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Bioenergy and Sustainability Policy in the Netherlands

Kees Kwant SenterNovem

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

1. Energy situation in the Netherlands

primairy energy in NL (3100 PJ/a) nuclear 1% coal 11%

secondary energy in NL (3100 PJ/a)

electricity import rest 2% 2%

electricity 11%

losses 32%

transportation fuels 15%

natural gas 48%

products 11%

oil 36%
heat 31%

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

2. Energy Transition needed


Transition from fossil-based fuels and raw materials to a sustainable energy housekeeping Clear Goal: 50% CO2 emission reduction by 2050 Long term strategy Significant changes in technology, infrastructure, socio-economic environment, government policy Methods : Public private approach Vision, goals, transition paths, experiments Interdepartemental collaboration

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Biobased Raw Materials Platform


Transition to replace fossil based raw materials to biobased raw materials Transition paths: Sustainable development and production of biomass Sustainable import chains Co-production of chemicals, transport fuels, electricity and heat Production of SNG (synthetic natural gas) for the natural gas infrastructure Innovative use of biobased raw materials and increased sustainability of processes and products in the chemical industry

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Governmental Opinion Biobased Economy, October 2007


-Positive but Careful & Sustainable -Should contribute to GHG savings -Match Economic strength : -Cooperate internationally -No-Regret Policy Agenda:
- Biorefinery: more efficient use of biomass - Worldwide sustainable production - Encourage green power & gas - Develop Market
Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

chemicals, logistics, food, research

3. Renewable Energy Policy in the Netherlands


Objectives in The Netherlands: 9% renewable electricity in 2010. (EU directive) 20% renewable Energy in 2020 (new Government) 14% renewable Energy obliged by EC directive Liquid Biofuels: replacement of gasoline and diesel 5.75% in 2010 obligation on fuel suppliers 10 % - 20% in 2020

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Dutch biofuel policy


Obligation: 2% in 2007 rising to 5,75% (energy content) in 2010 From 1-1-2009: Reporting on sustainability including GHG balance Total
2007 2008 2009 2010 2,00% 3,25% 4,50% 5,75%

Petrol Diesel
2,0% 2,5% 3,0% 3,5% 2,0% 2,5% 3,0% 3,5%

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

4. Status Renewable Energy Development 2007: 2.5% , and 5.6 % Renewable Electricity
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 PJ
Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

biofuels biogas combustion cofiring waste heatpump solar wind hydro

* 2007 preliminary data

* 2007: estimation

GROWING PUBLIC CONCERN

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

5. NEED FOR SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA

Environmental groups and Parliament are concerned about sustainability of biomass Application of criteria for sustainability in relevant policy instruments for biofuels and electricity production A wider application of sustainability indicators by private sector is desirable

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

SELECTION OF THEMES

Greenhouse gas balance Competition with food, local energy supply, medicines and construction materials Biodiversity Environment Economic prosperity Well-being

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

GREENHOUSE GAS BALANCE


Greenhouse gas balance is positive Net emission reduction related to fossil fuels of at least 30% for biofuels and 50-70% for electricity production. Assuming differentiation of policy instruments aiming at better performances Assessment based on specific methodology Whole chain is taken into account (including application); performance depends on fossil reference

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

COMPETITION WITH FOOD


The production of biomass for energy must not endanger the food supply and other local applications for biomass (such as for medicines or building materials). Insight in land use changes, and changes in prices of land and food Reporting on request of the Dutch government. Objective is to support the monitoring at macro-level
Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

BIODIVERSITY
Biomass production will not affect protected areas or valuable ecosystems; active protection where possible Comply with national legislation and regulations No deterioration of biodiversity in protected areas or other areas with valuable ecosystems. Preservation or recovery of biodiversity within biomass production units Restoration of biodiversity, where possible
Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

ENVIRONMENT
Soil, water and air quality are maintained or improved in the production and processing of biomass Comply with national legislation and regulations Application of Best Practices No competition between use of residual flows and other applications to maintain soil quality No use of water from not renewable sources No use of fires to construct or maintain biomass production units
Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

ECONOMIC PROSPERITY
Biomass production contributes to local and national prosperity Positive contribution of production activities to local economy and local industries Reporting on the basis of specific economic performance indicators of the Global Reporting Initiative

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

WELL-BEING
Production of biomass contributes to the well-being of workers and local population No negative effects on working conditions of workers and human rights No violation of prosperity rights and rights of use Positive contribution to social conditions of local population No violation of integrity

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

CRITERIA AT MACRO-LEVEL
Important for: greenhouse gas balance, biodiversity competition with food and other biomass applications Monitoring of (indirect) land use change is needed, at macro-level Primary responsibility of Dutch government

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

CRITERIA AT MACRO-LEVEL (2)

Relevant effects:
Prices of land and food Availability of food Change of food production and animal husbandry Deforestation Loss of nature reserves Changes in vegetation types

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

FOLLOW-UP ACTIVITIES
Implementation Implementation of criteria in government policy Development of criteria and monitoring at macro level Supporting the private sector in starting the certification process

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Sustainability reporting in the Netherlands


Implementation as minimum requirements is not possible; therefore: Implementation as a reporting obligation for electricity generation (biomass) and transport fuels Batch reporting: confidential Annual public report: aggregated information; policies and plans Following a metastandard approach: using existing certificates where possible

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Current situation: limited number of sustainability standards

SAI Basel SAN /RA FSC

Cover Criteria

RSPO LEAF

EurepGAP ACCS

Cover current biofuel crops

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

European Commission: January 2008: Sustainability criteria comparing Cramer


Greenhouse Gas Balance/ carbonreservoirs competition with food and local use Biodiversity Environment Prosperity Wellbeing NL-> Obliged reporting

EC Proposal
Yes, minimum 35% / Yes No Yes Inside Europa No No EC-> Stricter not allowed

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Next steps
Macro monitoring Benchmark: evaluation of existing standards Certification: based on a standard develop scheme Development of standards Pilots and dialogue to assess applicability Further development of CO2 tool

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands

Conclusion

Development for Renewable Energy and Biofuels starts Huge demand for biomass and biofuels Need for Sustainable Production and Application
Set of Criteria available Set up of Pilots to assess the criteria Development and experience with certification scheme needed International cooperation required

Dar es Salaam, 20 Feb 2008: Bioenergy Netherlands