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Development of automatic identification method for GIS PD (Partial Discharge) defects diagnosis
Young Chan Choi, Seung Wan Jung, Soo Nam Kim, Seong Il Kim and Joong Lok Kwon, Member, IEEE
patterns are used for diagnosing the cause of the PD defect. For this, a variety of methods or theories such as fuzzy method, chaos theory, wavelet, fractal and artificial neural network have been applied for effective PD pattern recognition [1-5]. Above the rest of them, ANN has been used as a powerful method and applied for on-line monitoring and diagnostic system [6-8]. According to this trend, the online preventive diagnostic system HiPDS-G (Hyundai intelligent Preventive Diagnostic System for GIS) has been developed by HHI (Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd.) [9]. HiPDS-G can judge an abnormality for various diagnosis items such as partial discharge signals, drive section characteristic, gas pressure and lightning arrester leakage current, and especially the existence of any defects inside GIS can be verified by using PD (Partial Discharge) signals. Especially, the library of a variety of defects was implemented by using the developed sensor for PD identification and the diagnosis agreement for single-defects was recorded to be more than 99% by applying ANN method with 14 input variables. Also, a diagnostic algorithm for various multi-defects was developed for an automatic multi-defects identification. This paper focuses on a new PD diagnostic algorithm development for both single-defects and multi-defects among various diagnosis items of HiPDS-G. The work includes PD defect data acquisition and analysis, ANN modeling as an automatic identification method and application for PD defects diagnosis, and the agreement rate analysis through the application of the developed algorithm. II. PD DATA ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS

Abstract—In this paper, an overview of a new GIS (Gas Insulated Switchgear) PD (Partial Discharge) diagnostic algorithm for both single-defects and multi-defects in HiPDS-G (Hyundai intelligent Preventive Diagnostic System for GIS) developed by HHI(Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., Ltd) is given. The work includes PD defects data acquisition and analysis, ANN (Artificial Neural Network) modeling as an automatic identification method and application for PD defects diagnosis. And the agreement rate analysis through the application of the developed algorithm for PD defects diagnosis is performed. Index Terms—Artificial Neural Network, Feature extraction, GIS PD, PD pattern database

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I. INTRODUCTION

ecently, high capacity and high reliability of electric power utility are needed for the given circumstances such as increase in electric power demand and growth of an information-oriented society. Therefore, in order to prevent the breakdown of power systems from occurring due to insulation breakdown accidents and to establish an efficient maintenance schedule, the request of an online preventive diagnostic system for the electric power utility has been increased. There have been many studies for the preventive diagnostic system and especially, researches for PD (Partial Discharge) phenomena occurring inside GIS have been in the middle of the studies. PD patterns usually are displayed by UHF (Ultra High Frequency) sensor installed inside or outside GIS and the

Young Chan Choi is with Electro-Mechanical Research Institute, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-716, Korea. He is now a principal researcher of Electric Power Machinery Research Department (e-mail: choiyc@hhi.co.kr). Seung Wan Jung is with Electro-Mechanical Research Institute, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-716, Korea. He is now a researcher of Electric Power Machinery Research Department (corresponding author to provide phone: 82-31-289-5193; fax: 82-31-289-5050; e-mail: jswany@hhi.co.kr). Soo Nam Kim is with Electro-Mechanical Research Institute, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-716, Korea. He is now a senior researcher of Electric Power Machinery Research Department (e-mail: soonami@hhi.co.kr). Seong Il Kim is with Electro-Mechanical Research Institute, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-716, Korea. He is now a researcher of Electric Power Machinery Research Department (e-mail: sikim@hhi.co.kr). Joong Lok Kwon is with Electro-Mechanical Research Institute, Hyundai Heavy Industries Co., LTD., Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-716, Korea. He is now a principal researcher and the head of Electric Power Machinery Research Department (e-mail: jlk0818@hhi.co.kr).

Fig. 1. A general PD diagnosis procedure

A. feature extraction stage to extract distinguishing marks of each PD defect. 2) PD defect manufacturing In this paper. the number of PD occurrence. the PDIV should be regulated in full detail to generate PD at both different single-defects. the following 5 single-defects were selected as representatives in this paper. 2 different data format called PRPS and PRPD were selected. Fig. the tests for a variety of PD defects including single-defects and multi-defects inside GIS was performed and especially. In this paper. the test PD cell for multi-defects were manufactured by combining 2 different PD single-defects. It consists of total 5 stages : PD data acquisition stage which accepts PD data as a preset data format. a. PD Data Acquisition 1) PD data format There are different PD data formats for effectively obtaining PD signals. PRPS data has a format of 60×64 matrix consisting of PD magnitude and resolved phase for 1 cycle. respectively. Single-defects There are several single-defects occurring inside GIS according to its physical causes. 2 and the rest patterns of Floating Electrode and the other single-defects are omitted. PDIV of Void cell was selected as a reference value because it had a fixed PDIV once it had been manufactured. 1. With 5 single-defects above. so when 2 different single-defects were combined inside GIS mockup for the test. Busbar Corona (BC). diagnosis stage which classify the PD pattern by the developed diagnostic algorithm based on the PD pattern database and final decision stage for determining the ultimate diagnosis result. PRPS and PRPD are short for Phase Resolved Pulse Sequence and Phase Resolved Partial Discharge. 5 kinds of defects. Examples of different Floating Electrode PD Patterns . This PRPD data analysis can be a good indicator for an ambiguous PD patterns to diagnose as it presents distinctive features of each PD defect pattern which has been accumulated for a longer time than PD real-time data. total 5 different Floating Electrode pattern have been collected and implemented as Floating Electrode database in HiPDS-G and the same principle was applied to the other single-defects. the PD pattern of each defect consists of several similar patterns which can occur due to different test conditions such as the state of PD cell and the applied voltage from outside. In this paper. Among those. And the concentric electric field would cause the corona discharge and this can be classified into Busbar and Chamber Corona depending on its location of protrusion. therefore. PRPD data has a format of 100×64×N matrix by accumulating the real-time data consisting of PD magnitude. several different PD patterns of Floating Electrode are shown in Fig. ▪ Floating Electrode ▪ Busbar Corona ▪ Chamber Corona ▪ Particle ▪ Void 2 At first. During PD test. Particle (P) and Void (V). In this paper. For instance. Particle discharge occurs by the movement of metal particle in GIS. Chamber Corona (CC). the accumulating time was determined as several minutes and the data was created according to each single-defect and multi-defect. And Void discharge generally happens by the concentric electric field at air gaps in the spacer of GIS. Floating Electrode occurs by potential increase by bad connection inside GIS. This paper follows the general recognition procedure explained above and each stage for PD data acquisition and analysis will be explained by the procedure.>287 < A general PD pattern classification procedure for PD data acquisition and analysis is shown in Fig. resolved phase. preprocessing stage for filtering valueless raw data. were selected as PD single-defects. 2. What is the important point during this data acquisition test was that each single-defect had a different PDIV (Partial Discharge Inception Voltage). respectively. which were Floating Electrode (F). changing the test conditions of the rest PD cells such as electrode gap regulation should be needed.

the diagnosis result is displayed on the screen as soon as any PD occurs. Additionally. 3. 4 shows cellular phone noise which is one example of typical noise data C2 were constituted by combining 5 single-defects and they were applied to the PD data acquisition test. which is feature extraction stage. Feature Extraction Feature extraction stage is one of the most important parts in the field of pattern recognition because it can directly influence the diagnosis result. Total 6 features are selected as phase area characteristics as following. are analyzed in terms of their phase characteristic and set up as one class in ANN with other 5 PD defects. The one is phase area characteristic and the other is phase distribution characteristic. It’s clear that the PRPD patterns indicate more specific characteristic as they have been accumulated for several minutes. but when the diagnosis result is ambiguous for the final decision.>287 < b. 1) Phase Area Characteristics Phase area characteristics show where PD signals are located and concentrated at the range of phase. Examples of multi-defect PRPD Pattern ▪ Mean of phase area ( f L ) ▪ PD occurrence frequency ( f N ) In this paper. the tests for 10 kinds of multi-defects computed by equation of 5 3 B. Cellular Phone Noise (a) F & BC (Floating Electrode and Busbar Corona) C. ▪ Concentration rate of quadrant 1 . Even if the same numbers of features are extracted. they had better be filtered in advance because the diagnosis result can be confused when applied to the diagnosis stage. the features extracted from phase characteristic of PD data are divided into 2 distinguishing parts. Fig. PRPS and PRPD data were applied to single-defect and multi-defect classification algorithm. the feature-vector extracted from good features which reflect unique characteristics of each PD pattern can result in a better diagnosis result [10]. (b) P & BC (Particle and Busbar Corona) Fig. 4. ▪ F & BC (Floating Electrode and Busbar Corona) ▪ F & CC (Floating Electrode and Chamber Corona) ▪ F & P (Floating Electrode and Particle) ▪ F & V (Floating Electrode and Void) ▪ BC & CC (Busbar Corona and Chamber Corona) ▪ BC & P (Busbar Corona and Particle) ▪ BC & V (Busbar Corona and Void) ▪ CC & P (Chamber Corona and Particle) ▪ CC & V (Chamber Corona and Void) ▪ P & V (Particle and Void) Among 10 kinds of multi-defect PD patterns. the operator using HiPDS-G can additionally check the diagnosis result by PRPD data for more accurate diagnosis. 3. which are usually called as noise data. The reason why 2 different PD data format was applied is because multi-defect classification function is provided as an option in HiPDS-G. The 10 kinds of multi-defect combinations were as follows. It seems that multi-defects in Fig. 3 include 2 different single-defects in it. In this paper. Multi-defect In this paper. respectively. In case of typical unnecessary data. a couple of patterns are shown in Fig. Fig. For single-defect. ( fC1 ) ▪ Concentration rate of quadrant 3 ( f C 3 ) ▪ Asymmetry of quadrant 1 and 2 ( f A12 ) ▪ Mean of PD Magnitude ( f M ) 2) Phase Distribution Characteristics In the field of statistics. The unnecessary data means some data which don’t need to be diagnosed as they have few PD signals or too many PD signals in their PD data. Preprocessing Preprocessing stage prevents a lot of unnecessary data occurring by any kind of noise from applying to the next stage. skewness and kurtosis are two of the most commonly used indices to check how the data are distributed in the given range.

If skewness is negative. In case of PRPS data. weight and bias matrix are finally obtained. hidden layer and output layer. total 5 × 15 target matrix is obtained for 5 single-defects and 10 multi-defects. Fig. Fig. ( f KFN ) : Distribution characteristic of PD frequency at each half-period As written above. The modeling of each target values in ANN has been conducted by constituting a different column matrix to implement each single-defect and multi-defect. ANN method has been selected for PD diagnosis because of its applicability among many algorithms for automatic identification method generally used in the field of pattern recognition. 6 shows ANN modeling for PRPD data. ▪ Skewness of PD magnitude III. skewness and kurtosis are applied to two different phase range. The ANN was composed of 3 layers. the number of neurons of hidden layer was chosen as a reasonable value through repetitive practice to improve the diagnosis result. Fig. In this paper. the target has 6×1 column vector. input layer. the back propagation method was applied as a way of ANN learning process and it was performed through source coding in MATLAB. In this paper. the data are spread out more to the left of the mean than to the right and if positive. Additionally. 5. The detailed ANN learning stage will be explained in detail at the next section. The following are 4 statistical features and total 8 features were selected because the whole phase range is regarded as2 independent half-period. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 3. ( f SMN ) : Distribution characteristic of PD magnitude at each half-period ▪ Kurtosis of PD magnitude ( f KMP ). and the number of neurons of input and output layer were determined based on the number of feature extraction and PD defects plus noise. The learning process is performed with PD pattern database which was established by both a lot of PD patterns and a wide ranging of PD patterns even in one PD defect. distributions that are less outlier-prone have kurtosis less than 3. ( f KMN ) : Distribution characteristic of PD magnitude at each half-period ▪ Skewness of PD frequency ( f SFP ). 6. The highest defect is finally displayed as a final diagnosis result in case of PRPS data and PRPD single-defect data and the highest two defects are finally displayed as a final diagnosis result in case of PRPD multi-defect data. learning process in ANN is needed before applied to PD diagnosis stage. Distributions that are more outlier-prone than the normal distribution have kurtosis greater than 3. ANN modeling for PRPD data . the final PD diagnosis is conducted. the weight and bias matrix are applied to PD data and the final diagnosis results are given through the internal matrix computation. 5 shows ANN modeling for PRPS data. no additional class is added as it is provided as an optional function for operators using HiPDS-G. Final Decision In this stage. Diagnosis First of all. therefore. total 6×6 target matrix is obtained for 5 single-defects and noise. the target has 5×1 column vector. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODELING 4 ( f SMP ). “Unknown class” is added with 5 PD defects and 1 noise class. ANN modeling for PRPS data In case of PRPD data.>287 < Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the data around the sample mean. therefore. Also. And in case of PRPD data. Fig. In diagnosis stage. The highest value between the PD diagnosis values is chosen as the first PD source and the value is recalculated in percent [%] and displayed [11]. ( f SFN ) : Distribution characteristic of PD frequency at each half-period ▪ Kurtosis of PD frequency ( f KFP ). respectively. total 14 features were finally selected and they are applied to the input variables of ANN in the diagnosis process. positive half-period (0°~180°) and negative half-period (180°~360°). E. that is. D. the data are spread out more to the right. In case of PRPS data. And the weights and biases in ANN were finally calculated through repetitive learning process to minimize the total error between ANN target and output values. As a result of learning process. Kurtosis is a measure of how outlier-prone a distribution is.

max [ ARD ( lr . it is applied to the PRPD multi-defect diagnosis algorithm. for example. the diagnosis result for each PRPD and PRPD data are obtained as TABLE I and TABLE Ⅱ.After being applied to PRPD classification algorithm. Objective Function Agreement Rate for Diagnosis (ARD) is developed and used to assess the diagnosis result in this paper.6 Fig. 7.Because the data was finally classified into PRPD multi-defect. 7 illustrates the overall diagnostic algorithm from step 1 to step 3. 1) STEP Ⅰ . DIAGNOSTIC ALGORITHM A. Where. it is classified into PRPD multi-defect. in 3rd step. Fig. Diagnosis Result Analysis As a result of the proposed procedure. Finally. 5 single-defect and PRPD multi-defect diagnosis algorithm. the reclassified PRPD data is diagnosed by independent PRPD . 3) STEP Ⅲ . in case of PRPS. it can be a single-defect or multi-defect without any criterion. PRPD classification algorithm is applied to reclassify whether the data is PRPD single-defect or not because once the input data is classified as PRPD data.The input data is classified into PRPD data based on its data format 2) STEP Ⅱ . TABLE I DIAGNOSIS RESULT FOR PRPS DATA ARD [%] = ∑ f (D ) i =1 i N N × 100 Di : ith PD test patterns f ( Di ) is 1 if the diagnosis result equals to the PD source and 0 if not N : the number of PD test patterns applied for diagnosis And the objective function is as follows. nh)] ARD : Agreement Rate for Diagnosis lr : learning rate in ANN nh : the number of neuron at hidden layer in ANN B. And in 2nd step. Diagnostic Algorithm Development Defect F BC CC P V Noise Diagnosis Results F 99 0 0 0 0 0 BC 0 100 0 0 0 0 CC 0 0 100 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 99 0 0 V 0 0 0 0 99 0 N 1 0 0 0 0 100 UK 0 0 0 1 1 0 Diagnosis Agreement [%] 99/100=99 100/100=100 100/100=100 99/100=99 99/100=99 100/100=100 597/600=99. The developed diagnostic algorithm for both single defects and multi defects The proposed diagnostic algorithm in this paper was largely divided 3 steps. C.>287 < IV. And the diagnosis result is calculated and the highest two defects are diagnosed as 2 PD sources. the most possible defect between several PD defects is diagnosed and in case of PRPD. When PRPD multi-defect data of 100×64 matrix is entered. TABLE Ⅱ DIAGNOSIS RESULT FOR PRPD DATA Defect F BC CC P V F&C F & CC F&P F&V BC & CC BC & P BC & V CC & P CC & V P&V Total ARD [%] Diagnosis Agreement [%] 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 8/10 = 80 148/150 = 98. the process of the developed diagnostic algorithm is as follows. The 1st step is to classify the input PD data into either a PRPS or a PRPD data in terms of its PD data format.5 Total ARD [%] UK is short for ‘Unknown data’ and diagnosed when the highest diagnosis value is less than 50% and N is short for ‘Noise’.

2000. 755-764 [5] E.7. vol. E. S. [4] Y. vol. vol. E. pp.. 5. In case of PRPD data. and W. Koo. The reason why only multi-defect of P&V was wrong is because the input data was classified into PRPD single-defect in step 2 not because the PRPD multi-defect diagnosis algorithm had a problem. No. 5. Journal of the Korean Physical Society. February 2000 [7] N. Salama and R. 1995. pp. M. no. it seems that the Floating Electrode data had a very similar pattern with Noise data. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and electrical Insulation. “Determination of neural-network topology for partial discharge pulse pattern recognition”. December 1993 6 [11] Edward Gulski. Gulski. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation.7. “Development of Portable GIS PD (Partial Discharge) Monitoring and Diagnosis System”.2. 446-456. Kreuger. vol. 5. “Discrimination of Partial Discharge Patterns Using a Neural Network”. no. IEEE Tran. no.7. February 2000 [6] R.119 [10] F. A. M. Salama.>287 < In case of PRPS data. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PLAN In this paper. 889-892 [3] M. no. and the most possible defect or defects was determined as a final diagnosis result after classification stage of PD input data had been performed. Lim and J. “Classification of Partial Discharges”. October 1995 [9] Young Chan Choi. Krivda. no. vol. pp. no. M. 3. Only 1 Floating Electrode data had a wrong diagnosis result as Noise. “PD Recognition by Means of Statistical and Fractal Parameters and a Neural Network”. Krivda. IEEE Tran. 2002. .28.. And the reliability of the diagnosis result is expected to be improved by continuously upgrading the algorithm and implementing an enormous amount of database by collecting both a variety of and a lot of PD data for both single-defects and multi-defects. Gulski and A. Lalitha. pp.2. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. “Wavelet Analysis for Classification of Multi-source PD Patterns”. October 1995 . no. International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis pp. A. H. “Digital Analysis of Partial Discharges”. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation. IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation. 6. 2. “The use of fractal features for recognition of 3-D discharge patterns”. 1. the diagnosis result has been proven to be more than 99% for 600 different PD test patterns. 42. . REFERENCES [1] M. It means that the proposed diagnostic algorithm in this paper is very powerful for PD source diagnosis and is very robust as it has a couple of redundancies for more accurate diagnosis result. V. 6. “Automated Recognition of Partial Discharges”. the development process of diagnostic algorithm for both single-defects and multi-defects occurring inside GIS was described. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 1. vol. The new algorithm was implemented using artificial neural network by source coding in MATLAB. [2] A. no. no. “Comparative analysis of partial discharge patterns from different artificial defects by means of conventional phase-resolved partial discharge analysis and a novel chaotic analysis of partial discharge”. vol.27. Vol. total 150 PRPD data was used as test pattern. “Fuzzy logic applied to PD pattern classification”. 2003. IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation. 118-123. Hozumi. vol. L. Krivda. Bartnikas. 1. vol. Candela. The proposed algorithm consists of 3 parts. 13. June 1992 [8] A. and it was proved that diagnosis ability of the developed algorithm was outstanding as a result of various verification process based on the acquired data. Satish. 2. Zaengl.

1. 2. Examples of different Floating Electrode PD Patterns . A general PD diagnosis procedure Fig.>287 < 7 Fig.

Cellular Phone Noise Fig. 4. 3.>287 < 8 (a) F & BC (Floating Electrode and Busbar Corona) (b) P & BC (Particle and Busbar Corona) Fig. ANN modeling for PRPS data . 5. Examples of multi-defect PRPD Pattern Fig.

The developed diagnostic algorithm for both PRPS and PRPD data TABLE I DIAGNOSIS RESULT FOR PRPS DATA Defect F BC CC P V Noise Diagnosis Results F 99 0 0 0 0 0 BC 0 100 0 0 0 0 CC 0 0 100 0 0 0 P 0 0 0 99 0 0 V 0 0 0 0 99 0 N 1 0 0 0 0 100 UK 0 0 0 1 1 0 Diagnosis Agreement [%] 99/100=99 100/100=100 100/100=100 99/100=99 99/100=99 100/100=100 597/600=99.>287 < 9 Fig. ANN modeling for PRPD data Fig. 7. 6.5 Total ARD [%] .

6 .>287 < 10 TABLEⅡ DIAGNOSIS RESULT FOR PRPD DATA Defect F BC CC P V F&C F & CC F&P F&V BC & CC BC & P BC & V CC & P CC & V P&V Total ARD [%] Diagnosis Agreement [%] 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 10/10 = 100 8/10 = 80 148/150 = 98.