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Cylindrical Coordinates , ,

ELECTROMAGNETICS PRIMER Solenoidal field: Can also be d 0 0 written as , , Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical

Gradient, Divergence, and Curl

Spherical Coordinates , ,

d d d d dd dd dd d d ddd

Gradient: Operates on a scalar field and outputs a vector field. It is always normal to a constant value surface (e.g., , , 3) and always points in the direction of maximum change in the scalar function. grad Cartesian 1 Cylindrical 1 Spherical 1 sin

1 1 1 sin

Line Integral

d d sin d d dd sin dd sin dd d d sin ddd Line integral along , , d

Conservative fields:

Surface Integral

Can also be 0 d 0 written as , , Surface integral through , , d

Divergence: Operates on a vector field and outputs a scalar field. A positive divergence implies a source of flow, and a negative divergence implies a sink. d lim Div Cartesian 1 1 Cylindrical 1 1 Spherical sin sin 1 sin Divergence Theorem:

where is the surface that encloses the volume .

d d

Curl: Operates on a vector field and outputs a vector field. d curl lim 1 1 sin

Helmholtz Theorem A vector field is uniquely defined (within an additive constant) by specifying its curl and divergence. A corollary to this is that any vector field can be decomposed into the gradient of a scalar field and the curl of a vector field: Electrostatics Postulates: enc d 1.

Cartesian

Stokess Theorem:

where is the line enclosing the surface . Laplacian Operates on either a scalar or vector and outputs the same. For scalars: Cartesian 1 1 Cylindrical 1 1 Spherical sin sin 1 sin For vectors: for Cartesian Important Vector Identities 0 (the curl of a gradient is 0) 0 (the divergence of a curl is 0)

d d

sin sin

Cylindrical

Spherical

Coulombs Law: 1 1 4 4 1 d 1 d d 4 4 Conductors in electrostatics: 1.Charges in the conductor are allowed to move freely within the conductor. 2.All charge on a conductor resides on its surface. 3.Charges distribute themselves on the conductor to ensure there is zero electric field in the conductor, regardless of its shape. 4.The electric field on the surface of the conductor must be perpendicular to the surface (no tangential component), and hence the electrostatic potential on at the surface is constant. Dielectrics in electrostatics: Electrons are bound to their molecules, but the molecules can be polarized as a dipole due to an externally applied electric field. Electric displacement field/flux density:

. Force on charge from electric field:

Postulate 1 is Gausss Law. It can be used for two types of cases: 1.Calculation of the electric field intensity or electric flux density from known, symmetric charge distributions. 2.Calculation of the equivalent charge in a volume, provided the electric field is known everywhere in space, particularly where Gausss law is applied. From postulate 2, we can define the electrostatic potential : d d d 1-D

0 0 d 2.

If the material is linear and isotropic, then: e where e is the electric susceptibility and is zero in is: free space, and so 1 e r Electric Field Boundary Conditions: 0 T T T T N N N 2N For a conductor, set the electric fields to 0. Capacitance:

To calculate, place imaginary charge on one surface, calculate electrostatic potential, and plug in. Energy stored by capacitor: 1 2 Energy density of electric field: 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 The force on a charge can also be written as: Poissons/Laplaces Equation: 0 in charge-free regions Electric Currents d

From postulate 1, which states that there are no magnetic monopoles (unlike for electrostatics, which can have point charges), we can define the magnetic : vector potential = Postulate 2 is Amperes Law. It can be used to calculate the magnetic field in symmetric configurations such that the magnetic field can be pulled out of the integral as constant including: 1.Current in an infinite wire. 2.Current in an infinitely long solid or hollow cylindrical conductor. 3.Infinite sheet of current. 4.Multiple conductors in a symmetrical configuration. 5.Nonsymmetric current distributions which are a superposition of symmetric current distributions. d 4 Magnetic fields in materials: = + and In an isotropic material, relationship between is usually: = where is the magnetic susceptibility and is positive in paramagnets (attracted to magnetic field) and negative in diamagnets (repulsed from magnetic field). Usually, | | < 10 , so most materials like for this is then: this are hardly magnetic. = 1 + = In ferromagnets such as iron, the relationship looks something like the graph to the right, and the relationship between and is nonlinear, although usually ferromagnets are approximated as linear as above since the relationship is such as long as the magnetization does not saturate. Biot-Savart Law: = d The magnetization in a material can be thought of as an equivalent magnetization volume current density when the magnetization in a material is nonuniform and an equivalent magnetization surface regardless of the magnetizations current density uniformity:

= enc = d 2.

Ohms Law:

Joules Law:

Continuity Equation: The divergence of the current density is equal to the negative rate of change of volume charge density anywhere in space. d = d Magnetostatics Postulates: =0 = 0 d 1.

= d = d d

, where

= and = The magnetic field can be calculated from these . currents rather than

relate the fields to materials. Postulate 7 is the Lorentz force equation. Faradays Law: emf = d d d = d d

Force on a charged particle in magnetic field: = A charged particle with a component of its velocity perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field will gyrate with a radius and a frequency of, respectively: = and = The guiding center will drift with a velocity: = + Time-Varying Electromagnetic Fields Postulates: = = d 1.

= To calculate, place imaginary through inductor, calculate flux through the inductor, and plug in. Energy stored in inductor: 1 = 2 Energy density of magnetic field: 1 1 1 = = = = 2 2 2 2 Inductance: =

Magnetic Field Boundary Conditions = 0 = = = = =

Two ways to solve problems: 1.Find the change in magnetic flux in a closed circuit either because the magnetic field or area is varying. 2.If the emf is caused by motion, plug in to the equation on the bottom. The force opposing the motion is: = d

= d d =

Lenzs Law: Direction of current generated by Faradays law is such that the magnetic field it creates for increasing or opposes the change (opposite for decreasing or ). and in the same direction as Electromagnetic Uniform Plane Waves Time harmonic wave equation: = + + =

The boundary conditions do not change from the static case when time dependence is taken into account.

= = + d + 4. d = 5. = 6. = + 7. Postulates 1 through 4 are Maxwells Equations. Postulates 5 and 6 are the constitutive relations that

d = = d d 2. d =0 = 0 d 3.

If = 0, the solution is given by (for + propagation): = = where = is the wavenumber and = 1 is the intrinsic impedance. The wave travels with a phase velocity and has a wavelength of, respectively: 1 2 = = and =

If 0, the electric permittivity is represented as a complex number: = = = 1 tan where tan = is the loss tangent. The wavenumber is complex and is given by: = 1 In this case, a complex propagation constant is

defined as: = = + = + where and are called the attenuation constant and phase constant, respectively, such that the solution is now: = = where is now a complex intrinsic impedance and is given by: = The phase velocity and wavelength are now given by: 2 = and = The velocity at which the waves energy propagates is given by the group velocity, defined as: 1 1 = = Materials are often classed as one of the following cases below to make simplifying assumptions: Lossless case ( = 0 tan = 0 only real): = 0, = = , = = Low-loss case ( tan 1): Use Taylor series of 1 + = 1 + + 2 8 1 = , = 1 + 2 8 = 1 + 2 Note: set = 0 in and for very low-loss Intermediate case ( tan 1): = 1 + 1 2 = =

1 = 2 Converting between Np/m and dB/m for : 20 dB = = 8.686Np ln10 Np Polarization: the figure traced by the tip of the electric field vector as a function of time at a fixed point in space. Three types: 1.Linear: Electric field has only one component or all of its components are in phase. 2.Circular: Electric field has at least two components, and the two components have equal magnitudes out of phase by 90. 3.Elliptical: Any wave that is not linearly or circularly polarized, either because the components are not 90 out of phase or do not have the same magnitude. Circular and Elliptical can be either right-handed or left-handed. To determine, the polarization is handed if the thumb of the hand traces out the electric field as increases. See the diagram above for a wave propagating in the + direction. Note: Linear and circular polarization are special cases of elliptical polarization, and waves of a given polarization can often be written as the superposition of two waves with a different polarization. Surface Resistance: = Poyntings Theorem + d 2 2
Time rate of decrease in stored energy within ) Power from sources ( ) or dissipated as loss (

Good conductor ( tan 1): 1 + == = , = 2 2 1 Penetration/skin depth: = =

1 + + 1 2

= d
Power leaving

The Poynting vector is defined as: = and represents the power density of an electromagnetic wave. It points in the direction of power flow (also wave propagation). In the time harmonic case, it is a time-averaged quantity:

Normal Incidence: r c c t 2c = = and = = i c + c i c + c Note: = 1 + . The waves form a combination of a standing wave and a propagating wave. For a PEC, = 0, so = 1 and = 0, and the wave is just a standing wave. Oblique Incidence: Reflection and transmission coefficients change to more complicated expressions. Snells Law of Refraction and Reflection: sin p r r = = = and i = r sin p r r

Reflection and Transmission of Plane Waves

1 d 1 = 2 1 1 1 = = = = 2 2 2 2

Transmission Lines Defined by four parameters: 1. : inductance per unit length 2. : capacitance per unit length 3. : resistance per unit length 4. : conductance per unit length

These parameters are related by: d d d = and = d where d , d , and d are the permeability, permittivity, and conductivity, of the dielectric.

Governing Equations (Telegraphers Equations): , , = , , , = , Time Harmonic Analysis of Transmission Lines

Two special cases: 1.Brewsters Angle: Incident angle for which there is no reflection (i.e., = 0 so = 1). Depends on whether incident wave has parallel polarization ( is in the plane of incidence) or perpendicular is perpendicular to the plane of polarization ( incidence). sin = = + if =

sin = = + if = Because most dielectrics do not have different permeability, the Brewster angle is most often associated with parallel polarization. 2.Total Internal Reflection: Occurs when Snells law results in a sine greater than 1, i.e., when: sint = sini > 1 The critical angle above which an incident wave will be totally internally reflected is: sinic = p r r = = p r r

Wave equation: d + + = 0 d d + + = 0 d Solution (with measured from load): = + = + = where: = + = + + Characteristic impedance: + = = +

Distortionless Lines: For a transmission line to be distortionless (i.e., the attenuation constant, phase velocity, and characteristic impedance of the line are constant), the line parameters must satisfy: = For this case, 1 p = = = + =

The phase velocity and wavelength are the same as for uniform plane waves: 2 p = and =

Note that a lossless line is also distortionless, so the preceding also applies for them except = 0.

Standing Wave Ratio: max 1 + |L | max SWR = = min min 1 |L | The wave on the transmission line will be the sum of a forward propagating wave and a standing wave as with plane waves. The voltage magnitude will have maxima and minima at: L + 2, = 0,1,2, max = 4 L + 2 1, = 0,1,2, min = 4 (so note that the maxima and minima are separated by a quarter wavelength.) Special cases for : L = L = 0 L = 0, SWR = 0. The wave is purely forward propagating. L = 0 L = 1 L = , SWR = . The wave is purely standing with minima at the load and every half wavelength from it. The impedance is purely imaginary. L = L = +1 L = 0, SWR = . The wave is purely standing with maxima at the load and every half wavelength from it. The impedance is purely imaginary. L (i.e., L is purely imaginary): SWR = . The wave is purely standing. L = L (i.e., L is purely real): L = 0 (if L > , and the voltage has a maximum at the load) or L = (if L < , and the voltage has a minimum at the load). The minimum and maximum impedance magnitudes are given by: max = SWR and min = SWR Power on the line: | | = |L | cos 2| | For lossless lines tanh becomes tan and = 0.

Load reflection coefficient: L L = = |L | L L + The voltage and current on the line can be written in terms of L as: = + L = L Line impedance: L + tanh = = + tanh

As , a transmission line can be replaced with a single wire. When a change happens (e.g., load/generator is connected/disconnected/changed), a voltage and current wave will propagate and possibly reflect with coefficients: L G L = G = L + G + As long as the line is distortionless (see above), the wave will move with a constant velocity regardless of its shape. The voltage and current at any point on the line is given by the sum of all the waves that have passed by that point at that time. Transient Analysis of Transmission Lines