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Total Quality Management & Business Excellence


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Students' perceptions of service quality in higher education


Halil Nadiri , Jay Kandampully & Kashif Hussain
a a b c

Department of Business Administration, Eastern Mediterranean University, PO Box 95 Gazimausa, North Cyprus, Via Mersin-10, Turkey
b

Department of Consumer Sciences, The Ohio State University, USA


c

Institute of Educational Sciences, Near East University, Lefkosa, North Cyprus, Via Mersin-10, Turkey Published online: 04 Jun 2009.

To cite this article: Halil Nadiri , Jay Kandampully & Kashif Hussain (2009) Students' perceptions of service quality in higher education, Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 20:5, 523-535, DOI: 10.1080/14783360902863713 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14783360902863713

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Total Quality Management Vol. 20, No. 5, May 2009, 523 535

Students perceptions of service quality in higher education


Halil Nadiria, Jay Kandampullyb and Kashif Hussainc
Department of Business Administration, Eastern Mediterranean University, PO Box 95 usa, North Cyprus, Via Mersin-10, Turkey; bDepartment of Consumer Sciences, The Gazimag Ohio State University, USA; cInstitute of Educational Sciences, Near East University, Lefkosa, North Cyprus, Via Mersin-10, Turkey This study aims to diagnose the applicability of the perceived service quality measurement scale to students; and to diagnose the student satisfaction level in higher education. It attempts to diagnose the perceived service quality of administrative units such as services provided by the registrar, library, faculty/ school ofces, rector ofce, dormitories, sports and health centre. Descriptive and causal analysis is employed. Reliability and dimensionality of the scale is tested. Results indicate that the nature of perceived service quality measurement instrument is found to be two-dimensional: tangibles and intangibles for higher education services. The results and implications are discussed in detail. Keywords: perceived service quality; student satisfaction; higher education
a

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Introduction Higher education is a fast growing service industry and every day it is more and more exposed to globalisation processes (Damme, 2001; ONeil & Palmer, 2004). Service quality, emphasising student satisfaction, is a newly emerging eld of concern. In order to attract students, serve their needs and retain them, higher education providers are actively involved in understanding students expectations and perceptions of service quality. They often need to adapt techniques of measuring the quality of their services just like in the business sector. Most conceptual frameworks for measuring service quality are based on marketing concepts (Gummesson, 1991). These frameworks measure quality through nroos, 1984), customer expectations having a substantial customer perceptions (Gro inuence on these perceptions. It is argued that only criteria dened by customers count in measuring quality (Zeithaml et al., 1990). According to Hennig-Thurau et al. (2001, p. 332), educational services fall into the eld of services marketing. Owing to the unique characteristics of services, namely intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability and perishability (Parasuraman, 1986), service quality cannot be measured objectively (Patterson & Johnson, 1993). In the services literature, the focus is on perceived quality, which results from the comparison of customer service expectations with their perceptions of actual performance (Zeithaml et al., 1990). During the last decade, quality initiatives have been the subject of an enormous amount of practitioner and academic discourse, and at various levels have found a gateway into

Corresponding author. Email: kandampully.1@osu.edu

ISSN 1478-3363 print/ISSN 1478-3371 online # 2009 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/14783360902863713 http://www.informaworld.com

524 H. Nadiri et al. higher education (Avdjieva & Wilson, 2002). Student satisfaction is often used to assess educational quality, where the ability to address strategic needs is of prime importance (Cheng, 1990). The conceptualisation of service quality, its relationship to the satisfaction and value constructs and methods of evaluation, have been a central theme of the education sector over recent years (Oldeld & Baron, 2000; Soutar & McNeil, 1996). Measuring the quality of service in higher education is increasingly important (Abdullah, 2006). In general, service quality promotes customer satisfaction, stimulates intention to return, and encourages recommendations (Nadiri & Hussain, 2005). Customer satisfaction increases protability, market share and return on investment (Barsky & Labagh, 1992; Fornell, 1992; Hackl & Westlund, 2000; Halstead & Page, 1992; LeBlanc, 1992; Legoherel, 1998; Stevens et al., 1995). The higher education sector should recognise the importance of service improvements in establishing a competitive advantage. The importance of quality in the service industry has attracted many researchers to empirically examine service quality within a wide array of service settings such as appliance repair, banking, hotels, insurance, long-distance telephone (Parasuraman et al., 1985; Zeithaml et al., 1990). Today, controversy continues concerning how service quality should be measured (Cronin & Taylor, 1992, 1994; Parasuraman et al., 1988, 1991, 1994). One of the most controversial issues is the reliability of SERVQUAL: a scale developed to measure service quality by Parasuraman et al. (1985). SERVQUAL has been used to measure service quality in business schools (Carman, 1990), banking, dry cleaning, fast food services (Cronin & Taylor, 1992) and in many other institutions. Carman (1990) analysed the ve dimensions of SERVQUAL by adding attributes that are pertinent to different situations, such as the fact that the failure rate is higher for colleges and universities than for either business or government organisations (Cameron & Tschirhart, 1992). In measuring service quality in higher education, it is important to study the meaning of service quality that relates to the situation under study. In service literatures, analyses of the practical basis of service quality measurement have been conducted on the denitions of quality in higher education (Lagrosen et al., 2004), service quality dimensions (Joseph & Joseph, 1997; Lagrosen et al., 2004; Owlia & Aspinwall, 1996), perceived importance (Ford et al., 1999), service quality and customer satisfaction (Rowley, 1997). The intention of this study is to provide a practical basis for service quality measurement in the area of higher education of the island of Cyprus, especially for North Cyprus. Harvey (2003, p. 4) notes that it is not always clear how views collected from students t into institutional quality improvement policies and processes. Moreover establishing the conditions under which student feedback can give rise to improvement is not an easy task. Indeed, Ford et al. (1993) have pointed out that SERVQUAL might assess students perceptions as to the quality of their educational institutions, but not the education itself. According to Oldeld and Baron (2000), student perceptions of service quality in higher education, particularly of the elements not directly involved with content and delivery of course units, are researched using a performance-only adaptation of the SERVQUAL research instrument. Therefore, this study attempts to approach service quality of administrative units in general rather than academic issues, e.g. services provided by the registrar, library, faculty/school ofces, rector ofce, dormitories, sports, health centre, etc. rather than teaching, course content or curriculum. Service quality measurement in this study contributes to overall quality of the higher education institutes. Thus, the purpose of the study is twofold: to diagnose the applicability of the perceived

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Total Quality Management 525 service quality measurement scale to students and to diagnose the student satisfaction level in higher education. Background of the study If service quality is to be improved, it must be reliably assessed and measured. According to the SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman et al., 1988), service quality can be measured by identifying the gaps between customers expectations of the service to be rendered and their perceptions of the actual performance of the service. Parasuraman et al. (1988, p. 15) dened service quality as a global judgment or attitude relating to the overall excellence or superiority of the service and they conceptualised a customers evaluation of overall service quality by applying Olivers (1980) disconrmation model, as the gap between expectations and perception (gap model) of service performance levels. Furthermore, they propose that overall service quality performance could be determined by a measurement scale called SERVQUAL that uses ve generic dimensions: (1) Tangibles the physical surroundings represented by objects (for example, interior design) and subjects (for example, the appearance of employees); (2) Reliability the service providers ability to provide accurate and dependable services; (3) Responsiveness a rms willingness to assist its customers by providing fast and efcient service performance; (4) Assurance diverse features that provide condence to customers (such as the rms specic service knowledge; polite and trustworthy behaviour from employees); and (5) Empathy the service rms readiness to provide each customer with personal service. The development of the gap model by Parasuraman et al. (1985) opened new horizons to the understanding of service quality. Moreover, the measurement of the gap between customers expectation of service and perception of service received (gap 5) led to a frequently used and highly debated service quality instrument called the SERVQUAL scale. Parasuraman et al. (1985) argued that the most important gap is between customers expectations of service and their perception of the service actually delivered (gap 5). The other four gaps (1, 2, 3 and 4) are the major causes of gap 5. Thus, rms should try to close or narrow down the other four gaps rst in order to manage gap 5. The original SERVQUAL scale was composed of two sections. The rst section contains 22 items for customer expectations of excellent rms in the specic service industry. The second contains 22 items, which measure consumer perceptions of service performance of a company being evaluated. The results from the two sections are then compared and used to determine the level of service quality. The SERVQUAL instrument has been widely used to measure service quality in various service industries. However, despite its popularity, it has received its share of criticism since its development. A considerable number of criticisms focused on the use of expectation as a comparison standard (e.g. Cronin & Taylor, 1994; Teas, 1994). According to Parasuraman et al. (1985, 1991) the concept of expectation has been emphasised as a key variable in the evaluation of service quality. However, Teas (1994) points out that some validity problems arise when customer expectation is used as a comparison standard. For example, expectation is dynamic in nature and may change

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526 H. Nadiri et al. according to customers experiences and consumption situations. Boulding et al. (1993) reject the use of expectation as a comparison standard for the measurement of service quality and recommend performance-only measurement. The negative empirical ndings concerning the measurement of expectations led to some doubt about its value. Some scholars maintain that measurement of expectations does not provide unique information for estimating service quality; they argue that performance-only assessment has already taken into account much of this information (Babakus & Boller, 1992; Cronin & Taylor, 1992). In general, previous studies would recommend that performance-only measurement is sufcient. Thus SERVQUAL has not been without criticisms. Particular research efforts by Cronin and Taylor (1992) cast doubts about the validity of the disconrmation paradigm advocated by Parasuraman et al. (1985, 1988). These authors questioned whether or not customers routinely assess service quality in terms of expectations and perceptions. They advance the notion that service quality is directly inuenced only by perceptions of service performance. Accordingly, they developed an instrument of service performance (SERVPERF) that seems to produce better results than SERVQUAL (Asubonteng et al., 1996). Another major criticism of the SERVQUAL scale, reported in the literature, is about its dimensionality problem. Several researchers (Carman, 1990; Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Parasuraman et al., 1985, 1988, 1991; Teas, 1994) argue that the number of dimensions and the nature of the SERVQUAL construct may be industry-specic. The t of ve dimensions of SERVQUAL carried out in different service activities has always been an important question in several studies that these dimensions proposed in SERVQUAL do not replicate. In many studies, the SERVQUAL scale has been found uni-dimensional (Angur et al., 1999; Babakus & Boller, 1992; Babakus & Mangold, 1992), sometimes two-dimensional (Ekinci et al., 2003; Karatepe & Avci, 2002) and sometimes with even 10 dimensions (Carman, 1990). It has also been argued that a performance-only (SERVPERF) measure explains more of the variance in an overall measure of service quality than the SERVQUAL instrument (Cronin & Taylor, 1994). Apart from the debate among the above researchers for the merits of SERVQUAL over SERVPERF and vice versa, it seems, however, that on balance the emerging literature supports the performance-based paradigm over the disconrmation-based paradigm (Cronin & Taylor, 1994). This research builds on these conclusions and adapts the performance-based SERVPERF paradigm. Methodology The sample of the study consists of students studying at Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU) located in Famagusta, North Cyprus. Students were selected according to nonprobability convenience sampling method (Aaker et al., 1995). The management of the university was informed about the purpose of the study and after permission wad gained, 600 questionnaires were distributed to students. Of these, 522 questionnaires were returned. In all, 492 questionnaires were found to be useful, which represents an 82% response rate from the original sample of 600. The survey was conducted in April 2007. The questionnaire was based on only service perceptions. There were 24 items in all 22 items for measuring service perception of perceived service quality (adapted from Parasuraman et al., 1991), and two items for measuring student satisfaction. A pilot test study was conducted with 50 students. As a result of the pilot study, the instrument was reworded for measuring perceived service quality for higher education. A ve-point Likert scale (Likert et al., 1934) was used for data collection with 1 being strongly

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Total Quality Management 527 disagree and 5 being strongly agree. Research shows that self-reported performance may lead to response bias. However, a meta-analytic review by Churchill et al. (1985) demonstrates that self-report measures do not necessarily lead to response bias. In addition, the survey was prepared according to the back-translation method (McGorry, 2000). SPSS 10.0 for Windows was employed in order to access the particular results required for the scale measurement. Descriptive analyses of means, standard deviation and frequencies were conducted. Reliability of the scale was tested; dimensionality of the scale was conrmed through an exploratory factor analysis; correlation analysis produced discriminant validity and regression analysis produced causal results.
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Findings Dimensions of SERVPERF The results of exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the SERVPERF instrument failed to form its ve assumed dimensions tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. The results formed only two dimensions tangibles and intangibles. This is discussed further below. The sample Demographic breakdown of the sample in Table 1 shows that 56.1% of the respondents were males. As for the age distribution, the majority of respondents fall between the age group of 21 25 (76.8%). With respect to the educational programme of study and faculties/schools of respondents, 82.3% of them were enrolled for undergraduate programmes, 35.4% of them were from the faculty of engineering and 40.9% of respondents were second year students. About 25.6% of respondents had CGPA (Cumulative GradePoint Average) 2.5 2.99. In terms of nationality, 41.5% respondents were Turkish Cypriots and 58.5% were from European, Asian and African countries (including Britain, Germany, Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Palestine, Turkey, Sudan, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Ghana). Reliability and dimensionality of the scale The results in Table 2 proved that the overall reliability of the scale had an alpha coefcient of 0.96 which is deemed acceptable (Churchill, 1979; Nunnally, 1978). Exploratory factor analysis using varimax rotation was employed to explore the dimensionality in the dataset. The two factors tangibles and intangibles had cumulative variance 63.93%, and all the factor loadings were found to be greater than 0.50 (Hair et al., 1979) which demonstrates two distinct dimensions in the study. The Cronbach alphas for tangibles and intangibles were found to be 0.96 and 0.85 respectively at the aggregate level which exceeds the minimum standard 0.70 (Churchill, 1979; Nunnally, 1978). It was necessary to measure the reliability and dimensionality of the scale to avoid criticism. Distribution of SERVPERF values of students Table 3 demonstrates that students have relatively high perception scores (mean ! 4.20) related to EMUs neat-appearing employees (4.20), safe transactions (4.27) and convenient operating hours (4.29). However, the minimum perception scores (mean 4.00) were about EMUs modern looking equipment (3.98), materials associated with service

528 H. Nadiri et al.


Table 1. Demographic breakdown of the sample (n 492). Frequency (F) Gender Female Male Total Age 20 and below 21 25 26 30 31 and above Total Programme of study Preparatory school Undergraduate Graduate (Masters/doctorate) Total Faculty of study Faculty of architecture Faculty of arts and science Faculty of business and economics Faculty of communication and media studies Faculty of education Faculty of engineering Faculty of law School of foreign languages School of tourism and hospitality management School of computing and technology Total Educational year 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year Total CGPA No credits earned 1.99 or below 2.02.49 2.52.99 3.03.49 3.5 or above Total Nationality Turkish Cypriot Others (from European, Asian and African countries) Total 216 276 492 54 378 51 9 492 21 405 66 492 24 9 69 33 48 174 30 21 57 27 492 72 201 132 87 492 24 33 117 126 123 69 492 204 288 492 Percentage (%) 43.9 56.1 100.0 11.0 76.8 10.4 1.8 100.0 4.3 82.3 13.4 100.0 4.9 1.8 14.0 6.7 9.8 35.4 6.1 4.3 11.6 5.5 100.0 14.6 40.9 26.8 17.7 100.0 4.9 6.7 23.8 25.6 25.0 14.0 100.0 41.5 58.5 100.0

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(3.99) and personal attention given by employees (3.98), which means that EMU fails to maintain their modern looking equipment and materials associated with service, also employees of EMU need to be well trained to provide minimum satisfactory services. Overall results reveal that students are happy (4.16%) and satised (4.27%) with the services provided by EMU.

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Table 2. Results of exploratory factor analysis. Dimensions and items Eigenvalue % of variance Cumulative variance % Factor loading 0.79 0.79 0.78 0.78 0.77 0.77 0.76 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.70 0.70 0.67 0.67 0.66 0.60 Cronbach alpha

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Intangibles 12.59 57.22 57.22 When you have a problem, EMU shows a sincere interest in solving it. Employees of EMU give you prompt service. EMU performs the service right the rst time. Employees of EMU are never too busy to respond to your requests. Employees of EMU tell you exactly when services will be performed. Employees of EMU are always willing to help you. EMU insists on error-free records. EMU provides its services at the time it promises to do so. You feel safe in your transactions with EMU. When EMU promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. Employees of EMU have the knowledge to answer your questions. EMU has operating hours convenient to all its students. EMU gives you individual attention. Employees of EMU are consistently courteous with you. The behaviour of employees of EMU instils condence in students. Employees of EMU understand your specic needs. EMU has employees who give you personal attention. EMU has your best interest at heart. Tangibles 1.48 6.71 63.93 EMUs physical facilities are visually appealing. EMU has modern looking equipment. EMUs employees are neat in appearance. Materials associated with the service are visually appealing at EMU.
Notes: Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measures of sampling adequacy: 0.94. Bartletts test of sphericity: 9191.87, p , 0.000. Principal component analyses with a varimax rotation. Overall reliability score: 0.96.

a 0.96

a 0.85
0.88 0.84 0.71 0.65

Correlations of the study variables In the present study correlation analysis was employed since correlation analysis involves measuring the closeness of the relationship between two or more variables; it considers the joint variation of two measures (Churchill, 1995, p. 887). In Table 4, the results of correlation analysis are signicant at the 0.01 level. When the correlation coefcients matrix between two constructs is examined, no correlation coefcient is equal to 0.90 or above. This examination provides support for the discriminant validity about this study, which means that all the constructs are different/distinct (Amick & Walberg, 1975). It can be seen in Table 4 that all the means for each construct are in between 2.00 and 4.25, which refers to quite low social desirability effect (response bias). It means that the respondents understood the question very well and avoided marking a favourable response. Regression analysis Regression analysis is the technique used to derive an equation that relates the criterion variables to one or more predictor variables; it considers the frequency distribution of the criterion variable, when one or more predictor variables are held xed at various

530 H. Nadiri et al.


Table 3. Distribution of SERVPERF values of students. Perceptions mean (SD) Tangibles EMU has modern looking equipment. EMUs physical facilities are visually appealing. EMUs employees are neat in appearance Materials associated with the service are visually appealing at EMU. Intangibles When EMU promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. When you have a problem, EMU shows a sincere interest in solving it. EMU performs the service right the rst time. EMU provides its services at the time it promises to do so. EMU insists on error-free records. Employees of EMU tell you exactly when services will be performed. Employees of EMU give you prompt service. Employees of EMU are always willing to help you. Employees of EMU are never too busy to respond to your requests. The behaviour of employees of EMU instils condence in students. You feel safe in your transactions with EMU. Employees of EMU are consistently courteous with you. Employees of EMU have the knowledge to answer your questions. EMU gives you individual attention. EMU has operating hours convenient to all its students. EMU has employees who give you personal attention. EMU has your best interest at heart. Employees of EMU understand your specic needs. Student satisfaction I am happy with the service quality of EMU. I am a satised student.
Note: SD: standard deviation; all the standard deviations are in parentheses.

3.98 (0.77) 4.02 (0.81) 4.20 (0.87) 3.99 (0.87) 4.14 (0.84) 4.19 (0.86) 4.12 (0.88) 4.18 (0.82) 4.17 (0.84) 4.16 (0.92) 4.16 (0.90) 4.16 (0.91) 4.11 (0.93) 4.12 (0.86) 4.27 (0.79) 4.18 (0.87) 4.16 (0.82) 4.18 (0.90) 4.29 (0.82) 3.98 (0.81) 4.10 (0.82) 4.13 (0.85) 4.16 (1.01) 4.27 (0.94)

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levels (Churchill, 1995, p. 887). Table 5 shows that the regression analysis was used having student satisfaction as the dependent variable and tangibles and intangibles as the independent variables. It was necessary to use the regression analysis to predict the student satisfaction level of EMU students and the obtained results showed that there was a positive correlation with a R2 of 0.64 and a F value of 434.51 at a signicance level of p , 0.001. Tangibles (b 0.20) and intangibles (b 0.97) both exert signicant positive effect on student satisfaction. Moreover, tangibles and intangibles
Table 4. Correlations of the study variables. Variables Scale Tangibles Intangibles Student satisfaction Mean Standard deviation Tangibles 1.00 0.73 0.65 4.04 0.69 Intangibles 1.00 0.79 4.15 0.66 Student satisfaction

1.00 4.22 0.93

Note: All correlations are signicant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

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Table 5. Regression analysis. Independent variable: Tangibles and intangibles Dependent variable: Student satisfaction Independent variable Tangibles Intangibles R2 0.64 F 434.51 p , 0.001

ba 0.20 0.97

t-value 3.69 17.45

pb 0.001 0.001

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Note: aStandardised coefcient; bp , 0.05.

jointly explain 64% of the variance (R2) in the student satisfaction which is very good. Overall, the results indicate that tangibles and intangibles are predictors of student satisfaction.

Discussion and implications In general, SERVQUAL is a measurement of service quality based on the difference between the customers expectations of the quality of service he/she will receive, and his or her perceptions of the service received. SERVPERF, in contrast, is a performance-only measurement of service quality (Zhou, 2004). This study aimed to diagnose the applicability of the perceived service quality measurement scale to students; and to determine the student satisfaction level in higher education. The ndings of this study reveal that the SERVPERF scale successfully maintains its reliability. Hence, students evaluation of perceived service quality in higher education consists of two dimensions: tangibles and intangibles. Such results of this study are also supported with previous empirical studies in literature (Ekinci et al., 2003; Karatepe & Avci, 2002). This study attempted to diagnose the perceived service quality of administrative units such as services provided by the registrar, library, faculty/school ofces, rector ofce, dormitories, sports and health centre. The ndings of this study are important for practitioners in the higher education sector.

Management implications The results of this study have a number of practical implications for the higher education sector where authorities seek to identify the student satisfaction level in their particular institutes: (1) First, the ndings of this study are important for higher education authorities who should note that students are likely to become more demanding in terms of the level of service they consider to be satisfactory. It is obvious from the results that tangibles and intangibles are predictors of student satisfaction. (2) Secondly, authorities should pay attention to the physical facilities of the university if they are to improve the quality of services for higher education. Students expect universities to have modern looking equipment and appealing materials associated with the service such as brochures, pamphlets, etc. Authorities should take into

532 H. Nadiri et al. account the inanimate service environment so as to enhance perceived service quality and achieve student satisfaction. (3) Finally, authorities should ensure that employees are well trained and understand the level of service that the university expects to provide for its students. Employees should be able to show adequate personal attention to students. Ensuring that employees are well trained, and giving attention to other factors that are required for the provision of a high level of service quality might incur increased costs, but will provide improved student satisfaction. Thus, authorities are expected to allocate more nancial resources for the human resource applications, revealing that recruiting and selecting the most suitable candidates for the vacant posts and training staff permanently that will result in qualied personnel being able to provide students with caring, individualised attention and convenient operating hours. The allocation of nancial resources for the human resource applications will equip employees with a better understanding of service excellence.

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Limitations and avenues for future research This research has certain limitations, and interpretation of its ndings therefore needs to be undertaken with caution: (1) First, the sample in this study is small and is limited to students studying at Eastern Mediterranean University. There are in total six universities in North Cyprus; other universities should also be included in the sample for further research on service quality in higher education. (2) Second, many of the issues in service quality literature remain to be explored for example, how marketing strategies can be designed to manage perceived service quality and how the higher education sector can use the service quality concept to formulate marketing strategies effectively.

Conclusion This study also provides higher education service quality researchers with useful guidelines for future research that would result in more rigorous theoretical and methodological processes. The terms student satisfaction and quality have been central to higher education authorities philosophy, and their importance continues with the promise of a renewed, foreseeable prosperity for the higher education of the future. Nevertheless, higher education research has not, on the whole, developed any substantive theories and innovations. Partial responsibility for this lies in the method-driven research traditions of the past. Therefore, using the SERVPERF scale, one of the apparent implications of this study turns out to be that higher education authorities should improve their service level and should update the structure of their available physical facilities. Also, the use of the SERVPERF scale to measure the service quality provides diagnostic capability about the level of service performance from the students perspective. Thus, the use of SERVPERF provides useful information to higher education authorities for developing quality improvement strategies. This study also supports the argument in the literature that performance-only (SERVPERF) is the better predictor of service quality (Babakus & Boller, 1992; Boulding et al., 1993; Cronin & Taylor, 1992). In general, this study also recommends that the SERVPERF measurement is sufcient.

Total Quality Management 533 References


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