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Role and Impact of Religion During the 20th century church going declined rapidly in England and by the

by the end of the 20th century only a small minority of the population attended church regularly. There was an explosion of interest in the occult and the New Age Movement Meanwhile in the early 20th century Pentecostal churches were formed. They practised the gifts of the Holy Spirit such as praying in tongues. In the 1960s use of the gifts of the Holy Spirit spread to mainstream churches. In the 1970s and 1980s charismatic or 'house churches' became common At the end of the 20th century the Alpha Course became an effective method of introducing people to Christianity. Irreligion Lack of religious beliefs in the Country

Northern Ireland Conflict Since the 12 century there had been constant revolts against the British rule of Ireland The Catholic minority had suffered discrimination over housing and jobs. Because In 1801, the Act of Union made Ireland a part of the United Kingdom. The Catholics were suppressed through discriminatory laws and regulations, and they started several uprisings which were swiftly crushed by the police and the British Army o Fueling resentment - The wish for independence grew stronger and stronger and England had more and more difficulty in controlling the rebellious Irishmen. 1969 Catholic Civil Rights marches and counter-protests by Protestants resulted into violent unrest o British troops tried to aid, but came into conflict with the Irish Republican Army


1949 The republic of Ireland is established 1955-1962 The IRA conducts the border wars into Northern Ireland 1963-1969 - Captain Terence ONeill attempts reform in Northern Ireland 1969 Sectarian rioting occurs; British troops are sent to Northern Ireland 1971 The Provisional IRA initiates drive to force Britain out of Ulster 1972 Bloody Sunday occurs in Derry 1975 1981 IRA prisoners protest prison conditions, leading to hunger strikes 1985 The Anglo-Irish Agreement is signed Signed a deal giving Dublin a role in Northern Ireland for the first time in more than 60 years. Britain's Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said it brought new hope of ending the violence in Northern Ireland. The Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed by Margaret Thatcher and Irish Prime Minister Garret FitzGerald at Hillsborough Castle in County Down, Northern Ireland. Set up a framework for regular conferences between British and Irish ministers to discuss matters affecting Northern Ireland 1993 The Downing Street declaration is issued 1998 The Good Friday Agreement is signed.

Education Mid-20th century free schooling was available for everyone: at a grammar school, a secondary modern or a technical college. However, many educational experts opposed the idea of selection and exams for children aged 11, and believed that secondary modern schools were providing a second-class education. The minimum school leaving age increased from 12 to 14 in 1918, to 15 in 1947 and 16 in 1972. 7.7% of central government revenue was spend on education in 1949-50 In 1951 there were 5,900 public secondary schools in the UK. These were attended by 2.0 million pupils; there was an average of 342 pupils in each school and an average of 20.6 pupils per teacher. In the 1950s, some Local Education Authorities experimented with the idea of creating schools that could educate children of all abilities. o o The first of these comprehensive schools was Kidbrooke, Greenwich, which opened in 1954. The Labour government gradually accepted this idea, and comprehensive schools were officially introduced into the education system in 1964. Comprehensive schools take all pupils regardless of ability, there is no examination or other selection process for entry. o Within comprehensive schools, classes are often grouped according to learning ability. In England, 86.8% of children attend a comprehensive school. At the age of 16, pupils take at least four General Certificate of Secondary Education (G.C.S.E) examinations. The introduction of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination in 1951 and the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) in 1988. In 1967 the Secretary of State was given greater power in relation to grants and loans to aided schools. In 1978 The Warnock Report, informed on provision for children and young people with special needs. Faith schools have become more common about a third of state schools in the United Kingdom are faith schools. o o The vast majority are Christian; there were also 36 Jewish, seven Muslim and two Sikh schools operating in 2006. The system originally allowed only church schools to divide responsibility between the Local Education Authority and the church authorities. Between 1986 and 1990, the Inner London Education Authority (I.L.E.A) worked as a special educational authority in Greater London. o The I.L.E.A. was abolished in 1990, and the remaining London boroughs established their own Local Education Authorities In 1995 modern apprenticeships were introduced In 1998, The Education Act (of 1998) transferred provision of student loans to the private sector.