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Japan Soft Power DA

Heidt, Silber, Petersen, and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab

Japan Soft Power DA
Japan Soft Power DA...........................................................................................................1 Japanese Soft Power- 1NC...................................................................................................3 Japanese Soft Power- 1NC...................................................................................................4 Uniqueness- SoPo high- perception ....................................................................................5 Uniqueness- SoPo high- economy proves...........................................................................6 Uniqueness- SoPo high- Enviro...........................................................................................7 AT- Soft Power Alt Cause ..................................................................................................8 Uniqueness- SoPo high- diverse markets............................................................................9 Uniqueness- SoPo high- multilateral coop........................................................................10 Uniqueness- SoPo high- culture.........................................................................................11 Uniqueness/Link- Japan tech= soft power.........................................................................13 Link- environmental leadership key soft power................................................................15 Link- Alternative Energy key to SoPo...............................................................................16 Link- Commitment key to Enviro Leadership...................................................................17 Link- Japan Backlash.........................................................................................................18 Link- U.S.-Japan Zero Sum...............................................................................................19 Impact- Internal Link- Japan Solo Action key to Relations..............................................20 Impact- U.S.-Japan Relations............................................................................................21 Impact- Japanese Economy................................................................................................22 Impact- Internal Link- Rearm............................................................................................23 Impact- Economy Internal Link to Rearm.........................................................................24 Impact- Japan Rearm.........................................................................................................25 Impact- Japan Rearm.........................................................................................................26 Impact- U.S. Japan- Taiwan...............................................................................................27 Impact- U.S. Japan- Taiwan...............................................................................................28 Impact- U.S.-Japan Relations k to Econ............................................................................29 Impact- U.S. Japan Relations Spillover.............................................................................30 Impact- Japan SoPo key to the economy...........................................................................31 Impact- Japanese Economy................................................................................................32 Impact- Internal Link- Japanese Economy key to World Economy..................................33 Impact- Japan SoPo is key to Hard Power.........................................................................34 Impact- Asian Wars...........................................................................................................35 Impact-key to Asian peace and economy..........................................................................36 Impact- U.S. Alliance key to Chinese-Japanese Relations................................................37 Impact- China-Japan (Straight Times)...............................................................................38 Impact-Chinese-Japanese...................................................................................................39 Impact-Chinese-Japanese...................................................................................................40 Impact-Chinese-Japanese...................................................................................................41 Impact-Chinese-Japanese...................................................................................................42 Aff- Japanese SoPo key.....................................................................................................43 Aff AT: Soft Power NB – Alt Causes................................................................................44 Aff- U.S. Action key to U.S. SoPo....................................................................................45

Japan Soft Power DA

Heidt, Silber, Petersen, and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab

Aff AT: Japan Economy NB..............................................................................................46 Aff AT: Japan NB..............................................................................................................47 Aff: Climate not key to SoPo.............................................................................................48 Aff- SoPo Low Now..........................................................................................................49

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Japan Soft Power DA

Heidt, Silber, Petersen, and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab

Japanese Soft Power- 1NC
Sustaining alternative technology competitiveness is key to Japanese leadership. Gulf News, 8 (Ramadan Al Sherbini – correspondent, “Japan showcases clean energy initiatives,” 7-10-8, http://www.gulfnews.com/business/General/10227489.html, AG) 'Environmentally friendly products available here', 'For a low-carbon planet' and 'Don't forget your eco-bag'. These and other catchphrases are most likely to draw your attention wherever you go in Japan, as the country is trying to assert its global leadership in innovative clean energy technologies. With an estimated 80 million conventional cars running on Japan's roads, the nation's major automakers are now developed nextgeneration vehicles. "There are some 60 fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], which use hydrogen as fuel," said Hishashi Yano, the director of the Japan Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicle Demonstration Project, an industrial research effort supported by the Japanese government. "These cars cut carbon dioxide to about one third compared to the gasoline cars and emit only water while driving," Yano told Gulf News. "The FCVs significantly mark a shift from the fossil fuel-based society to the hydrogen-based society." Yano expects the FCVs to be commercialised in 15 years' time. "It costs 15 million yen [around Dh510,000] at present. The challenge facing us is to cut the cost." According to Yano, some automakers, involved in the project like Honda, have started leasing this "ecocars" for 60,000 yen per month. Leaders of the Group of Eight (G8) - Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the US - on Tuesday worked on a deal to fight climate change. Japan is seeking support for an initiative that could make its frugal energy levels the new standards for global industries, thereby increasing overseas demand for Japanese energy technology. Target Japan and the European Union have already agreed on a target of halving global greenhouse gases by 2050, but the US is reluctant to set any ambitious goals unless emerging nations, mainly China and India, agree to join the framework. Capitalising on the three-day summit, Japan looks at pains to tout its energy-efficient technologies particularly in view of surging oil prices. Fuel cell and electric vehicles are used as shuttle buses for transporting guests between the summit-related events in the resort of Toyako on Japan's northern island. The G8 First Ladies were given the chance on Tuesday to test-drive the eco-cars. Their husbands will follow suit. Green information technology (IT) is another innovative concept marketed at another Hokkaido exhibition. "This concept focuses on both energy-saving IT equipment and systems as well as on energy-sufficient society by IT usage," said Erika Takeshi, an employee of a Japanese maker of 'environmentally conscious' personal computers. "Our personal computers reduce carbon dioxide emission per year by 33 per cent and have a high power-saving feature." Event Eco-business is, meanwhile, the focus of the 'Environmental Showcase', an exhibition set up inside a major centre for media representatives covering the G8 gathering. "This exposition features Japan's latest technologies and efforts in addressing environmental challenges," Yasuko Yoshida, a guide at the exhibition, told Gulf News. One of the key innovative technologies showcased is 'snow-and-ice cryogenic energy'. "More local and private businesses in Japan's snowy regions are utilising snow and ice stored in winter for air-conditioning and refrigeration in summer. Besides cutting the costs of cooling and refrigeration, this technology will optimally utilise snows, considered by residents of snowy areas to be a headache that prevents social activities during winter," she explained.

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Japan Soft Power DA

Heidt, Silber, Petersen, and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab

Japanese Soft Power- 1NC
Independent Japanese leadership on environment key to increase soft power Nikkei weekly 1/16/1995 “"nations diplomatic policies should center on environmental protection" LN) <Although Japan has committed itself to never becoming a military power, the nation's considerable economic and technological resources make it the ideal candidate to take up the sword of leadership in another type of war: the struggle to preserve and protect the global environment. The nation should adopt this quest as the center of its diplomatic agenda, which in past years has not been strong enough to stand on its own. Championing ecological causes also offers Japan the opportunity to move out of the shadow of the U.S. diplomatic umbrella and help erase the image that Tokyo's embracement of pacifism is self-serving. With the Cold War over, the perception of security has undergone radical changes. The threat of a catastrophic war between two superpowers has now vanished, to be replaced by concerns that have a more immediate impact on everyday life, such as the squandering of global resources and the abuse of drugs. For threats of this type, the nuclear umbrella is meaningless, and even militarily weak nations can play a major role in eradicating them. However, economic power does not automatically translate into political clout. While Japanese assistance has played a significant role in the economic development of neighboring Asian countries, it is often noted that this aid has done little to win Tokyo greater political trust. Most recipients have tended to regard assistance from Japan as a fee of sorts for access to their natural resources or markets. One way in which Japan is trying to change its image is by placing a higher priority on environmental protection in its official development assistance. At the Group of Seven summit in 1989, Tokyo pledged 300 billion yen in environmental ODA over three years. As it turned out, the amount actually committed exceeded the promised sum by 100 billion yen. At the Earth Summit in 1992, Japan pledged to provide up to 1 trillion yen in such aid over a five-year period. Nevertheless, even this amount won't be sufficient if Japan wishes to make environmental assistance the focal point of its diplomatic thrust. The scale of the U.S.'s Marshall Plan for European recovery after World War II should be remembered . Many experts agree that environmental diplomacy is one area in which Japan is highly competent to lead and where its own interests agree with those of the international community. That assessment is supported by the fact that other countries have increased their reliance on Japan in coping with environmental problems. The U.S. State Department last year called on Japan to engage in bilateral cooperation over environmental issues. And China, with Japan's assistance, is scheduled to launch an environmental-preservation center in Beijing to promote bilateral exchanges in such areas as research and development. When National Institute of Research Associations Director General Susumu Hoshino called for the creation of a North Pacific Energy and Environment Community last year, his proposal drew strong interest. The proposal calls for all major countries in the region, including China, Russia, South Korea, Canada and the U.S. to cooperate and complement each other on energy and environmental needs. With its highly advanced antipollution know-how, Japan is sufficiently equipped to advance environmental diplomacy on a full scale. There is also international demand for such initiatives from Japan. All that is needed now is the national will to undertake the task . > <Insert SoPo impact>

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Of course. 5 . as I said. And this is the purely based on Japan's self-defense capability.S. And today. It’s hard to know how to tap it. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness. although I would note. Again. unloved country in Asia. That's useful to the United States. Japan over the past few years has either won or tied. http://www. which is truly a remarkable development and even more remarkably.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. So it’s an added measure of stability in the region and dissuasion for those that might consider using force even. Pew polls show that in Southeast Asia. And the BBC. and perception proves Green. for example. Japan has soft power. It has some problems on history to be sure. But Japan is not an isolated. whether it’s the World Bank or the IMF. Japan spends only a little less than 1 percent on GDP. and some of you may have seen. in South Asia. squishy thing. or China. Japan is a more respected country than either the U. within Japan’s constitution and self-defense missions. “THE ROLE OF JAPAN IN SECURING STABILITY IN ASIA.” 5/28/2008. looking at the Taiwan Straits – although Japan has no defense commitment to Taiwan – the Chinese side now has to calculate that any use of force would be – would bring potentially Japan into this.cnponline. they tied with Canada. So there are some history problems. Silber.org/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/6405) //HBG Japan’s own defense capabilities – well. but Japan has considerable good will around the world. in its annual polls on what country you respect or think contributes to the world. the Chinese asked Japan to send self-defense forces to Szechwan to help with the earthquake. The Chinese. Gallup polls. it’s the second largest contributor to most of the major international financial institutions. as the Western and American press often tries to argue. that Prime Minister Fukuda had a very good meeting in Tokyo with President Hu Jintao. the UN. the self defense forces said yes. That’s sometimes – soft power is a mushy.SoPo high. So there will be C-130s going. 8 – DIRECTOR: CENTER FOR STRATEGIC AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES (Michael. financial incentives. Last year. of open regionalism. Japan has a key role in demonstrating the importance of our shared values of democracy. There are some efforts to manage those that are encouraging. the Asian Development Bank. Petersen. Japan is important. and so forth. Remember.perception Japan has soft power – global commitments.

They relate to the nature of soft power.php)//HBG For example. Japan's state-led economic development in the postwar decades provided its neighboring countries with an "Asian model" of economic development as an alternative to the U. First.e. Silber. Here. That is.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. including many in the United States. and investing heavily in research and development. http://www."13 He observes that Japan is first in the world in number of patents. having made some painful reforms. However.075 billion in 1980 to $3. March 2005.16 As well. 6 . and first for life expectancy. "Japan has more potential soft power resources than any other Asian country.353 million in 1980 to $9. However. if limited growth in 2003-04.053 billion in 1990 to $4. permitting crony capitalism and counterproductive collusion of political and business interests. others. just behind the United States.S. Japan has come a long way since its first direct participation—as opposed to financial contribution—in Cambodia in 1992-93.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/9/2/1/pages69216/p692161.931 million in 1980 to $758. 17 Japan's ODA disbursement grew from $3.419 million in 2000. second in the number of Internet hosts.470 billion in 2000 speaks volumes for its soft power. confidence returned to the political and business elite in Asia as they managed to navigate their economies out of the crisis more quickly than many outside observers predicted. are poised to compete in the global market.economy proves Japan’s Soft power is high – economic stability proves Akaha.. too.-based liberal market model. 14 The human development index puts Japan in ninth place in the world.124.SoPo high.-led occupation of their country? We will discuss this question later Concerning Japan's soft power Nye states. the bursting of Japan's economic bubble raised serious questions both inside and outside of Japan about the sustainability of the Japanese model. first in development assistance. particularly to the Asian neighbors. improving productivity.S. with the nation’s economy experiencing steady. Many saw Japan as leading the "flying geese" pattern of economic development across the entire East Asian region. feared Japan’s rising economic power and criticized the "mercantilist" competition of the second largest economy in the world. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness. second in book sales and music sales. for example. Moreover. Japanese corporations. 5 -. and this limits Japan’s attraction to the international community. second in high-tech exports. 15 To the extent that Japan's economic performance is an object of international admiration. there are several complications and limitations to the use of soft power as an instrument of national policy. or as an aspect of the U. third in international air travel. a nation's action to project its soft power may be viewed by other nations as attempts to legitimize its hard power role in international security.378 million in 2000. is the Japanese SDF presence in Iraq perceived by the local populations as a demonstration of soft power. humanitarian assistance and post-conflict reconstruction aid. Japan's global trade expanded from $445. Japan's post-bubble recession—the longest and the most serious since the immediate postwar period—also appears to be over. 18 Another area in which a nation can exercise its soft power is international peacekeeping. effective use of soft power requires that the target recognize and accept soft power as such. the fact that the nation's GDP grew from $1. that the nation has not fully come to terms with its record of foreign aggression in the 1930s. However. DEBATING "SOFT POWER" IN JAPAN'S SECURITY POLICY:IMPLICATIONS FOR ALLIANCE WITH THE UNITED STATES. i. Japan was participating in 16 UN peacekeeping operations around the world.222 million in 1990 and to $13. Nye notes. there are limits to Japan’s soft power. third in expenditures and development as a percent of gross domestic product. Petersen.324 million to $1. Although the power of attraction may be generally preferable to coercive power. For example.Monterey Institute of International Studies (Tsuneo.allacademic. As of June 2004. The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 also appeared to vindicate the view that traditional Asian values and their institutional weaknesses limited the transparency and robustness of their economies.

25 These modest expectations contrast rather sharply with the language that many Japanese diplomats use in advancing the foreign policy goals of their government. science and technology. Nearly 40 percent of the respondents said that in international diplomacy it would be wrong for Japan to possess a sense of big power (taikoku ishiki).Monterey Institute of International Studies (Tsuneo. Only one-quarter of the respondents said that because Japan would continue to be a big economic power the nation should make international contributions commensurate with that status in the United Nations and other multilateral fields. In 2004. energy. Most respondents believed Japan was very strong and progressive in the areas of environment. their assessment of Japan's foundation of soft power was mixed. the survey participants thought Japan was weak in food. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness. and Denmark.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. A recent Japanese study is illustrative of how Japanese intellectuals see their nation's power. and popular culture. Petersen. and speech and thought (genron and shiso). and that Japan should develop multiple and multi-level intellectual networks. Instead. Particularly in the environmental field the respondents thought Japan was strategically positioned to play a leading role in the world. DEBATING "SOFT POWER" IN JAPAN'S SECURITY POLICY:IMPLICATIONS FOR ALLIANCE WITH THE UNITED STATES.php) //HBG Although Japan had moved up one notch from the previous year. and stronger military alliance with the United States. speech and thought. for example. This annual rating measures the “ability of national economies to attract and retain investment through the creation of a globally competitive business environment. more active and more visible participation in international peacekeeping activities. they believed that Japan should enhance its raison d'être by demonstrating various meritorious characteristics of the Japanese people. popular culture. it is not surprising that most participants in a related survey expressed rather modest hopes for Japan's diplomacy. society and education. from the 29 th The United States led the ranking in 2004. food and energy resources. March 2005. It is to these areas of international security that we now turn 7 . one hundred intellectuals were asked to assess Japan's relative power in the world in nine areas—economy. Canada. Silber. and that it was very risky to pursue a particular ideology or goal in the international society. Hong Kong. http://www. economy. 24 In short.allacademic. and military power. In contrast. Japan's assumption of a permanent UN Security Council position. politics. defense and military. environment. Ireland. science and technology.Enviro Japan Soft power high – their environmental policy plays a leadership role globally Akaha. 5 -. China’s standing had improved even more.SoPo high.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/9/2/1/pages69216/p692161. Australia. including soft power. politics. There was a widely shared view that the nation lacked active policy debate. followed by Singapore. Therefore. They advocate. that journalism contributed little to policy debate.

Silber. however. 8 . When Ikeda called for doubling incomes. Of course. The first was Hayato Ikeda. nobody doubted that Japan was poised for a high growth path. the basic pillar of Japanese diplomacy is its alliance with the U. Specifically. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab AT. But raising productivity in the financial and other service industries really holds the key to achieving high growth in the new age.Soft Power Alt Cause Although Japan has a multi-dimensional soft power agenda." The key question is how will Japan be able to achieve economic growth at a time when its population is declining. film-making and music. As the only country that has suffered atomic bombings. Joseph Nye has warned.S. the environment is the vital internal link to global Japanese Soft power The Nikkei Weekly. Japan should lead the effort in promoting regional cooperation in environmental technology and offer blueprints for establishing closer financial ties through economic partnership agreements and an Asian Currency Unit. It goes without saying that the Abe government should seek to encourage Japanese companies and other organizations to raise their productivity by utilizing innovation in the informationtechnology sector. But Japan has played virtually no role in the United Nations-led efforts to dissuade both North Korea and Iran from acquiring nuclear arms capabilities. the issue of the visits by Japan's leaders to the war-related Yasukuni Shrine has considerably hurt Japan's potential "soft power" in Asia. The second was Kakuei Tanaka.S. It is high time for Japan to propose a future-oriented strategy for the entire region.lexisnexis. Naoaki Okabe is chief editorial page editor of The Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 6 (Japan should tap its 'soft power' in economy. and developing countries come into their own economically. Japan is clearly a mature nation. who became prime minister in 1960 and launched an income-doubling plan and thus paved the way for Japan's high economic growth in the 1960s. His governing principle is "there will be no rebuilding of state finances without growth. which has focused on developing its economic power in the postwar period. Abe has vowed to achieve high economic growth and accelerate the structural reform program initiated by his predecessor. who sought to drive economic growth through major development projects after assuming office in 1972. Abe would be well advised to hold summits with his Chinese and South Korean counterparts as soon as possible and try to bring this concept into practice. Abe will have a much harder task than his two predecessors in accomplishing his high-growth objective. former Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi. The nation's soft power. This does not mean Abe has no chance of achieving his goal. It is the Abe government's historical mission to tap and develop this potential. a U. The initiative to create a common economic community in East Asia will test the Abe government's ability to carry out its growth and diplomatic strategies. Tanaka sought to do the trick by starting public works projects across the nation. Japan. which new Prime Minister Shinzo Abe can use to his advantage in devising the nation's foreign and economic growth strategies. Economic integration in the region might have proceeded much further than it has were it not for Japan's strained relationships with China and South Korea because of differing interpretations of modern history. Japan has been able to tap demand for goods and services required by China and other East Asian countries that have been experiencing growth spurts. His options will increase if he leverages Japan's latent cultural power. Adam Posen. has yet to recognize the potential of its soft power. Japan can also make its presence more strongly felt on the international stage by conducting multidimensional diplomacy. Seven Samurai. Abe is the third postwar prime minister to advocate a policy of high economic growth during his tenure. As Harvard University Prof.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T4235901222&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T4235901225& cisb=22_T4235901224&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8002&docNo=7 ) //HBG Faced with the challenges of a falling birthrate and aging population. diplomacy. has a big poster of the classic Japanese film "Shichinin no Samurai" ("The Seven Samurai") in his office. economist known for his harsh assessment of the Japanese economy. Japan will need such a broad perspective if it wants its voice heard in the global forum. which runs the gamut from traditional and youth culture to goodwill generated by a wide range of international cooperation projects. 10/10/2006 http://www. Japan has made it a national policy to prevent nuclear proliferation. Japanese culture is well known around the globe now.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. They can play a decisive role in an Abe strategy to induce high economic growth. This will go a long way toward recovering the soft power influence it was beginning to lose in Asia. following in China's footsteps. especially at a time when there are such flash points as North Korea in its vicinity. design.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview. But along with this maturity also comes cultural sophistication.. These industries include such culturally oriented fields as fashion. He says he has seen the Akira Kurosawa movie more than a dozen times. Petersen. But the conduct of Japan's diplomacy should be more multidimensional with the ongoing multipolarization of the world as the European Union enlarges its membership and deepens the relations among its member states. and it takes sophisticated cultural tastes to do well in these areas. has potentially much more extensive influence than many Japanese think.

and therefore increase Japan's influence and standing in the region. a former visiting fellow at the Centre for Northeast Asian Policy Studies at the US Brookings Institution.SoPo high. citing areas such as media.' 9 . sumo and hot-springs as well as board games. publishing. according to Osamu Watanabe. In the process. and a host of other cultural products better known throughout Asia and beyond. But more recently. During his official visit to Tokyo this week. Petersen. and one of the priorities of the restructured organisation will be to promote soft-power exports. its popular culture and its language and media productions across so as to increase people's empathy for and understanding of Japan. 7 (Japan could extend 'soft power' influence in region. to reach out to other South-east Asian countries and to get Japan's culture. publishing. anime (or animation techniques) and cartoon characters through to music. http://www. chairman and chief executive of the Japan External Trade Organisation (Jetro). poetry forms such as haika. The term 'soft power' was originally applied to Japan by US senior official Joseph Nye.lexisnexis. animation.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.' he said. While Japan's manufactured exports have achieved major market penetration in overseas markets. flower arrangements and the tea ceremony. the size of Japan's animation market (sales of films. parliamentarians and business leaders he met. music and animation as examples of areas in which Japan has achieved considerable success but by no means universal recognition. its cultural products have not achieved similar recognition. The move is aimed at extending Japan's so-called 'soft power' by making the country's media. TV programmes and Internet Broadband) reached a value of $227US billion by 2005. 'It is an idea which we are keen on and the Japanese have also taken up.' Jetro is undergoing a reorganization.' Jetro argued in a briefing on business topics. the soft-power invasion could do a good deal to boost Japan's service industry exports. He argued that Japan had exerted its power by use of example and persuasion rather than by military force in the postwar period. according to Kiyoshi Sugawa. Jetro's initiative coincides with a parallel one by Singapore to promote the idea of a Japan Cultural Centre in Singapore. Still.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. judo. 'The idea is not so much to target the Singapore market. Silber. 324-07. 'Japanese culture is in a position to offer fresh perspectives to the international community. According to a Media Development Research Institute report. Japanese animation has gained huge popularity because of its high level of artistic content and interesting themes. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T4235901222&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T4235901225& cisb=22_T4235901224&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=11432&docNo=3 ) //HBG JUST selling cars and electronic gizmos to the world is no longer enough for Japan. for example. the term has come to embrace anything from Japanese video games.diverse markets Japan’s Soft Power is high – diverse consumer market proves The Business Times. Around 60 per cent of the animation seen around the world is Japanese. which is coordinating the drive. And the country's cultural exporters are looking to Singapore as a base from which to boost the trade. 'Japanese society has long been engaged in a process of importing Chinese culture and re-fashioning it into a distinctively Japanese culture. videos. karate. which now wants to export less tangible products. Plans for S'pore to be gateway for cultural products. but to use Singapore as an Asian gateway. according to Mr Watanabe. there are opportunities for anime and many other examples of Japanese soft culture to penetrate further into Asia. according to Mr Watanabe and others. music. by its non-nuclear pacifism and by setting a model for the East Asian economic miracle which other countries could copy. Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong said the idea of the Japan Cultural Centre had been well received by Japanese politicians.

with Mr Lee when they meet on Monday. I would like to discuss this with Mr Lee when he comes. Japan also planned to step up cooperation with Asean in energy-saving measures and the promotion of bio-energy through the human resources training and financial aid. the Asean Plus Three. 'As for concrete measures. Japan is now also seeking to strengthen its influence abroad through cultural and other fields as a way of extending its 'soft power' influence. 'We want to disseminate our pop culture. such as manga. 3-17-08.' he said. which enjoy close and friendly ties. It is also a window for Western companies venturing into the region. is likely to represent a new milestone in the relations between the two countries. which starts tomorrow.' he said. The vision also calls for a free flow of people. Asked how Japan-China ties would impact on the region.multilateral coop Japan Soft Power high – multilateral cooperation boost Japan’s creditability and relations Weng Kin. I believe such cooperation will be very meaningful.' he told Tokyo-based Singapore journalists here. 7 – Japan Correspondent for The Strait Times (Kwan.' he noted.000 youths every year from EAS member states. Asked if he hoped to visit Singapore as Prime Minister. which hopes to disseminate information on Japanese culture and trends to the rest of the world. But Mr Abe was non-committal when asked how Japan planned to achieve its goal. if realised. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness.' said Mr Abe. I would like to have another look. 'Singapore is full of vitality and is always changing into the future. he said both countries had agreed to develop a 'mutually beneficial relationship' based on common strategic interests when he visited Beijing last year.JAPAN is keen to explore ways of cooperating with Singapore to boost its cultural presence in South-east Asia. PM Abe shares his views on bilateral ties and vision for the region ahead of PM Lee's visit. music and television shows have become very popular throughout East and South-east Asia. Mr Abe has been touting his 'Asia Gateway' vision. Mr Abe said that he intended to have a 'frank' exchange of views on bilateral ties. But Japan faces competition for cultural influence from other regional powers like China and South Korea. and the East Asia Summit (EAS).proxy. money and information between Asia and the rest of the world using Japan as the gateway. Silber. The EAS has 16 member nations: the 10 Asean members. fashion. Besides its already huge political and economic presence in the region. Since becoming Prime Minister last September.edu/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview. plus China.' he said. He praised Singapore for its constant growth and its readiness to take on new challenges. In recent years. Such cooperation. The interview was held ahead of Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong's official visit here. and believe it will lead to the constructive use of China's potential power for the long-term stability and prosperity of the region.com. Japan and Singapore already cooperate closely at international forums. under which Japan planned to invite 6. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said yesterday. Petersen. culture. 'We hope to use such relations to urge China to play a responsible role in the region. 'Despite the small size of its territory. Mr Abe noted that bilateral ties were 'excellent'. as well as the future of East Asia. and promote Japanese-language education and other cultural fields in the region.lib. He also pointed out that the two countries shared universal values such as freedom.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T4240773893&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=26&resultsUrlKey=29_T4240773896 &cisb=22_T4240773895&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=144965&docNo=42_ //HBG TOKYO . he pointed to the implementation of a five-year exchange programme. He added that Japan would like to develop a relationship with Singapore in which each side would consider the other as a 'reliable partner'. since Singapore is the hub of South-east Asia.lexisnexis. Asked how Japan intended to boost cooperation with the members of Asean as a whole.SoPo high.umich. goods. democracy and basic human rights. 10 . Japan. http://www. Japan keen on S'pore in 'soft power' drive. Australia and New Zealand. Singapore is able to absorb the energy of Asia and make full use of it. 'As two countries that share these values.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. including the United Nations. we must cooperate for the sake of regional peace and stability. Turning to Japan's relations with Singapore. India. the Japanese leader said he looked forward to visiting the Republic when it hosts the EAS later this year. Japanese movies. who visited the Republic many times before becoming Premier. South Korea.

-Japanese cultural exchange. its public diplomacy will be strengthened.. it will add more strength to its soft power. dividing the sum by total population he revealed its investment to be one third of Germany's Goethe Institute and 1/17th of the British Council." The United States was leading in that department since the Cold War followed by Japan. soft powers key to promoting national interests. Germany and China have joined the race. This shows that effective public diplomacy is the true power of the 21st century. the popularity of learning Japanese. The national power of a country depends on how well one takes advantage of that soft power.net/News/news/newsView. Soft power strengthens through interaction with public diplomacy. Lately.korea. In reverse. Thus soft power stands at the core of smart power and is eagerly pursued by many nations. the United Kingdom. Curtis said Fukuda seemed truly concerned with development of Japan's soft power as a whole along with strengthening relations with the U. if a country performs well in its public diplomacy. Gerald Curtis. For example. Silber. Fukuda's interest toward strengthening national image was also confirmed through one U.SoPo high. he met with 26 representatives of Japanese education to pick out items of "immediate importance" among the status of Japanese studies in the U. 12-30-2007. professor of Columbia University in his contribution to Japanese press expressed how the prime minister showed concern toward the lower-than-expected scholarly exchange between the U.Director of the Korean Overseas Information Service (Yoo.S.S.S expert last October. Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda showed deep interest toward the influence of its national image during his 24-hour stay in Washington last month.S. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness. Smart. In relations to Japan's budget for public promotion. he pointed out 11 .culture Japan has strong Soft Power – promotion of culture and cooperation proves Jae-woong. and Japan.S. Reflecting on his encounter. http://www. Smart power refers to enhanced development of "soft power" to be harmonized well with hard power symbolized through military and economic factors.asp? serial_no=20071224024&part=111&SearchDay) //HBG It's a competition between "smart powers.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. If a country has much soft power. The professor added he welcomed that thought and said active promotion of Japanese society and its value would greatly enhance Japanese influence in the world. private exchange and further drumming up of U. Japan too is joining in the race to establish a strong soft power with the emergence of its new Diet. The total number of officials in the Japan Foundation is 348. It is no exaggeration that a country's future image will depend on how well it facilitates its soft power strategy and vision. 7 -. Petersen.

the Japanese language is used by a small segment of the world’s population.php) //HBG However. for example. 20 The nation’s restrictive immigration policy and cultural insularity further limit its ability to attract productive foreign labor.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/0/6/9/2/1/pages69216/p692161. immigration policies. DEBATING "SOFT POWER" IN JAPAN'S SECURITY POLICY:IMPLICATIONS FOR ALLIANCE WITH THE UNITED STATES. with its population reaching its peak in 2005 and beginning an anticipated long decline.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Petersen. placed Japan in 23 rd place. particularly to the Asian neighbors. 5 -.19 Japan also faces serious demographic challenges.” compiled by the Swiss-based International Institute of Management Development. March 2005. just one spot ahead of China. and foreign agression Akaha. 21 The “World Competitiveness Scoreboard 2004. there are limits to Japan’s soft power. Nye notes. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab A2: Environmental Soft Power Alt Cause – Japan Soft power low due to geographical implications. and this limits Japan’s attraction to the international community. 12 . Silber. constraining the Japanese people’s ability to communicate with the rest of the world. http://www. that the nation has not fully come to terms with its record of foreign aggression in the 1930s. The weakness of the political process is an additional constraint on Japan’s soft power that Nye notes.allacademic. Moreover.Monterey Institute of International Studies (Tsuneo.

Silber. departing from hitherto passive attitudes of a following a conservative course taken by the United States. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness/Link. Japan is not a political superstate. in due course. the United Kingdom. including the United States. etc. and (2) the existence of followers.” that is. Admittedly. Petersen. The requirement of asymmetry would be fulfilled by asymmetrical donation of Japanese environmental and/or energysaving technologies to the world.. But even as a political dwarf. would. If Japan plays a major role in singlehandedly giving her superior environmental and/or energy-saving technologies to countries who are seriously suffering from both security and economic threats caused by deforestation. as well as its active engagement in environmental politics and support of environmentally suffering nations. acid rain. a hegemon capable of exercising co-optive power. Japan would be able to fulfill two prerequisites to becoming a “soft hegemon. 79 Japan is a leading country in both environmental legislation and technology. Japan might be able to gain political leverage if it more actively engages in the international politics of the global environment. They are (1) asymmetry. revise their conservative stances in environmental politics and follow the course laid out by Japan. a more assertive stance with respect to the global environment. It is quite noteworthy that Germany recently showed. The second requirement would be consummated when other major countries. desertification. at the 1990 Houston Summit.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. 13 .Japan tech= soft power Japan’s environmental technology growth will solve for soft power and the US will inevitably follow. Taizo Yakushiji 1994 – Japan's International Agenda – p. These prerequisites are exactly the same as those necessary for hard-power hegemony. and other industrialized countries.

education. environmental protection. 5-5-07 (Aaron Gerow. Alarm bells ring when former President Kim Dae Jung. We must improve our own understanding of others. Japanese SoPo is high now. It's not enough to accuse outsiders of ignorance about China.Japan SoPo high now Japanese Soft Power is high now. although of course this is a very positive step. culture. It cannot be seen as opposed to Asian integration. healthcare. We still have problems getting these messages across to the rest of the world. Foreign Minister Taro Aso hopes to take advantage of this popularity to promote Japan's "soft power" internationally. Japanese SoPo high now.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. also is important. possibly Europe's biggest Japanese film and culture festival. is a product of this era.China came out among the countries with a more positive than negative ranking.” March 15. it doesn't have the power to stop it and hindering something that Asians desire is the easiest way to make enemies. the U. When we failed to ride quickly to their rescue.send about its intentions. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Uniqueness. China figures large in their analysis and few assessments are as concise and accurate. which took the top two spots for good world image. but worry about the mixed signals it -. I agree with the researchers who conducted the poll that countries exerting what they term "soft power" tend to win more favor internationally than those that rely on wielding "hard power".” January 14. "the most important question in international affairs in the first half of this century. but still fell behind Canada and Japan. 2007. Washington's reputation was tarred by its seeming indifference to the 1997 Asian financial crisis.multiple factors China Daily." 14 . Petersen. It is. A country's soft power comes from its efforts to promote social progress and well-being domestically and throughout the world through business. Japan's economic recovery holds out hope for Tokyo to play a larger diplomatic role. “Opening up should include speaking up. ally -. representing the fashion for Japan and also exploring new connections that problematize the narratives of fandom and soft power. The authors support Japan's search for a more constructive and assertive role in the region and the world.S. 07 (Brad Glosserman. a positive force in the region. While foreign fans of Japanese anime and manga often just want to see stories and styles different from their own domestic fare. must be careful.” P: Access World News) "Japan cool" is the buzzword today in cultural relations. Silber.U. “Asia’s shift in global importance. Nippon Connection." But as they note.S. P: Access World News) Nonetheless. Nor is it enough to support Confucius Institutes all over the world to help address such ignorance.Cultural Impact proves The Daily Yomiuri. or military might. 2007. "bluntly told us that he was more worried by Japan's defense buildup than by China's and that he feared the resurgence of Japanese militarism.S. 07 (Li Xing." Abramowitz and Bosworth are optimistic about the future: Flash points can be managed. recognizing that our own limited knowledge of the outside world is one reason for failed communications. a supporter of Japan-South Korea reconciliation. it is a complex and nuanced discussion: China defies simple characterization. we seemed to many in the region to care less about their wellbeing than we had during the cold war years. “’Japan cool’ showcased at film festival in Germany.and its U. and China can become. nationalism won't get out of hand. paralleling increased participation in international endeavors to make the world a better place to live.000 people from 27 countries to evaluate 12 countries on measures of positive or negative influences on the world. with proper encouragement. P: Access World News) A recent survey by the British Broadcasting Corp's World Service asked some 28. declining now The Japan Times. they argue. poverty relief and many other areas.Communication to make such efforts understood. That "may have marked the beginning of the decline in American 'soft power' in the region.

1990. 188). Japan defined itself as a model state for sustainable devel¬opment based on its own experiences of late industrialization and pollution control. 107-109. states attempt to maxi¬mize their reputations as trustworthy partners in order to pursue their own material interests. however. a number of important environmental events started to attract international attention (Caldwell. The demise of the Cold War highlighted the importance of economic competition as well as international cooperation for global problems. the emerging principle of sustainable development created a sense of state identity. Osaka University of Foreign Studies. ozone depletion. 15 . In this case. 1991. 1991. This agreement led to a sharp appreciation of the yen. Department of International Studies. rather than a member of. Japan's environmental contribution to international society could mitigate the increasing economic conflict between Japan and other countries. p. Alastair Johnston (2001) mentions three motivations for maximizing status. These events served as eye-openers for policymakers. at that time. Japan enjoyed the second longest post-war eco¬nomic boom. 75-77)//vrs States are concerned about their status in the international system. This factor alone. states are inclined to improve or at least maintain their international status in some issue areas of international politics. 'the perceptions of other states with respect to a state's capacities and its ability and willingness to exercise its power* (Gilpin. 85-87). the West (Mastanduno. is not sufficient to explain Japan's more nuanced atti¬tudes toward various environmental regimes. as neo-liberal institutionalists argue. which promoted the formation of inter¬national environmental norms and regimes.4 First. prestige embraces the concept of a repu¬tation for toughness or resolve (Mercer. McElroy.-s Between 1986 and 1991. 1999. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Link. Japan had sev¬eral particular reasons for this choice. p. later known as the Heisei bubble economy. moreover.substitutes for military power and helps create a national identity Miyaoka. global warming and biological diversity climbed to the top of the international political agenda. Petersen. 1992).” International Relations of the Asia-Pacific. state actors may also seek status in the international system a a means to bolster psychological well-being with social praise. for various reasons. therefore should be of value' (Government of Japan. Japan chose the global environment as an ideal arena for its international contribution (MOFA. was able to redirect some of its funding to buttress this new self-image as an environmentally proactive state. 1990): the discov¬ery of the ozone hole above the Antarctic in 1985. This search became serious. concern for international status can explain why Japan became relatively more active in the area of the global environment as a whole. 'the ending of the Cold War provided a real win¬dow of opportunity. p. and mili¬tary power in particular*. 36).Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Second. 1984. material interests and psychological well-being. due in part to Article 9 (renunciation of the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes) of its Constitution and to the anticipated negative reaction of its neighbors. especially after Japan was criticized for its slow and inadequate response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. which Time magazine called 'the year of the earth'. 1990. Japan was searching for an appropriate role as the world's second-largest economy in the post-Cold-War world. Second. Japan was often criticized for enjoying a free ride in the open international economic system. Japan became an economic competitor to. The Japanese government tried to change the inter¬national perception of itself from a free-rider to a cooperative state by jumping on the bandwagon of global environmental politics. Japan had a comparative advan¬tage in environmental assistance to developing countries since it possessed technologies for achieving an energy-efficient society and for overcoming the serious pollution problems generated in its catch-up economic growth. honor and prestige: power.environmental leadership key soft power Perception of environmental leadership sustains Japanese soft power --. for neo-realist Robert Gilpin. which relies on intangible resources such as an attractive ideology and culture. the Japanese government proudly stated that 'The experience of Japan. and the extraordinary heatwaves and droughts in 1988 in several parts of the world. with other states on terms advan¬tageous to the reputation holders (Keohane. on a wide range of issues. In the year 1989. p. p. the world's worst nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1987. 1996). moreover. Japan could not easily cooperate more fully by using military force. In the latter half of the 1980s. In Japan's national report to UNCED. 1991. Japan. without which the environmental cause would not have been promoted so successfully at the international level' (Thomas. i. Finally. Third. it is not surprising that 'a few states had begun to regard leadership on the global environment as a means of enhancing their inter¬national status' (Porter and Brown. This type of reputation is an asset for making future agreements. The economic presence of Japan was felt more strongly after the Plaza Accord in 1985. As Caroline Thomas puts it. 1987. In this sense. In this international political climate. prestige can also be linked to what Joseph Nye calls 'soft power'. 42). 32).e. which made the Japanese economy look larger in US dollar terms. pp. 4 (Isao. First. 1992. which has endeavored to over¬come serious industrial pollution in order to preserve the environment and at the same time achieve economic growth. taken by many as evidence of global warming. especially in industrialized countries. global environmental problems such as deforestation. 3). p. Silber. Although Gilpin associates the ultimate sources of prestige solely with military and economic power. the power of 'getting others to do want what you want' (Nye. p. which James Fearon defines as a 'socially distinguishing feature that a person takes a special pride in' (Fearon. Volume 4. 1995. The antipollution equipment industry became a $5bn sector in the early 1990s (Government of Japan. scien¬tists and ordinary people. The protection of the global environment was increasingly accepted as a basic value of international society. 14). 82). 31). pp.e. In short. 2000. In tact. as the largest provider of official development assistance (ODA). status can be considered a 'personal' type of state identity. In short. i. 'Prestige is the reputation for power. p. “Japan’s Conciliation with the United States in Climate Change.

Noting that this experience could help Japan emerge from its long economic doldrums. hauled from the mountains nearby. On the schedule for spouses of G-8 leaders are visits to a zero-emission house and testdriving of eco-cars from Toyota.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Link. 16 . many Japanese are decidedly less confident. 2008 “G-8 summit gives Japan a green spotlight”)//CP During the three-day summit.000 tons of snow under the floor." said Tokyo economist Atsuo Mihara. citing a variety of factors." It also presents an opportunity for the country to take a global leadership role on a pressing world issue. he added. The large international media center was built for the summit with 95% recyclable or reusable materials and is being cooled not by air conditioners but by 7.Alternative Energy key to SoPo Japan needs to use its leadership in the area of alternative energy and renewable energies to prop up its dying economy and gain international soft power. Lee ‘8 – LA times Staff Writer (July 7. Honda and others. Petersen. Japan's energy-efficient products will be on full display. however. "We know how to conserve food and energy. Silber. including the country's don't-stand-out group culture and a kind of timidity stemming from historical circumstances and communication style. "Our time is finally coming. On this.

''We have to start emissions reduction from now and get some serious reductions. Framework Convention on Climate Change.. But he emphasized that Japan must lead other industrialized nations in the setting of medium-term emissions reduction goals.com/p/articles/mi_m0XPQ/is_2008_Feb_18/ai_n24270930/pg_1?tag=artBody. urged the Japanese government on Friday to take a stronger leadership role in the fight against climate change as chair of this year's Group of Eight summit in Hokkaido.'' Leape said. executive secretary of the U. which will be held in July in the Lake Toya resort area of Hokkaido. The U. ''We need to think of voluntary goals in taking a leadership role'' as chair of the G-8. But he said he expects more from the Japanese government with regard to its leadership role at the G-8 summit. Kamoshita told a press conference. 17 . ''What we are looking for is real leadership from Japanese government toward that end'' as chair of the G-8 summit. The challenge now.N.is (for) Japan to step up to a leadership role in helping the world. Leape told a press conference that Japan has historically led the world in areas crucial to tackling climate change such as in energy efficient technology.col1. Kamoshita said. that Japan would be able to lead the summit discussions if it set ''ambitious'' medium-term emissions cut targets. Japan Today. he said.Commitment key to Enviro Leadership A stronger commitment away from fossil fuel use will bolster its leadership. Japanese Environment Minister Ichiro Kamoshita expressed his dissatisfaction with comments Thursday by Yvo de Boer. Petersen. 8 (“WWF head urges stronger leadership from Japan on climate change.N.. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Link. executive secretary should not comment on the emissions reduction goals of specific countries. Leape expressed his appreciation for the efforts of Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda's administration to lead research on the invention of zero emission technology and to create a world technology fund to help developing countries reduce emissions. Silber. director general of WWF International.” 2-16-08. ''Japan has a proud history to build on.'' Leape said. The world is watching and will follow. 25 to 40 percent reductions by 2020.'' Leape said. AG) James Leape. but that is not enough. Leape noted that Japanese officials have discussed halving global greenhouse gas emissions from present levels by 2050.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Japan has yet to notably demonstrate its leadership ''the way one would expect. Meanwhile. http://findarticles.

As the relative importance of security issues has again risen in the US calculus. If it is measured in terms of a "level playing field. 18 . and they could pose an increasing threat to the security relationship. Silber. As was discussed in chapter 6. For the future. there is a chance that further negotiations can succeed. and the subsequent rapid aging of the population. then its chances are slim. this effect could be compounded by the inevitable fiscal pressures of Japan's huge budget defecit and national debt. Indeed." by harmonizing regulation.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. These pressures have already led to modest cuts in Japan's aid budget and calls to reduce "support costs" for the US military. 2001 – No More Bashing: Building a New Japan-United States Economic Relationship – p. the prospects of US "success" for any Japan-specific policy are thus even slimmer. One traditional element in the security debate. However.Japan Backlash US strength comes at Japan's expense – Japanese economic backlash will undermine the alliance Bergsten et al. with the ascent of China replacing the decline and demise of the Soviet Union. 236-7 There is considerable evidence that Japanese resistance to gaiatsu has risen substantially and that future efforts to deploy it will be more likely to jeopardize the overall relationship than to win Japanese acceptance of US objectives. has always been that the economic tensions should be ignored or at least downplayed to avoid jeopardizing the broader relationship. if it is measured by limiting the amount of Japanese exports to the United States or artificially increasing the amount of US exports to Japan. Petersen. especially if the overall ties between the countries were to sour. emanating from the foreign policy and national security community. one should be careful in measuring "success" in Japan-United States negotiations. that concept clearly takes on added weight. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Link.

And for international commerce to flourish. a diplomacy that has always deemed security (and thus peace) paramount—confirming Joseph Nye’s dictum. Using data from an eighty-year period starting 1908 to test the impact of security alliances on trade. no matter how open the markets of US partners happen to be. one can safely extrapolate this observation to previous centuries.S. a long term multilateral approach to trade — scrapping quotas and lowering tariff and non-tariff barriers (NTBs)—is imperative. This calls for a pro-active security policy. Economism is happy to deal with such problems as they arise. the East Timor conflict. 150-1 This article takes the concept of ‘national interest’ in a broad sense (that is. Moreover. one that prevents conflict and averts threats. The new proposals for economic-centred foreign policy approaches. Princeton scholar Joanne Gowa concludes. a sure formula for disaster. The sensible prescription: multilateral trade Ultimately. all attest to the unstable nature of the world. and American growth rested largely on trade. Silber. Trade also represented at that time more than a quarter of American GDP.-Japan Zero Sum US competitiveness trades off with Japanese – this risks the alliance Omar Sanchez 2002 – "The Perils of a Trade-First US Foreign Policy" – Australian Journal of International Affairs p. not exclusively economic). Hence. the nuclear missiles quandary in North Korea. The recent Asian financial crisis should drive home a lesson for proponents of an aggressive American stance in trade negotiations. the United States. much like the post-1989 epoch. a healthy environment for US exporters lies in the health of the world economy. ‘the play of power politics is an inexorable element of any agreement to open international markets. 182). the Rwandan ethnic cleansing. stand in the face of decades of carefully crafted diplomacy. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Link. This study reinforces popular conceptions: trade has been made to serve security throughout the twentieth century—not just during the Cold War period. US exports as a whole would stand more to gain had a new ‘world financial architecture’ been built and such a crisis averted. because of the security externalities that trade produces’ (quoted in Moran 1990. quite simply. in the second). The pre1914 and interwar periods were arguably unipolar moments (Britain being the hegemon in the first case. yet.U. security was never subordinated to other concerns. questions of security and power cannot be sidelined. Petersen.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Past reasoning remains sound—and applicable to today’s international arena. reminds all the parties concerned of the true nature of the economic game. the violent dissolution of Yugoslavia. The lesson is that without a healthy international economy there will be no demand for US exports. It is a game best described as positive-sum when international trade flourishes and negative-sum when it is stagnant. 19 . In the final analysis. It. A crisis such as Southeast Asia’s puts sectoral disputes and their (rather insignificant) weight into perspective. is it really accurate to assert that threats to world peace have receded? This reading of the world made by many in 1990 (and it continues to be made!) does not stand the test of scrutiny. Events since then are eloquent enough: the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. Presumably. once again.

the two sets of foreign policy coordinates.” p218) In closing I would like to touch on three issues that will be of critical importance to Japanese foreign policy in the twenty-first century. who wishes to become independent from its powerful counterpart. Amaya Naohiro. Petersen. a close partnership for building an international order. a long-time observer of Japan’s world role. In light of this. which he dubs “Pax Pacifica. content to remain as number two without assuming dominance of leadership. From the standpoint of market democracies and the Asia-Pacific. given the country’s need to lean heavily on America for its security.-Japan linkage. The major problem in Japan's relationship with the United States. “Challenges Foreign Policy Future. a factor I will address shortly.-Japan security relationship but redefines Japan’s role in terms of what he calls a “supporter”— a cooperative partner of the hegemony but with wider options and greater power. Increase in Japanese hegemony will allow Japan to take the role of a supporter of the United States and enter into the model of cooperative hegemony. 20 . lies in the wide qap between the respective influence of the two partners . “Japan’s Foreign Aid Policy: A Capacity for Leadership?” Japan’s actions do not suggest that transfer of hegemonic power will be necessarily straightforward or certain.Internal Link.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. In Japan's case in particular. This will lead to a more equal relationship between Japan and the United States. It is difficult to maintain a healthy relationship with a country that wields great influence in every sphere. University of British Columbia. Silber. however. with a slightly different view. Japanese observers have taken a variety of approaches to Japan’s emergence but the model of “cooperative hegemony” through a continuing U.” Okita Saburo. Rix 1989 (Alan. sees Japan still searching for a new and vibrant goal for its energies.S. (This need springs from the constraints placed on Japan by its history. It is easy for such a relationship to become one of subservience. Japan Review of International Affairs. is today a frayed and ragged authority. also foresees joint hegemony. Inoguchi foresees continued Japanese support for trilateralism and the U. this is a constant danger. if the preserve of a single state. Pacific Affairs. is widely accepted. but with a regional slant.S.) The best way to avoid this kind of antiAmerica backlash is for Japan itself to strengthen its diplomatic and soft power and pursue a more proactive posture . it is evident that Japan's most important partner in the joint efforts to build a new international order will be the United States. Japan will have to keep the strengthening of the bilateral relationship a prime goal of its policy. which leads to a psychological backlash in the mind of the junior partner. Hegemony. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact.Japan Solo Action key to Relations Independent Japanese action to increase its soft power is critical to maintaining a US-Japan alliance Kuriyama 2000 — Former Japanese Ambassador to the United States and Advisor to the Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs (Takakazu. First is Japan's relationship with the United States.

self-serving stance in the world economic arena antagonises US allies and produces negative spillovers into broader political and security dimensions of American diplomacy. opening foreign markets. and achieving particular numerical targets generates a political backlash on the part of targeted nations.-Japan Relations Competitiveness undermines U. It is unwarranted because opening markets abroad is.S. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt."The Perils of a Trade-First US Foreign Policy" – Australian Journal of International Affairs p.S.-Japan relations Omar Sanchez 2002 . 21 . once foreign policy goals have been set there remains the task of justifying them in the international arena. It is counterproductive because an aggressive.U. Petersen. arm-twisting economic agenda could never hope to gain justification in the international arena. 158-9 This article has argued that a US foreign policy based primarily on economic considerations is unwarranted and counterproductive. Washington was not able to achieve most of its market-opening targets. not the best way to promote American economic prosperity. As every nation participating in the international arena sooner or later discovers. undermines the cause of multilateral trade liberalisation. A fixation with correcting bilateral trade deficits. What the managed trade experience showed was that a neomercantilist. to put it mildly. A policy dear to the ‘economics-first’ school was in fact tried during the first Clinton administration. Silber. while the negative repercussions it generated in other areas of the multifaceted US-Japan bilateral relationship were all too evident. Nowhere is this truer than in trade relations—where a country’s policy stance directly impinges upon others—and particularly so for a nation-state that represents 20 percent of world trade and 25 percent of the world economy. and brings negligible or no economic returns.

and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. For example. economically efficient mass production with standardized technology is believed to add wealth. 22 .Japanese Economy Technological competition is key to Japanese economic power. Third. technological supremacy promotes a blind belief in economic rationality and efficiency.” leading to technological arrogance. “emulous power.” Without the copying and improvement of advanced technologies both abroad and at home. Silber. An example is General Electrics rejection of transistors in the 1950s. that is. Taizo Yakushiji 1994 – Japan's International Agenda – p. Petersen. 57-8 Second. so that new technological endeavors that would shut down the current profitable production lines are rejected.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. technological leads quickly erode. This arrogance blinds people to the secret of preeminence. it easily develops strong “techno-parochialism. when a nation assumes a technological lead.

Without U. Japan is likely to embark on a crash program of rearmament. A lot will depend on the nature of the security threat. 98 – Professor of Political Science at Stanford – 1998 (Daniel.S. This could result in arms races. A power inversion. or a revanchist Russia.stanford. not the least of which is JASA's viability. security umbrella. Japan is likely to increase its military capability dramatically -. US withdrawal would result in Japanese nuclearization and militarization. a unified Korea.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Lexis) Given a U. Vol. Khalilzad – RAND Corporation – 1995 (Zalmay. the greater the chances that their forecasts might materialize. 2. “The Japan-America Security Alliance: Prospects for the Twenty-First Century. If JASA remains effective. 18. Power shifts involving Japan and its Asian neighbors could turn out to be the most dangerous fault line in Asia. 23 . No. it could obviously become a nuclear weapon state relatively quickly." If JASA is terminated. China. Japan might move to acquire military power. Spring. including the possible acquisition by Japan of nuclear weapons. What realist theory emphasizes is the potentially powerful impact on Japan of the rise of formidable rivals in the region like China. Korea.edu/publications/japanamerica_security_alliance_prospects_for_the_twentyfirst_century_t he/) This is not to say that the Kissinger-Kahn-Gallois prediction will never come true. and the nations of Southeast Asia already fear Japanese hegemony. if it should so decide.Internal Link. China's acquisition of a power projection capability is by itself not necessarily a threat. but the combination of an enhanced military capability and uncertainties about Chinese intentions would be worrisome.S. Whether such tremors lead to a system-shaking earthquake will depend on a number of factors.S. however. withdrawal from the world. Japan would have to look after its own security and build up its military capabilities. The further the time horizon is extended. Petersen.Rearm Keeping an effective JASA is key to preventing Japanese Rearmament Okimoto. the alliance ought to obviate the need to "go it alone. It could also build long-range missiles and carrier task forces. pg. protection. “Losing the Moment?” The Washington Quarterly. and Japan feels threatened by a powerful Asian neighbor. Given Japanese technological prowess. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. Japan may choose to continue relying the U. Silber. 84. could touch off largescale tremors.” http://fsi. if one took place.to balance the growing Chinese forces and stillsignificant Russian forces. As long as Japan is comfortable about entrusting its security to JASA. to say nothing of the plutonium stockpile Japan has acquired in the development of its nuclear power industry.

html) High Emotional Content. or if Tokyo finds the world of international diplomacy so cold that it feels compelled to rearm. most of all.com/time/magazine/article/0.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. on restoring close and easy communications with Washington. new world might not be such a dreadful place after all. But the vision could fade if Japan's economy suffers too severe a setback. where the Emperor has scheduled a stop on his first world tour. The U. 1971.Economy Internal Link to Rearm Japanese economic downturn will lead to rearm Time Magazine. Alaska.. Richard Nixon is aware of the high emotional content in the Japanese decision-making process.00.S. That view matches Tokyo's own ambition to become a purely economic superstate.time. wants Japan to become the leading economic—not military—force in Asia. Avoiding that possibility depends. 24 . But it will take more than a few symbolic gestures to convince Tokyo that its cold. offensive to no one. Silber. and that is doubtless why he quickly announced his plans to meet Emperor Hirohito later this month in Anchorage. 71 (“Japan: Into a Colder World. for its part.9438572. http://www.9171.” September 6. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. Petersen.

The memory of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remains burned into the national psyche. which would prompt India to develop more nuclear weapons. the Deputy Cabinet Secretary. At the same time. Although it has a large and rising middle class. which could infect 10 million to 20 million people by 2010. 04 (AntiOutsourcing on India. who have both India and the United States in their sights. It has five tons of plutonium stored in the nuclear research center of Tokai-mura. tensions with its 120 million Muslims and an ill-advised expansion of its nuclear arsenal. India isn't exactly the kind of country where one normally would expect democracy to flourish. If Japan could get beyond the hurdles. which easily could deteriorate into nuclear war. north of Tokyo. Hideyuki Ban.) on Jan. With the legitimacy that comes from free elections. sea. China would likely want to boost its arsenal. which fostered violence against the country's 30 million Christians." Shinzo Abe. get ready for an Asian arms race. But the new administration should do some things differently than the old. Japan also has superbly equipped land. last June confided to Japanese reporters that "depending on the world situation. The détente is important to avoid a dangerous and debilitating nuclear arms race. If Pyongyang were to launch a nuclear warhead. "U. director of the nonprofit Citizens' Nuclear Information Center. led by Sonia Gandhi of the Gandhi political dynasty. openness to trade and investment. recommended that the U. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. and historically some 80% of Japanese are opposed. a scooter. and cooperation in the war against Islamist terrorism. policymakers talk about getting Japan to make nuclear weapons. http://www.S. (Indeed. "North Korea now regards Japan as its biggest regional threat and the country most likely to go nuclear in the future. Yet Indians aren't disadvantaged at the ballot.htm) //HBG No wonder. The new administration probably will be a coalition dominated by the Congress Party. Vajpayee's Bharatiya Janata Party. the conservative think tank. http://www. Petersen. and its scientists know how to convert it to weapons-grade material. it should strongly encourage India to curtail its nuclear ambitions as a contribution to world peace. which yesterday forced the resignation of Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.org/modules.ASIAN COVER STORY (Why Japan Just Might Build Nukes. The following day. the chief Cabinet Secretary. Even in Japan. an expert on Japanese nuclear issues. The United States should cheer the elections as a triumph for democracy. cultural. which bans nuclear arms. But if Japan decides to build its own nukes.com/magazine/content/03_03/b3816027. some senior politicians have broken a long-standing taboo by discussing the possibility of a nuclear buildup. For your info only 25 . a likely target would be Japan. The new administration should retain the best of the old – détente with Pakistan and China. which would spur Pakistan to do the same--and on and on into an ever more perilous future. 1-20-03. That has policymakers in Tokyo and beyond considering the once-unthinkable prospect of a nuclear-armed Japan. and political barriers to a nuclear Japan. Japan would have to amend its constitution. strategic nuclear weapons. 83 percent of its 1 billion people occupy what Indian public policy expert Sundeep Waslekar calls "the bullock cart economy" – people so poor that they can't afford an automobile. the potential of India's new administration to achieve is limited only by the quality of its vision India's Reverse: New leader should dampen religious tensions Editorial: Dallas Morning News. Furthermore. And its civilian rocket and satellite launching system could easily be converted to military use. says Japan could build a nuclear bomb within months.INTERNATIONAL -. it likely wouldn't need long to develop a bomb. you have to love the process. Granted.S. 5. that Tokyo is worried about North Korea's nukes. but it will never happen." said Senator John McCain (R-Ariz. circumstances and public opinion could require Japan to possess nuclear weapons.php? name=News&file=print&sid=697) //HBG Whether you like or dislike the surprising outcome of India's national elections. 03 -.S. now a Takushoku University security expert. and they showed it by tossing out Mr. It should guide India away from the Hindu nationalism of the old administration. 5/15/04.itpaa.Japan Rearm Japanese rearm would be rapid and cause India/Pakistan arms races Business Week. And it should improve India's response to AIDS. that's undoubtedly what voters had in mind. And the defense cooperation is essential to defeat the Islamists.businessweek. and air forces that could deliver medium-range nukes to North Korea. Silber.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. said later that it would be acceptable for Japan to develop small. there are big legal.) It should try harder to ensure that the benefits of India's 8 percent economic growth flow to the 300 million Indians who live on a dollar per day or less. Now is key – arms racing will ruin Indian détente and cause nuclear war Dallas morning news." says Takashi Hirose. Yasuo Fukuda. still despised for its brutal rule on the Korean peninsula in the 20th century's first half. then. a motorcycle or even a bicycle. The free-market strategy is necessary to create jobs for India's deep ranks of unemployed." insists former diplomat Satoshi Morimoto. the Cato Institute. reduce its military forces in South Korea and Japan and give both countries a nuclear green light. "should remove [its] objections to Japan developing nuclear weapons. The U.

and the Balkans. North Korea. or East Timor. coupled with horrifying incidences of torture. plunder. http://www. The boiling witches brew in Kashmir should propel the United States to assertive facilitation or mediation of Kashmiri negotiations. Both India and Pakistan are racing like thoroughbreds to bolster their nuclear arsenals and advanced delivery vehicles. It is about the future. the All-Parties Hurriyet Conference (APHC). 7-8-01. or attempting to cut the Gordian knot in the East Timor without including the East Timorese. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. Simla or Lahore negotiations over Kashmir ultimately ship wrecked because Kashmiris themselves were excluded from the diplomatic process. and unilaterally annexed Kashmir in the 1950s. that preposition seems incontestable after 54 years of bilateralism has been utterly barren of results. They have ended a long period of negotiating estrangement. the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. This apocalyptic vision is no idiosyncratic view. We will support any initiative that will bring Pakistan and India into greater harmony and amity. In sum. The impending July 14-16 summit in New Delhi between President Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister A.html) //HBG The foreign policy of the United States in South Asia should move from the lackadaisical and distant (with India crowned with a unilateral veto power) to aggressive involvement at the vortex. That is like attempting to solve the Northern Ireland problem without talking directly with Sinn Fein. That umbrella political organization is devoted exclusively to peaceful. and savage suppression of political dissent. Vajpayee featuring Kashmir on the agenda does not justify complacency.000. Nor is it a struggle between secularism and theocracy. are the rights of the Kashmiri people who have been subjugated and treated as expendable pons for long years. arson. Indian occupied Kashmir has descended into a human rights inferno vastly worse than anything witnessed in Kosovo. to prop up his oppressive rule. For more than 50 years. 1947. the same day that partition established India and Pakistan as separate states. Kashmir then acquired nationhood under international law because it had neither acceded to India nor to Pakistan unlike the vast majority of other princely states. the United Nations Security Council. however. It should establish official contacts with the APHC leadership and insist on the .Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. But the indigenous Kashmiri resistance persists.is the exclusion of the people whose international law and human rights are at stake and must be satisfied for a viable solution. the Department of Defense. Only the United States can midwife a Kashmir solution. Islam in Kashmir has been exceptionally respectful of the three other Kashmir faiths: Hindu. India’s then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru characterized a self-determination solution as the fairest imaginable. grandfathered nuclear status under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. and international law interests implicated clearly justify an unstinting effort inclusion of its leadership in all Kashmir negotiations. India and Pakistan have negotiated sporadically over Kashmir without result. the Kashmir issue cannot be regarded as a border dispute between India and Pakistan. On August 13. Since 1989.B. We. This is good for the region of South Asia that is home to one fifth of total human race. closer military ties that would strengthen India’s hand in its border and companion quarrels with China. Meanwhile. The fatal flaw in bilateral Kashmir diplomacy . the ending of sanctions for India’s 1998 nuclear tests. The crux of the Kashmir conflict. and world experts generally place Kashmir at the peak of their nuclear worries. or indicated an inclination to ratify an impending Fissile Material/Cut-off Convention. like President George H. Iran. And the strength of its national security. (Meticulous scholarship by Britain’s Alistair Lamb convincingly suggests the document is fraudulent). intrigued with the Maharaja to thwart the Kashmiri popular will. Kashmiri history is compelling. At the inception of its birth. human rights and the right of self-determination of the 13 million people of Kashmir. 1948 and January 5. 01 -. The Director of Central Intelligence. But he reneged on India’s commitment. to be a special envoy on Kashmir 26 . The annexation commands no international recognition. Paramountcy lapsed on August 15.Executive Director of the Washington-based Kashmiri American Council (Washington Times) (Ghulam Nabi. Indeed. Nor is it a battle for autonomy. India’s military fought the Kashmiri resistance to a standstill. human rights. 13 million Kashmiris and their most representative political arm. namely. And was not Kosovo’s conflict with then Serb president Milosovic addressed through negotiations that included Kosovar Albanians? In sum it strains credibility to believe serious progress can be made over Kashmir without at some time including genuine Kashmiri leadership . The most dangerous place on the planet is Kashmir. causing extinction Fai. democracy. Silber. Outside support was negligible. Bosnia. Their defense budgets are climbing despite widespread misery amongst their populations. But one point we want to highlight is critical. contrary to prevailing orthodoxy. 1947. Bush or President Nelson Mandela. Petersen.which the United States has unreflectively endorsed . and self-determination were the lodestars of the freedom fighters. abduction.pakistanlink. Kashmir was one of more than 500 princely states during the British raj subject to British paramountcy in defense and foreign affairs. Therefore. Kashmir was ruled by an autocratic and religiously bigoted Hindu Maharaja despite its 80 percent Muslim population.Japan Rearm Conflicts lead to nuclear lash out. Because both India and Pakistan have agreed to place Kashmir on the agenda. rape. at the behest of India. It has ignited two wars between the estranged South Asian rivals in 1948 and 1965. The United States should appoint a person of an international standing . In the past weather at Tashkent. which ultimately hardened into a cease-fire line. at the Kashmiri American Council are guardedly optimistic. but India has suffered no consequences for its might-makes-right Kashmir gambit. The United States should also offer India tangible rewards for acceding to Kashmir self-determination subject to safeguards to prevent Kashmiri freedom from threatening India’s national security interests: support for permanent Indian membership in the Security Council.the APHC as full integers in the negotiating equation. and largely speaks through the APHC. The United States would enjoy no sanctuary. the Maharaja purportedly signed an instrument of accession to India. Nor is it a fight between Hindus and Muslims.com/Letters/2001/July/13/05. In return for India’s dispatch of muscular military forces on October 27. a disputed territory convulsed and illegally occupied for more than 53 years and sandwiched between nuclear-capable India and Pakistan. And they have not conferred on any sovereignty the power to bargain away these priceless possessions. and. Neither country has initialed the Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty. But his regime was then crumbling under the assault of a widespread indigenous insurrection. India-Pakistan Summit and the Issue of Kashmir. custodial disappearances. India remains on one side illegally occupying two-thirds of Kashmir. adopted resolutions mandating a self-determination plebiscite conducted by the United Nations to settle Kashmir’s sovereignty. Kashmiri deaths at the hands of the Indian military or its proxies has surged past 65. Religious freedom. non-violent means to achieve the self-determination that United Nations Security Council resolutions and morality have exalted for more than half a century. Any negotiation over the issue of Kashmir without the participation of the Kashmiri leadership is performing Hamlet without the Prince of Denmark. while Pakistan exerts ascendancy of the other side in Azad Kashmir. Sikh. and a third could trigger nuclear volleys and a nuclear winter threatening the entire globe. 1949. the United States should place Kashmir at least on a national security par with Iraq. India. and Buddhist.

S. Even though intervention is only a possibility. Regardless of whether China’s development takes the bright path or the fearful one.S. Chinese citizens from all walks of life have an attachment to the reunification of Taiwan and the mainland that transcends reason. “Japan and the united states. and military power. including the Chinese government’s quiet support of the U. economic. Amending the constitution is so onerous. 02 -.com/02spring/okamoto.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Silber. more optimistic view. raising in Chinese minds the possibility that Japan might offer logistical and other support to its ally in the event of hostilities. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact.-Japan alliance represents a significant hope for a peaceful resolution of the Taiwan problem. The U. action.S.S.” Spring. Both Japan and the United States have clearly stated that they oppose reunification by force. tend to support the first. 2002. Japan. however.U. a strong and close tie between Japanese and U. http://www.Taiwan A strong alliance deters china from invading Taiwan and ensures regional stability Okamoto. Petersen. Some view China’s admission into the World Trade Organization. Others see echoes of the rise of the great imperial powers in the nineteenth century and foresee a fearful global struggle against a vengeful. recidivist Chinese state.twq.top diplomatic aide from Japan Policy & Politics in News (Yukio. When China conducted provocative missile tests in the waters around Taiwan in 1996.pdf ) //HBG Opinion is divided about the rise of China as a political. Japan seconded the U. war on terrorism and the absence of criticism of Japan’s 2001 dispatch of the SDF. it has never been attempted… 27 . the emergence of a civil society in the country. and the decline of the Communist Party’s revolutionary ideology as hints of a bright future in which China will seek peaceful coexistence with the rest of the world while its political and human rights practices slowly evolve toward global norms. reason for concern exists on one issue: the resolution of the status of Taiwan. The alliance backs up Japan’s basic stance that the two sides need to come to a negotiated solution. security interests guarantees that the Chinese leadership cannot afford to miscalculate the consequences of an unprovoked attack on Taiwan.S. the United States sent two aircraft carrier groups into nearby waters as a sign of its disapproval of China’s belligerent act. Recent events.

with which some form of union could take place. Such a progressive attitude would continue to exert a positive influence on cross-strait relations.-Japan alliance prevents China-Taiwan conflicts Chu-kwang. In the final analysis.Taiwan U. Fortuitously.-Japan security relationship is conducive to the stability of the Taiwan Strait. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. Such a calamitous use of China's growing power would cause inestimable and long-range harm to the security balance of the Asia-Pacific region.S. not preparing for war. The principal threat to the security of the region comes from mainland China.S. The U. Volume 160. Taiwan has no choice but to maintain a credible deterrent force. To sustain its regime and maintain domestic stability. With an aim to "enter the ocean. mainland China has transformed its national defense policy from a "continental strategy" to a "maritime strategy. This declaration guarantees that there would be no drastic change in the Taiwan Strait situation in the near future. 98 -. P. Furthermore. A key challenge is to utilize Taiwan's strategic importance within the parameters of the U. winter 1998. Taiwan is more than willing to support the successful implementation of the joint declaration. 161) //HBG CONCLUSION The primary purpose of the U. Therefore.-Japan joint declaration: Strategic implications for Taiwan's security. Silber. However. The current and future threat to Taiwan comes chiefly from mainland China.U. Prosperity comes at the price of implementing economic reforms and adopting policies of openness. 28 . in turn. Reform and greater openness. This posture implies that there will be no turning back of the mainland's free market economy and that there is a strong desire on the part of the mainland for stability and prosperity." Under the stewardship of an authoritarian regime with strong nationalistic and irredentist notions. zhou Xiang shi jie).S.Japan Joint Declaration. until the fundamental cross-strait differences can be resolved. The U. This escalation already has produced fundamental adjustments in the structure of mainland China's military and in its strategic doctrine. mainland China's leaders believe it must elevate its comprehensive national strength by building up and modernizing its military assets. Japan. mainland China must be economically prosperous.S. Number 3. and the chief flashpoint is Taiwan. World affairs.S. For this to occur. no status quo can be sustained forever. will inevitably increase interactions with the international community. Taiwan's security will be assured by the emergence of a benign and democratic Chinese mainland. while developing an overall strategy to ensure Taiwan's security. Petersen. and its East Asia strategy is aimed at preventing war.S. and even the world.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. toward the world" (jin ru hai yang. Yet it is far beyond Taiwan's ability to deal effectively with the mainland both militarily and economically. Taiwan has to face the reality that its future is inextricably tied to that of the mainland..-Japan security alliance is to maintain peace and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. However. Taiwan cannot unilaterally bring about peaceful evolution in the mainland.Senior fellow at the Atlantic council (Chin. the present mainland leadership has promised that the late Deng Xiaoping's policies of reform and "opening" will continue unabated in the coming century. mainland China is likely to replace its defensive strategy with an offensive one that could include a willingness to engage in military adventurism.

http://www. Retired Federal Analyst for the U. The classic example is the worldwide depression of the 1930s leading to World War II . decides once and for all to haul off and let China. or whomever. Economy has begun.S. “"It's Official: The Crash of the U.ca/index.S. have it in the chops.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. June 14th. America's third-largest trading partner. Conditions in the coming years could be as bad as they were then.S. 2k7 (Richad. now a writer and consultant. former economic advisor to the Clinton Administration. Despite its decade-long stagnation. Task Force members agree that this relationship must rest on the premise that a healthy Japanese economy serves America's economic and geopolitical interests. If they don't want our dollars or our debt any more. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. how about a few nukes? 29 . Treasury Department.S. Japan remains the largest economy in Asia." Global Research.S. “Future Directions for U. Council on Foreign Relations. We could have a really big war if the U.globalresearch. Economic Policy Toward Japan”) The ongoing changes within Japan's economy provide both American policymakers and businesses with opportunities to craft a new economic relationship between Japan and the United States. Economic collapse causes nuclear war Cook. and its major ally in the Asia-Pacific region. Petersen. Silber.U.php?context=va&aid=5964 ) Times of economic crisis produce international tension and politicians tend to go to war rather than face the economic music .-Japan Relations k to Econ Relations are key to the global economy Tyson – 2k (Laura.

Summer.S. ally in the region.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. president of Pacific Forum CSIS. This is especially true for Japan.S. Petersen. a related shortcoming would be the notion prevalent in Washington that the economic. political.it is equally wrongheaded to pretend that damaged relations in one sector do not cross to another. for example. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. officials needs to be involved with each set of issues.U. from. Japan Relations Spillover Problems on trade spillover to overall relations Kelly – 95 (James. lexis) Third. and security spheres can be worked on by different officials using uncoordinated strategies without the effects of their work overlapping from one sphere into another. trade or finance to politics or security. which is still the most important U.-Japan security relationship. 30 .S. It has been seen recently that unresolved and bitter trade disputes with Japan can adversely affect the U. Although it would be a mistake to sacrifice trade interests blindly for security interests -. Silber. n6 This does not mean that trade problems are not serious or should not be aggressively pursued: it does mean that a broader range of U.S.a failing often alleged but rare in practice since the 1970s -. Washington Quarterly.

Japan Soft Power DA Heidt.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. Peter J. The renowned anthropologist Aoki Tamotsu (z oo i ] writes nearly with despair about the uselessness of pop culture in promoting soft power. Only the United States. Other authors in the collection address more straightforwardly the issue of popular culture and soft power. 2001 b). Instead. Kamiya Matake (2001) of National Defense University takes seriously Nye sjudgrnent regarding the importance of shared values.Japan SoPo key to the economy Japanese SoPo is necessary to its economy and global politics David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In 2001. Takenaka-then a professor at Keio University-edited a volume on the possible development of soft power for Japan. even though European children watch Pokemon. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. for historical and linguistic reasons. and not just the spread of American commodities. Petersen. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <Although Japanese scholars of international relations doubtless knew of "soft power" shortly after Nye coined the term. Silber. the United States has soft power resources that will likely remain elusive forJapan. But he also suggests that Japanese economic reform can pave the way toward a more vibrant economy that will once again shape other countries' plans and expectations (Takenaka 2001 a.Japanese studies centers are shrinking. had soft power. Takenaka's introduction deals with soft power cautiously.” Ed. in most eyes. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism. he argues that Pokemon and other Japanese anime exports will not lead to greater soft power.> 31 . arguing that. andJapan seems not to be in vogue as a topic or a country. before becoming finance minister. he locates japan's likely soft power in its ability to reform its economy and then take a more active and open role in global politics. few used it with regard to Japan until McGray's article appeared.

Peter J.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. virtually any cultural productfilm.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. The old Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications11 began to commission reports on inIorrnation technologies in 1995.> XTN – Japanese SoPo is key to its economy David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Because the money in information technology now appears to lie largely in the content itself. Petersen.> 32 . and perhaps even governments able to sell people what they want.” Ed. or perhaps influence what they want. piece of music.J-Pop songs. e. The spread of Japanese convenience stores or fast-food chains like Hoka-Hoka Bento in Indonesia (iHainichi Shimbun 2004) prove nothing more than do the ubiquitous Kentucky Fried Chicken shops in the region.g. they presaged an era in which the government would start to consider the importance of government intervention in the content and not just existence of information. This might be good for Japanese firms and. 2). Adorno 19~Jl). even if one starts [rom the assumption that its entertainment industries will continue to grow and even dominate. individual artists. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. and not necessarily in the infrastructure used to transmit it. listening to. Peter J. Although these focused primarily on the types of infrastructure involved. These examples represent little other than the ability of Japanese firms to sell their mass-produced icons and ditties to an increasingly and depressingly global market. but its political benefits for Japan are likely negligible.Japanese Economy SoPo its critical to Japans economy David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With the Internet revolution. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism.. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism. artwork. consumers watchingJapanese video games.” Ed. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <Japan's economic policymakers have seized on soft power as a crucial wedge for funding and supporting their efforts to promote Japan's "content industries. the Posts and Ielecommunications Research Institute (Uehara 2003. In one possible view. or displaying a poster of pop star Matsuura Aya on their walls are cogs in the "culture industry" (see. Silber.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. as did its research affiliate. for the overall Japanese economy. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <This leaves open the question of how Japanese popular culture will ultimately matter in Asia." a term that refers largely to online content. there can be significant rewards for firms. and so forth-can be digitized and transmitted globally. if properly managed.

World Bank and the GATT are already falling behind current needs and will have to undergo some major structural reform if they are to cope. so it must in the future let prices and wages fall enough to restore equilibrium.Director of the Japan Research Centre at the School of Oriental and African Studies. Cato Journal. “Japan and Germany in the World Economy. 1989. west. The main reason for this was that she was able to earn a similar amount of foreign exchange by exporting manufactured goods such as automobiles. Unlike developing countries.Internal Link.” January 1.pdf) Yet Japanese economic growth has been an integral part of world economic growth ever since the 1950s. The Pacific Review. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. “Monetary Policy in the New Global Economy: The Case of Japan. University of London – 1992 (Sugihara Kaoru. for its trading partners. that the Asian developing nations are going to be worldclass producers of manufactured goods. lending new meaning to interdependence and its associated problems. as a result of the sudden rise in oil prices. 1992. but how. but we know the kinds of changes to anticipate. “Japan. We know that the IMF. Although the relations between the Middle East and advanced Wetern economies were complex. The Japanese economy is key to the world economy – trade relationships Kaoru.pdf) Let me put it this way. We know that world financial markets will be increasingly integrated and that some form of global regulation. wage and price deflation is the alternative to devaluation. faster way to restore prosperity to Japan and its neighbors. Such statements are based on a misunderstanding. In my view—supported by the experience of the past decade— devaluation would be a cheaper. its neighbors. will be required. There are no others. The only issue is not whether the real exchange rate changes. Silber. Japanese producers in many industries have been creative and strong competitors.com/index/776479189. and its citizens. Europe. Those who oppose devaluation as too costly for Japan’s neighbors and trading partners should recognize that Japanese deflation is expensive also. The Japanese work force is talented and productive.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. And we know that Washington. the Middle East and the world economy. it has been doing the opposite recently. it seems reasonable to assume that the majority of the oil money which the Middle East obtained from Japan was invested in the Euro-dollar market (and to a lesser degree in the United States). Japan managed to continue to buy large amounts of oil from the Middle East at very high prices for about twelve years. First. Although there are the much discussed structural problems. not now in place. 00 – Professor of Political Economy and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University – 2000 (Allan H. Second. 33 . Japan. should not recover at others’ expense. Japan’s growth would help to re.informaworld. including with respect to Middle Eastern oil.” April 1. and causing all sorts of trade problems. it is said. The real exchange rate—the quoted exchange rate adjusted for differences in prices at home and abroad—must change to restore Japan’s competitive position in the world economy. primarily the United States and the EC (hereafter referred to as advanced Western economies). consumer electronics. and south from the continental US. and I believe. Putting aside hopes that principal foreign countries inflate. 92 . not least because of the successful diversification of her resource base world-wide. there is a sizeable competitive core that would take advantage of the yen’s devaluation to produce more.Japanese Economy key to World Economy Japanese economy is key to the world economy – monetary shifts Meltzer. Japan Forum. Bonn and Tokyo will be at the centre of it all. for example.store Asian prosperity and contribute to growth of the world economy. http://www. The yen would appreciate. Third. it can rely on a mixture of price and exchange rate changes. http://www.informaworld. and computers to the rest of the world. Japan can use expansive monetary policy to devalue its quoted (or market) exchange rate. P: Google Scholar) The argument is often made that devaluation of the yen is harmful to Japan’s neighbors and trading partners. There are three possibilities. Petersen. and others inflate enough to ease the Japanese adjustment.com/index/777430768. We know that the wave of mergers and acquisitions and the explosion of Japanese foreign investment will see Americans exporting Japanese cars and Japanese computers east. heavy machinery.” Spring/Summer 2000. No one can predict what it will look like a decade from now. Garten. That is why Japan has become the world’s second largest economy. thus offsetting the two major bilateral trade imbalances created by the Japanese pattern of trade. Meltzer. it can hope that the United States. As Japan returned to high employment and growth. Between late 1973 and 1985 a major trade imbalance emerged between Japan and the Middle East. The Japanese economy is key to the world economy – foreign investment Garten. We know. imports from neighbors and trading partners would increase. 89 – Managing Director of the Stamford Company – 1989 (Jeffrey E. The world is changing rapidly. Or.

It is a changed country. Tsujimoto Kiyomi. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism. thereby helping japan make more effective use of its hard power (Takashina. Whether one wants a nonmilitary and generousJapan or an assertive yet trustedJapan.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. emphasized that Iapan ' s security policy should begin with a downgrading of the Defense Agency's role and shift from hard power to soft power.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. and the political weight afforded by the wide acceptance of Japanese entertainment icons-figure prominently in contemporary understandings of Japanese soft power. Fukukawa. japan's recent expansion of its global security role in support of U. Silber. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. In this framework. Petersen.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. a country of originality and even individuality. military activities in Afghanistan and Iraq would have been impossible without government efforts to build trust with its Asian neighbors (Midford 2(03). the rapid increase in attention in Japan to soft power and Japan's cultural weight elsewhere probably has less value as a tool for evaluating Japan's regional importance than it does as a heuristic device for grasping how Japanese policymakers now see their regional role. Indeed. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <For this reason.Japan SoPo is key to Hard Power Japanese SoPo is critical to its international partnerships and a prerequist to its hard power David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. a country that remembers its traditions even as it boldly meets the challenges of modernity.japan needs to support the spread of its popular culture overseas in order for other countries to see what today's Japan really is. and Takashina. toJapanese policy. esp. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <The appeal of soft power is understandable-and very broad.and lawmakers of virtually all stripes." For mainstream or more conservative observers.” Ed. 22). Ii Moreover. soft power appeals equally. 34 . > Japanese SoPo will determine its role in the Asia region David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Peter J. soft power and support for the arts become a component of public diplomacy. though very differently." meaning that the global spread of Japanese popular culture can increase international friendship and trust. 20. soft power may represent to concerned Japanese what it did to concerned Americans-that reports of their country's demise are premature. soft power can help Japan be seen as more "trustworthy. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism.7 Because of its impressive elasticity. the prescription is similar. For japanese liberals. and Fujii 2003.S. soft power represents a way for nonmilitary Japan to have an effect on global politics. comments by Fujii. the now-disgraced former policy chief of the Social Democratic Party. primarily expressed through economic assistance. It is a country that would not hurt a fly. And the motifs I have discussed-contemporary Japan's rise from the ashes of economic recession.” Ed. Peter J. the continuity between rebellious Japan's pop culture and earlier cultural traditions.

Fukukawa.Asian Wars Japanese SoPo deters Asian wars David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. 2g). the idea that Japanese popular culture represents modernity to Asia would be highly attractive to Japanese policymakers. Petersen. Peter J. Japan would be an especially appealing country for many around the globe. particularly in Asia. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <For some. on the other (Takashina.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. and the maintenance of a distinctive culture.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. esp. Fujii. Silber. specifically because it has successfully negotiated between the demands of economic and political liberalization .> 35 . and Fujii 200g. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. perhaps that confers a kind of soft power-an ability to persuade rather than coerce. In one line of argument.” Ed. If countries aspire to be like Japan. on the one hand.

is not to be feared. And so now. Instead. But no policymakers seem ready to concede that the images being transmitted are of a prosperous imagined future forJapan's neighbors. part of Japan's bumpy ride to modernization has been the post-bubble collapse of traditional authority structures.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. and so soft power both emanates from and employs Japan's special position as a non-Western country that has successfully developed both politically and economically. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact-key to Asian peace and economy Japanese SoPo is vital to its Asian image deterring militaristic fears and spreading economic growth David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With a narrow space like the Asia Pacific. notJapanese values of transparent and immediately accessible meaning.anese government views the region and itself. their television hits. Petersen. is a brilliant and fearless swordsman. Roughly thirty minutes into Kitano's film. Because of concerns in both countries over national decline. they are rather less likely to see their nation as outsiders do. ambiguous relationship with Asia Pacific. there should be little wonder that first Americans and now Japanese have been so quick to embrace the soft power idea. Zatoichi faces off against a ronin in the middle of a tiny restaurant. But I do not emy those trying to disentangle the Gordian knot of transnational cultural flows-trying to determine what is Japanese. "Konna sernai tokoro de katana 0 sonna fu ni tsukanja dame da yo" (You shouldn't brandish your sword in a narrow space like this). like those Americans who deploy the term "soft power. Instead. it might be impossible to tell whose is whose. and an especially large number of swords. with a normal military. perhaps what is most remarkable about the sudden interest inJapanese pop culture's political role in Asia is what it reveals about how the Jap. or Chinese-particularly if their political success depends on their somehow getting it right. because this is a nation that has only the best of intentions. though not because of any failure on the part of Japan 's entertainment or culture industries. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <Can Japanese leaders learn how to harness their symbolic place as a lifestyle leader in Asia? The evidence thus far is not encouraging. American. and may become especially so through state efforts to utilize current popular trends. and not to be feared. Silber. Because the ronin. In this logic. In another.” Ed. it represents a peaceful Japan that can encourage other nations to become wealthy and wise through Japan's own example and its generosity. and turned to the nation's advantage. Zatoichi blocks the ronin and quietly says. given its reliance on appealing images of each nation. it offers the opportunity to convince other people that japarr's development as a normal country. their extended battle would be a messy and unsatisfying affair in such a cramped room. From this rarefied perspective. as in the past. their anime-theywill realize that they are kind and decent. If people just get to know the Japanese-through their songs. Soft: power contains a special charm for Japanese elites because oftheir country's mixed. Korean. “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism. like Zatoichi. '> 36 . the rest of Asia. like Japan. struggles to maintain traditional identities in the face of modernization. In one variant." Japanese policymakers are likely to be preoccupied by their deeply held views of their nation's values and its proper global role. it is the government'sjob to make sure that these talents are successfully developed. I simply suggest that the discourses surrounding the confounding and ambiguous place of transnational cultural flows provide clues about official intentions and prevailing political trends. And so. Peter J. These too may be important. harnessed. creative and curious. I do not mean to argue that government strategies for promoting "digital contents" will fail as industrial policy. and the flowering of creative talents too long suppressed by the country's social stagnation.

S. ha contributed to the worsening Sino-Japanese dispute. More broadly.S. Minxin Pei and Michael Swaine 05 (Minxin Pei and Michael Swaine are Senior Associates. lower US flexibility. behavior has contributed to SinoJapanese tensions in some respects. followed by several concrete initiatives designed to address some of the key sources of the dispute.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Washington must give far more thought to how its effort to position Japan as a full-blown security partner in Asia influences China’s (and other countries’) security concerns.we must act now to prevent a massive conflict in the near future. stability. Petersen. support for a cooling-off period. with China. deteriorating relationship that could disrupt regional growth and stability and even increase the chances that a new cold war would develop in the region. Alliance key to Chinese-Japanese Relations The US is key to prevent a collapse of Sino-Japanese relations.S. It is not in Washington’s interest for Asia’s two most powerful and influential states to be locked in an emotionally charged. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) Although the United States has so far carefully stayed out of the fray. Current US efforts fail. A Chinese-Japanese war would destroy regional grown. evenhanded U.S. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. U. and China and much of the rest of Asia on the other. combined with its poorly handled response to China’s growing regional presence and military capabilities. It must also pay closer attention to how the Pentagon’s sometimes alarmist message regarding China’s growing military capabilities affects Japanese politics and policy. or even a conflict. Strong. At this delicate—and historic—moment. lead to a new cold war. Silber. 37 . Yet to some extent. and drag in the US conflict with China. can significantly reduce the chances of a fullblown strategic conflict emerging in the near future. Minxin Pei and Michael Swaine 05 (Minxin Pei and Michael Swaine are Senior Associates. the United States must act more decisively to reverse the destructive geopolitical dynamics between China and Japan. the United States’ relatively unsophisticated effort to encourage Japan to take a more activist regional and global security role. an intensified rivalry could divide Asia by driving a wedge between the United States and Japan on one side. A deepening SinoJapanese rivalry would severely limit U. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) The stakes for the United States in the renewed Sino-Japanese rivalry in East Asia are huge.U. Indeed. especially if Tokyo became even more closely tied to Washington. Washington’s policy toward Japan and China is one of the principal factors influencing the strategic calculus of Chinese and Japanese leaders. flexibility and might eventually drag the United States into a confrontation.

a personal account of the military and political aspects of the conflict and its implications on future US foreign policy. there is little hope of winning a war against China 50 years later. Once that is done and Beijing has made its point. the Philippines and. In the region. there is also the longer-term damage to consider. this means South Korea. Petersen. Asean countries having territorial disputes with Beijing in the South China Sea will beef up their defence budgets. A cross-strait conflict. Japan's economy is likely to be hurt too if the blockade disrupts its "life-line" -the sea lane through which flows its supplies of oil and other commodities. the US while feeling obliged to support Taiwan militarily is not party to a full-scale war with China. no one gains. Washington's primary concern would be to keep it to a "limited war" to prevent hostilities from spinning out of control. In this medium-intensity scenario. Though no physical loss will be incurred. It is now the island's single largest foreign exchange earner. then a full-scale war becomes unavoidable. Japan's rightwing forces will seize this golden opportunity to demand a revision of the post-war Constitution prohibiting its rearmament. If the US had to resort to nuclear weaponry to defeat China long before the latter acquired a similar capability. east Asia will be set on fire. East Asia Correspondent CHING CHEONG assesses the cost should war break out in the Taiwan strait WHAT if China and Taiwan were to come to blows. Silber. Since the use of force is limited to enforcing the blockade. At the same time its defence industry gains as countries in the region start stocking up on arms in anticipation of trouble. “No one gains in war over Taiwan. there were strong pressures from the military to drop it. will carve a big slice from what was previously Taiwan's share. In such a scenario. Lexis-Nexis Universe) In the third of a four-part special on China-Taiwan relations. Not surprisingly. Limited though it may be. THE high-intensity scenario postulates a cross-strait war escalating into a full-scale war between the US and China. to a lesser extent. 38 . If Washington were to conclude that splitting China would better serve its national interests. Beijing also seems prepared to go for the nuclear option. as investment flees China. No missile will be hurled. Major-General Pan Zhangqiang. This decision is particularly hard to make in those countries having a sizeable ethnic-Chinese population. commander of the US Eighth Army which fought against the Chinese in the Korean War. which in turn sent prices of these components soaring worldwide. the United States will not feel compelled to get involved other than to make some form of token protest. Politically. such investment has amounted to more than 20 per cent of China's total capital formation. A blockade lasting three months will devastate the industry in Taiwan. it has taken China more than two decades to establish itself as the second largest recipient of private direct investment. Broadly speaking. THE DOOMSDAY SCENARIO Beijing has already told the US and Japan privately that it considers any country providing bases and logistics support to any US forces attacking China as belligerent parties open to its retaliation. could enter a new and dangerous phase. BLOCKADE: LOSERS AND WINNERS AT THE bottom of the scale is a low-intensity conflict. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact. president of the military-funded Institute for Strategic Studies. Gen Ridgeway said that US was confronted with two choices in Korea -truce or a broadened war. He said military leaders considered the use of nuclear weapons mandatory if the country risked dismemberment as a result of foreign intervention. the Chinese strategists have postulated three scenarios. Washington is expected to pile on the pressure on Taiwan to accept the "one China" principle. 2000 – East Asia Correspondent (Ching Cheong. if not to reverse. short of using nuclear weapons. Taiwan is brought to its knees but only after widespread death and destruction have been inflicted on the island and the coastal provinces of China. Those with strong IT industries. Ethnic Chinese population in these countries may have to contend with increased suspicion or worse as Sino-phobia rises. Similarly. The US stands to gain. which could have led to the use of nuclear weapons. The negative impact will mainly be borne by the Chinese themselves while other countries in the region might even gain in the short run. told a gathering at the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars in Washington that although the government still abided by that principle. Japan. DESTROYING THE TAIWAN MILITARY THE medium intensity scenario postulates a situation in which Beijing wages a war against Taiwan . In south Asia. hostilities between India and Pakistan. the blockade is likely to provoke Sino-phobia in the region. opportunistic powers elsewhere may try to overturn the existing world order. With the US distracted. Other than the quantifiable losses from disrupted trade flows. The Asean region stands to gain in the short run. A capital outflow will follow if there is trouble across the strait. For example. the Asean countries might be able to intercept this flow and benefit thereby. the steep GNP growth trends of the past few years. The US estimates that China possesses about 20 nuclear warheads that can destroy major American cities. with Beijing using minimal force to bring an increasingly assertive and independence-minded Taiwan to heel. it took Taiwan almost three decades to establish itself as the third largest producer of information technology (IT) products in the world. The Sept 21 earthquake last year demonstrated the risk involved in Taiwan's dependence on the IT industry. The balance of power in the Middle East may be similarly upset by the likes of Iraq.China-Japan (Straight Times) This will escalate to global nuclear war and cause extinction – it also turns the economy advantage Cheong. Conflict on such a scale would embroil other countries far and near and -horror of horrors -raise the possibility of a nuclear war. In his book The Korean War. loss of life and property will be kept to the minimum. A Chinese military officer disclosed recently that Beijing was considering a review of its "non first use" principle regarding nuclear weapons. And the conflagration may not end there as Will a full-scale Sino-US war lead to a nuclear war? According to General Matthew Ridgeway. the war will set back the economies of China and Taiwan by at least two to three decades. will the neighbourhood go up in flames too? The impact on the region will depend on the intensity of the conflict. it does not lose the Chinese market. Singapore. Right now. the US had at the time thought of using nuclear weapons against China to save the US from military defeat. Similarly. The Straits Times. a scramble followed for alternative sources of supply. even at the lowest end of the intensity scale. will suffice to truncate. the entire Greater China region is enjoying one of its best moments in history in terms of economic growth. The objective here is to obliterate its military capability which is seen as underpinning its independence movement. A few days of power blackouts disrupted chip-manufacturing operations on the island. If China were to retaliate. Russia may seek to redefine Europe's political landscape .Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. the blockade will force up prices across the board as Japan is so dependent on this sea lane. all countries are forced to take sides. neither a physical occupation. like Singapore and Malaysia. All the short-term gains enjoyed by the Asean countries in the low-intensity scenario will be nullified as the conflict intensifies. Politically. It will mount a blockade on the island with the limited political objective of getting the Taiwanese back to the negotiation table for a peaceful settlement.” 6-25-2000. So long as its stays on the sidelines. The outcome: In this scenario. each armed with its own nuclear arsenal. Other than China and Taiwan. In recent years.

S.” While we should be confident that Japanese national interests are much more clearly in maintaining the alliance if push comes to shove. Establishing such a role would overlook the second-order ramifications. these are:• Supporting a constructive regional role for China on the Korean Peninsula and in the South China Sea. Recommendations for Advancing Alliance Interests in China/Taiwan Always place them in the context of broader regional interests. encryption. to say nothing of military conflict with China.S. Again. forward-deployed forces• U.senior associate at the stemson center.S. the very opposite is intended. and although defense of Taiwan is also a major interest. The U. Hoping to minimize damage to Japan-China relations.S. and other cooperation. If Japan does make China angry – and Tokyo must not be afraid to do that – might not the deterioration in ties with China embolden Taiwan to move even more briskly toward solidifying its separate status.• Promote respect for human rights.S. there is probably enough caution to cause paralysis. such as increased politicization of defense policy in Japan at a time when Tokyo is finally overcoming decades of stagnation and “defense allergy. ballistic missiles. the number one priority for the two countries in regard to Taiwan is to: Preserve separate status of Taiwan at minimal cost. In fact.S.• Avoiding turmoil or oppression within China. The alliance itself.• Preventing proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and advanced military technologies (AWACS. Tokyo may dawdle even in the face of disaster.-Japan alliance must come first in our regional policy formulation. In particular. The alliance is clearly the greatest interest of the United States and Japan in the region. cruise missiles. (Benjamin L. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact-Chinese-Japanese A strong alliance deters Chinese aggression and ensures Taiwanese stability Self. after policies are decided in Washington. Chapter 12: The China Problem.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. A narrow focus on Taiwan leads to simplistic linkage of tools to aims without sufficient consideration of larger but “extraneous” factors.. cultural. but a clear and direct role for it in defense of Taiwan may not be the best solution to the military threat to Taiwan’s security. pending the emergence of an environment more conducive to “Peaceful Resolution. and Japan share vital interests in several areas of cooperation with the PRC. enabling the very crisis we are hoping to prevent? The point here is emphatically not to argue against using the alliance as the basis for approaching China. we should also recall Tokyo’s “deer in the headlights” response to the Persian Gulf crisis. and the Security of Taiwan. and economic. The following elements include those that are traditionally considered alliance functions as well as those that have in the past been conducted outside the rubric of the alliance but could conceivably be folded in.ch/serviceengine/FileContent?serviceID=RESSpecNet&fileid=C8D09CBF-3F88-F467-B52A01842714CA38&lng=en) // HBG As discussed above. especially the World Trade Organization (WTO)• Scientific. it may be impossible to make the alliance stronger if it is seen as only “for Taiwan’s defense.” Because Japan is largely unwilling to sacrifice relations with China over this issue. common U. can serve as an umbrella to approach China.-based forces• Trilateral or multilateral dialogue. Typically these are considered in two groups: military options for deterrence or defense.” Diplomacy straddles the divide. including political exchange• Arms control• Trade and investment agreements.-Japan posture can assert control over the flow of events and policy positions. it can contribute to stability in the area around Taiwan. use of SDF bases and Japanese civilian facilities• Joint operations with Japan Self-Defense Forces• Support for Taiwan’s defense capability through arms sales and cooperation• Strengthening Taiwan’s economic and political development Confidence-building measures. and then a strong.” Thus. including peaceful space development. it would be a mistake to unnecessarily put the alliance at risk for the benefit of Taiwan. This is the tradition and it has been easy to do 39 . To be brief. as an adjunct to U.-Japan alliance is our strongest asset. The U.)The allies also share interests and values that impel them to seek some transformation in the character of the PRC regime:• Advance the rule of law in both economic and political arenas. etc. the U. the United States and Japan share a basic interest in preserving the status quo regarding Taiwan itself.S.S. The U.• U.-Japan Alliance. embodying both the deterrence function and the reassurance function.S. and other interactions for “engagement. Policy Tools for Maintaining the Security of Taiwan The allies have available to them a wide range of tools with which to advance these interests. including military-to-military dialogue• U. cultural. 2001. although the political elite strongly supports the alliance.isn. “Minimal cost” means more than the costs associated with direct military deterrence of China.• Support the rise of pluralism and gradual democratization. power. as it can either signal to China that military pressure on Taiwan will lead to confrontation or assure China that the allies have no intention to support Taiwan’s independence. http://se2. It must also include avoiding a breakdown of cooperation with China in areas of vital interest. What this means to argue against is the notion that Japan can be used. properly understood as a broad-based partnership rather than a purely military one. Petersen. 01-. Silber.

on the one hand. in foreign relations. on the other hand.S. a resurgence of patriotism and displays of comradeship among its compatriots and. manufacturing companies are making money in Japan today. 3-4-2002. which has formed a microcosm unto itself throughout history. However irrational Chinese business practices may seem to outsiders. Economic wonder. This is in line with the dictates of "senyu-koraku"--wise men worry ahead of common people and . But there is a problem. this time playing up the danger that Chinese economic aggression poses to Japan. the higher the growth rate of a country. none of which had any clear military advantage. Ensure balance of power. This would enable a balance of power effective enough to facilitate peaceful conflict resolution in the Asian region for at least the next 20 to 30 years. And its increasing strength threatens to destabilize the power balance in the Asian region in the long run. stands to gain much more. However. If not for the events China's economic growth must surely rank as one of the wonders of the modern world. There may be some substance to these predictions. to their own The increase in China's economic might also mean the flight of investment funds away from Japan. with the spoils going to the most powerful bodies. and it is evident that few countries can compete successfully with China. quadruple in the next 15 years. for Southeast Asian nations. if they became familiar with the system. the GDP of China. China strives for independence in all but a China may have been fascinated by the Japanese style of running department stores. For example. Silber. This was an image that struck a nerve in news centers the world over. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact-Chinese-Japanese Chinese military spending and economic growth guarantees conflict without a stronger U. as opposed to isolationism. I have noticed these trend irregularities may be fairly rational when seen from the point of view of the Chinese. Like many other countries. is limited to 1 million dollars in the deal. It is. Newsweek spotlighted China in its Sept. just as there was no way for the United States to reverse Japan's growing economic strength from the 1960s to the 1980s--a trend the United States accurately anticipated. In much the same way. In China. which is expected to rise as a result of economic development and a subsequent decline in the central authority of the ruling party. is retained. of course. copyright violations and failure to make payments. after it suffered miseries for so many years as it lagged behind the mainstream of modernization in the 19th century . the glare of the world's media would have been trained on China throughout the autumn as Beijing readied itself to join the World Trade Organization. – Japan alliance Okazaki. Germany proceeded to make remarkable gains in economic strength.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. and no one can say how long this new U. as more Japanese companies shift their production bases to China and close plants in Japan. they may no longer be willing to allow Japanese department store chain operators to continue making profits in China. It would be reckless for us to be complacent. Worthy of note in connection with this is that some countries are little affected by changes in the United States. intellectuals who fled in the wake of the 1989 Tiananmen incident have acquired business and engineering expertise on the international market and are returning home. China has a population enjoy themselves afterward. this will result in a net flow of cash to China. Suppose that Japan resolves the impasse over its right to exercise collective self-defense. Military spending in China will probably double before the next decade.S. Moreover. The fate of the world this century will depend considerably on the future of China as well as the new posture of the United States. China. A case in point is China. but hardly any U. arbitrary commissions charged on foreign companies' profits. This is just what such countries as Japan and South Korea have done in the past." The two-page illustration depicted China as a huge red octopus spreading its tentacles over the globe. However. Let's say a Japanese company invests in China and both the Japanese and its Chinese partners make 1 million dollars from the venture. they will not want foreign companies continuing to profit from the Chinese market. 40 . Since no one can really predict the future. Japan imported a wide range of manufacturing technologies from the United States. will gradually but inevitably upset the balance of power in Asia. I have long been convinced. the allocation of the budget is a hard-fought battle between government organizations. 29 State of the Union address. it is more expedient for us to confine our attention to those things that may directly affect Japan. It is also understandable that. While the growth in gross domestic product on the part of the investor's country. triggered by Sept. Japanese industry is becoming hollowed out. Japan should be gratified to see improvements in the living standards of our neighbor. research fellow at the Yomiuri Research Institute. calling it "China Inc. Kissinger says peace in Europe in the 19th century was maintained by a balance of power between the region's five major nations. causing their own industries to suffer. Taiwan and Singapore. instead of beneficial. handful of specialized fields for which it has to depend on foreign countries. The multiplier effect varies greatly depending on who receives the initial investment. U. will continue to receive the lion's share of the budget. an army of several hundred thousand Chinese have been graduating from universities every year to join the country's more advanced workforce. China's economic growth is assured as long as its growth potential. The Sept. Whether it can keep up the pace is an open question. the Sept. Last summer. In other words of 1. Chinese manufacturers are their direct competitors. but could not prevent. and they certainly cannot be ruled out. China understandably wants to obtain technical know-how from abroad. foreign companies in China have encountered an endless list of troubles. 3 edition. One school of thought insists that the dragon cannot keep breathing flames for long. the Jan. having an overwhelming say in the government. noncompliance with contract provisions. from a macroeconomic point of view. Furthermore. In the postwar era. 2 -. assuming that China's high economic growth is bound to stop in the near future. It is worth recalling former U." an obvious pun on what Japan was called at one time--"Japan Inc. China's 'multiplier effect' For the past 20 years since the open-door policy and reforms began. A week before the terrorist attacks. Japan. On the cover was a giant blue fire-breathing dragon. Each individual member of this highly talented society has been striving to be richer tomorrow than today ever since the launching of the reform policy in 1978.ambassador to Saudi Arabia and Thailand. the degree to which a country ultimately benefits from such a deal is governed by the so-called multiplier effect--the degree to which business profits raise gross domestic product. 11 terrorist attacks on the United States have changed the world. this means the military. No way of reversing . In any country. the larger its multiplier effect. China's neighbors are concerned about its high economic growth. It would therefore be adequate for Japan if it is able to maintain peace in Asia by paying due attention to changes in the regional balance of power that are bound to result from China's economic progress. Lexis //HBG By most accounts. This is noticeably reflected in U. public opinion--which has exerted a decisive influence on the course of world events in the 20th century--is leading the country toward. China will continue to make drastic increases in its national strength. although we may deal with such problems as and when they affect us. no business deal takes place without both parties profiting.S. but the problem is that it has resulted in more harm than benefit to neighboring economies.S. Furthermore. There can be no doubt that China's military spending will inevitably be boosted. allowing itself to fully commit militarily to achieving goals common to Japan and the United States under the bilateral alliance. it seems that the probabilities of such developments will be more or less lower than the chances of the Chinese economy continuing to expand for the foreseeable future. such as Chinese authorities' fickle interpretation of economic regulations. that the Chinese people have a high potential for achieving sustainable growth. with a large multiplier effect. President George W. and predictions abound on the future of the Chinese economy. meaningless to try to reverse a predominant economic trend by economic measures. upsetting the balance of power without changing national boundaries. interests. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger's brilliant analysis of the situation in Europe just before World War I. and this Strengthening Japan's alliance with the United States is the only way in which Washington and Tokyo can cope with this situation. However. 11. and balloon 10-fold 30 years from now. There is no way to halt the expansion of the Chinese economy. The data showed that China was the sole winner in trade competition on the international market. After the war against terrorism passed a critical stage. Adherents to this theory point to a range of factors that could work to slow China's high economic growth: internal tension within the socialist economic system. he notes. Petersen. critics around the world began warning of the menace posed by China after it posted its economic figures for the first half of the year 2001. Also. Indeed.S. Of course. interventionism." because public opinion is by nature unpredictable. public demand for democratization. In this way. which is based on low labor costs. which they see as damaging.S. constraints due to environmental pollution. 30 issue of the Japaneselanguage version of Newsweek put the focus back on China. 11 attacks turned the media's attention away from China for some months. once the Chinese acquire the relevant expertise.2 billion and a long list of accomplishments that include one of history's most advanced civilizations and a succession of great dynasties. the multiplier effect in Japan on the firms' profits will be on the minus side. Add to these factors the low cost of labor. Here. the risk that China will enter a stagnant phase in both economic and military strength should by rights worry Chinese the most. Bush's Jan. tendency will continue. But even then. one reservation is made by saying "most accounts. If Japanese companies operating in China are obliged by Chinese policy to channel their profits into new investments in China. It is not Japan's business to butt in on things that are not our concern.

Benjamin. it is critically important to understand how the alliance. Chinese leaders face a dilemma. and if it is not directed against China. China could. While the current talks on revising the Guidelines on US–Japan Defense Cooperation involve only limited changes in Japan’s responsibilities. China accepts the alliance if it checks Japan from going it alone and from becoming militaristic. www. If China is to develop. But this choice could also work against Chinese interests in the long term. The timing of the Declaration probably led to a considerable Chinese overstatement of the Declaration’s alleged anti-Chinese intent. the two East Asian powers could confront one another.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. If the United States and Japan were to take action to claim the disputed Senkaku Islands. Given the technological superiority of Japanese industry and the massive revenues on which it can draw. China: Of all East Asian countries. If the United States were to end the alliance and withdraw from East Asia. the Chinese government has adopted a wait-and-see attitude and the future of the debate will depend on US policies and actions. May 1997. Chinese leaders would prefer to see a trilateral regional security system emerge in which they are accorded the status and respect that the United States and Japan enjoy. and especially the recent moves to revitalize it. Japan might well decide to increase the size and capabilities of its military. While the United States and Japan are in no way beholden to the views of other countries. China has no wish to antagonize the United States or Japan. technology and capital are essential. Given its desire to focus on economic growth and modernization. A Chinese commentator at the meeting analyzed China’s thinking about the US–Japan alliance. he said. they don't perceive alliance as hostile Zagoria& Rivlin.html) //HBG No matter what the United States and Japan claim to have had in mind in strengthening the alliance. Chinese academics. it is necessary to be aware of the impact these changes will have on specific countries and the region as a whole. acquiesce and allow Japan to take on more responsibility within the alliance framework. If so. But with the collapse of the Soviet Union. This view was strengthened due to the timing of the US–Japan Joint Security Declaration which was in announced in April 1996. Without this buffer. access to US and Japanese markets. is perceived by other countries. Sooner or later. Revitalizing the US–Japan Alliance. China could be the target of serious economic retaliation. in turn.ciaonet. it is possible that this is only the first step in what could be an ongoing effort to expand Japan’s capabilities within the alliance framework. then China would lose the buffer between itself and Japan. China has the most at stake with respect to any changes in the US– Japan relationship. The majority believe that the US–Japan alliance is "in part" directed against China because the basic US policy toward China is "engagement" with an "element of containment. depends on the perception that China is not a threat to East Asian stability and prosperity. At present. can be divided into two groups. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact-Chinese-Japanese China wants a strong alliance because it keeps Japanese militarism in check. Chinese leaders would find it difficult not to act. the Chinese scholar said. Silber. To provide a deeper understanding of regional views on the US–Japan alliance. Such a scenario is clearly not in China’s interest. He added that his own conclusion from recent developments was that there had been no basic change in the Chinese position on the alliance. on the other hand. no leader can afford to vacillate on territorial or other issues that have a deep emotional component. 97 -. China faces the prospect of confronting an alliance in which Japan’s role is gradually expanding. such as territorial disputes. Officially." But a "growing minority" believes that the US–Japan alliance is directed mainly against China. but it was delayed because President Clinton was forced to postpone his visit. But the influence of nationalistic attitudes cannot either be discounted. or to defend the claims of Southeast Asian countries in the South China Sea or to support separatist trends on Taiwan. In the meantime. and if the alliance contributes to peace and stability. The original plan was for the Declaration to be issued in the fall of 1995. Should that perception be altered by sufficiently egregious actions. the organizers of the conference invited representatives from several East Asian countries to participate as well as several American and Japanese scholars familiar with attitudes in East Asia. are shelved until it has the power and influence to gain a favorable outcome.*Professor of government and Director of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy’s Project ** Director of the Ralph Bunche Institute on the United Nations and Professor Emeritus of Political Science (Donald. It is obviously necessary.org/conf/bun03/bun03d. China’s interests are best served by a peaceful regional environment and it would prefer that all potentially explosive issues. but far from easy. Petersen. Chinese leaders viewed the alliance as a bulwark against the Soviet Union and also as a major impediment to the possible resurgence of Japanese militarism. 41 . and a country’s perception that such changes are inimical to its national security interests. within a few weeks of the Taiwan Strait crisis. when two US aircraft carriers anchored off Taiwan while Japanese Maritime Security Agency patrol boats were sent to the region south of Okinawa. Given China’s recent history. For many years. the Chinese would be hard put to compete with Japan in a regional arms race and it would divert resources away from economic modernization. Access. to distinguish between a country’s rhetorical criticism that changes in the alliance will inevitably engender. many Chinese analysts now believe that the security alliance will be directed against China. This scenario was lent greater credence during the Taiwan Strait crisis.

uk/opinion/main. Indeed. http://www. given that natural resources and conservation of energy are national issues for China.telegraph.” 03/08/05. 05 (Anton La Guardia. “A New Chapter in Japan–China Relations.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2005/08/03/do0301. 8 (Institute for International Policy Studies. seen as unthinkable in Europe. Petersen. It is unlikely that Japan could escape involvement. IIPS. Telegraph. it would be desirable for Japan to make full use of its relevant technology and its experience in these spheres in China as well. after the publication of new textbooks seen as playing down Japanese atrocities. chiefly through the provision of ―soft assistance. Even in Hiroshima. It is difficult to see Asia's leaders standing side by side any time soon to remember the fallen as Europe's leaders do for joint commemorations of the Second World War. the Japanese coastguard chased and sank a North Korean spy ship. As China’s neighbor. Strong relations are key to continued Chinese growth. The idea of a major new war.org/jcr/jcre. Even a democratic country such as South Korea harbours a deep resentment of Japan. Japan should strongly encourage China to actively address these problems. Silber. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Impact-Chinese-Japanese East Asia is stretched thin. among other issues. Several anti-Japanese riots broke out in China last spring. tolerated by the authorities. such as technology and expertise. and there have been protests in Seoul over the status of islands claimed by the two countries. the environment. the Indian Ocean and now the "reconstruction" mission in southern Iraq. some Japanese have started to talk of the ultimate taboo: developing a nuclear deterrent. and should—if China so requests—fully cooperate with China to resolve them. a former Japanese colony. is far from outlandish in Asia. it faces a number of intractable problems. Academics now compare the growing Sino-Japanese competition for natural resources and economic dominance to the contest between Germany and Britain at the start of the war-blighted 20th century. AG) In Asia. in relation to internal politics.xml.iips. wartime resentments of Japan are still acute. and energy. http://www. 42 . Japan has started to flex military muscles atrophied by decades of pacifism. In particular. water resources. As China devotes much of its new wealth to modernising its armed forces. Its forces are developing the ability to operate at greater distances and the war-renouncing constitution has been stretched to the limit with deployments in East Timor.” 4/23/08.co. Last year Japanese ships and planes tracked a Chinese submarine snooping in territorial waters. North Korea test-fired ballistic missiles over Japanese territory in 1998. Three years later. “The clouds of nuclear war are still hanging over Hiroshima. Japan is demanding a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council alongside the victors of the Second World War. AG) Although China is currently flourishing as a state (with the Olympic Games and the World Expo imminent). the likeliest flashpoint is Taiwan.pdf. How well China handles these problems will affect the nation’s fate in the long term and will also have important implications globally. and the US is committed to defending Taiwan.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. however. one scenario is that China could emulate Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor with a pre-emptive strike on US forces in Okinawa. China has made no secret of its readiness to resort to force to stop the island from seceding formally. Keeping relations strong is critical to stop another world war.

Of course. it is practically impossible for Americans to determine effectively whether their values are really shared or not.Katzenstein and Takashi Shiraishi. Peter J.Japanese SoPo key Japanese SoPo is indeterminate for its effect it has on the globe – just like American sopo David Leheny 6 – Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. certainly going to be politically consequential. whether Japan has soft power or not is almost certainly impossible to tell. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff. Chapter: “A Narrow Place to Cross Swords” <This means. If we think of soft power not as a category of power resources but rather as an idea-a component of a cultural and ideographical structure of governance-it can affect Japanese policy even if Japan does not really have soft power. though perhaps not in the way that the terms' users might suppose. The same is likely true for Japanese. that Gross National Cool and soft power are almost. Silber.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Because American culture and values are constitutive of Americans. the term "soft power" became popular in the United States not only because of Nye's writings and his important position in international relations theory but also because it sat well with Americans' views of themselves. Petersen.> 43 . “Beyond Japan: The Dynamics of East Asian Regionalism.” Ed. and is not in itself germane to policy. After all.

"why can't the American president go to Iran?" Others called for a more aggressive push for Arab-Israeli peace. a former Japanese diplomat. Bush. president is likely to "cease support for all dictators.” 7-21-08. like many Indonesians." said Masaki Orita. a core value in Islam. 7-21-08 (Stanley Weiss – founding chairman of Business Executives for National Security. "Restore global trust and confidence by working with and listening to others. Petersen. the leaders I surveyed highlighted several areas where American action could win back hearts and minds.S. as Obama has expressed a willingness to do. embrace China and India as true partners. "and everything else will follow. improve relations with Russia and reduce nuclear weapons. the war on terror." There were the expected calls for a U. including a more "even-handed" approach by Washington and stronger opposition to expanded Israeli settlements. "The next president should take more account of the sentiments of other people.S. "especially compassion.com/articles/2008/07/21/opinion/edweiss. an Indonesian parliamentarian (who. Zulkieflimansyah. "If Nixon could go to China and Reagan to the Soviet Union. the UN. not their masked trampler. promoting peace. echoing the sentiments of many." One person suggested a presidential visit to a mosque outside the U. like Dr. reform the United Nations with a more inclusive Security Council. which Obama supports and McCain opposes. Silber.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. But the one piece of advice offered most often was something more basic: a return to multilateral diplomacy. IHT. including a new attitude by the president himself. a Thai venture capitalist. and Gitmo. Many called for a smarter approach to terrorism. uses one name and is more commonly known as Zul). a nonpartisan organization based in Washington. the next president will give America a public relations boost simply by not being George W.iht." said Carlos Fuentes. exit from Iraq. suggesting a McCain presidency could have a harder time burnishing America's image.php. America would again be seen as the "shield of freedoms. Beyond that. the Mexican novelist. Human rights. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff AT: Soft Power NB – Alt Causes Too many other barriers stop solvency for soft power like relations." a European diplomat asked. "He should use speeches and visits to emphasize the values that Muslims and Americans have in common. AG) There were familiar appeals: Don't attack Iran. http://www. Likewise." said Gurdist Chansrichawla." said Bijan Khajehpour. “AMERICA'S IMAGE: How to electrify the world. No U. a Tehran-based analyst. He said the next president should build a "bridge of reason and understanding with the Islamic world. many urged the next president to meet foreign adversaries." as urged by Syed Abida Hussain of Pakistan's Peoples Party. not just Americans. 44 .S." In other words. But closing the military prison at Guantánamo Bay and foreswearing torture would generate enormous international goodwill.

“AMERICA'S IMAGE: How to electrify the world. and spewing more greenhouse gases. Silber. U. suggests going further with "an American-led global effort on renewable energy along the lines of the 1950s Atoms for Peace program" to share new technologies with other countries. A European-style cap-and trade system to reduce carbon emissions which both Obama and McCain favor . AG) The environment and energy. India's special envoy for climate change. than any other nation. Action key to U. Petersen.S.com/articles/2008/07/21/opinion/edweiss.would be a start. With Americans consuming more oil.” 7-21-08. as would embracing the conventions of the Kyoto protocol. IHT. 45 . and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff. leadership on energy and climate change is seen as indispensable. SoPo US action on environmental issues solves for soft power. a nonpartisan organization based in Washington.S.S. 7-21-08 (Stanley Weiss – founding chairman of Business Executives for National Security.U. http://www.php. Shyam Saran.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt.iht.

8 – Financial Consultant (J. Silber. 2008 “G-8 summit gives Japan a green spotlight”)//CP RUSUTSU. they are striving to improve things. At the news conference. The summit is being held in a remote mountaintop hotel on the island of Hokkaido. Lee ‘8 – LA times Staff Writer (July 7. Even though Japan is decreasing incentives. its corporations have long benefited from their heavy investment in energy-saving technologies. Despite the annual drops in incentives. noting that "there certainly may be problems with China. saying that it would be an "affront to the Chinese people" if he didn't.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Lynch. Fukuda appeared to lower expectations that an agreement would be won. although they are invited as guests at the summit. Peter. Japanese companies use half as much energy per dollar of economic activity compared with the United States.S. Italy. 46 .renewableenergyworld. By some measures. Bush defended his decision to attend the opening ceremony of the Olympics next month in Beijing. Sapporo.com/rea/news/recolumnists/story?id=52929. The Japanese prime minister said for the first time that he would go to the opening event as well. Britain. whether battery-powered cars or solar panels. Petersen. Japan's efforts to go green also give its leaders. JAPAN — Even as most of the world struggles with soaring fuel and food prices. Since the oil embargo crisis in 1973. Canada and Russia. including incentives and widespread consumer education and in less than 10 years has made solar electricity a success in Japan and has made Japan the worldwide solar electricity leader. AG) In Japan. The G-8 group comprises the U. As chairman of this year's G-8 summit. In short. Germany. greater standing to push their agenda on global warming. China and India are not members of the G-8. like other nations. hosts of the Group of 8 major industrial nations summit beginning today. But at a news conference Sunday after bilateral meetings between leaders. Japan.. needed to be involved in any such accord. That means the world's second-largest economy is better able than many to withstand the latest oil shock." Although Japan.” 7-2-08. They were dropped each year to reflect technical advancements and were eliminated in 2005. Japan has moved forward quickly with a well-planned program. while Bush again said that China and India. there is a similar set of government guarantees and incentives that have been in effect for a number of years (since 1992). Some in Congress have called on Bush to boycott the Games because of China's human rights record. but even so. on-grid solar electricity in Japan is now CHEAPER than retail fossil fuel electricity. two major polluters. many in Japan see an opportunity to shine during these tough economic times because of this nation's long-running conservation programs. France. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff AT: Japan Economy NB No Impact – Japan’s Economy is one of the most preparred for oil shocks in the world. away from thousands of protesters gathered in Hokkaido prefecture's capital. http://www. the market is growing and the cost of electricity is cheap. Japan has done more than most nations to reduce its heavy reliance on crude oil and develop green technologies. “What America Needs Now – 2008. two major issues facing President Bush and seven other leaders meeting here this week. Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda has urged the group to agree to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by half by 2050. the market is still growing at 20% plus per year and as a result. is facing inflation from higher fuel prices and is struggling with weak consumer spending and slowing exports.

chairman of environmental lobby group Globe International. and a unit of Inpex Holdings Inc.. The venture is capitalized at 36 million yen ($341. and Idemitsu Kosan Co.'' Elliot Morley. Last month. as a prelude to the leaders' summit next week in Japan's northern island of Hokkaido.S. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff AT: Japan NB Non. according to the statement. Petersen. said in an interview with Bloomberg TV today in Tokyo.'' 47 .. The move follows an agreement this month by energy ministers of the Group of Eight industrialized nations to jointly develop the technologies by 2020 and launch 20 large-scale demonstration projects by 2010 in a bid to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases blamed for global warming. Japan CCS Co.capture technology to be used in government-backed projects. Silber. ``Developed countries have to take a larger share of that to allow economic growth in developing countries. ``A target of 50 percent global reduction is about right. the venture said in a statement released in Tokyo today. the adviser to the U. Nippon Oil Corp. environment ministers of the eight rich nations pledged to cut emissions of the harmful gases by half by 2050.Unique – Japan investing an Carbon-Capture technology now Shigeru ‘8 – Bloomberg Staff Writer (Shigeru Sato “Japan Energy Companies Form Carbon-Capture-and-Storage Venture” ) // CP Tokyo Electric Power Co. The International Energy Agency. have joined 22 Japanese companies in forming a venture to research carbon.K. will also seek contracts to do research for private enterprises considering using the technology. The 24 investors include Japan's 10 regional power utilities and two oil refiners. in which carbon dioxide is collected in the air and stored underground.653) and was formed last month. the U.. has also encouraged world leaders to develop the carbon-reducing technology. Asia's biggest utility. and 25 other rich nations.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt.

not climate change The Straits Times. as in the case of its four 'schools' in Japan. which aims to have 100 schools. such as Australia.000 students in all. Schools that satisfy the standards set by the foundation will be designated approved institutions for teaching Japanese. Japan's latest move. 48 .' he said.a largely government-funded entity that promotes international exchange and the Japanese language abroad. all run by the Japan Foundation . the Japanese government's commitment to pursuing soft power diplomacy is still not convincing. foreigners around the world said to be studying Japanese number some 2.do? docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T4235901222&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T4235901225& cisb=22_T4235901224&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=144965&docNo=6) //HBG TOKYO . fashion.4 million. Germany's Goethe-Institut has schools in some 70 countries. as a second language in schools. the Japan Foundation will reportedly help foreign schools by training their teachers and developing curricula. 1/9/07 http://www. Petersen. The Japan Foundation has a budget of about 3. it may be a case of too little. compared to 30 billion yen for the Goethe-Institut. The foundation's latest move also comes amid reports that the Japanese language is losing out in popularity to Chinese in some countries. 'This is where we need the Japan Foundation to step up to the plate. signalled its intention to focus on soft power diplomacy last April. The Confucius Institute. Mr Aso noted the dramatic increase in the number of foreigners studying Japanese in recent years. which has jurisdiction over the Japan Foundation. such as Britain. France and Germany. And the number is increasing each year. 'I got to thinking about what might account for that. The Japanese Foreign Ministry. and it occurred to me that the theme songs of anime shows on TV are in Japanese. a diehard fan of Japanese comics. For Japan.TO CATCH up with other world powers. The move comes nearly three years after China embarked on a major project to establish a string of Confucius Institutes around the world to spread the teaching of the Chinese language. many of them in the form of courses launched jointly with local universities. there would be an increase in children with an interest in the Japanese language as a result. The Japanese government has only now begun to recognise that soft power diplomacy could help it to spread its influence abroad. Naturally. In comparison.lexisnexis. has reportedly set up 78 so far. Japan plans to have more than 100 approved schools worldwide teaching the Japanese language within the next few years. Former European colonial powers. for example. There are now only 10 approved schools in 10 countries. 7 (Tokyo wants to have over 100 approved schools worldwide teaching Japanese language. The 10 schools can take about 3. in a speech by its minister Taro Aso.Japan Soft Power DA Heidt. Speaking at a school in Tokyo specialising in teaching digital content. while France's Alliance Francaise is present in 130 countries. In terms of budget. is aimed at not only raising the quality of teaching but also increasing the number of foreigners studying Japanese. have long considered the teaching of their respective languages to foreigners an important part of their soft power diplomacy and have set aside huge budgets for the purpose.already has a well-established foothold in many countries. music. especially China. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff: Climate not key to SoPo Alt cause – Japan Soft Power is low and premised of off education and language .com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.5 billion yen ($45S million) a year for its Japanese language programmes.' Instead of setting up more of its own schools. too late. even though Japanese pop culture movies. however. which was reported by the Tokyo Shimbun daily. computer games and so on . Silber. with 70 per cent of them in Asia.

second. which. Petersen.As far as the first component is concerned. from the 1894 China-Japan war to the end of World War II in 1945. the emergence and growth of other East Asian nations' modern nationalism. 2007. This attitude has helped strengthen the mentality among at least the Chinese and Koreans to keep this chapter of history firmly in their hearts. repeatedly bringing it up. though called an "immense success and pride for all Chinese people. P: Access World News) China has been successful in the past two to three weeks in the diplomatic stabilization of its ties. following Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi's October 17 visit to the Yasukuni Shrine . This was particularly and symbolically heralded by the successful return of Shenzhou VI to Earth on October 17. P: Access World News) The modern history of East Asia can be seen as having two core components: first.Indeed.SoPo Low Now Japanese Soft Power is low – Yasukini war trial proves China Daily. the basic problem today is that the majority of Japanese are inclined to forget. and Clark 7 Week Juniors Lab Aff. Japanese Soft Power lost. except with Japan. brutality and ferocity." whilst promising not to accelerate a military race in space. Beijing has actively sought diplomatic stabilization with its major partners and projected an active posture in its diplomacy. the half-century is dominated by Japan's aggression with extreme violence.his fifth visit since taking office and the appointment two weeks later of a more conservative and hawkish cabinet than expected. 2005. as befits a large nation." was also stressed by Premier Wen Jiabao as a "peaceful development and contribution of China to the world. 05 (“China continues with steady foreign policy. trivialize or even deny the country's history of aggression and brutality. 07 (“Old history stymies new regional cooperation. 49 .Japan Soft Power DA Heidt.Past proves China Daily.” November 8. in which the experiences of opposing and resisting Japanese aggression and colonization more or less played the decisive role. Silber.” March 23.