You are on page 1of 6

Intestine From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Enteric" redirects here. For other uses, see Enteric (disambiguation).

In human anatomy, the intestine (or bowel, hose or gut) is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the pyloric sphincter of the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. In humans, the small intestine is further subdivided into the duodenum, jejunum and ileum while the large intestine is subdivided into the cecum and colon.[1] Contents [hide] 1 Structure and function 2 Diseases and disorders 3 In non-human animals 4 See also 5 References [edit]Structure and function

The structure and function can be described both as gross anatomy and at a microscopic level. The intestinal tract can be broadly divided into two different parts, the small and large intestine.[2] People will have different sized intestines according to their size and age. The lumen is the cavity where digested food passes through and from where nutrients are absorbed. Both intestines share a general structure with the whole gut, and are composed of several layers. Going from inside the lumen radially outwards, one passes the mucosa (glandular epithelium and muscularis mucosa), sub mucosa, muscularis externa (made up of inner circular and outer longitudinal), and lastly serosa.

The general structure of the intestinal wall Along the whole length of the gut in the glandular epithelium are goblet cells. These secrete mucus which lubricates the passage of food along and protects it from digestive enzymes. In the small intestine,

villi are vaginations (folds) of the mucosa and increase the overall surface area of the intestine while also containing a lacteal, which is connected to the lymph system and aids in the removal of lipids and tissue fluid from the blood supply. Micro villi are present on the epithelium of a villus and further increase the surface area over which absorption can take place. Pocket-like invaginations into the underlying tissue are termed Crypts of Lieberkhn. In the large intestines, villi are absent and a flat surface with thousands of crypts is observed. Underlying the epithelium is the lamina propria, which contains myofibroblasts, blood vessels, nerves, and several different immune cells. The next layer is the muscularis mucosa which is a layer of smooth muscle that aids in the action of continued peristalsis and catastalsis along the gut. The sub mucosa contains nerves (e.g. Meissner's plexus), blood vessels and elastic fibre with collagen that stretches with increased capacity but maintains the shape of the intestine. Surrounding this is the muscularis externa which comprises longitudinal and circular smooth muscle that again helps with continued peristalsis and the movement of digested material out of and along the gut. In between the two layers of muscle lies Auerbach's plexus. Lastly there is the serosa which is made up of loose connective tissue and coated in mucus so as to prevent friction damage from the intestine rubbing against other tissue. Holding all this in place are the mesenteries which suspend the intestine in the abdominal cavity and stop it being disturbed when a person is physically active. The large intestine hosts several kinds of bacteria that deal with molecules the human body is not able to break down itself.[citation needed] This is an example of symbiosis. These bacteria also account for the production of gases inside our intestine (this gas is released as flatulence when eliminated through the anus). However the large intestine is mainly concerned with the absorption of water from digested material (which is regulated by the hypothalamus) and the re absorption of sodium, as well as any nutrients that may have escaped primary digestion in the ileum. [edit]

A ruminant is a mammal that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first compartment of the stomach, principally through bacterial actions, then regurgitating the semi-digested mass, now known as cud, and chewing it again. The process of rechewing the cud to further break down plant matter and stimulate digestion is called "ruminating".[1] There are about 150 species of ruminants which include both domestic and wild species. Ruminating mammals include cattle, goats, sheep, giraffes, yaks, deer, camels, llamas, antelope, koalas, some macropods, proboscis monkeys,[2] and nilgai. Taxonomically, the suborder Ruminantia includes many of those species except the tylopods, monkeys, and marsupials. Therefore, the term 'ruminant' is not

synonymous with Ruminantia. The word "ruminant" comes from the Latin ruminare, which means "to chew over again". the gizzard, also referred to as the ventriculus, gastric mill, and gigerium, is an organ found in the digestive tract of some animals, including archosaurs (dinosaurs, birds, crocodiles and alligators), earthworms, some gastropods and some fish. This specialized stomach constructed of thick, muscular walls is used for grinding up food; often rocks are instrumental in this process. In certain insects and mollusks, the gizzard features chitinous plates or teeth.

Factors that affect the standard dissociation curve The strength with which oxygen binds to haemoglobin is affected by several factors. These factors shift or reshape the oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve. A rightward shift indicates that the haemoglobin under study has a decreased affinity for oxygen. This makes it more difficult for haemoglobin to bind to oxygen (requiring a higher partial pressure of oxygen to achieve the same oxygen saturation), but it makes it easier for the haemoglobin to release oxygen bound to it. The effect of this rightward shift of the curve increases the partial pressure of oxygen in the tissues when it is most needed, such as during exercise, or haemorrhagic shock. In contrast, the curve is shifted to the left by the opposite of these conditions. This leftward shift indicates that the haemoglobin under study has an increased affinity for oxygen so that haemoglobin binds oxygen more easily, but unloads it more reluctantly. Left shift of the curve is a sign of haemoglobin's increased affinity for oxygen (e.g. at the lungs). Similarly, right shift shows decreased affinity, as would appear with an increase in body temperature, hydrogen ion, 2,3diphosphoglycerate (also known as bisphosphoglycerate) or carbon dioxide concentration (the Bohr effect) left shift (high affinity for O2) right shift (low affinity for O2) Temperature 2.3-DPG p(CO2) pH (Bohr effect) decrease decrease decrease increase (alkalosis) increase increase increase decrease (acidosis) adult haemoglobin

type of haemoglobin fetal haemoglobin

The causes of shift to right can be remembered using the mnemonic, "CADET, face Right!" for CO2, Acid, 2,3-DPG, Exercise and Temperature.[1] Factors that move the oxygen dissociation curve to the right are those physiological states where tissues need more oxygen. For example during exercise, muscles have a

higher metabolic rate, and consequently need more oxygen, produce more carbon dioxide and lactic acid, and their temperature rises. Variation of the hydrogen ion concentration A decrease in pH (increase in H+ ion concentration) shifts the standard curve to the right, while an increase shifts it to the left. The reason for this is that H+ and O2 both compete for binding to the hemoglobin molecule. Therefore, with increased acidity, the hemoglobin binds less O2 for a given PO2. This is known as the Bohr effect.[2] A reduction in the total binding capacity of haemoglobin to oxygen (i.e. shifting the curve down, not just to the right) due to reduced pH is called the root effect. This is seen in bony fish. Carbaminohaemoglobin (or Carbaminohaemoglobin, also known as carbhaemoglobin and carbohaemoglobin) is a compound of haemoglobin and carbon dioxide, and is one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists in the blood. 15-25% of carbon dioxide is carried in blood this way. [edit]Mechanism When carbon dioxide binds to haemoglobin, carbaminohaemoglobin is formed, lowering haemoglobin's affinity for oxygen via the Bohr effect. In the absence of oxygen, unbound haemoglobin molecules have a greater chance of becoming carbaminohaemoglobin. (The Haldane Effect relates to the increased affinity of de-oxygenated haemoglobin for H+: offloading of oxygen to the tissues thus results in increased affinity of the haemoglobin for carbon dioxide, and H+ - which the body wants to be rid ofwhich can then be transported to the lung for removal). The veins, which carry deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium of the heart appear bluish due to the distinctive blue color of carbaminohaemoglobin.(The blue color of venous blood is not related to oxygen levels which is the common perception).[1] The nature of carbon dioxide's binding to hemoglobin to form carbaminohaemoglobin is not always agreed upon by biochemistry texts. Four molecules of oxygen can bind to one molecule of haemoglobin. It is suggested by some that haemoglobin can also bind to four molecules of carbon dioxide. Among those who share this belief, it is generally agreed that each molecule of carbon dioxide must bind to a region on the heme monomer which a molecule of oxygen would not typically use. Other biochemistry texts claim that carbon dioxide does not bind to the haemoglobin tetramer at all and can only be found floating in the cytoplasm of the red blood cells. Research is currently being conducted in order to ascertain the truth of the matter.[citation needed] Haemoglobin contains the protein part called globin which combines with CO2. Carboxyhemoglobin (British English: Carboxyhaemoglobin) (COHb) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin that forms in red blood cells when carbon monoxide is inhaled or produced in normal metabolism. Large quantities of it hinder delivery of oxygen to the body. Tobacco smoking (through carbon monoxide inhalation) raises the blood levels of COHb by a factor of several times from its normal concentrations.

Stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors responsive to distention of various organs and muscles, and are neurologically linked to the medulla in the brain stem via afferent nerve fibers. Examples include stretch receptors in the arm and leg muscles and tendons, in the heart, in the colon wall, and in the lungs. Stretch receptors are also found around the carotid artery, where they monitor blood pressure and stimulate the release of ADH from posterior pituitary gland. parabronchi tertiary bronchi in the avian lung. The domestic fowl has some 500 parabronchi each 1 to 2 mm diameter with the wall of each containing the complex respiratory epithelium. oxyhemoglobin *okshmglbin, -hem-] Etymology: Gk, oxys + genein, to produce, haima, blood; L, globus, ball the product of combining hemoglobin with oxygen. The loosely bound complex dissociates easily when the concentration of oxygen is low. Also spelled oxyhaemoglobin. chloride shift The movement of chloride ions from the plasma into red blood cells as a result of the transfer of carbon dioxide from tissues to the plasma, a process that serves to maintain blood pH. Chloride shift the exchange of chloride (Cl) and bicarbonate (HCO3) between plasma and the erythrocytes occurring whenever HCO3 is generated or decomposed within the erythrocytes. What is a frog's respiratory system? Answer: Cutaneous Respiration - skin o The gaseous exchange between the skin of the frog and the external environment -water and air. o The skin of the frog is supplied with blood capillaries. o The skin contains glands called the cutaneous glands, which secrete mucous. This keeps the skin always moist and retains a thin film of water underneath the surface of the skin. This condition enables the exchange of air between the blood vessels and the outside environment. They also resort to cutaneous respiration when they undergo either hibernation or aestivation.

Buccal Respiration - mouth

o When the frog floats on the surface of water or while resting on land they respire through the buccal cavity. o Atmospheric air is sucked in through the nasal openings when the floor of buccal cavity is lowered. o In the same manner the air is send out when the cavity rises. o The alternate lowering and rising of the buccal cavity, buccal respiration is bought about. o The buccal respiratory system of the frog accounts for 5% of the oxygen intake.

Pulmonary Respiration - lungs o This type of respiration comprises of: the nasal cavity, buccal cavity, larynx, trachea, a pair of lungs and the alveoli inside them. o The adult frog has very simple, pinkish, sac like organs called lungs. They are not well developed and are placed in the anterior of the frog's body. o The numerous sac like structures inside the lung called the alveoli are richly supplied with blood capillaries. o Pulmonary respiration accounts for 65% of total oxygen intake. Rate This Answer