11 + ν ε22 ) (59) N22 = C N12 = C (1 2.

¯m = U = Z Z ¯ ε◦ αβ 0 1 ¡ ¢ ˆαβ ε◦ Nαβ = N αβ ¡ ◦ ¢ ˆ = Nαβ η ¯ εαβ ¡ ◦ ¢ ˆαβ ¯ =η N εαβ (62) 1 ˆ ¡ ◦ ¢ ◦ εαβ ¯ εαβ = N αβ ¯ 2 1 = Nαβ ¯ ε◦ αβ 2 Now. the extension energy reads: 0 ¡ ◦ ¢ ◦ ˆαβ ¯ ηN εαβ ¯ εαβ dη ¡ ¢ ◦ ˆαβ ε◦ N αβ dεαβ (63) The extension energy expressed in terms of components: £ ¤ ◦ ¯m = C (1 − ν ) ¯ ε◦ ε◦ U εαβ γγ δ αβ ¯ αβ + ν ¯ 2 ¡ ◦ ¢2 i C h = (1 − ν ) ¯ ε◦ ε◦ εγγ αβ ¯ αβ + ν ¯ 2 (64) n h i o 2 2 2 2 ¯m = C (1 − ν ) (¯ ε◦ + ν (¯ ε◦ (65) U ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ 11 ) + 2 (¯ 12 ) + (¯ 22 ) 11 + ¯ 22 ) 2 i o n h C 2 2 2 + ν (¯ ε◦ = (1 − ν ) (¯ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ 11 + ¯ 22 ) − 2 ¯ 11¯ 22 + 2 (¯ 12 ) 11 + ¯ 22 ) 2 io h C n ◦ 2 2 2 (¯ ε11 + ¯ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ ε◦ = 22 ) − 2 ¯ 11 ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ 12 ) − ν −2 ¯ 11 ¯ 22 + 2 (¯ 12 ) 2 h io C n ◦ 2 ◦ ◦ ◦ 2 ε◦ ) + 2 (1 − ν ) − ¯ ε ¯ ε + (¯ ε ) = (¯ ε11 + ¯ 22 11 22 12 2 h io n ◦ )2 − 2 (1 − ν ) ¯ ◦ ¯ ◦ − (¯ ◦ )2 ¯m = C (¯ + ¯ ε ε ε ε U ε◦ 11 22 11 22 12 2 (66) 15 .Calculate the energy stored when the extension reaches a given value ¯ ε◦ αβ . Consider a straight loading path: ε◦ ε◦ αβ = η ¯ αβ dε◦ αβ =¯ ε◦ αβ dη (61) ³ ´ ˆαβ ε◦ where N αβ is a homogeneous function of degree one.

2.3 Total Membrane Energy The total membrane is the integral of the membrane energy density over the area of plate:: Z ¯m dS Um = (67) U S 16 .3.

Work of External Forces Plate Loading Lateral load: q (x) = q (xα ) (70) This is distributed load measured in [N/m2 ] or [lb/in2 ] force per unit area of the middle surface of the plate. Bending Energy 1 Ub = 2 =− Z Mαβ καβ dS Mαβ w.1 The total potential energy of the system Π reads: Π = Ub − Vb (68) where Ub is the bending energy stored in the plate.3 3. y0 ] is the coordinate of the application of the concentrated force. and P0 is the load intensity. y0 ) = P0 δ (x − x0 ) δ (y − y0 ) (71) where δ is the Dirac delta function.αβ dS (69) 1 2 S Z S where the geometrical relation καβ = −w.1 Development of Equation of Equilibrium and Boundary Conditions Using Variational Approach Bending Theory of Plates Total Potential Energy 3.αβ has been used. 17 .1. and Vb is the work of external forces. q ( x) The distributed load contains concentrated load P as a special case: P (x0 . [x0.

Dirac δ -function x0 x NOTE The shearing loads on the lateral surface of ice are normally not considered in the theory of thin plates. edge force edge moment Loads are assumed to be applied to the middle plane of the plate NOTE Other type of loading such as shear or in-plane tension or compression do not deflect laterally the plate and therefore are not considered in the bending theory. transverse load • Load applied at the lateral surfaces. Load Classification • Load applied at the horizontal surfaces. 18 .

Potential Energy due to Edge Moment The conjugate kinematic variable associated with the edge moment is the edge rotation dw/dxn . dl t edge moment n Γ We apply only the normal bending moment Mnn : Z ¯ nn dw dl − M dxn Γ (73) where the minus sign is included because positive bending moment results in a negative rotation and negative moment produces positive rotation. Mtt = 0 and Mtn = 0. dw <0 dxn 19 . Mnn < 0 0 Mnn > 0 a xn dw >0 dxn w At the edge.in-plane tension or compression in-plane shear Potential Energy due to Lateral Load q work on transverse deflection: Z q w dS S Lateral (transverse) load does (72) This is also called a work of external forces.

α nβ dl − Mαβ .αβ = (Mαβ δw.αβ dS ¶ µ ZS Z Z dw ¯ ¯n δw dl − q δw dS + Mnn δ dl − V dxn S Γ Γ (76) (77) We shall transform now the first integral with the help of the Gauss theorem.2 First Variation of the Total Potential Energy The total potential energy reads: Z 1 Mαβ w.1.α ) .β δw. First note that from the rule of the product differentiation: Mαβ δw.β dS − Z Mαβ .α dS (78) (79) S S S Now.α dS (80) S Γ S 20 .αβ dS = Z (Mαβ δw.β −Mαβ .Potential Energy due to Edge Forces Z ¯n w dl V Γ (74) Q1 Q2 x2 Vn x1 Potential Energy due to All External Forces Now. the work of external forces reads: Z Z Z dw ¯ ¯n w dl q w dS − Mnn dl + V (75) Vb = dxn S Γ Γ 3.α then Z Mαβ δw.αβ dS Π=− 2 S Z Z Z dw ¯ ¯n w dl − q w dS + Mnn dl − V dxn S Γ Γ First variation of the total potential energy δ Π is expressed: Z δ Π = − Mαβ δw.β δw.α ) .β δw.αβ dS = Mαβ δw. the first integral on the right hand side of the above equation transforms to the line integral: Z Z Z Mαβ δw.

Z Z (Mγδ . Hence. We choose the local system.α dS + Mαβ . 0}. The coordinates of the unit normal vector is the local system are nγ {1. and γ = 2 is the tangential direction t. In order to make comparison.αβ δw dS S S (82) upon which the application of the Gauss rule gives: Z Z Mαβ δw. the line integral becomes: Z (Mγδ .α nβ dl + M Γ Γ The term in the parenthesis is a scalar quantity and thus remain unchanged with respect to the rotation of coordinate system.αβ δw which results in: Z Z Mαβ δw.δ n1 + M2δ .α nβ dl S Γ Z Z − (Mαβ . Consider the first integral: Z (Mαβ .δ nγ ) δw dl (86) Γ where γ = 1 is the normal direction n.δ n2 ) δw dl (87) Γ Γ Z = M1δ .n dl − Mαβ δw.δ δw dl Γ 21 . It is seen that integrals involving the prescribed forces M n ¯n are written in a local coordinate system xγ {xn .αβ dS = Mαβ δw.αβ −q ) δw dS SZ Z ¯n δw dl + Mαβ .αβ δw dS Γ S (83) ´ dw ¯ nn where δw.α −Mαβ .n = δ dx .β δw nα dl − V Γ Γ Z Z ¯ nn δw. xt } while the remaining and V two integrals over the contour Γ are written in the global coordinate system xα . we have to decide on one coordinate system.αβ dS = Mαβ δw.α = (Mαβ .The integrand of the second integral on the right hand side of the above equation transform to: (81) Mαβ . In the local system xγ .β δw.β δw nα dl + Mαβ .β δw) .δ nγ ) δw dl = (M1δ .α nβ dl S ΓZ Z − Mαβ .β δw) .β nα ) δw dl (85) ³ Γ We can return now to the expression for δ Π and substitute there the transformed first integral: Z (84) δ Π = (−Mαβ .

γ dl = Mγ 1 δw. Since the boundary term must be equilibrated. at least partially: Z Mtn δw.e. we can combine two line integrals in the equation of first variation of the total potential energy: Z ¡ ¢ ¯n δw dl Qn − V (90) Γ How the remaining integral is transformed? Z Z (Mαβ nβ ) δw.n +Mtn δw. 0} or {n.α dl = (Mγδ nδ ) δw. we have: Z Z (Mγ 1 n1 + Mγ 2 n2 ) δw.t −Mtn .1 +M12 . we have to make this term comparable as far as the kinematic quantity describing variation is concerned.γ dl ZΓ = (Mnn δw.t = (Mtn δw) .n dl Mnn − M (93) − Γ There remains though one integral which does not fit to anything. i. the integrand reads: M1δ . 0} so after summing with respect to δ . This means that we can integrate by parts along Γ.t δw 22 (95) . As before nδ {1. t} (89) (88) Now.t ) dl Γ The first term can be absorbed with the line integral representing potential energy of bending moment: Z ¡ ¢ ¯ nn δw. Thus. One integral involves δw and the other one δw.Furthermore.2 ∂Mnn ∂Mnt ∂M11 ∂M12 + = + = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂xn ∂xt and we call it the shear force in the normal direction n and denote: Qn ≡ Mnδ . Mtn δw.t dl transverse term (94) Γ In order to compare this term with the shearing force term. Note that ∂w. direction along the curve Γ.t . we simply switch indices from global system (α and β ) to local (γ and δ ).δ δ = {1.γ dl (92) Γ ZΓ = Mγn δw. it is suspected that this term might belong to the shearing force term.t = ∂ (δw) /∂xt is the derivative of the function δw in the tangential direction.γ dl Γ Γ (91) Because it is a scalar quantity.δ = M11 .

t δw dl (96) Γ Consider now two cases. k . Therefore. the integration should be made in a piece-wise manner. (98) direction of integration Γ end begining • The contour Γ is piece-wise linear or composed of a finite number.t dl = Γ Z Γ (Mtn δw) .t dl = Mtn δw|end (97) beginning Γ Z Mtn δw. Thus. so the value at the beginning is equal to the value at the end: Mtn δw|end − Mtn δw|beginning = 0 The term does not give any contribution.The first term in the right hand is equal to the value of the integrand calculated at the beginning and end of the integration path: Z (Mtn δw) . the continuation of the beginning and end of each should be added: X Mtn δw|end (99) beginning k 23 . • The contour Γ is a smooth closed curve.t dl − Z Mtn . of smooth curves with discontinuity.

24 .n dl + Vn − Vn δw dl − Mnn − M Γ Γ X end − Mtn δw|beginning S k where Vn = Qn + Mtn .3 Equilibrium Equation and Boundary Conditions Now.n = 0 δw = 0 δw = 0 on Γ on Γ at corner points of the contour Γ (102) 3.1.n dl + Qn − Vn δw dl − Mnn − M Γ Γ ! Ã Z X end Mtn δw|beginning − Mtn .1.t is the effective shear force. In order to make the functional Π stationary under arbitrary variation of the displacement field δw.αβ +q = 0 on S (101) Boundary Conditions ¯ nn = 0 Mnn − M ¯n = 0 Vn − V Mnt = 0 or or or δw. there must hold: Equation of Equilibrium Mαβ .3.t δw dl − = Z k Γ (100) (−Mαβ . we can write the final expression for the first variation of δ Π: Z δ Π = (−Mαβ .αβ −q ) δw dS S Z Z ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¯ ¯ nn δw.4 Specification of Equation for Rectangular Plate Consider a rectangular plate.αβ −q ) δw dS Z Z ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¯ ¯ nn δw.

a x→t b y→n Boundary Conditions For edges parallel to x-axis. the normal direction is the x-direction. ¯ xx = 0 Mxx − M ¯x = 0 Vx − V where ∂Mxy ∂x ∂Myx Vx = Qx + ∂y Vy = Qy + Interpretation of Corner Points (106) or or ∂w =0 ∂x w=0 (105) 25 . the normal direction is the ydirection. ¯ yy = 0 Myy − M ¯y = 0 Vy − V where Vx = Qx + ∂Myx ∂y ∂Mxy Vy = Qy + ∂x (104) or or ∂w =0 ∂y w=0 (103) For edges parallel to y -axis.

t = x = (Mxy − Myx ) δw (110) Interpretation of Corner Forces Plane stress: τ xy = τ yx symmetry (112) for the k side ´ at the right angle (111) 26 . x y [ k − 1] [k] for the k − 1 side ³ Mtn δw|end beginning n = x. t = y n = y.segment [ k − 1] 1 segment [ k ] 2 3 4 Boundary condition reads: X direction of integration [2] − Mtn δw[1] + Mtn δw[4] − Mtn δw[3] Mtn δw|end beginning = Mtn δw [2] [1] [4] [3] (107) where δw[3] = δw[2] thus X ³ ´ [1] [2] [3] [4] [1] Mtn δw|end = − M δw + M − M δw[2] + Mtn δw[4] tn tn tn beginning (108) (109) Consider the right angle.

x y z τ xy τ yx Edge [k] M yx Edge [ k − 1] M xy The shearing stresses produce twisting moments which are in the opposite direction: [k−1] [k ] = −Myx Mxy (113) Therefore. the boundary condition at the corner becomes: ´ ³ [k−1] [k ] Mtn δw|end δw = 2 Mxy δw = 0 = M − M xy yx beginning Fcorner = 2 Mxy (114) (115) 27 .surface element σy σx dS τ xy τ yx Let us place the surface element at the corner.

For the Entire Plate 2 M xy 2 Mxy 2 Mxy 2 M xy Interpretation of the Effective Shear Vx x y dy z Qx dy M xy M xy + ∂M xy ∂y dy Equilibrium reads: ¶ µ ∂Mxy dy − Mxy Qx dy + Mxy + ∂y ¶ µ ∂Mxy dy = Qx + ∂y = Vx dy Vx = Qx + ∂Mxy ∂y (116) (117) 28 .

β +uβ . the first variation of the membrane energy reads: Z Nαβ δλαβ dS (125) δUm = S 29 .2. Um is the membrane strain energy.α w.2 3.1 Bending-Membrane Theory of Plates Total Potential Energy The total potential energy of the system Π reads: Π = Ub + Um − Vb − Vm (118) where Ub is the bending strain energy.α ) + w. Ntt Z ¯tn ut dl N (120) ¯nn un dl N (121) Γ where un is normal in-plane displacement. Nnn Z Shear in-plane loading. and Vm is the potential energy of external loading causing membrane response. Membrane Strain Energy The membrane strain energy reads: Z 1 Nαβ ε◦ Um = αβ dS 2 S ε◦ αβ = (119) where 1 1 (uα .2 First Variation of the Total Potential Energy The first variation of the total potential energy reads: δ Π = (δUb − δVb ) + (δUm − δVm ) (124) The first parenthesis represent the terms considered already in the bending theory of plates.β 2 2 Potential Energy of External Forces Evaluation of Boundary Terms Normal in-plane loading. Potential Energy of External Forces Z Z ¯ ¯tn ut dl Vm = Nnn un dl + N Γ Γ (123) 3.2. (122) Γ where ut is shear component of the displacement vector. Here.3. Vb is the potential energy of external loading causing flexural response. All we have to do is to evaluate the term in the second parenthesis.

β δuα dS S ZΓ Z = (Nnn δun + Ntn δut ) dl − Nαβ .α ) dS S Note that the displacement vector has now three components: {uα . The first term of δUm reads: Z Z Z Nαβ δuα .α w.β dS = (Nαβ δuα ) .β +δw.α w.α ) + (δw. δw} (131) (130) We expect those to end up with three independent equations of equilibrium.α = Nβα δuβ .α ) + (δw.1 1 (δuα .α ) 2 2 Because of the symmetry of the tensor of membrane forces: δλαβ = Nαβ = Nβα by using the characteristics of dummy indices we obtain: Nαβ δuβ .β δuα dS Γ S 30 .β δuα dS (132) S S S Z Z = Nαβ δuα nβ dl − Nαβ .β w.β δuα dS Z S ZΓ = Nγ 1 δuγ dl − Nαβ .β δw.β dS − Nαβ .β where (126) (127) (128) Now.β +δuβ . w} so that there are three independent variations: {δuα . the first variation of the membrane strain energy reads: ¸À ∙ Z ¿ 1 1 (δuα .β δuα dS ZS ZΓ = Nγn δuγ dl − Nαβ .β +δw.β δuα dS ZS ZΓ = Nγδ δuγ nδ dl − Nαβ .α = Nαβ δuα .α ) dS (129) δUm = Nαβ 2 2 ZS = (Nαβ δuα .β w.β +δuβ .β +Nαβ w.

β ) .β ) .β ) .1 +N12 w.β ) . i.e.α dS − (Nαβ w.t ) δw dl S Γ The first three integrals involve independent variations of uα .α δw dS + (Nnn w.α dS = (Nαβ w.β δw nα dl − (Nαβ w.α δw dS Z S ZΓ = N1δ w.α δw dS S Z ZΓ ¯nn δun dl − N ¯tn δut dl − N Γ Γ Z Z Z ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¯ ¯tn δut dl Nnn − Nnn δun dl + Ntn − N = − Nαβ .2.α δw dS Γ S Now.n +Nnt w.β δw) . the variation of external work reads: Z Z ¯ ¯tn δut dl Nnn δun dl + N δVm = Γ Γ (134) 3.β δuα dS Γ S Z Z + (Nnn w.α δw dS ZS ZΓ = Nγδ w.β ) .β δw.α δw dS (133) S Z S ZS = Nαβ w.2 ) δw dl − (Nαβ w.β ) .α δw dS S ZΓ Z = (N11 w.β ) .n +Nnt w.The second term of δUm reads: Z Z Z Nαβ w.β ) .β = 0 on S (136) 31 .β δuα dS + Γ Γ Z ZS − (Nαβ w.t ) δw dl − (Nαβ w. This gives us two independent equations of equilibrium in the plane of the plate: Equation of Equilibrium I Nαβ .δ δw dl − (Nαβ w.t ) δw dl − (Nαβ w. δuα or {δun .n +Nnt w.3 Equilibrium Equation and Boundary Conditions The contribution of the term (δUm − δVm ) then becomes: Z Z (135) δ (Um − Vm ) = (Nnn δun + Ntn δut ) dl − Nαβ .δ δw nγ dl − (Nαβ w. δut }.α δw dS ZS ZΓ = (Nnn w.

The terms involving surface integral should be added to the equation of equilibrium: Equation of Equilibrium II Mαβ . Nαβ . the additional terms represent the contribution of the axial force to the vertical equilibrium.αβ +Nαβ .β ) .β = 0. then the boundary condition is satisfied: ¯n = 0 Vn + Nnn w.α +q = 0 on S (138) The generalized boundary conditions reads: where the second term in the left hand is the new term arising from the finite rotation.αβ +q = 0 on S (142) 32 .β +Nαβ w.t −V or δw = 0 on Γ (140) where the second and third terms in the left hand side of the first equation are the new terms arising from the finite rotation.n +Nnt w. If the boundaries of the plate are kept undeformed w.n −V or δw = 0 on Γ (141) Physically.(A) ¯n = 0 Vn + Nnn w.t −V (139) Γ Boundary Conditions II. The term with the line integral should be added to the corresponding term involving variation δw: Z ¡ ¢ ¯n δw dl = 0 Vn + Nnn w.αβ + (Nαβ w. Using the in-plane equilibrium.and two additional boundary conditions: Boundary Conditions I ¯nn = 0 Nnn − N ¯tn = 0 Ntn − N or or δun = 0 δut = 0 on Γ on Γ (137) The remaining two integrals involve variation in the out-of-plane displacement δw and thus should be combined with the equation of equilibrium and boundary conditions governing the flexural response.n +Nnt w. the out-of-plane equilibrium can be transformed to the form: Mαβ .t = 0 (simply supported or clamped plate).α w.

αβ +Nαβ w. Note that Nαβ is related through the Hook’s law with the gradient of the in-plane displacement uα . Nαβ = Nαβ (uα ). To make derivation complete. the final boundary conditions which do not changed from the bending theory of plate are presented: Boundary Conditions II.(B) ¯ nn = 0 Mnn − M Mnt = 0 or or δw.Equation of Equilibrium II’ Mαβ .e.n = 0 δw = 0 on Γ at corner points of the contour Γ (144) 33 . the new term Nαβ w.αβ represents in fact coupling between in-plane and out-out-plane deformation. Therefore.αβ +q = 0 on S (143) which is called as the von Karman equation. i.

γγ δ αβ ] Substituting Eq. (145) reads: −D [(1 − ν ) w. (149) now reads: (152) −D [(1 − ν ) w.αβ +ν w." (153) −D [(1 − ν ) w.1 General Theories of Plate Bending Theory of Plates Derivation of the Plate Bending Equation 4. we obtain: Mαβ = −D [(1 − ν ) w. (146) and (147).αβαβ +ν w.αβ +ν w.γγ δ αβ ] . Therefore.ββαα 34 .αβ +q = 0 (149) (148) −D [(1 − ν ) w.ααββ = w. Eq.αβαβ +ν w.αβ Mαβ = D [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] (146) (147) Eliminating curvature καβ between Eq. for example "ββ .1.αβαβ = w. note that only these components: ¤αβ δ αβ = ¤αα (151) survive in the matrix multiplication for which α = β .ββαα ] + q = 0 The order of differentiation does not matter: w.γγαα ] + q = 0 Because "γγ " are "dummy" indices.1 Then.4 4. (148) into Eq. they can be replaced by any other indices. groups of equations! • Equilibrium • Geometry • Elasticity Mαβ .αβ +q = 0 on S (145) καβ = −w.γγαβ δ αβ ] + q = 0 Note that the components of the Kronecker "δ αβ " tensor are constant and thus are not subjected to differentiation: ¯ ¯ ½ ¯1 0¯ 1 if α = β ¯ ¯ (150) δ αβ = ¯ ¯ or δ αβ = 01 0 if α 6= β Also.αβαβ +ν w.

2 (154) (156) and bi-Laplican ∇4 w reads: ¡ ¢ ∇4 w = ∇2 ∇2 w ¢ ¢ ∂2 ¡ ∂2 ¡ = 2 ∇2 w + 2 ∇2 w ∂x ∂y µ 2 ¶ µ ¶ 2 ∂ w ∂2w ∂ 2 ∂ 2w ∂ 2w ∂ + = 2 + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y2 ∂y 2 ∂x2 ∂y 2 4 4 4 ∂ w ∂ w ∂ w = +2 2 2 + 4 ∂x ∂x ∂x ∂y 4 4.αα ] .1122 +w. two terms in Eq. y ) D ∂x4 ∂x ∂x ∂y4 Alternative notation can be: D ∇4 w = q where Laplacian ∇2 w reads: ∇2 w = ∂2w ∂2w + ∂x2 ∂y 2 (158) (157) (155) for α.ααββ = w.1122 +w.αα = −M 35 (162) .ααββ = q Here.ββ = −q D w.ββ = q Reduction to a System of Two Second Order Equations (159) (160) (161) we obtain a system of two linear partial differential equations of the second order: M.2222 = w.22ββ = w.αα = −M Then.2211 +w.Thus. (153) can now be added to give the plate bending equation: D w.2 Denote D w.1111 +w. β = 1. the index notation can be expended: w.2222 Now. letting "1 → x".11ββ +w. from the equilibrium equation: [D w.1111 +2 w. "2 → y " leads: ¶ µ 4 ∂ w ∂4w ∂4w +2 2 2 + = q (x.1.

moment sum reads: M = D καα and in expanded notation it reads: M = D [κxx + κyy ] 4.3 Exercise 1: Plate Solution +D [(1 − ν ) κ22 + ν (κ11 + κ22 ) δ 22 ] (165) Therefore. Square plate ( a× a) a x a y 36 . (166) (167) (168) Consider a simply supported plate.1.or ( D What is "M " ? Let us calculate Mαα : Mαα = M11 + M22 ∂2M ∂2M 2 + ∂y 2 = −q ∂x ´ ³ 2 ∂ w ∂2w = −M + 2 2 ∂x ∂y (163) (164) = D [(1 − ν ) κ11 + ν (κ11 + κ22 ) δ 11 ] = D [(1 + ν ) (κ11 + κ22 )] = D (1 + ν ) καα or Mαα = D καα = −D w.αα = M 1+ν Mαα = M (1 + ν ) = D καα (1 + ν ) Now.

one gets: ½ ∙³ ´ ¾ ³π y´ ³π x´ ³ π ´4 ³ π ´4 ¸ π 4 D w0 sin = 0 (175) − q0 sin +2 + a a a a a ½ ¾ ³π y´ ³ π ´4 ³π x´ sin =0 − q0 sin 4 D w0 a a a Solution of Problem The solution of the form ³π y ´ ³π x´ w (x. y ) = q0 sin a a satisfy both the boundary conditions and the governing equations (see below). the coefficient in the bracket must vanish.Boundary Condition General boundary condition reads: ¡ ¢ ¯ nn w.n = 0 on Γ M − M nn ¡ ¢ ¯n w = 0 Vn − V on Γ ¯ nn = 0 M at at at at ⇒ Mnn = 0 on Γ w=0 on Γ w=0 w=0 Mxx = 0 Myy = 0 x = 0 and x = a . 0 ≤ x ≤ a (169) (170) (171) (172) where q0 is a pressure intensity. 0 ≤ y ≤ a y = 0 and y = a . (173) and (174) into the plate bending equation (156). Bending Moments The various bending moments are given by: ∙ 2 ¸ ³π y ´ ³π x´ ³ π ´2 ∂ w ∂2w Mxx = −D sin (177) + ν w sin = D (1 + ν ) 0 ∂x2 ∂y 2 a a a ∙ 2 ¸ ³π x´ ³π y ´ ³ π ´2 ∂ w ∂2w Myy = −D + ν w sin sin = D (1 + ν ) 0 ∂y2 ∂x2 a a a ³ ´ ´ ³ ³ 2 π 2 π y´ ∂ w πx = −D (1 − ν ) cos w0 cos Mxy = −D (1 − ν ) ∂x∂y a a a 37 . This gives: q0 ³ a ´4 (176) w0 = 4D π ¢ £ ¡ ¢¤ ¡ where D = Eh3 / 12 1 − ν 2 . 0 ≤ x ≤ a x = 0 and x = a . Plate Bending Equation Substituting Eq. y ) = w0 sin sin a a (174) In order to satisfy the above equation for all values of x and y . 0 ≤ y ≤ a y = 0 and y = a . Loading Condition Assume for simplicity the sinusoidal load distribution: ³π y ´ ³π x´ sin (173) q (x.

Shear Components The shear components Qx and Qy are: Qx = ∂Mxx ∂Mxy + ∂x ∂y ∂Myy ∂Mxy + Qy = ∂y ∂x (178) Now. we get the shear components in the interior of the plate: ³π y´ ³ π ´3 ³π x´ sin (179) w0 cos Qx = 2 D a a a ³π y´ ³ π ´3 ³π x´ Qx = 2 D cos w0 sin a a a Effective Shear Components Next. let us computer the effective shear components: Vx = Qx + ∂Mxy ∂y ∂Mxy Vy = Qy + ∂x (180) Using the previous results. we get: ³π y ´ ³ π ´3 ³π x´ sin w0 cos Vx = (3 − ν ) D a a a ³π y ´ ³ π ´3 ³π x´ cos Vy = (3 − ν ) D w0 sin a a a (181) Because our sign convention is: We now need to evaluate the effective shear on the boundaries: h h ¡ ¢3 i ¡ π ¢3 i Vx / (3 − ν ) D π V / (3 − ν ) D y a a ¡π y¢ x=0 w0 sin ¡ 0 a ¢ −w0 sin πay 0¡ ¢ x=a π x 0 w0 sin ¡ y=0 a ¢ 0 −w0 sin πax y=a (182) positive shear x z 38 . using the previously obtained bending moments.

we get: Z a Z a Z ³ π ´3 ³π y ´ dy (183) Vn dxt = 4 Vx |x=0 dy = 4 (3 − ν ) D w0 sin R= a a L 0 0 Then. we can plot the shear distribution: x y Force Balance Integrating the effective shear along the boundary. the reduction force due to effective shear on boundaries reads: ¡ a ¢2 π R = 2 (3 − ν ) q0 (184) Now.in our case. y ) dS = q0 sin P = sin dx dy a a S 0 0 Then. These are given by: (187) (Fcorner )x0 .y0 = 2 (Mxy )|x=x0 . shear along the boundary is: x y From the above results. let us complete the total load acting on the plate: Z aZ a Z ³π x´ ³π y ´ q (x.y=y0 39 . the total external load acting on the plate reads: ¡ a ¢2 π (185) P = 4 q0 (186) Notice that R and P do not balance! We did not include the corner forces.

(Fcorner )0.Because of the symmetry. So.0 ³ π ´2 w0 = − 2 D (1 − ν ) a h cos (188) Now. all four forces are equal. y ) = (q0 )plate sin a a we found that the plate deflection is: ³π y ´ ³π x´ sin (192) wplate (x.0 : (Fcorner )0.0 = 2 ³ π y ´i¯ ³π x´ ¯ cos ¯ a a 0.4 Exercise 2: Comparison between Plate and Beam Solution ³ a ´2 ³ π ´2 − 8 D (1 − ν ) w0 = 4 q0 π a π ³ a ´2 ³ π ´2 ³ a ´2 2 (3 − ν ) q0 − 2 (1 − ν ) q0 = 4 q0 π a π ³ a ´2 (190) with: Plate Solution For a square simply supported plate under loading qplate (x. the total load is given by: Z aZ a ³π y´ ³π x´ sin dy dx Pplate = (q0 )plate sin a a 0 0 ³ a ´2 = 4 (q0 )plate π (194) 40 . compute the corner force at x = y = 0. y ) = (w0 )plate sin a a (q0 )plate ³ a ´4 4 π ¡ D 2¢ 3 1 − ν (q0 )plate ³ a ´4 = E h3 π (w0 )plate = (193) For the plate. y ) given by: ³π y ´ ³π x´ sin (191) qplate (x.1. the vertical force balance is satisfied: R + 4 Fcorner = P (189) 2 (3 − ν ) q0 4.

Wide Beam Solution For a wide beam under line loading given by: ³π x´ qbeam (x, y ) = (q0 )beam sin a we need to compute the central deflection (w0 )beam from:
0000 E I wbeam = qbeam (x)

(195)

(196)

where I =

ah3 /12.

we get: EI Thus,

³ π ´4 a

Assuming the deflection wbeam (x): ³π x´ wbeam (x) = (w0 )beam sin a (w0 )beam sin

(197)

³π x´ ³π x´ = (q0 )beam sin a a

(198)

(q0 )beam ³ a ´4 EI π 12 (q0 )beam ³ a ´4 = E a h3 π Now, let us compute the total forces: Z a ³π x´ Pbeam = (q0 )beam sin dx a 0 a = 2 (q0 )beam π Comparison For both total forces to be equal, we need to have: (w0 )beam = Pplate = Pbeam ³ a ´2 a = 2 (q0 )beam 4 (q0 )plate π π a (q0 )beam = 2 (q0 )plate π With a concentrated load, the beam deflection now becomes: (q0 )beam ³ a ´4 (w0 )beam = EI π 24 (q0 )plate ³ a ´4 = π E h3 π We now can compute the ratio of central deflections: 3 (1−ν 2 ) (q0 )plate ¡ a ¢4 (w0 )plate π E h3 = α= ¡ ¢ (w ) 24 (q0 )plate a 4
0 beam π E h3 π

(199)

(200)

(201)

(202)

(203)

(204)

¢ π¡ = 1 − ν 2 ' 0.36 8 The above equation means that under the same total load, a plate is three times stiffer than a wide beam. The ratio α will vary slightly depending on the load distribution (sinusoidal, uniform, concentrated load, etc.). 41

4.1.5

Exercise 3: Finite Difference Solution of the Plate Bending Problem ∇2 M = −q ∇2 w = − M D

Governing Equations read: (205)

or in the component notation they read:
∂2M ∂2M ∂x2 + ∂y 2 = −q ∂2w ∂2w M ∂x2 + ∂y2 = − D

(206)

where M is the moment sum defined by: M= Mαα = D καα 1+ν (207)

Case of Simply Supported Plate The boundary condition of a simple supported plate reads: w=0 Mnn = 0 on Γ on Γ (208)

a

x

a y

n

For sides parallel to x-axis (thick lines), one gets: Mnn = Myy = 0 dw =0 → dx From the general constitutive equations, w=0 → Myy = D [κyy + ν κxx ] 0 = D [κyy + ν · 0] Therefore, M = D [καα + κββ ] = D [0 + 0] = 0 42 (212) → κyy = 0 d2 w =0 dx2 → κxx = 0 (209) (210)

(211)

Similar derivation can be performed for two edges parallel to y-axis. Then, M = 0. It can be concluded that for a simply supported plate the following boundary conditions hold: ( 2 2M ∂ M +∂ = −q in S ∂x2 ∂y 2 (213) M =0 on Γ ( 2 2w ∂ w +∂ = −M in S D ∂x2 ∂y2 (214) w=0 on Γ Therefore, the above two boundary value problems are uncoupled. The Finite Difference Technique An approximation to the first and second derivatives.

z

zn+1 zn

h
x n x n +1

x

m−1 h n−1 n, m m+1 y n+1

x

¯backward dz ¯ zn − zn−1 ¯ ' ¯ dx n h ¯f orward dz ¯ zn+1 − zn ¯ ' dx ¯ h
n+1

(215)

43

∇2 z = 44 .∇2 z = ∂2z ∂2z + 2 2 ∂x ∂y 1 = 2 (zn+1 − 2 zn + zn−1 + zm+1 − 2 zm + zm−1 ) h ¯ ∙ ¸ d2 z ¯ ¯ = d dz dx2 ¯n dx dx ¡ dz ¢ ¡ dz ¢ dx n+1 − dx n = h zn+1 −zn zn−1 − zn −h h = h zn+1 − 2 zn + zn−1 = h2 ¯ d2 z ¯ ¯ = zm+1 − 2 zm + zm−1 2 dy ¯m h2 (216) (217) (218) Top h h Left h 0 h Right Bottom 1 (zT + zB + zL + zR − 4 z0 ) (219) h2 Divide the plate into sixteen identical squares and distinguish six representative nodes: three in the interior and three at the boundary. Because of symmetry. it is enough to consider only an eighth of the plate.

For each boundary point (4. we write boundary condition M = 0 (uniform pressure). 3). 5.6 5 4 3 a 2 1 h= a 4 a Four axes of symmetry Determination of Moment For each interior point (1. 6). Point 1: Point 2: Point 3: Point 4: Point 5: Point 6: 4 M2 − 4 M1 = − q a2 16 q a2 16 (220) M1 + M4 + 2 M3 − 4 M2 = − 2 M5 + 2 M2 − 4 M3 = − M4 = 0 M5 = 0 M6 = 0 q a2 16 45 . we write equation ∇2 M = −q . 2.

Determination of Deflection For each interior point (1. 2. (220) into the first three equations of Eq. µ ¶ 2 9 qa2 a M1 a2 =− (226) Point 1: 4 w2 − 4 w1 = − D 16 128 D 16 µ ¶ 2 7 q a2 a M2 a2 =− Point 2: w1 + w4 + 2 w3 − 4 w2 = − D 16 128 D 16 µ ¶ 2 2 2 11 q a a M3 a =− Point 3: 2 w5 + 2 w2 − 4 w3 = − D 16 256 D 16 Point 4: w4 = 0 Point 5: Point 6: w5 = 0 w6 = 0 46 . (220).6% less than the exact solution which is (Mxx )exact = 0. 5. For each boundary point (4.0479 q a2 from the text book.0457 q a2 (225) This is 4. we write equation ∇2 w = −M/D. one ends up with the following system of linear algebraic equations: ⎧ q a2 ⎪ ⎨ 4 M2 − 4 M1 = − 16 a2 (221) M1 + 2 M3 − 4 M2 = − q16 ⎪ ⎩ q a2 2 M2 − 4 M3 = − 16 M1 = 9 q a2 128 7 q a2 M2 = 128 11 q a2 M3 = 256 (222) At the plate center. we write boundary condition w = 0. thus. 3). Mxx = Myy so that: M= Mxx + Myy 2 Mxx = 1+ν 1+ν 1 (1 + ν ) M 2 (223) (224) Mxx = At the center.whose solution is: Substituting three last equations of Eq. Mxx = 1 (1 + ν ) M1 2 9 1 q a2 = (1 + ν ) 2 128 = 0. M = M1 . 6).

4. • Equilibrium of in-plane equation Nαβ . the finite difference solution is: w1 = ⎧ 9 qa4 ⎪ ⎨ 4 w2 − 4 w1 = − 2048 D 7 w1 + 2 w3 − 4 w2 = − 2048 ⎪ 4 ⎩ q a 11 2 w2 − 4 w3 = − 4096 D q a4 D (227) q a4 33 q a4 = 0.2.Similarly. the exact deflection of the center point is: (w1 )exact = 0.α = 0 Equilibrium of out-of-plane equation Nαβ w. membrane.α w. 47 £ ¤ ◦ Nαβ = C (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ ¢ ¡ where C = Eh/ 1 − ν 2 . Finally.00214 w3 = 16384 D D On the other hand.2 4. corresponding system of equation for the plate bending was linear.1%.αβ +q = 0 • Strain-displacement relation ε◦ αβ = • Constitutive equation on S (230) on S (231) 1 1 (uα .00416 q a4 D (228) (229) Thus.β ) + w. the error of the finite different solution is 3.00403 8196 D D q a4 3 q a4 w2 = = 0.β +uα .β 2 2 (232) This is a non-linear system of equation which is difficult to solve.00293 1024 D D q a4 35 q a4 = 0. D = 0.1 Membrane Theory of Plates Plate Membrane Equation The plate becomes now a Assume that the bending rigidity is zero. (233) Note that .

• Equilibrium of in-plane equation r ∂Nrr + Nrr − Nθθ = 0 ∂r on S (234) Equilibrium of out-of-plane equation ¸ ∙ ∂w ∂ r +r q =0 Nrr ∂r ∂r • Strain-displacement relation ∂ur 1 λrr = + ∂r 2 ur λθθ = r • Constitutive equation Nrr = C [λrr + ν λθθ ] Nθθ = C [λθθ + ν λrr ] ¢ ¡ where C = Eh/ 1 − ν 2 . µ ¶2 on S (235) ∂w ∂r (236) (237) 4. uθ .2. uz = w.2 Plate Equation for the Circular Membrane Cylindrical coordinate system is composed of ur .4.2. q a w0 w(r ) r 48 .3 Example: Approximation Solution for the Clamped Membrane Consider a circular plate with the clamped support.

the in-plane equilibrium equation can not be satisfied. the radial force and the radial strain component become: Nrr = C εrr εrr 1 = 2 µ ∂w ∂r ¶2 (240) (241) for 0 ≤ r ≤ a (239) (238) With the assumption ur = 0. Substituting Eq. (243) can be written: r qr ∂w =−3 ∂r C Integrating the above equation again reads: r 3 3 q 4/3 r + c2 w=− 4 C 49 (245) (244) (246) . as a first approximation. Thus. the hoop strain vanishes: εθθ = 0 Now. the slope should be zero. one gets: ∂w =0 at r = 0 ∂r ⇒ c1 = 0 Then.Membrane Solution From the symmetry and clamped boundary condition. Eq. (235). Consider out-of-plane equilibrium equation only. one gets: # " µ ¶ ∂ C ∂w 2 ∂w r = − r q on S (242) ∂r 2 ∂r ∂r Integrating both sides once with respect to r reads: C r 2 µ ∂w ∂r ¶3 =− r2 q + c1 2 (243) At the center of the membrane. (240) and (241) into Eq. it is appropriate to assume: ur ≡ 0 Then. the radial displacement ur reads: ur (r = 0) = 0 ur (r = a) = 0 Thus.

73 Eh a In particular. Eq.73 3 (249) a Eh Bending Solution It is interesting to compare the bending and membrane response of the clamped circular plate.17 E h w0 qa = 17 a Eh (250) Assume that a/h = 10.The integration constant c2 can be determined from the zero deflection condition at the clamped edge: w=0 at r = a r 3 3 q 4/3 a ⇒ c2 = 4 C (247) ¡ ¢ Recalling the definition of the axial rigidity C = Eh/ 1 − ν 2 . the central deflection w (r = 0) = w0 is related to the load intensity by: r w0 qa = 0. then Eq. 50 . the central deflection of the plate is linearly related to the loading intensity: q a3 w0 = a 64¡D ¢ 3 1 − ν 2 q ³ a ´3 = 16 E h q ³ a ´3 ' 0. From the page 55 of Theory of Plates and Shells (2nd Ed. (250) yields: (251) Comparison A comparison of the bending and membrane solution is shown in the next figure. (246) can be put into a final form: r ∙ ³ r ´4/3 ¸ w 3 3 (1 − ν 2 ) q a = 1− (248) a 4 Eh a r ∙ ³ r ´4/3 ¸ qa 3 1− ' 0.) by Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger.

then the assumption ur = 0 is no longer valid.15 which corresponds to w0 = 1. 4.α = 0 Equilibrium of out-of-plane equation Mαβ .αβ +Nαβ w. and another one for moment and curvature Mαβ = D [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] £ ¡ ¢¤ where D = Eh3 / 12 1 − ν 2 .αβ ε◦ αβ = • Constitutive equation for axial force and axial strain ¤ £ ◦ Nαβ = C (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ ¡ ¢ where C = Eh/ 1 − ν 2 .α w.5 h.β ) + w. When the plate deflection reach approximately plate thickness.1 Buckling Theory of Plates General Equation of Plate Buckling • Equilibrium of in-plane equation Nαβ . and a separate solution must be developed.αβ +q = 0 • Strain-displacement relation 1 1 (uα . the membrane action takes over the bending action in a clamped plate. If the plate is not restrained from axial motion.3. 51 (254) on S (253) on S (252) (255) (256) .β +uα .β 2 2 καβ = − w.3 4.It is seen that a transition from the bending to membrane response occurs at w0 /a = 0.

ααββ Substituting Eq.α = 0 4.ααββ +Nαβ w.αβ +q = 0 The buckling problem is specified by: q≡0 (259) on S (258) (257) Now. one gets: Mαβ .αβ = −D w. changing signs leads the general out-of-plane equation for the buckling of the plates: D w.3. 52 .ααββ −Nαβ w. (257) into Eq.αβ = 0 (260) where the second term in the left hand is non-linear due to Nαβ which should be obtained from: Nαβ . (253) leads: −D w.By combining Eq.2 Linearized Buckling Equation of Rectangular Plates (261) The nonlinear buckling equation can be separated into two linear equations: one for in-plane equation for Nαβ and another one for w. (254) and (256).

β = 0 For the pre-buckling trajectory.ααββ = 0 Nαβ . the linear equilibrium equations are obtained by omitting the nonlinear terms in the governing equations Eq. The resulting equations are now: D w. one gets the equilibrium equation: Nαβ .a Px b ux y Px Px x Pc k 2 Post-buckling (δ w ≠ 0) Pre-buckling (δ w = 0) k ux Pre-Buckling Problem Recall that: µ ¶ 1 ∂uα ∂uβ 1 ∂w ∂w ◦ + + εαβ = 2 ∂xβ ∂xα 2 ∂xα ∂xβ Nαβ = (262) ¤ Eh £ ◦ ◦ + ν ε δ (1 − ν ) ε (263) αβ γγ αβ 1 − ν2 In the pre-buckling problem.β = 0 (264) 53 . (260) and (261). δw = 0.

The plate is subjected to an in-plane compressive load Px uniformly distributed along the edges x = [0. it is assumed that the unknown membrane force tensor Nαβ is equal to ◦ : the similar quantity known from the pre-buckling solution Nαβ ◦ Nαβ = −Nαβ where the compressive pre-buckling membrane force are defined as positive. and η is unknown where N load amplitude. 54 . Post-Buckling Problem Now. and w is eigenfunctions. a]. D ∇4 w + Nαβ αβ = q + Boundary Conditions (268) ◦ is defined as: where membrane force tensor in the pre-buckling solution Nαβ ◦ Nαβ ˜αβ =λN ¯αβ is the known direction from the pre-buckling analysis. 4.where Nαβ = ¤ Eh £ ◦ (1 − ν ) ε◦ αβ + ν εγγ δ αβ 2 1−ν µ ¶ 1 ∂uα ∂uβ ◦ εαβ = + 2 ∂xβ ∂xα on Γ (265) (266) and boundary condition: ¡ ¢ ¯nn δun = 0 Nnn − N (267) Here. the nonlinear buckling equation becomes a linear eigenvalue problem: ˜αβ w.3.αβ = 0 D ∇4 w + λ N where λ ≥ 0 is eigenvalues. Now.3 (270) ¯ ¯ ˜xx N ˜xy ¯ ¯N ¯ =λ ¯ ¯N ˜yx N ˜yy ¯ (269) Analysis of Rectangular Plates Buckling Simply Supported Plate under In-Plane Compressive Loading Consider a plate simply supported on four edges. the governing equation for buckling of plates reads: ◦ w.

one gets: w = w. a] on x = [0. (271) into Eq. (268) leads: D ∇4 w + From equilibrium equations.xx +ν w.yy = 0 (274) on Γ on Γ (273) Equation (272) is a constant-coefficient equation. 2 (276) w = c1 sin a b 55 .yy +ν w. n = 1.yy ) = 0 Myy = −D (w. and a solution of the following form: ³n π y ´ ³m π x´ sin for m. b] (275) Thus.a Px b y Px x h Introducing Eq.xx = 0 b (271) (272) Boundary condition for this simply supported plate are written as: w=0 Mnn = 0 where the moment components read: Mxx = −D (w.xx ) = 0 on x = [0. one gets: ¯ ¯ ◦ ◦ ¯ ¯ Nxx Nxy ◦ ¯ ¯ Nαβ = ¯ ◦ ◦ ¯ Nyx Nyy ¯ ¯ ˜xx N ˜xy ¯ ¯N ¯ =λ ¯ ˜ ˜ ¯ Nyx Nyy ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ Px ¯ ¯1 0¯ = ¯ b 0 0¯ Px w.xx = 0 w = w.

(272) has nontrivial solutions.satisfies both the differential equation and the boundary conditions. i. n = 1 for all values of a: " # ³ π a ´2 ³ m ´2 µ 1 ¶2 Px =D + (279) b m a b µ ¶ " µ ¶2 # 1 π 2 D a b 2 ³ m ´2 + = 2 b m a b ¶ µ a 2 π2 D m b + = 2 b a mb Now.e. the critical load (Px )cr can be written as: π2 D b (Px )cr = kc (280) where kc = µ a mb + a mb ¶2 (281) where coefficient kc is a function of aspect ratio a/b and wavelength parameter m. The critical load can be determined by the smallest eigenvalue. Introduction into Eq. (272) gives: ∙³ ³ m π ´2 ³ n π ´2 ³ n π ´4 ¸ P ³ m π ´2 m π ´4 x +2 + =0 (277) D − a a b b b a ⇒ ³ π a ´2 ∙³ m ´2 ³ n ´2 ¸2 Px =D + b m a b (278) where for the discrete values of Px Eq. 56 .

i. Transition from m to m +1 half-waves occurs when the two corresponding curves have equal ordinates. (281): kc |m = kc |m+1 ⇒ ⇒ a (m + 1) b a mb + = + a mb a (m + 1) b a p = m (m + 1) b 57 (285) (286) . from Eq.2 6 12 For a given a/b. m may be chosen to yield the smallest eigenvalue. In order to minimize kc in Eq. one gets: m= a b kc = 4 b a 1 − =0 a b m2 (283) (284) Here. (281). this is valid when a/b is integer and when considering a very long plates.e. treating m as a continuous variable produces: µ ¶µ ¶ mb b ∂kc a a =2 + − =0 (282) ∂m a mb a b m2 where the first bracket can not be zero. so the second bracket should be zero: ⇒ Now.

p a = m (m + 1) b Example 1 For m = 1. Thus. the buckled plate subdivides approximately into squares. Loaded edges simply supported. whose lengths approach the width of the plate: ³π x´ ³n π y ´ sin w = c1 sin b b Thus. kc = 4 is now independent of m.e. a/b = √ 2 (287) Example 2 For a very large m. Various Boundary Conditions of Plate under In-Plane Compressive Loading The critical buckling load reads: (Px )cr = kc π2 D b 16 14 12 10 c ss A C c ss ss B c c kc 8 free D ss 6 free E 4 Loaded edges clamped. Influence of boundary conditions on the buckling coefficients of plates subjected to in-plane compressive loading 58 . i. 2 0 0 1 2 a b 3 4 5 Figure by MIT OCW. a very long plate. A very long plate buckles in half-waves. a/b ' m.

From the diagram. Limiting Case: Wide Plates Consider a wide plate for which a/b ¿ 1. we see that if a/b < 1.Various Boundary Conditions of Plate under In-Plane Shear Loading The critical buckling load per unit length reads: (Nxy )cr = kc where the dimension of Nxy is [N/m]. i. π2 D b2 15 13 2 rcr = η D kc b2h 11 Clamped Edges kc 9 Simply Supported Edges 7 5 3 0 1 2 a b 3 4 5 Critical values of shear stress for plates subjected to in-plane loading.e. just one wavelength in the x-direction. 59 . then m is set to be equal to unity. Figure by MIT OCW.

Consider the case of longitudinal stiffeners. then the second term in the bracket can be neglected so that the buckling load per unit length becomes: π2 D a2 (Nx )cr = which is called Sezawa’s formula for wide plates. relative merits of stiffening a large panel are investigated in the longitudinal or in the transverse direction. It is assumed that the stiffeners provide for a simply supported boundary conditions.a x b y The buckling formula thus becomes: π2 D (Nx )cr = kc |m=1 b2 ¶ µ b a 2 π2 D + = 2 b a b ¶ µ ³ π 2 D a ´2 b a 2 + = 2 a b a b ∙ ¸ ³ a ´2 2 π2 D 1+ = 2 a b (288) If a/b ¿ 1. 60 . Example 3 Here.

the buckling stress can be calculated: (σ cr )transverse = (Nx )cr h π2D = 2 s h Thus. it is concluded that (σ cr )longitudinal = 4 (σ cr )transverse This shows advantages of longitudinal stiffeners over transverse stiffeners. the buckling load per unit length for each divided part reads: 4π 2 D (Nx )cr = s2 Now.L σcr s From the von Karman formula. the buckling load per unit length along the loaded edges reads: π2 D (Nx )cr = 2 s Now. L σcr s From the Sezawa’s formula. the buckling stress can be calculated: (σ cr )longitudinal = (Nx )cr h 2 4π D = 2 s h Consider the case of transverse stiffeners. 61 .

3. Term Relating to Plate Bending Response In the buckling problem. the work done by external load causing bending response considered as zero: Vb = 0 (290) (289) The bending energy can be expressed: Z 1 Mαβ καβ dS (291) Ub = 2 S Z D [(1 − ν ) καβ + ν κγγ δ αβ ] καβ dS = 2 S Z h i D (1 − ν ) καβ καβ + ν (κγγ )2 dS = 2 S Z h i D (1 − ν ) (κ11 κ11 + κ12 κ12 + κ21 κ21 + κ22 κ22 ) + ν (κ11 + κ22 )2 dS = 2 S Z n h io D = (κ11 + κ22 )2 − 2 (1 − ν ) κ11 κ22 − (κ12 )2 dS 2 S Here. so one gets: Z D (κ11 + κ22 )2 dS (293) Ub = 2 S The integrand of the above equation can be written in terms of the transverse displacement: ¡ ¢2 (κ11 + κ22 )2 = −∇2 w 2 2 (294) =∇ w ∇ w Now. For plates with straight edges. Gaussian curvature vanishes. the term in the square bracket is called Gaussian curvature: κ11 κ22 − (κ12 )2 = κI κII (292) where κI and κII are the principal curvatures.4.4 Derivation of Raleigh-Ritz Quotient Recall the total potential energy of system and other corresponding definitions: Π = (Ub − Vb ) + (Um − Vm ) where each term for buckling problems will be discussed in the following. the bending energy reads: D Ub = 2 Z ∇2 w ∇2 w dS (295) S 62 .

β dS = −λ ˜nn un + N −λ N N S (298) where the in-plane equilibrium is applied: Z ³ ´ ˜tn ut dl ˜nn un + N = −λ N Γ −λ ZΓ S ˜αβ .α w. the first term can be extended in a similar way shown in Eq.β uα dS N ˜αβ .α w.β dS N − 2 S Z λ ˜αβ w.β dS ˜ Um − Vm = −λ N Nnn un + Ntn ut dl − 2 S Γ Z Z ¯ ¯tn ut dl − Nnn un dl − N Γ Γ Z ³ Z ³ ´ ´ ˜nn − N ˜tn − N ¯nn un dl − ¯tn ut dl −λ N −λ N = Γ Γ Z λ ˜αβ w.β dS = −λ N N 2 S S Here.β dS = −λ N 2 2 ZS Z ˜αβ uα . 63 .β +uα . the membrane energy can be expressed: Z Z ³ ´ ˜tn ut dl − λ ˜αβ w.β dS ˜nn un + N Um = −λ N N 2 S Γ (299) (300) Thus. so the membrane energy reads: Z ˜αβ ε◦ dS (297) Um = −λ N αβ S ∙ ¸ Z ˜αβ 1 (uα .α w.α w.β =− N 2 S (301) where the boundary conditions on Γ are applied. the axial force Nαβ pre-buckling solution and is considered as constant. the term relating to membrane response can be summarized: Z Z ³ ´ λ ˜ ˜αβ w. (132): Z ³ Z ´ ˜tn ut dl ˜αβ uα .Term Relating to Plate Membrane Response The work done by external load causing membrane response reads: Z Z ¯nn un dl + N ¯tn ut dl (296) N Vm = Γ Γ ◦ = λN ˜αβ is determined from the In the buckling problem.α w.α w.β ) + 1 w.β = 0 −λ N Now.β dS − λ ˜αβ w.

α δw.Total Potential Energy and Its Variations Now.α δw.β ) dS − N 2 S Z Z ¡ 2 ¢ 2 ˜αβ w. choose a trial function for w: Raleigh-Ritz Quotient Application of the Trefftz condition for invertability. the second where N variation of the potential energy reads: Z Z ¡ ¢ ˜αβ δw.β dS D ∇ δw ∇ δw dS − λ N S S w=Aφ (306) ˆ (x.α δw. y ) is a normalized shape where A is the undetermined magnitude.α (δA φ) .β dS N S ˜αβ is considered as constant under the variation.β dS N R δA ∇2 φ δA ∇2 φ dS D =R S ˜ S Nαβ δA φ.β +w. δ 2 Π = 0. the load intensity reads: D λ= R R ∇2 (δA φ) ∇2 (δA φ) dS (307) S ˜αβ (δA φ) .β dS N S S (308) 64 . the variation of the trial function reads: δw = δA φ Now.β dS δ 2 Π = D δ ∇2 w ∇2 δw dS − λ N (304) S S Z Z 2 2 ˜αβ δw.β dS = D ∇ w ∇ δw dS − λ N S S (303) Here.β dS R ∇2 φ ∇2 φ dS D =R S ˜αβ φ.β dS ∇ w ∇ w dS − = N 2 S 2 S (302) The first variation of the potential energy can be obtained: Z ¡ ¢¤ £ ¡ 2 ¢ 2 D δΠ = δ ∇ w ∇ w + ∇2 w δ ∇2 w dS 2 S Z λ ˜αβ (δw. Then.α w. Similarly. one gets the total potential energy: Π = (Ub − Vb ) + (Um − Vm ) Z Z λ D 2 2 ˜αβ w.β dS = D ∇ w δ ∇ w dS − λ N S S Z Z 2 2 ˜αβ w.α δw.α δw.α φ.α δw.α w.α δA φ. determines the load intensity: R D S ∇2 δw ∇2 δw dS λ= R (305) ˜αβ δw. and φ = φ function.

3.5 then. Von Karman Analysis of the Effective Width For a simply supported plate.α dS R D S ∇2 φ ∇2 φ dS i =R h 2 2 ( φ. Usually. the Raleigh-Ritz quotient becomes: R D S ∇2 φ ∇2 φ dS λ= R 2 S (φ. the Raleigh-Ritz quotient becomes: R D S ∇2 φ ∇2 φ dS λ= R S φ. ) x y S Ultimate Strength of Plates The onset of buckling stress σ cr does not necessarily means the total collapse of the plate.α φ. consider 2-D compression case: ¯ ¯ ¯1 0¯ ¯ ˜ Nαβ = δ αβ = ¯ ¯0 1¯ then. and the plate takes additional load until the ultimate strength σ u is reached. dS ) + ( φ. there is redistribution of stresses. the buckling load is: Pcr = 4π 2 D b 4π 2 E h3 = 12 (1 − ν 2 ) b (310) and the corresponding buckling stress is: Pcr σ cr = bh µ ¶2 h 4π 2 E = 2 12 (1 − ν ) b µ ¶2 h π2 E = 2 3 (1 − ν ) b 65 (311) . consider 1-D case: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ˜αβ = ¯ 1 0 ¯ N ¯0 0¯ Example 5 Similarly.x ) dS 4.α φ.β dS N ∇2 φ ∇2 φ dS (309) Example 4 As a special case.The Raleigh-Ritz quotient is defined as: D λ= R S R S ˜ αβ φ.

a greater proportion of the load is taken by the regions of the plate near the edge. Von Karman assumed that these edge regions. 1.The normalization of buckling stress by the yield stress reads: E σ cr π2 = 2 σy 3 (1 − ν ) σ y = (1. each of the width bef f /2.9 β ¶2 (313) where β is a non-dimensional parameter defined by: r σy b β= E h (314) The relation between the normalized buckling stress versus β is plotted in the next figure.9)2 σ y ¡ b ¢2 E h µ ¶2 h b (312) σ cr = σy µ 1.9 On further loading the plate beyond σ cr . 66 . carry the stress up to the yield while the center is stress free.

E/σ y = 900 for mild steel. 67 .9 900 = 57h (317) This is somehow high. one gets: √ bef f = 1.9 h s E σy (316) Taking. but the width of the effective portion of the plate is unknown: σ cr = σy from which one obtains: (1. σ cr /σ y = 1.9)2 ³ ´2 = 1 bef f h σy E (315) bef f = 1. for example.e. i. but there is not much difference from the empirically determined values of bef f = 40h ∼ 50h.σ σ (y) x b y Before Buckling After Buckling beff 2 σy σ (y) σy beff 2 b Actual Stress von Karman Model The edge zones are at yield.

9 σu = σy β The average ultimate stress is plotted with respect to β in the next figure. bef f b hp = 1.The total force at the point of ultimate load is: P = σ y bef f h Now.9 b σy σy 1. 68 . the average ultimate stress can be calculated: σu = P bh (319) (318) = σy The average ultimate stress can be normalized by the yield stress: p h Eσ y σu = 1.9 Comparison of the ultimate and buckling load solution is shown in the next figure.9 Eσ y b (320) (321) 1.

Thin plates buckle before reaching ultimate load.1. the relation between an applied load and the corresponding displacement is schematically shown all the way to collapse in the next figure.9 Thick plates yield before buckle. Under the uniaxial loading. Px Pu post-buckling collapse or crash Px Px x Pcr ux pre-buckling ux y Empirical Formulas • Foulkner correction σu 1 2 = − 2 σy β β (322) 69 .

• Gerard (Handbook of elastic stability) σu = 0.85 Modifications in Codes In the original von Karman formula.42 b σy à = 1. Example 6 Consider a plate which has one cut and two flanges.85 3h2 E bh σ y à s !0.42 β 0.85 (323) where g is the sum of the number of cuts and the number of flanges after the cuts. b h Then. imperfection is considered: µ ¶ r r bef f σ cr σ cr = 1 − 0.85 are empirical constants. g =1+2 =3 Now. A is the cross sectional area A = bh.56 σy s !0.2 bef f σ cr = 1 + 14 − 0. and the coefficients 0. σu = 0.56 σy à gh2 A s E σy !0.35 b σy (326) (325) 70 . the effective width ratio is defined as: " µr ¶4 #−0. the effective width ratio reads: r bef f σ cr = (324) b σy In the ANSI specification.85 h E = 1.56 and 0.218 b σy σy In UK specification.

9 Stowell’s Theory for the Buckling Strain Stowell developed the theory of plastic buckling for simply-supported square plates loaded in one direction. After additional load.6 Plastic Buckling of Plates Stocky plates with low b/h ratio will yield before buckling at the point B . the plate will deform plastically on the path BC until conditions are met for the plate to buckle in the plastic range. 71 . C B A 1.eff y A comparison of theoretical (von Karman) and experimental predictions for the effective width in compressed steel plates 4.3.

Now. the tangent and secant modulus are: µ ¶ σ r ε n−1 dσ Et = =n (330) dε εr εr µ ¶ σ r ε n−1 σ Es = = ε εr εr 72 . Es = (328) σ Et σy Es ε For the materials obeying the power hardening low: µ ¶n ε σ = σr εr (329) where σ r and εr are the reference stress and strain.b x b thickness h y The critical buckling strain εcr was derived by him in the form: µ ¶ i p π2 h 2 h 2 + 1 + 3 (Et /Es ) εcr = 9 b dσ dε σ ε (327) where the tangent modulus Et and the secant modulus Es are defined by: Et = .

Substituting these expression back into the buckling equation (327).7 b (332) Having determined εcr . For a realistic value of n = 0.3. (327) given by the Stowell theory because it applies to all type of boundary conditions. This makes the coefficient 2 + 1 + 3n vary in the range 3 ∼ 4. the buckling strain becomes: εcr µ ¶2 h = 3. one gets: εcr π2 = 9 µ ¶2 √ ¢ h ¡ 2 + 1 + 3n b (331) The exponent n varies usually between n = 0 (perfectly material) and n = 1 ¡ √plastic ¢ (elastic material). Approximate Solution for the Buckling Strain stress relation: σ xx = E (εxx + νεyy ) 1 − ν2 E (εyy + νεxx ) σ yy = 1 − ν2 E (εxx + νεyy ) 1 − ν2 E 0= (εyy + νεxx ) 1 − ν2 εyy = −νεxx Consider an elastic plane (333) Using the solution for the pre-buckling state. the corresponding buckling stress is calculated from the power law. the corresponding critical elastic buckling strain read: εcr (337) Equation (337) is more general than a similar expression Eq. σ xx = σ cr and σ yy = 0 leads: σ cr = (334) from which one gets: (335) σ cr = Eεxx = Eεcr The critical elastic buckling stress is: σ cr π2 E = kc 12 (1 − ν 2 ) π2 = kc 12 (1 − ν 2 ) µ ¶2 h b µ ¶2 h b (336) So. i.e. At the 73 .

4. one gets: ¯ ◦ ¯ ¯N 0¯ ¯ =¯ ¯ 0 0¯ (339) Nyy = ¤ Eh £ ◦ ◦ εyy + ν ε◦ xx = 0 = −Nyy 2 1−ν ◦ =⇒ ε◦ yy = −ν εxx (340) By applying the geometric equation between strain and the displacement and considering δw = 0. (337) predicts: εcr µ ¶2 h = 3. displacement in y -direction. In particular. one gets the relation between ux and uy : ∂uy ∂ux = −ν ∂y ∂x 74 (341) .6 b (338) which should be compared with the coefficient 3. δw = 0 No Constraint in In-Plane Displacement Consider no constraint in in-plane ◦ = 0. Stowell’s equation was derived only for the simply supported boundary conditions. the prediction of both method are much closer. For a plastic material or very high hardening exponent.3.7 of Eq.7 Exercise 1: Effect of In-Plane Boundary Conditions. Eq. for kc = 4.same time. here. Nyy expansion due to Poison's effect uy a ND a ux y ND x The membrane force tensor reads: ◦ Nαβ From the constitutive equation. (332) in the Stowell’s theory.

the membrane forces reads: Nxx = ¤ Eh ux Eh £ ◦ ◦ εxx + ν ε◦ = −Nxx yy = 2 1−ν 1 − ν2 a ¤ Eh £ ◦ ux Eh ◦ = −Nyy Nyy = ν εyy + ν ε◦ xx = 2 2 1−ν 1−ν a ¯ ¯ ¯1 0 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯0 ν ¯ (345) Finally. ε◦ xx reads: ε◦ xx = ux ∂ux = ∂x a (344) From the constitutive relation. D N yy = νN D a ND a ux y Consequently. the membrane force tensor reads: ¯ ¯ ◦ ¯ Nxx 0 ¯ ◦ ¯ Nαβ = ¯ ¯ 0 N◦ ¯ = λ yy where λ= Eh ux 1 − ν2 a (346) (347) 75 . uy = 0.Integrating both sides over the plate length leads: Z a Z a ∂uy ∂ux dy = −ν dx ∂y 0 0 ∂x uy = −ν ux (342) Constraint in In-Plane Displacement Consider a plate fully constrained in the y-direction. one also gets: x ND D N xx = ND ε◦ yy = ∂uy =0 ∂y (343) Under the uniform compression.

a ND a y ND x The plate will deform into a dish.3. in order to obtain the load intensity. so for the trial function take the following: ³ ´ ³ ´ ˆ (x.x and ∇2 φ : ³π x´ ³π y´ π sin φ.x = cos a ³ π ax ´ ³ πay ´ π cos φ.8 Exercise 2: Raleigh-Ritz Quotient for Simply Supported Square Plate under Uniaxial Loading Consider a simply supported square plate subjected to uniform compressive load in the x-direction.xx +φ. y ) = sin π x sin π y φ=φ (349) a a Now. we first calculate φ.y = sin a a a φ.yy = − sin sin a a a sin ³ π ´2 (350) Then.4.yy ³ π ´2 ³π y ´ ³π x´ = −2 sin sin a a a ³π x´ ³π y ´ ³ π ´4 ∇2 φ ∇2 φ = 4 sin2 sin2 a a a 76 (352) (353) . the membrane force tensor reads: ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ◦ ◦ ¯1 0¯ Nαβ = N ¯ ¯ = λ 00 ¯ ¯ ¯1 0¯ ¯ ¯ ¯0 0¯ (348) (351) ∇2 φ = φ.xx = − ³π y ´ ³π x´ sin a a a ³π y ´ ³ π ´2 ³π x´ φ.

the Raleigh-Ritz quotient is calculated: R D S ∇2 φ ∇2 φ dS ◦ N =λ = R 2 S (φ. 4. Consider a section column which is composed of several thin plates.Now. ( Pcr )column l EI 77 .x ) dS ¡ ¢4 R ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 4D π sin2 πax sin2 πay dS a S ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ = ¡ ¢2 R 2 π x sin2 π y dS π a a S cos a ³ π ´2 = 4D a ◦ Ncr (354) = λ = 4D µ π a ¶2 (355) This is the classical buckling solution. then the Euler buckling load can be considered as a global buckling load of the column.1 Buckling of Sections Transition from Global and Local Buckling Euler buckling load of a simply-supported column reads: (Pcr )column = π 2 EI l2 (356) where I is the bending rigidity of the column.4.4 4. and it is exact because of the right guess of the displacement field.

local buckling force of a simply-supported plate reads: Ncr = kc π 2 D b2 (357) £ ¡ ¢¤ where D = Eh3 / 12 1 − ν 2 and kc = [(mb) /a + a/ (mb)]2 . Thus.On the other hands. µ ¶2 l b (360) 78 . the total local buckling load can be obtained: (Pcr )plate = kc π 2 D b (358) N cr h b a Transition from global to local buckling can be calculated by (Pcr )column = (Pcr )plate : π2 EI π2 D = k c l2 b kc π 2 E h3 = 12 (1 − ν 2 ) b (359) I kc = 3 bh 12 (1 − ν 2 ) Example 7 Consider a square box column.

the local and global buckling loads become same when b2 ' 1.h l b b Then.20 Thus. one obtains: kc = 4 2 I = hb3 3 Now. 79 . Transition from the local to global buckling for an open channel section with lips is shown in the figure below. then l = 60b. applying (Pcr )column = (Pcr )f our plates . the global buckling load reads: (Pcr )column = π 2 E I 2π 2 E hb3 = l2 3 l2 and the local buckling load from four plates can be calculated: (Pcr )f our plates = 4kc π 2 E h3 12 (1 − ν 2 ) b Then.5hl For example. one gets: µ b2 hl ¶2 ' 2. if b = 40h.

P late 1 h1 b1 h2 b2 P late 2 Compatibility and equilibrium conditions at junction of adjoining walls of a section In general. (357) by the plate thickness b gives the expression of the buckling stress σ cr : µ ¶2 h kc π 2 E Ncr = (361) σ cr = 2 h 12 (1 − ν ) b Consider two adjacent plates of a section of the prismatic column.4.2 Local Buckling The remainder of this section deals only with the local buckling. Dividing both sides of Eq. there will be a restraining moment acting at the corner line between 80 .Buckling coefficients and modes for a hat section 4.

From this derivation. b1 b2 uniform thickness h The wider flange will be ready to buckling first while the narrow plate is not ready 81 . This can be illustrated in an example of a box column with a rectangular cross section with the same thickness h.P late 1 and P late 2. at the point of buckling. Determination of the buckling coefficient is a bit more complicated because of the existence of the edge bending moment. The buckling stresses for those two plates are: µ ¶2 h1 k1 π 2 E (σ cr )1 = 2 12 (1 − ν ) b1 µ ¶2 h2 k2 π 2 E (σ cr )2 = 2 12 (1 − ν ) b2 (362) Before buckling. So. one gets: (363) (σ cr )1 = (σ cr )2 from which the buckling coefficient k2 is relating to k1 : µ ¶ h1 b2 2 k2 = k1 h2 b1 The total buckling load on the angle element is: Pcr = (σ c )1 h1 b1 + (σ c )2 h2 b2 " µ ¶ # µ ¶2 h1 2 h2 π2 E = k1 h1 b1 + k2 h2 b2 12 (1 − ν 2 ) b1 b2 # " µ ¶ h1 b2 2 (h2 )3 (h1 )3 π2 E = + k1 k1 12 (1 − ν 2 ) b1 h2 b1 b2 µ ¶ h1 2 π 2 Ek1 A = 12 (1 − ν 2 ) b1 (365) (364) where A is the sectional area of two plate A = b1 h1 + b2 h2 . the conclusion is that only one buckling coefficient is needed to calculate the buckling load of the section consisting of several plates. stresses in the entire cross-section are the same.

h h Buckling coefficients for box sections In the limiting case of a square box (b1 = b2 = b). When the second plate buckles. Thus. and a compromise must be established because left plates must buckle at the same time. 82 . The buckling coefficient as a function of the ratio b2 /b1 is plotted in the figure next. Some useful graphs and formulas for typical sections are given next. the first plate would have buckled long before. there is an interaction between left plates.to buckle. k1 = 4 and the edge interactive moment between adjacent plates is zero.

83 .

αβ ε◦ αβ = The starting point of the analysis is the strain-displacement relation for plates: (366) Consider a flat plate (x. y ) and a segment of a cylinder (x. Use the notation: u1 = ux → u u2 = uy → v u3 → w Then.β 2 2 καβ = − w. 1 ∂ ∂ → ∂y a ∂θ (368) Consider component by component. dx → dx (367) y → aθ . where a is the radius of a cylinder and θ is the hoop coordinate.θ 1 ³ w. The physical meaning of this new term becomes clear if we consider axisymmetric deformation with v = 0 and w independent of θ. Define the hoof strain as a relative change 84 (369) .x (372) xθ = 2 a 2 a There is a new term w/a in the expression for the hoop strain.α w. aθ).θ ´2 w + (371) = + ε◦ θθ a 2 a a ´ 1 w.x ) 2 u.β +uβ .θ ε◦ + u.1 Buckling of Cylindrical Shells Governing Equation for Buckling of Cylindrical Shells 1 1 (uα .5 5.θ 1 ³ u.x + (w. one gets: 1 2 ε◦ (370) xx = u.x + w. a x x y aθ Can the strain-displacement relation for a cylinder be derived from similar relation for a flat plate? x→x .α ) + w.

θθ κθθ = 2 a w.θθ = q (377) a a a where ∇4 w = w." The expression for curvature are transformed in a similar way: κxx = w.xxθθ + 4 w. one can see that the only new term in the expression for δ Π = 0 is Z δw dS (376) Nθθ a S Therefore.xx w. "First Course in the Continuum Mechanics. in the book by Y.xθ κxθ = a (375) (374) Using the variational approach explained in details for the plate problem.C.xθ + 2 Nθθ w. x = r sin θ y = r cos θ The step-by-step derivation can be found. Eq.xxxx + 2 1 w. (370)-(372) can be derived from its counterparts by transforming the rectangular coordinate system into the curvilinear coordinate system.in the length of circumference when the original circle has a radius of "a" before deformation and a new circle has a radius of "a + w" after deformation: ε◦ θθ = w 2π (a + w) − 2πa = 2πa a (373) a θ w Mathematically.xx + Nxθ w. Fung.θθθθ 2 a a 85 (378) . the new term should be added in the equation for out-of-plane equilibrium: µ ¶ 1 2 1 4 D∇ w + Nθθ − Nxx w. for example.

The pre-buckling solution should satisfy the system Eq. q = 0 The membrane forces in the pre-buckling state are: ¯ ¯ ¯ P ¯ ◦ ¯1 0¯ Nαβ = ¯ 2πa 0 0 ¯ and the corresponding displacement field reads: u (x) = − P x 2πahE ν Pl w= E 2πah (379) (381) (382) u ( l) l w x aθ It is easy to prove that the above solution satisfies all field equation. 86 .e. The linear equilibrium equations are obtained by omission the nonlinear terms.x +Nθθ .x Nθθ = C a ¢ ¡ where C is the axial rigidity. These solutions will be denoted by Nαβ = ◦ .θ = 0 aNθθ . The resulting equations are: aNxx . terms in the parenthesis.1 Special Case I: Cylinder under Axial Load P .The above equations are the nonlinear equilibrium equations for quasi-shallow cylindrical shells. C = Eh/ 1 − ν 2 . −Nαβ 5.x +Nxθ .θ = 0 1 D∇4 w + Nθθ = q a with ³ w´ (380) Nxx = C u.x +ν a ´ ³w 0 + ν u. i.1. (379) and (380).

(379) leads the following linear forth order inhomogeneous ordinary differential equation for w (x): Dw0000 + or in a dimensionless form: Ehw =q a2 (385) d4 w q (386) + 4β 4 w = 4 dx D where ¡ ¢ 3 1 − ν2 Eh 4 β = 2 = (387) a D a2 h4 The dimension of β is [L−1 M 0 T 0 ]. (384) into Eq.2 where from the constitutive equations Eq. 87 . typical term of the solution is a rapidly decaying function of x.5. (380): Nθθ = Eh w a Special Case II: Cylinder under Lateral Pressure ¯ ¯ ¯0 0¯ ◦ ¯ Nαβ = Nθθ ¯ ¯0 1¯ (383) (384) Substituting Eq. so βx is dimensionless. There are four boundary conditions for a simply supported cylinder: Mxx = w = 0 Mxx = w = 0 at at x=0 x=l (388) where one gets from the moment-curvature relation: Mxx = −D Mθθ = 0 The general solutions of the above boundary value problem is: w (x) = e−βx [c1 sin βx + c2 cos βx] + eβx [c3 sin βx + c4 cos βx] − q D4 β 4 (390) A d2 w dx2 (389) The four integration constants can be found from the boundary conditions.1.

The remainder of the shell undergoes a uniform radial contraction: q (391) w0 = − D 4β 4 For the sake of simplicity. the hoop membrane force is related to the lateral pressure by Nθθ = qa and the pre-buckling solution is: ¯ ¯ ¯0 0¯ ◦ ¯ (392) Nαβ = qa ¯ ¯0 1¯ 5.It can be conducted that the curvature and bending is confined to a narrow boundary zone of the width xb = π/ (2β ). Then. 88 ¯ ¯ ¯ 1/2 0 ¯ ¯ = qa ¯ ¯ 0 1¯ (394) .3 Special Case III: Hydrostatic Pressure For a cylinder subjected to the hydrostatic pressure. (379). this localized bending can be neglected (D → 0). the total axial compressive force is: P = qπa2 (393) The pre-buckling solution is: ◦ Nαβ which is a classical membrane stress state in a thin cylinder.1. from Eq.

v.θθ = q a a a 4 (397) where the hoop membrane force Nθθ . depends linearly on three component of the displacement vector (u.xθ + 2 Nθθ w. Thus.5.x (398) Nθθ = C a a 89 . the second term in Eq. (377).2 Derivation of the Linearized Buckling Equation We are now in the position to linearize the nonlinear buckling equation Eq. (397). (377) becomes: ∙ ¸ 1 2 ◦ 1 ◦ ◦ D∇ w + Nθθ + Nxx w.xx + Nxθ w. ◦ Nαβ = −Nαβ (396) and Eq.1. It is assumed that the state of membrane forces does not change at the point of buckling from the pre-buckling value. w): ¶ µ 1 w v.4 Special Case IV: Torsion of a Cylinder The pre-buckling stress in a cylinder subjected to the total torque of the magnitude T is: ¯ ¯ ¯ M ¯ ◦ ¯0 1¯ (395) = Nαβ ¯ 2πa 1 0 ¯ x aθ N θx M 5.θ + + νu.

m ¯: mπx ³ mπa ´ x x = =m ¯ l l a a mπa ⇒m ¯ = l (403) 90 . In this case. Consider first Case I of a simply-supported cylindrical shell in which the pre-buckling solution is given by Eq.xxxx +∇ Nxx w. θ) = c1 sin l (401) It is convenient to introduce a dimensionless buckling number. Not that w (x.θθ = 0 (399) D∇ w + a2 a a The above equation is called the Donnell stability equation in the uncoupled form. (399) reduces to: D∇8 w + 1 − ν2 P 4 ∇ w. The total deflection is a sum of the two.xx = 0 Cw. n) denote the number of half-waves respectively in the axial and circumferential direction. and periodicity conditions along the circumference.xx + Nxθ w. (399) for four different loading cases discussed in the previous section. x = 0 and x = L.xθ + 2 Nθθ w. and the integer numbers (m.3 5. Eq. Eq. Here. By doing this. 5. It is possible to eliminate the terms involving in-plane components using the full set of equilibrium and constitutive equations in the in-plane direction. the half-length of the buckling wave is defined: λ= l m (402) The buckling deflection of the shell is assumed in the following form: ³ mπx ´ sin (nθ) w (x. θ) in the above equation represents additional lateral deflection over and above those produced by the pre-buckling solution. v ) through the presence of the term Nθθ . (381). The above deformation satisfies both simply-supported boundary conditions at the ends. Note that in the plate buckling problem the in-plane and out-of-plane response was uncoupled. the out-of-plane equilibrium equation is coupled with the in-plane displacement (u.1 Buckling under Axial Compression Formulation for Buckling Stress and Buckling Mode We are now in a position to develop solutions to the buckling equations.xxxx + a2 2πa (400) where c1 is the magnitude.Therefore.3. the order of the governing equation has to be raised by four to give eight: ∙ ¸ 1 − ν2 2 ◦ 1 ◦ 8 4 ◦ Cw.

(401) into the governing equation Eq. by introducing the dimensionless parameter χ: ¡ 2 ¢2 m ¯ + n2 χ= (406) m ¯2 Eq. 91 .Using the dimensionless buckling number. the critical buckling membrane force per unit length becomes: Ncr = Pcr 2πa ¡ 2 ¢2 ¡ ¢ ¯ + n2 D m m ¯2 2 + 1 − ν = 2 C a m ¯2 (m ¯ 2 + n2 )2 (405) Here. (405) reads: ¢ 1 ¡ D (407) Ncr = 2 χ + 1 − ν 2 C a χ The dependence of the buckling force on the parameter χ is shown in the figure below. substituting the solution Eq. (400) leads: ¸ ∙ ³ x´ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¢ P ¡ 2 D¡ 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 c1 sin (nθ) = 0 + n + m ¯ + n m ¯ sin m ¯ m ¯ 1 − ν C − m ¯ a2 2πa a6 a (404) By setting the coefficient in the square bracket to zero.

Treating χ as a continuous variable, one can find an analytical minimum: ¢ 1 dNcr D ¡ = 2 − 1 − ν2 C 2 = 0 dχ a χ (408)

from which the optimum value of the parameter χ is: r (1 − ν 2 ) Ca2 χopt = D ap = 12 (1 − ν 2 ) h a ' 3.3 h

(409)

Introducing the expression for the optimum parameter χ into Eq. (407) and using definitions of bending and axial rigidity, one gets: h2 E (Ncr )min = p 3 (1 − ν 2 ) a (Ncr )min h h E =p 2 3 (1 − ν ) a h a (410)

The buckling stress is obtained by dividing the critical membrane fore by the shell thickness h: σ cr = (411)

σ cr ' 0.605 E

(412)

This is the classical solution for the buckling stress of a cylindrical shell subjected to axial compression. While the buckling load is unique and does not depend on (m ¯ , n), the buckling mode is not unique as: χopt ¡ 2 ¢2 m ¯ + n2 a = = 3.3 m ¯2 h (413)

There are infinity of combinations of m ¯ and n that give the same expression. Example 8 Let a/h = 134, then ¡ 2 ¢2 m ¯ + n2 = 3.3 × 134 ' 442 χopt = m ¯2 m ¯ 2 + n2 ' 21 ⇒ m ¯ 92

n=

p 21m ¯ −m ¯2

5.3.2

Buckling Coefficient and Batdorf Parameter

Let us introduce the dimensionless buckling stress or the buckling coefficient kc : kc = σ cr hl2 π2 D (414)

Additionally, the Batdorf parameter Z is defined: Z= p l2 1 − ν2 ah (415)

Using Eq. (411), the buckling coefficient becomes: h hl2 E × 2 kc = p 3 (1 − ν 2 ) a π D 12 p l2 =√ 1 − ν2 ah 3π 2 12 =√ Z 3π 2 kc ' 0.702 Z (416)

(417)

This relation between kc and Z are shown in the figure below together with two limiting cases of very short and very long cylindrical shells. These two limiting cases are discussed below.

93

Limiting Cases: Short Cylinders, a À l Consider a case of the following conditions: aÀl a →∞ (418) ⇒ l

Then, it is natural to assume that the number of half-waves in the axial direction is unity: m=1 Consequently, one gets: a →∞ l Since m ¯ is much larger than n, one also gets: m ¯ =π m ¯ 2 + n2 ' m ¯2 (419)

(420)

94

the membrane force reads: Ncr = P 2πa ¢ 1 D 2 ¡ = 2m ¯ + 1 − ν2 C 2 a m ¯ 2 m ¯ D = 2 a π2 D = 2 l σ cr = (421) The buckling stress reads: π2D Ncr = h hl2 Now. The Limiting Cases: Very Long Cylinders. (405). (414). The buckling load of the column is: Pcr = where I = πa3 h for cylinder sections. from the definition of the buckling coefficient.Now. Eq. l À a The cylindrical shell is becoming the Euler column. from Eq. π 2 EI l2 (422) 95 . the buckling coefficient for the very short cylindrical shells reads: kc = 1 This solution indicated in previous figure as the lower bound cut-off value. upper bound cut-off values is given by the Euler buckling load.

4 Buckling under Lateral Pressure From the pre-buckling solution. the governing equation Eq. the buckling coefficient can be written: ¡ ¢ ³ a ´2 kc = 6 1 − ν 2 h kc = 6 µ a l ¶4 Z2 (424) (425) From Eq. (399) becomes: 1 − ν2 q Cw. the transition between the local shell buckling and global thin-walled column buckling occurs when (σ cr )shell = (σ cr )column which gives: h π 2 ³ a ´2 E p = E 2 l 3 (1 − ν 2 ) a p π 2 3 (1 − ν 2 ) hl2 ⇒ 3 = ' 8. similar to the case of axial compression. the governing equation becomes: ∙ ¸ ³ x´ ¢ ¡ ¢ ¡ 2 ¢ D¡ 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 c1 m ¯ 1 − ν C − qa n m ¯ + n + m ¯ + n sin m ¯ sin (nθ) = 0 a2 a6 a (430) By setting the coefficient in the square bracket to zero. (411) and (423).15 a 2 (426) (427) (428) 5.The buckling stress reads: σ cr = Pcr 2πah π 2 ³ a ´2 = E 2 l (423) For this very long cylindrical shells. (392). the equation for the buckling pressure becomes: ¡ 2 ¢2 ¢ ¡ ¯ + n2 m ¯4 D m 2 C + 1 − ν qa = 2 a n2 n2 (m ¯ 2 + n2 )2 (431) 96 .xxxx + ∇4 w. Eq.θθ = 0 (429) D∇8 w + 2 a a Assuming the double sine buckling deflection function.

the optimum n ¯ can be found analytically from dp ¯/dn ¯ = 0. one gets: a m ¯ = mπ → 0 (436) l 97 . n ¯ and p ¯ into Eq. The solution is shown graphically in the figure below. Treating n ¯ as a continuous variable. Limiting Cases: Very Long Cylinders. substituting m ¯. l À a In the limiting case of a long tube (l À a). there will be a unique relation between the buckling pressure and the Batdorf parameter. (431) leads: ¢2 ¡ ¢ µ ¶ ¡ 1 − ν2 C l 2 1+n ¯2 1 + q ¯= n ¯2 a2 a n ¯ 2 (1 + n ¯ 2 )2 By introducing the Batdorf parameter Z .It can be shown that the smallest eigenvalue is obtained when m = 1 or m ¯ = πa/l. Substituting this back into Eq. we define the dimensionless buckling pressure. the solution becomes a function of the parameter n. or dimensionless parameter n ¯: nl (432) n ¯= πa Additionally. With this observation. (432). one gets: ¢2 ¡ 1+n ¯2 12 2 1 + q ¯= 2 π Z 2 2 n ¯2 n ¯ (1 + n ¯ ) (435) (434) For any value of the geometrical parameter Z . there exists a preferred n ¯ which minimize the buckling pressure. q ¯: q ¯= q l2 a π2 D (433) Now.

the last term in Eq.In this case. The moment of inertia of the ring along the axial axis reads: I= bh3 12 (438) From Eq. (437) and (438). each of the height b. The smallest integer value is n = 1 which gives the following buckling mode. the intensity of the line load Q = qb can be written: Q = qb n2 Eh3 b = 3 a 12 (1 − ν 2 ) n2 EI = 3 a (1 − ν 2 ) (439) The above approximation is due to Donnell. (431) vanishes and the buckling pressure becomes: q= n2 D a3 (437) Imagine a long cylinder consisting of a change of ring. 98 .

the present solution.The Donnell solution should be compared with more exact solution of the ring buckling problem which take into account a more complex incremental displacement field with both w (θ) and v (θ). In the later case. a distinction should be made between the centrally directed pressure (as in all preceding analysis) and the field -pressure loading where pressure is always directed normal to the deformed surface. The buckling mode has now eight nodal points rather than four. Thus the smallest buckling load intensity is: Qc = 4.5 Buckling under Hydrostatic Pressure Special case of the combined loading in which the total axial load P is: P = πa2 q (443) 99 . The solution of centrally directed pressure loading case is: ¡ 2 ¢2 n − 1 EI Qc = n2 − 2 a3 EI a3 (441) where again the smallest n = 2. Eq. (439) gives the buckling pressure between the two cases of field-pressure loading and centrally directed loading.5. 5. Here.5 (442) It is seen that for a realistic value n=2. 3 < 4 < 4. the ring buckling occurs at: ¡ ¢ EI Qc = n2 − 1 3 a (440) where the smallest integer n = 2 so that Q = 3EI/a3 .

(394). the force is constant. (401).6 Buckling under Torsion A twist applied to one end of a cylindrical shell process a twisting force Nxθ : ◦ = Nxθ M 2πa (444) ◦ = N◦ = The other two components of the pre-buckling membrane forces vanish Nxx θθ 0. The solution of the buckling equation still can be sought through the sinusoidal function. Moreover. A graphical representation of the solution is shown in figure below. Eq.The pre-buckling solution is given by Eq. 5. 100 . The optimum solution can be found by a trial and error method varying parameters m ¯ and n ¯.

the term m ¯ 2 is small compared with 4. Such waves can be represented by a deflection function of the form: ´ ³ x (446) w (x. the buckling deformation consists of circumferential waves that spiral around the cylindrical shell from one end to the other.xθ = 0 2 a a (445) with In view of the presence of odd-ordered derivatives in the above equation. θ).xxxx + Nxθ ∇4 w. this simple examples can be used only for long cylinders. but does not satisfy any commonly used boundary at the cylinder ends. Under torsional loading. θ) = C sin m ¯ − nθ a m ¯ = mπa (447) L where m and n are integers. the governing equation reduces to: D∇8 w + 1 − ν2 2 ◦ C w. the shell buckles in two circumferential waves. Consequently. n = 2. introduction of the additional displacement field into the governing equation.Under these conditions. Then. yields: ¡ 2 ¢2 ¢ ¡ m ¯ + n2 D m ¯3 ◦ + (448) 1 − v2 C Nxθ = 2 2 2m ¯ n a 2 (m ¯ 2 + n2 ) n For sufficiently long cylinders. the separable form of the solution for w (x. assumed previously. does not satisfy the equation. The alone displacement field satisfy the differential equation and the periodical condition is the circumferential direction. Also. For such cylinders. the approximate expression is: ◦ = Nxθ An analytical minimization of the alone experiment with repeat to m ¯ gives: µ ¶2 h 64 (450) m ¯4 = 2 9 (1 − ν ) a 101 ¢ 4 D m ¯3 ¡ + 1 − v2 C 2 m ¯ a 64 (449) .

critical shear strain causing buckling is: µ ¶3/2 N◦ h 0. A more rigorous analytical-numerical solution is shown in the figure below.98 corresponding to plates under the shear loading.7 Influence of Imperfection and Comparison with Experiments Because of the presence of unavoidable imperfection in real shells. the critical stress coefficient for simply supported and clamped edge approaches respectively the value 5.272 E (451) τ cr = xθ = 3/4 2 h a (1 − ν ) The above solution was given by Donnell. the final expression for the buckling force. the experimentally measured buckling load are much smaller than the ones found theoretically. As the radius of the shell approaches infinity. the above solution is invalid for short shells due to the difficulties in satisfying boundary condition. 5.35 and 8. As noted. or better.Upon substitution. Reduction in the buckling strength due to imperfection Comparison of theoretical and experimental results for four different type of loads: 102 .

605 Eh/a should be multiplied by 0. The situation can be converted to the firmly established manual 103 .500 3.2 0 0 500 1.0 Theory σcr = 0.24. Design curves for cylindrical and other shells are based on the theoretical solution modified by empirical prediction factors called "know-down factors". They are frequently loose-leaf and are continuously updated on the volume of the experimented evidence increase. Replotting the results for axially loaded plate yields the graph shown below. the solid curve shown in the receding page is a " 90 percent probability curve.500 Distribution of test data for cylinders subjected to axial compression.605 Eh/a 0.000 3.15 Eh/a.000 h 2. Note that the graphs were presented in log − log scale.• Axial compression • Torsion • Lateral pressure • Hydrostatic pressure are shown in the subsequent two pages." For a/h = 50. For example. Figure by MIT OCW. 1.24 for the design stress σ = 0. the reduction factor predicted by this probability curve is 0. the theoretical solution σ cr = 0. The differences are shown to be very large.500 a 2. Cylindrical shells loaded in different way are been sensitive to imperfections and the resulting knock-down factors are smaller.000 1.4 0.1 1.8 σexp 0.6 A design recommendation 0. Most industrial organization establish their own design criteria. Thus.

104 . The reason is that column are not sensitive to imperfection as far as the ultimate strength is concerned.of steel constructions for the design of columns and beam.